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Sample records for acute intestinal radiation

  1. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to 137 Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy

  2. A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    intestinal lumen Cell Migration Radiation damages proliferating crypt cells, causing mitotic arrest and delaying regeneration Burns can...04-08-2016 Technical Report A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures HDTRA1...the small intestine , reducing the density of the gut barrier. A reduced epithelial lining can result in suppressed nutrient absorption, bacterial

  3. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, H.

    1981-01-01

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG) [de

  4. The progress in treatment of severe hematopoietic and intestinal form of acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Kaixun; Ai Huisheng

    2006-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is hard to be overcome as the hot medical problem. This article presents the recent advances in the treatment: (1) The amifostin (WR-2721) be mechanism and earlier periods of the cell protection to apply may interrupt organize harm. (2) New directions for therapy are stressed, using cytokines to enhance recovery of hematopoiesis and immune reconstitution. (3) The article presents guidelines for the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the importance treatment meaning to the ARS. (4) Indications of preemptive therapy of fungal infection in patients are described. (authors)

  5. Identification of biomarkers for radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) in cervical cancer patients by serum protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yanlan; Wang Juan; Gao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most frequent complication of radiotherapy that causes great pain and limits the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify serum biomarkers of RIAISs in cervical cancer patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples were collected from 66 cervical cancer patients prior to pelvic radiotherapy. In our study, RIAISs occurred in 11 patients. An additional 11 patients without RIAISs were selected as controls, whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods were matched to RIAISs patients. The 22 sera were subsequently analyzed by SELDI-TOF MS, and the resulting protein profiles were evaluated to identify biomarkers using appropriate bioinformatics tools. Comparing the protein profiles of serum samples from the RIAIS group and the control group, it was found that 22 protein peaks were significantly different (P < 0.05), and six of these peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 7514.9, 4603.94, 6887.41, 2769.21, 3839.72 and 4215.7 were successfully identified. A decision tree model of biomarkers was constructed based on three biomarkers (m/z 1270.88, 1503.23 and 7514.90), which separated RIAIS-affected patients from the control group with an accuracy of 81%. This study suggests that serum proteomic analysis by SELDI-TOF MS can identify cervical cancer patients that are susceptible to RIAISs prior to pelvic radiotherapy. (author)

  6. [Selective decontamination of the intestine and total gnotobiologic isolation in treatment of mice with acute radiation sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, L A; Bush, V; Korshunov, V M

    1992-01-01

    Comparative study of ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and amikacin showed that ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin had a selective action on the intestinal microflora of conventional mice. Amikacin induced inhibition not only of the opportunistic bacteria but also of the representatives of the indigenous microflora. The use of the drugs in combination with total gnotobiological isolation in treatment of experimental radiation sickness provided an increase in survival of the irradiated animals, the more so as ciprofloxacin was used.

  7. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  8. Radiodiagnosis of early radiation intestinal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Abdulkhakova, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray examination of the colon in 102 patients and of the small intestine in 62 was performed during combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer and at different time after its discontinuation. Early radiation functional and morphological changes in the ileum and colon were detected. Radiation changes in the ileac mucosa were noted in 52% of the patients, changes of various degree in the rectal, sigmoid and cecal mucosa were noted in 41.2%. Moderate radiation changes in the ascending, descending and horizontal parts of the colon were noted in 10.7%. Early radiation intestinal injuries in the form of erosions and ulcers were revealed in 5.8% of the patients. In most of the patients radiation intestinal changes were without noticeable clinical manifestations. All these patients could be defined as a group at risk of developing late radiation changes

  9. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  10. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  11. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and 137 Cs γ rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and γ-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome

  12. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  13. Acute radiation syndrome in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskova, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of the different types of irradiation dramatically changes the clinical course of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in the case of short term exposure. The recent experience has been compared mostly with the data on the atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The comparison of the injuries from different radiation exposures resulted in the possibility to receive summarized data and the actual basis of the observed difference. The situation with total relatively uniform irradiation is observed when human position is at long distance from powerful radiation sources or when he changes his position, as seen in atomic bomb survivors, the results of nuclear weapon tests and the patients in the Chernobyl accident. This is connected with the ARS of bone, marrow and intestine. The situation characterized by the clinical signs of the large area of skin and mucosa injuries was observed in nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. In the case of the more localized and less severe beta injuries of skin and mucosa, the long term effects may be important. The majority of accidents in peaceful period are related to the uneven exposure from near sources, and the situation of the combination of external and internal irradiation is related to uneven irradiation and the predominance of internal exposure. (K.I.)

  14. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

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    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  15. Pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Haen, M.; Carbonell, F.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome are discussed. Diagnosis and therapy would be impossible without detailed knowledge in these fields. The concept of acute radiation syndrome is explained, and a pathophysiological analysis of the various forms of radiation syndrome - haematological, intestinal and affecting the central nervous system is attempted. The developments in the diagnosis and therapy of acute radiation syndrome since its first description - 35 years ago - are reviewed. Today, whole-body doses of 100 rd and more can be treated by radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  17. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    evaluating the effects of these changes on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome , mycobiome...immune cells associated with the intestine and their interactions with the normal microbial contents of the gut. 2. KEYWORDS Radiation, microbiome ... microbiome following TBI. At the end of the experiment, we also harvested the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes for multiparametric flow cytometry and

  18. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0300 TITLE: Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0300 5c...changes in the microbiota on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome, mycobiome, colitis, cancer 16

  19. TNF suppresses acute intestinal inflammation by inducing local glucocorticoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph; Berger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (α) (TNF) exerts proinflammatory activities in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, there is increasing evidence for antiinflammatory actions of TNF. In contrast, glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that suppress inflammation, at least in part by regulating the expression and action of TNF. We report that TNF induces extraadrenal production of immunoregulatory GCs in the intestinal mucosa during acute intestinal inflammation. The absence of TNF results in a lack of colonic GC synthesis and exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. TNF seems to promote local steroidogenesis by directly inducing steroidogenic enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells. Therapeutic administration of TNF induces GC synthesis in oxazolone-induced colitis and ameliorates intestinal inflammation, whereas inhibition of intestinal GC synthesis abrogates the therapeutic effect of TNF. These data show that TNF suppresses the pathogenesis of acute intestinal inflammation by promoting local steroidogenesis. PMID:20439544

  20. Surgical management of radiation injury to the small intestine

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    Swan, R.W.; Fowler, W.C. Jr., Boronow, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Severe injury of the small intestine represents one of the most tragic complications of radiation of the pelvis and abdomen. Not uncommonly, patients die from the radiation or the treatment of its intestinal complications. More commonly, patients become intestinal cripples, secondary to chronic partial obstruction of the small intestine and malnutrition associated with the stagnant loop syndrome, as previously reported by one of us. Management results have been discouraging, usually because of a general lack of clinical recognition and understanding of radiation injury to the intestine. Medical management has not been satisfactory. It may provide temporary relief from symptoms, but not long-lasting. Surgical management, although frequently curative, has been associated with high death and morbidity rates. Many surgical procedures have been used in treating radiation injury to the small intestine. Generally, these fall into two categories: first, intestinal resection with primary anastomosis; and second, enteroenteric or enterocolic bypass. In the literature are reflected advocates for each method of surgical management.

  1. Mesenteric Cysts Presenting with Acute Intestinal Obstruction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 3 children needed bowel resection with primary anastomosis. All made uneventful recovery. A high index of suspicion is important when managing children with acute intestinal obstruction as mesenteric cyst may be an uncommon cause. (Key words: Mesenteric Cyst: Intestinal Obstruction). Sahel Medical Journal ...

  2. Related radiation effects on the intestine and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpeshcheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumours of female genitalia and some other tumours due to which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumours, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation unjuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet

  3. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

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    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I.

    1994-01-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Intestinal helminths in some cases of acute appendicitis operated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most frequent infectious surgical abdominal emergency and previous studies have noted the presence of parasites in the appendicular lumen. Objective: This study was done to determine the involvement of intestinal worms in the etiology of acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: ...

  6. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Mass Casualties Screening People for External Contamination Use of Radiation Detection, Measuring, and Imaging Instruments Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC) Community Reception Center (CRC) Simulation Tools Isotopes Americium-241 (Am-241) Cesium-137 (Cs-137) ...

  7. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  8. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer complicated with acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Schaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main reason for urgent complications of colon cancer is an acute intestinal obstruction (AIO. This is complex pathological condition in 90 % of cases caused by colorectal cancer (CRC.Objective – to evaluate radicality of the performed operations in complicated colorectal cancer in general surgical hospitals. Dependence of the severity of intestinal obstruction by tumor localization, its morphological characteristics, determine dependence of the type of the surgical operation performed on the severity of intestinal obstruction.Materials and methods. We have studied the data on 667 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by acute intestinal obstruction. These patients were treated in the period from 2001 to 2013 in general surgical hospital in the territory of Smolensk and Smolensk region. For the processing of the obtained results we have used software Statistica 6.1. Differences were considered statistically at p ≤ 0.05.Results. All the patients were divided into 3 groups by the expression of intestinal obstruction. Group 1 (n = 279 consisted of patients with the presence of decompensated intestinal obstruction (DIO, group 2 (n = 313 consisted of patients with subcompensated intestinal obstruction (SIO, group 3 (n = 75 included patients with compensated intestinal obstruction (CIO. In case of tumor localization in right halfof the colon we most commonly observed clinical picture of acute development of decompensated intestinal obstruction (p = 0.041. Subcompensated intestinal obstruction prevailed in case of tumor localization in left half of the colon and rectal localization. In general surgical hospitals it is not always possible to speak about radicality of surgical treatment, as in a large number of cases (62.5 % the number of examined lymph nodes was less than 4. When DIO patients are admitted in the clinic, the percentage of singlestage operations is equal to 7.5 % (n = 21. In case of DIO and SIO there was a high

  10. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami Filho, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Differences in Radiation Dose Response between Small and Large Intestinal Crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Suzuki, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    The protection of intestinal epithelial cells from the lethal effects induced by high-dose radiation is an important issue in radiotherapy and in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome. However, the effects of middle- and low-dose radiation on intestinal epithelial cells remain unclear. Because the accumulation of DNA damage in intestinal stem cells may be crucial for the development of cancer-initiating cells, it is important to understand the kinetics of DNA repair and tissue response (which are involved in the elimination of damaged cells and tissue injury repair) to middle- to low-dose irradiation. In this study, mice were X-ray irradiated with 0.1, 1 or 4 Gy, after which the small intestine (duodenum and ileum) and colon were harvested from the animals. DNA damage repair and the elimination of damaged cells were quantified by measuring the number of foci of 53BP1, a surrogate marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Tissue-proliferative response was evaluated by determining the number of Ki-67(+) and mitotic cells. Intra-crypt response differed considerably between the small intestine and the colon. In the small intestine, 53BP1 foci were detected immediately after irradiation, but rapidly disappeared thereafter, especially noticeable in Lgr5(+) stem cells. Cellular growth was temporally arrested; however, cell numbers and mitotic cell numbers in the crypt did not change. The kinetics of DNA damage repair in Lgr5(+) stem cells were similar to those in the small intestines, while the colon was more susceptible to radiation-induced damage. Preferential cell loss in the lower crypt was clearly observed in the colon; and after low-dose X-ray irradiation, only the colon exhibited considerably reduced cell numbers and dramatic induction of mitosis. These results suggest that differences in radiation dose response between the small and the large intestine may depend on the growth activity of stem cells after DNA repair.

  12. [Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the acetonemia syndrome in children with severe acute intestinal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zriachkin, N I; Chudakova, T K; Buchkova, T N

    2012-12-01

    A total of 55 children suffering from acute intestinal infection severe in age from 3 months to 7 years; of these, 37 patients with atsetonemicheskim syndrome (AS). Found that the development AS in children with acute intestinal infections severe, aggravate the disease. In children with acute intestinal infection with the syndrome, the duration of atsetonemicheskim main symptoms of intoxication in the 1,2-1,5 times longer than those of children suffering from acute intestinal infection without atsetonemicheskogo syndrome.

  13. [Yersinia enterocolitica: a cause of acute intestinal intussusception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, F; Gayet, P; Parlier, H; Turner, L; Barre, O; Farah, A; Patel, J C

    1996-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica infection is a rare cause of intestinal intussusception, especially in adults. We report here a case in a 29-year-old man and review the literature on diagnosis and therapy. A 29-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of diarrhea and weight loss. Ultrasonography revealed acute intestinal intussusception localized at the site of enlarged mesenteric nodes. At laparostomy, intestinal resection was not required. Histology examination of the mesenteric nodes showed follicular hyperplasia. Serology was positive for Yersinia enterocolitica. Outcome was favorable after treatment with tetracycline for 15 days. Yersinia enterocolitica are Gram negative bacilli that grow at low temperature. Food contamination is the most frequent source of infection in man, usually in children. Clinical manifestations include gastroenteritis or pseudoappendicular syndrome. Intestinal intussusception is rare. Operative reduction by taxis is generally sufficient. Histology examination of the lymph nodes excludes lymphoma. The diagnosis is confirmed by serology. A 10 to 15-day antibiotic regimen is needed.

  14. Treatment of the complex abdomen and acute intestinal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F.E.E.

    2018-01-01

    Management of the complex abdomen and acute intestinal failure (IF) is challenging and requires specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Due to the small numbers and heterogeneity of the patient group high-quality evidence for some of the research questions is probably unachievable. Nevertheless,

  15. [Correction of a reperfusion dysfunction in acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnenko, S F; Sinenchenko, G I; Kurygin, A A; Chupris, V G

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of experimental investigations carried out in 32 dogs and 30 rabbits and laboratory data of 242 patients has shown that the application of antioxidant and antihypoxic medicines decrease reperfusion lesions and endotoxicosis in operative treatment of acute intestinal obstruction.

  16. [Pathogenic aspects of stomach ulcerogenesis in acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, V E; Nguen, K K

    To identify the patterns and the correlation of morphological and functional changes in stomach wall with the dynamics of different types of acute intestinal obstruction. The study was performed on 33 adult mongrel dogs of both genders weighing 17-20 kg. All researches were conducted in accordance with the documents, such as the 'Guide for the Care and Use of laboratory animals of the National Institute of Health (National Institute of Health - NIH, Bethesda, USA)' and 'Rules of work with experimental animals'. The same methods were used to study the morphology of stomach wall in normal conditions and after intestinal obstruction simulation. We used H & E stain, Van Gieson's picrofuchsin staining combined with Mallory. The choice of histochemical methods was determined by the need to study metabolic processes in epithelial cells and gastric mucosa glands. Einarson method for detecting total nucleic acids was used. The last group of methods was statistical analysis. We determined the regularities of structural organization of microcirculation in various parts of the stomach, the correlation of morphological and functional changes in stomach wall with the dynamics of different types of acute intestinal obstruction. Our data indicate proximal-distal gradient of gastric perfusion: the most pronounced vascular network and maximum blood flow are observed in proximal stomach in both normal conditions and acute intestinal obstruction. More tenuous and reduced blood flow was revealed in the antrum, that is morphological basis of the most frequent localization of acute ulcers in this department.

  17. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  18. Acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Nell; Vargas, H David

    2005-05-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie's syndrome, is a condition characterized by massive colonic distension in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Patients presenting with Ogilvie's syndrome have underlying medical and surgical conditions predisposing them to the syndrome. Ogilvie's syndrome can often be managed by conservative therapy. However, unrecognized and untreated, the continued distension associated with Ogilvie's syndrome can lead to perforation that is associated with a high mortality rate. In this article, the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment options are reviewed.

  19. Postconditioning attenuates acute intestinal ischemia–reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Sengul

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postconditioning (POC would reduce the detrimental effects of the acute intestinal ischemia–reperfusion (I/R compared to those of the abrupt onset of reperfusion. POC has a protective effect on intestinal I/R injury by inhibiting events in the early minutes of reperfusion in rats. Twenty-four Wistar–Albino rats were subjected to the occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 30 minutes, then reperfused for 120 minutes, and randomized to the four different modalities of POC: (1 control (no intervention; (2 POC-3 (three cycles of 10 seconds of reperfusion–reocclusion, 1 minute total intervention; (3 POC-6 (six cycles of 10 seconds of reperfusion–reocclusion, 2 minutes total intervention; and (4 sham operation (laparotomy only. The arterial blood samples [0.3 mL total creatine kinase (CK and 0.6 mL malondialdehyde (MDA] and the intestinal mucosal MDA were collected from each after reperfusion. POC, especially POC-6, was effective in attenuating postischemic pathology by decreasing the intestinal tissue MDA levels, serum total CK activity, inflammation, and total histopathological injury scores. POC exerted a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa by reducing the mesenteric oxidant generation, lipid peroxidation, and neutrophil accumulation. The six-cycle algorithm demonstrated the best protection.

  20. Delayed radiation effects at the small and large intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunder, S.

    1982-01-01

    The work deals with 56 patients treated within a period of 15 years for delayed radiation damage to the intestine. Gynecologic carcinomas were most frequently the basic disease. By the time the complaints occurred, which mostly took the form of an ileus, the radiation therapy dated back 4 months to 38 years. The mean age of the patients was 60 years. The report points out the diagnostical problem as well as clinical, radiographic and histological findings. Especially hydronephrosis and renal failure were observed as additional radiation sequelae. Whenever possible, resection of the intestinal segment concerned should be carried through. The portion of radiological patients who attracted the disorder was of 72 per cent, with a lethal result in 37 per cent. Half the patients died from an imperfect anastomosis followed by peritonitis. In 16 per cent of the patients recidivations of the malignant basic disease occurred. Whether treatment of radiation damage of the intestine is successful depends on the care taken to give a diagnosis and on the assessment of the intestinal segment damaged. As the actinic injury tends to aggravate early surgical intervention is recommended. Because the treatment of malignant tumours by irradiation is partly quite successful, injuries to the intestine must to some extent be put up with. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  2. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  3. Does the Intestinal Parasite Enterobius vermicularis Cause Acute Appendicitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhan, Yavuz; Özen, Fatma Zeynep; Kılınç, Çetin; Güçkan, Rıdvan

    2017-06-01

    Although intestinal parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, they are common public health problems in undeveloped and developing countries. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and treatment procedures should be adopted according to the etiology. Herein we presented the cases of four patients with clinical findings of acute appendicitis. Patients were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the pathological examinations of specimens. Pinworm infections are common parasitic infections that may mimic appendicitis. The pathology of the four cases was noted when the file of 186 patients aged between 4 and 72 years who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in my hospital was retrospectively reviewed. When the appendectomy specimen was examined histopathologically it was understood that acute appendicitis was caused by Enterobius vermicularis parasite. In Enterobius infections, performing systemic therapy for patients and their family members is sufficient. To prevent unnecessary appendectomy, this type of infection should be made to ask in the history and clinical findings of patients.

  4. Acute intestinal obstruction: an electromyographic study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R W; Yanda, R; Prihoda, M; Flatt, A

    1983-12-01

    We have investigated the motility effects of acute experimental canine intestinal obstruction. A 30-min midjejunal obstruction was produced by clamping a Biebl loop or by inflating an intraluminal balloon. Spike bursts from serosal electrodes proximal to the site of obstruction increased markedly, while those from distal electrodes decreased. When the obstruction from an intraluminal Foley catheter was continued for 5.5 h, the inhibition persisted distally but the proximal contractile activity gradually fell to control levels. The reduced proximal activity after prolonged obstruction was largely due to clusters of regular intense spike bursts preceded and followed by lengthening periods of absent motor activity. Similar clustered contractions obliterated the lumen when the passage of barium through a Thiry-Vella loop was monitored fluoroscopically. Significant motility changes occur in intestinal obstruction, but an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved awaits future studies.

  5. BVES Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell Programs and Intestinal Crypt Viability after Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishruth K.; Short, Sarah P.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Keating, Cody E.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Harris, Elizabeth I.; Revetta, Frank; Bader, David M.; Brand, Thomas; Washington, M. Kay; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance (BVES/Popdc1) is a junctional-associated transmembrane protein that is underexpressed in a number of malignancies and regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We previously identified a role for BVES in regulation of the Wnt pathway, a modulator of intestinal stem cell programs, but its role in small intestinal (SI) biology remains unexplored. We hypothesized that BVES influences intestinal stem cell programs and is critical to SI homeostasis after radiation injury. At baseline, Bves−/− mice demonstrated increased crypt height, as well as elevated proliferation and expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5 compared to wildtype (WT) mice. Intercross with Lgr5-EGFP reporter mice confirmed expansion of the stem cell compartment in Bves−/− mice. To examine stem cell function after BVES deletion, we employed ex vivo 3D-enteroid cultures. Bves−/− enteroids demonstrated increased stemness compared to WT, when examining parameters such as plating efficiency, stem spheroid formation, and retention of peripheral cystic structures. Furthermore, we observed increased proliferation, expression of crypt-base columnar “CBC” and “+4” stem cell markers, amplified Wnt signaling, and responsiveness to Wnt activation in the Bves−/− enteroids. Bves expression was downregulated after radiation in WT mice. Moreover, after radiation, Bves−/− mice demonstrated significantly greater small intestinal crypt viability, proliferation, and amplified Wnt signaling in comparison to WT mice. Bves−/− mice also demonstrated elevations in Lgr5 and Ascl2 expression, and putative damage-responsive stem cell populations marked by Bmi1 and TERT. Therefore, BVES is a key regulator of intestinal stem cell programs and mucosal homeostasis. PMID:26891025

  6. A five-year audit of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute mechanical intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency worldwide. The presentation varies between and within countries. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: This is retrospective study of all ...

  7. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  8. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTION AS A DISGUISE OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dyakonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and acute intestinal infections in contemporary medicine remains relevant for clinical practice of surgeons and pediatricians. Late diagnosis of appendicitis results in development of complicated forms of vermiform appendix inflammation. This prolongs operative intervention, duration of antibacterial therapy and duration of a child’s inpatient stay. The article presents clinical observation of three children treated for perforated appendix and generalized purulent peritonitis. The described cases demonstrate the need in multidisciplinary approach and complex diagnosis of patients with such complaints as abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea.

  9. Radiobiology of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M. M.; Calduch, A. L.; Lopez, E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome or acute radiation sickness is classically subdivided into three sub syndromes: the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular syndrome but many other tissues can be damaged. The time course and severity of clinical signs and symptoms are a function of the overall body volume irradiated, the inhomogeneity of dose exposure, the particle type, the absorbed dose and the dose rate. Classical pathophysiology explain the failure of each of these organs and the timing of appearance of their signs and symptoms due to radiation-induced cytocidal effects of a great number of parenchymal cells of hierarchically organized tissues. Contemporaneously, many other radiation-induced effects has been described and all of them may lead to tissue injury with their corresponding signs and symptoms that can be expressed after short or long period of time. Radiation-induced multi-organ involvement is thought to be due to radiation-induced systemic inflammatory response mediated by released pro-inflammatory cytokines. (authors)

  10. Radiation-induced intestinal lesions. Prognosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haecke, P.; Vitaux, J.; Michot, F.; Hay, J.-M.; Flamant, Y.; Maillard, J.-N.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients with intestinal lesions consecutive to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus were operated upon between 1973 and 1979. The small bowel was involved in 9 patients and the colon and rectum in 4 patients. Urinary tract lesions were associated in 3 patients of each group. Intestinal necrosis, progression of the lesions and extensive pelvic fibrosis were the only criteria of poor prognosis. Twenty-two operations were performed: 4 for urinary tract lesions and 18 for intestinal lesions. Five patients died during the immediate post-operative period and five died within 2 to 30 months after surgery, including 4 whose carcinoma recurred. The operative technique should be selected according to the extent and severity of radiation-induced damage, as determined by pre-operative examination and thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity once opened. Limited lesions of the small bowel can be treated by resection, but intestinal bypass with latero-lateral anastomosis seems to be preferable in cases with extensive lesions. Patients with colorectal lesions should have defunctioning colostomy prior to any other procedure dictated by the state of affairs. Multiple anastomosis, extensive resections and excessive dissections should be avoided [fr

  11. Wireless capsule endoscopy for diagnosis of acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne; Schoppmeyer, Konrad; Lange, Thoralf; Wiedmann, Marcus; Golsong, Johannes; Tannapfel, Andrea; Mossner, Joachim; Niederwieser, Dietger; Caca, Karel

    2007-03-01

    The small intestine is the most common location of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). EGD with duodenal biopsies yields the highest diagnostic sensitivity, but the jejunum and ileum are not accessible by regular endoscopy. In contrast, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a noninvasive imaging procedure offering complete evaluation of the small intestine. The objective was to compare the diagnostic value of EGD, including biopsies, with the results of WCE in patients with acute intestinal symptoms who received allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation and to analyze the appearance and distribution of acute intestinal GVHD lesions in these patients. An investigator-blinded, single-center prospective study. Patients with acute intestinal symptoms after allogeneic stem cell transplantation underwent both EGD and WCE within 24 hours. Clinical data were recorded during 2 months of follow-up. Fourteen consecutive patients with clinical symptoms of acute intestinal GVHD were recruited. In 1 patient, the capsule remained in the stomach and was removed endoscopically. In 7 of 13 patients who could be evaluated, acute intestinal GVHD was diagnosed by EGD with biopsies, but 3 of these would have been missed by EGD alone. In all 7 patients with histologically confirmed acute intestinal GVHD, WCE revealed typical signs of GVHD. Lesions were scattered throughout the small intestine, but were most accentuated in the ileum. This study had a small number of patients. WCE, which is less invasive than EGD with biopsies, showed a comparable sensitivity and a high negative predictive value for diagnosing acute intestinal GVHD. It may be helpful to avoid repeated endoscopic procedures in patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation.

  12. [Acute states in gastroenterology: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and the acute intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukás, K

    2001-07-19

    Our article concentrates on two acute states, which develop less dramatically but their after-effects may be very serious: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and Ogilvie's syndrome. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a bacterial infection of the ascitic fluid without any intraperitoneal source of infection. Ascites is a condition of the disease but need not be clinically manifested. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis comes usually during heavy hepatic impairment. Diagnosis can be set according: 1. Positive cultivation of ascitic fluid, 2. PMN levels higher than 250/mm3, 3. No infection, which may require a surgical intervention is apparent. Liver disease, which brings about the spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can be: 1. Chronic (e.g. alcoholic cirrhosis), 2. Subacute (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis), 3. Acute (e.g. fulminant hepatic failure). Mortality of this form of peritonitis can reach up to 46%. The most frequent etiological factor is alcohol and viral hepatitis, the most frequent agents are E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The disease is most effectively cured by cefalosporins of the third generation. With inadequate treatment, prognosis may be poor. Intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome has clinical symptomatology of a serious impairment with ileus without signs of any mechanical intestinal obstruction. Syndrome can be classified according to its development: 1. Acute form--acute intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome--Ogilvie's syndrome, 2. Chronic form--chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. Pathogenic mechanism of the syndrome is not known. The disease is related to immobility, administration of some drugs, electrolyte imbalance and concomitant diseases (most frequently malignant tumors). Clinical symptomatology dominates nausea, vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhoea. For diagnostics the first step should be termination of all medication, which could have causing affects, then taking native abdominal X-ray picture where gaseous

  13. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclo...

  14. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  15. Inflammatory sequences in acute pulmonary radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slauson, D.O.; Hahn, F.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Chiffelle, T.L.; Jones, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic events in the developing acute pulmonary inflammatory reaction to inhaled particles of Yttrium 90 are detailed. In animals that died or were sacrificed during the first year after inhalation exposure, microscopic findings of acute inflammation predominated and included vascular congestion; stasis; focal hemorrhage; edema; various inflammatory cell infiltrates; cytolysis and desquamation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium followed by regeneration; vascular injury and repair; and the eventual development of pulmonary fibrosis. Accumulation of alveolar fibrin deposits was an additional characteristic, though not a constant feature of the early stages of radiation pneumonitis. In addition to the direct effects of radiation on pulmonary cell populations, the histopathologic findings were suggestive of diverse activation of various cellular and humoral mediation systems in their pathogenesis. The potential interrelationships of systems responsible for increased vascular permeability, coagulation and fibrinolysis, chemotaxis, and direct cellular injury were discussed and related to the pathogenesis of the microscopic findings characteristic of early pulmonary radiation injury

  16. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  17. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  18. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN THE CLINIC IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Kovalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the etiological structure and clinical features of acute intestinal infections of viral, bacterial and mixed etiology in children hospitalized in a specialized department of Children's Clinical Hospital №9 named G. N. Speransky, city of Moscow in 2008—2016. It was found that during 9 years of follow-up, the number of hospitalized patients with acute intestinal infections does not have an obvious tendency to decrease. More than half of hos-pitalized patients are children 1—7 years old. Among the reasons for acute intestinal infections of established etiology, viral agents (rotaviruses and noroviruses prevail. Among bacterial intestinal infections, the most urgent are salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and staphylococcal infection.  

  20. Apoptosis and mitosis in the small intestine at radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Junichiro; Ito, Masahiro; Onizuka, Shinya; Sekine, Ichiro; Uchida, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    A single whole body irradiation was given at a dose rate of 0.298 Gy/min in 6-week-old male mice. Intestinal crypt apoptosis and mitosis cells were determined by delivering radiation doses of 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Gy. The incidence of apoptosis was linearly increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 5.0 Gy, and thereafter, it was gradually decreased. There was a decreased tendency for mitosis with delivering higher radiation doses. The incidence of apoptosis rapidly increased 2 hours after irradiation with either 0.6 Gy or 2.0 Gy, and reached to the peak 4 hours later. It brought about a 18-fold and 28-fold increase for 0.6 Gy and 2.0 Gy, respectively, relative to that before irradiation. Mitosis cells decreased by half one hour after irradiation with 0.6 Gy, and then returned to the pre-irradiation value through synchronization 24 hours later. The number of cells positive to BrdU was 776 in the group of mice without irradiation and 479 in the group of mice irradiated with 2.0 Gy. (N.K.)

  1. Lesions of the intestine following radiation therapy of abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmann, P.; Neutard, E.; Koch, H.K.; Coutureau, G.

    1982-08-01

    Severe lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract following abdominal and pelvic irradiation occur in 1-5%. Typical alterations are segmental smooth outlined stenoses, ulcera and fistulae. The critical dose limit ranges between 42 to 45 Gy. duodenum and small intestine posses a greater sensitivity against radiation injury than colon and rectum.

  2. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  3. Characterization and pharmacological modulation of intestinal inflammation induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremy, O.

    2006-12-01

    The use of radiation therapy to treat abdominal and pelvic malignancies inevitably involves exposure of healthy intestinal tissues which are very radiosensitive. As a result, most patients experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Such symptoms are associated with acute damage to intestine mucosa including radio-induced inflammatory processes. With a rat model of colorectal fractionated radiation, we have shown a gradual development of a colonic inflammation during radiation planning, without evident tissue injury. This radio-induced inflammation is characterized not only by the sur expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a NF-kB activation, but also by a repression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear receptors PPARa and RXRa, both involved in inflammation control. This early inflammation is associated with a discreet neutrophil recruitment and a macrophage accumulation. Macrophages are still abnormally numerous in tissue 27 weeks after the last day of irradiation. Inflammatory process is the most often related to a specific immune profile, either a type Th1 leading to a cellular immune response, or a type Th2 for humoral immunity. According to our studies, a unique abdominal radiation in the rat induces an ileum inflammation and an immune imbalance resulting in a Th2-type profile. Inhibiting this profile is important as its persistence promotes chronic inflammation, predisposition to bacterial infections and fibrosis which is the main delayed side-effect of radiotherapy. The treatment of rats with an immuno-modulator compound, the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (C.A.P.E.), have the potential to both reduce ileal mucosal inflammation and inhibit the radio-induced Th2 status. In order to search new therapeutic molecular target, we has been interested in the PPARg nuclear receptor involved in the maintenance of colon mucosal integrity. In our abdominal irradiation model, we have demonstrated that the prophylactic

  4. Low-methoxyl lemon pectin attenuates inflammatory responses and improves intestinal barrier integrity in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yajun; He, Yue; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hao; de Vos, Paul; Sun, Jia

    Scope: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical acute abdominal disease. The intestinal injury associated with AP will aggravate the condition retroactively. This study investigates whether the low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) isolated from lemon could attenuate AP and associated intestinal injury.

  5. Analysis of changes in intestinal microflora of irradiated mice. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Pinegin, B.V.; Korshunov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on 3 groups of CBA mice exposed to doses of 900, 600 and 300 R ..gamma..-rays, it was demonstrated that the integral severity of post-radiation microflora in the intestine can be determined by means of information index h, which takes into consideration all changes occurring in different representatives of the intestinal microflora. Differential analysis of the mechanisms of radioinduced changes in microflora indicates that it is based on a decrease in lactobacilli and increase in enterococcus, proteus, colibacillus and yeast in the small intestine, with increase in colibacillus, clostridia, proteus and enterococcus in the large intestine.

  6. The acute radiation syndrome in the miniature pig Troll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegl, R.

    1986-01-01

    8 animals at an average age of 230 days and an average body weight of 24.9 kg were whole-body gamma-irradiated from a cobalt-60 source with 3.0 Gy midline dose. 4 of the 8 pigs survived, the others died within day 14 and 17 after irradiation, mainly due to thrombopenia dependent hemorrhage. Hematologic examinations showed as well that the platelets decreased to a minimum on day 14 p.r. The granulocyte values and yet remarkable the lymphocyte values decreased at an earlier time. The absolute lymphocyte counts reached their lowest mark already on the first day after irradiation. The reticulocytes, which also decreased markedly on day 1 p.r., sank further on the following days, till after two weeks when they started to increase again. Furthermore 25 biochemical serum parameters have been investigated. The major pathological findings of the acute radiation sickness were the mostly heavy hemorrhages. Histological studies indicated primarily aplasia of bone marrow, intestinal mucosa damages and atrophy of lymphatic tissues. Signs for septicemia were rarely found. The investigations in Troll-pigs showed, their reactions to an irradiation of middle-lethal doses are similar to those of other pigs. Only the Vietnamese pot-bellied swine reacts differently: Profuse diarrheas already after low radiation-doses are reported. (orig./MG) [de

  7. The octapetide NAP alleviates intestinal and extra-intestinal anti-inflammatory sequelae of acute experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Giladi, Eliezer; Kühl, Anja A; Bereswill, Stefan; Gozes, Illana

    2018-03-01

    The octapeptide NAP has been shown to exert neuroprotective properties and reduce neuro-inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate if NAP provides anti-inflammatory effects in acute murine colitis. To address this, C57BL/6 j mice were challenged with 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium from day 0 until day 6 to induce colitis, either treated intraperitoneally with NAP or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) from day 1 until day 6 post-induction (p.i.) and subjected to in depth macroscopic, microscopic and immunological evaluations. Whereas NAP application did not alleviate macroscopic (i.e. clinical) sequelae of colitis, lower numbers of apoptotic, but higher counts of proliferating/regenerating colonic epithelial cells could be observed in NAP as compared to placebo treated mice at day 7 p.i. Furthermore, lower numbers of adaptive immune cells such as T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells were abundant in the colonic mucosa and lamina propria upon NAP versus placebo treatment that were accompanied by less colonic secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ and nitric oxide at day 7 p.i. In mesenteric lymph nodes, pro-inflammatory IFN-γ, TNF and IL-6 concentrations were increased in placebo, but not NAP treated mice at day 7 p.i., whereas interestingly, elevated anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels could be observed in NAP treated mice only. The assessed anti-inflammatory properties of NAP were not restricted to the intestinal tract, given that in extra-intestinal compartments such as the kidneys, IFN-γ levels increased in placebo, but not NAP treated mice upon colitis induction. NAP induced effects were accompanied by distinct changes in intestinal microbiota composition, given that colonic luminal loads of bifidobacteria, regarded as anti-inflammatory, "health-promoting" commensal species, were two orders of magnitude higher in NAP as compared to placebo treated mice and even naive controls. In conclusion, NAP alleviates intestinal and extra-intestinal

  8. (abstract) Effects of Radiation and Oxidative Stress on Development and Morphology of Intestinal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shuji; Nelson, Gregory; Schubert, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    Intestinal cells when subjected to oxidative stress or radiation exhibit abnormal nuclear divisions observed as: 1) supernumerary cell divisions in anterior intestinal cells or 2) incomplete nuclear division and the persistence of anaphase bridges between daughter nuclei. Two oxygen sensitive mutants, mev-1 and rad-8 were observed to exhibit spontaneous supernumerary nuclear divisions at low frequency. N2 can be induced to undergo these divisions by treatment with the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyl dithicarbamate or with the free radical generator methyl viologen. By contrast, the free radical generator bleomycin produces anaphase bridges in N2 intestinal nuclei at high frequency. Intestinal anaphase bridges can be induced by ionizing radiation and their formation is dependent on dose and radiation type.

  9. State of Antiendotoxic Immunity Antiendotoxin and Metabolic Intoxication in Acute Intestinal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Odinets

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparative analysis of antiendotoxic immunity parameters and free-radical oxidation in the blood of 34 patients with acute intestinal infections of rotavirus and rotavirus-bacterial etiology depending on the severity of the disease and its duration.

  10. Usage of low-power laser irradiation in the complex treatment of acute intestinal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostukhina, Alla I.; Shuldyakov, Andrey A.; Brill, Gregory E.; Zaytseva, Irina A.

    2002-07-01

    46 children with acute intestinal infections were studied. The development of pathological process was associated with the activation of lipid peroxidation, the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in erythrocytes as well as with the fall of vitamin E content in blood plasma. Vitamin E and IR laser irradiation use in complex treatment showed the best therapeutic effect.

  11. Soluble Dietary Fiber Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Intestinal Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianbo; Ding, Chao; Dai, Xujie; Lv, Tengfei; Xie, Tingbing; Zhang, Tenghui; Gao, Wen; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy. The effects of pectin on intestinal EMT and fibrosis, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were evaluated. Intestinal fibrosis in late radiation enteropathy showed increased submucosal thickness and subepithelial collagen deposition. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) + /vimentin + and EGFP + /α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) + coexpressing cells were most clearly observed at 2 weeks after irradiation and gradually decreased at 4 and 12 weeks. Pectin significantly attenuated the thickness of submucosa and collagen deposition at 12 weeks (24.3 vs 27.6 µm in the pectin + radiation-treated group compared with radiation-alone group, respectively, P soluble dietary fiber pectin protected the terminal ileum against radiation-induced fibrosis. This effect might be mediated by altered SCFA concentration in the intestinal lumen and reduced EMT in the ileal epithelium.

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome. Consequences and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.D.; Pesternikova, V.S.; Sumina, M.V.; Azizova, T.V.; Yurkov, N.N. [Branch No 1 State Research Center of Russia, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The consequences and outcomes of an Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), induced by external gamma radiation for 59 persons (49 men and 10 women) have been estimated. All incidents have taken place more than 40 years ago in the yearly years of adjustment of an atomic industry (1950-1953-38 persons, 1954-1958-21 persons). According to the degree of severity ARS 5 groups are selected: the severest degree - 7 individuals (average dose in group 43.8{+-}12.8 Sv), severe - 4 individuals (9.3{+-}1.5 Sv), medium - 14 individuals (2.2{+-}0.8 Sv), a light degree - 15 individuals (0.93{+-}0.13 Sv), ''erased'' from - 19 individuals (0.85{+-}0.07 Sv). In all cases, except for lethal (the severest degree), the characteristics of morphological composition of the peripheral blood were restored in the first year after ARS and now correspond to physiological standard. In 2 cases the moderate hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis was diagnosed. A marker of the acute exposure was the chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. The frequency of chromosome aberrations correlates with severity degree of ARS (from 3-7 up to 35-50 stable aberrations per 100 cells). In cases of ARS with severe degree the early development of a cerebral atherosclerosis is detected. The radiation cataract was diagnosed in 5 patients (an exposure doses 4.0-9.8 Sv, a period of development 2-5 years). During the first years after ARS in 80% of cases the complete labour rehabilitation is reached. Of 53 patients with known vital status by 45 year of monitoring 19 persons (35.8%) have died, of these in 2 cases the causes of death are not determined. In remaining cases the causes of death were ARS of severest degree (7 persons), Ischemic Heart Disease (5 persons), malignant tumors (4 persons), accidents and traumas (2 persons). (author)

  13. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Lahutte-Auboin, M.; Bey, E.

    2012-01-01

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  14. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  15. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  16. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine

  17. Particularly acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis. Case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim — determine the clinical and laboratory features of acute intestinal infection in children, occurring in conjunction with atopic dermatitis (AD.Material and methods. We conducted a study of «case-control», which included observation of 144 children hospitalized in the infectious hospital with a clinic of acute infectious diarrhea in the period from January to December 2012. In the study group were selected 72 children with atopic dermatitis clinic and acute infectious diarrhea in a couple of which, from the group of patients without burdened premorbid background were selected 72 «controls» matched by sex, age and etiology developed acute intestinal infection. The observation time was 5±2 days, which corresponds to the average length of stay of the child, patients with moderate forms of acute intestinal infection in the hospital.Results and discussion. About 2 times more often than in the control, acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis lesions were characterized by clinic middle and lower gastrointestinal — 31.9% (CI 21,1–42,7 vs. 15.3% (CI 7–23 6, p=0.03. A number of bowel movements 6 or more times per day significantly more frequently observed in children with a combination of acute intestinal infections and atopic dermatitis — 54.1% (CI 42,6–65,6 vs. 33.3% (CI 22,4–43.9 in the control, p=0.011. The duration of diarrhea was higher in the study group (Med 6 IQR 4–7 days and Med 5 IQR 3–6 days, respectively, p=0.046. The proportion of patients with high fever was also higher in the study group than in the controls –15.3% (CI 7–23,6 vs. 2,8% (CI 1–6,6, p=0.016.Conclusion. Acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis have a more pronounced clinical symptoms, which is characterized by clinic enterocolitis, severity and duration of diarrhea syndrome, usually accompanied by a high fever. 

  18. Long-term differential changes in mouse intestinal metabolomics after γ and heavy ion radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita K Cheema

    Full Text Available Tissue consequences of radiation exposure are dependent on radiation quality and high linear energy transfer (high-LET radiation, such as heavy ions in space is known to deposit higher energy in tissues and cause greater damage than low-LET γ radiation. While radiation exposure has been linked to intestinal pathologies, there are very few studies on long-term effects of radiation, fewer involved a therapeutically relevant γ radiation dose, and none explored persistent tissue metabolomic alterations after heavy ion space radiation exposure. Using a metabolomics approach, we report long-term metabolomic markers of radiation injury and perturbation of signaling pathways linked to metabolic alterations in mice after heavy ion or γ radiation exposure. Intestinal tissues (C57BL/6J, female, 6 to 8 wks were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS two months after 2 Gy γ radiation and results were compared to an equitoxic ⁵⁶Fe (1.6 Gy radiation dose. The biological relevance of the metabolites was determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Metabolic profile analysis showed radiation-type-dependent spatial separation of the groups. Decreased adenine and guanosine and increased inosine and uridine suggested perturbed nucleotide metabolism. While both the radiation types affected amino acid metabolism, the ⁵⁶Fe radiation preferentially altered dipeptide metabolism. Furthermore, ⁵⁶Fe radiation caused upregulation of 'prostanoid biosynthesis' and 'eicosanoid signaling', which are interlinked events related to cellular inflammation and have implications for nutrient absorption and inflammatory bowel disease during space missions and after radiotherapy. In conclusion, our data showed for the first time that metabolomics can not only be used to distinguish between heavy ion and γ radiation exposures, but

  19. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake

    1989-01-01

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52 Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  20. Irgm1-deficient mice exhibit Paneth cell abnormalities and increased susceptibility to acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Gulati, Ajay S; Cantillana, Viviana; Henry, Stanley C; Schmidt, Elyse A; Daniell, Xiaoju; Grossniklaus, Emily; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A

    2013-10-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the intestine that has been linked to numerous susceptibility genes, including the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) M (IRGM). IRGs comprise a family of proteins known to confer resistance to intracellular infections through various mechanisms, including regulation of phagosome processing, cell motility, and autophagy. However, despite its association with CD, the role of IRGM and other IRGs in regulating intestinal inflammation is unclear. We investigated the involvement of Irgm1, an ortholog of IRGM, in the genesis of murine intestinal inflammation. After dextran sodium sulfate exposure, Irgm1-deficient [Irgm1 knockout (KO)] mice showed increased acute inflammation in the colon and ileum, with worsened clinical responses. Marked alterations of Paneth cell location and granule morphology were present in Irgm1 KO mice, even without dextran sodium sulfate exposure, and were associated with impaired mitophagy and autophagy in Irgm1 KO intestinal cells (including Paneth cells). This was manifested by frequent tubular and swollen mitochondria and increased LC3-positive autophagic structures. Interestingly, these LC3-positive structures often contained Paneth cell granules. These results suggest that Irgm1 modulates acute inflammatory responses in the mouse intestine, putatively through the regulation of gut autophagic processes, that may be pivotal for proper Paneth cell functioning.

  1. Role of damage control enterostomy in management of children with peritonitis from acute intestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Ameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal anastomosis in severely ill children with peritonitis from intestinal perforation, intestinal gangrene or anastomotic dehiscence (acute intestinal disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Enterostomy as a damage control measure may be an option to minimize the high morbidity and mortality. This report evaluates the role of damage control enterostomy in the treatment of these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 52 children with acute intestinal disease who had enterostomy as a damage control measure in 12 years. Results: There were 34 (65.4% boys and 18 (34.6% girls aged 3 days-13 years (median 9 months, comprising 27 (51.9% neonates and infants and 25 (48.1% older children. The primary indication for enterostomy in neonates and infants was intestinal gangrene 25 (92.6% and perforated typhoid ileitis 22 (88% in older children. Enterostomy was performed as the initial surgery in 33 (63.5% patients and as a salvage procedure following anastomotic dehiscence in 19 (36.5% patients. Enterostomy-related complications occurred in 19 (36.5% patients, including 11 (21.2% patients with skin excoriations and eight (15.4% with hypokalaemia. There were four (7.7% deaths (aged 19 days, 3 months, 3½ years and 10 years, respectively directly related to the enterostomy, from hypokalaemia at 4, 12, 20 and 28 days postoperatively, respectively. Twenty other patients died shortly after surgery from their primary disease. Twenty of 28 surviving patients have had their enterostomy closed without complications, while eight are awaiting enterostomy closure. Conclusion: Damage-control enterostomy is useful in management of severely ill children with intestinal perforation or gangrene. Careful and meticulous attention to fluid and electrolyte balance, and stoma care, especially in the first several days following surgery, are important in preventing morbidity and mortality.

  2. Assessment of acute intestinal graft versus host disease by abdominal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjan, Johannes; Michaely, Henrik J.; Attenberger, Ulrike; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Heidenreich, Daniela; Kreil, Sebastian; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Klein, Stefan A. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), a reliable diagnosis of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) is essential for an early and successful treatment. It is the aim of this analysis to assess intestinal aGvHD by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to allogeneic SCT, 64 consecutive patients underwent abdominal MRI examination on a 3 T MR system, including axial and coronal T2w sequences and a three-dimensional dynamic T1w, contrast enhanced sequence. After SCT, 20 patients with suspected aGvHD received a second MRI as well as an endoscopic examination. Nine patients suffered from histologically proven intestinal aGvHD. In eleven patients intestinal aGvHD was excluded. In all aGvHD patients typical MRI findings with long-segment bowel wall thickening - always involving the terminal ileum - with profound submucosal oedema, were detected. The bowel wall was significantly thickened in patients with intestinal aGvHD. Bowel contrast enhancement spared the submucosa while demonstrating strong mucosal hyperemia. In intestinal aGvHD, a characteristic MR-appearance can be detected. This MRI pattern might facilitate an early and non-invasive diagnosis of intestinal aGvHD. MRI might thus be used as a sensitive tool to rule out or support the clinical diagnosis of aGvHD. (orig.)

  3. Therapy of Acute Intestinal Infections in Children: Proven Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on questions of etiotropic, pathogenetic, and symptomatic treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in children. The recommendations are given with the basic principles of evidence-based medicine including summary data from randomized clinical trials and metaanalyses. The new lines of the treatment are discussed such as the possibility of application of antiemetic, antidiarrheal, antisecretory, probiotic drugs in pediatric practice.

  4. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  5. IDIOPATHIC SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS CAUSING ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION AND GANGRENE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction resulting from encasement of variable lengths of bowel by dense fibro-collagenous membrane. It is more common in young females, and shows tropical and sub-tropical distribution. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable cause from clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the descriptive term “abdominal cocoon syndrome”. SEP presents with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. In the era of laparoscopic surgery, inadvertent damage to the small bowel at insertion of the trocar and cannula can occur by being unaware of this condition resulting in unnecessary bowel resection. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to bowel gangrene or intestinal perforation, representing life threatening conditions. We report the clinical presentation of a 75-year-old female presenting with signs of intestinal obstruction whose imaging findings revealed abdominal cocoon with bowel gangrene leading to perforation and the same confirmed at surgery. Surgical excision of the fibrotic sac encasing the bowel, resection of gangrenous bowel segment and end ileostomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised membrane confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. To our knowledge, only a few cases of abdominal cocoon with perforation have been reported in literature so far. Radiologists should be aware of this relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction, its imaging findings and complications, as preoperative diagnosis will prevent delay and aid in treatment planning to the surgeon. Identification of soft tissue density membrane encasing congregated small bowel loops into a single area on computed-tomography gives diagnostic clue. Surgical excision of sac, release of bowel loops and adhesions with partial intestinal resection when necessary is the treatment.

  6. Acute inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine in adult: MDCT findings and criteria for differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Russo, Anna; Daniele, Stefania; Tortora, Giovanni; Maisto, Francesco; Romano, Luigia

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory changes of the intestine leading to acute abdomen could represent a frequent diagnostic challenge for radiologists actively involved in the emergency area. MDCT imaging findings needs to be evaluated considering the clinical history and symptoms and other abdominal findings that could be of help in differential diagnosis. Several protocols have been suggested and indicated in the imaging of patient with acute intestine. However, a CT protocol in which the precontrast scanning of the abdomen is followed by i.v. administration of contrast medium using the 45-55 s delay could be effective for an optimal visualization of the bowel wall. It is important to learn to recognize how the intestine reacts to the injury and how it 'talks', in order to become aware of the different patterns of disease manifestation related to an acute intestinal condition, for an effective diagnosis of active and acute inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Acute inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine in adult: MDCT findings and criteria for differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Russo, Anna [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Daniele, Stefania; Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Maisto, Francesco [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia

    2009-03-15

    Inflammatory changes of the intestine leading to acute abdomen could represent a frequent diagnostic challenge for radiologists actively involved in the emergency area. MDCT imaging findings needs to be evaluated considering the clinical history and symptoms and other abdominal findings that could be of help in differential diagnosis. Several protocols have been suggested and indicated in the imaging of patient with acute intestine. However, a CT protocol in which the precontrast scanning of the abdomen is followed by i.v. administration of contrast medium using the 45-55 s delay could be effective for an optimal visualization of the bowel wall. It is important to learn to recognize how the intestine reacts to the injury and how it 'talks', in order to become aware of the different patterns of disease manifestation related to an acute intestinal condition, for an effective diagnosis of active and acute inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, Suzanna; Versloot, Christian J.; Voskuijl, Wieger; van Vliet, Sara J.; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Zhang, Ling; Richardson, Susan; Bourdon, Céline; Netea, Mihai G.; Berkley, James A.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Bandsma, Robert Hj

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their associations with mortality in

  9. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation : an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, Suzanna; Versloot, Christian J.; Voskuijl, Wieger; van Vliet, Sara J.; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Zhang, Ling; Richardson, Susan; Bourdon, Celine; Netea, Mihai G.; Berkley, James A.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Bandsma, Robert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. Objective: We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their

  10. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.; Versloot, C.J.; Voskuijl, W.; Vliet, S.J. van; Giovanni, V. Di; Zhang, L.; Richardson, S.; Bourdon, C.; Netea, M.G.; Berkley, J.A.; Rheenen, P.F. van; Bandsma, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their

  11. Lethal pneumatosis coli in a 12-month-old child caused by acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial nutrition: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Stefan; Wössner, Rupert; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Völker, Hans-Ullrich

    2008-07-24

    Pneumatosis coli is a rare disease with heterogeneous symptoms which can be detected in the course of various acute and chronic intestinal diseases in children, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal obstruction and intestinal bacteriological infections. We report the case of a 12-month-old boy who died of pneumatosis coli caused by an acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial alimentation. While intestinal gas gangrene is a highly uncommon cause of pneumatosis coli, it is important to consider it as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients receiving a prolonged artificial food supply. These patients may develop intestinal gas gangrene due to a dysfunctional intestinal barrier.

  12. Oral contraceptive and acute intestinal ischemia with mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliard, Aude; Verreth, Lucie; Grandjean, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive usage. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contraceptives, and in such cases diagnosis is often delayed. We report the case of a 38-year-old obese female patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. A bowel infection was first diagnosed and treated with antibiotics. Contrast-enhanced tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse ischemia of the small intestine with superior mesenteric thrombosis. Laparotomy with segmental resection of both small and large bowel was performed. No predisposing factor of mesenteric venous thrombosis was demonstrated except association of the combined contraceptive with obesity. This report highlights the need for clinicians to suspect venous mesenteric thrombosis in women of reproductive age with acute abdominal pain and poor physical findings. Detailed personal history including prescriptions should help to quickly and accurately determine the problem.

  13. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Acute Diarrheal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    another enteric pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, is present in high number in the cral cavity during acute and convalescent periods. Also, the buccal cells...PoIA system. In the future we .will use the phage Xb2Z rex::Tn5cI857 syst’.in described by Dr. D. Berg. This X phage contains a transposable kanamycin...element Tn5. We are hopeful tnat this technique will be more fruitful. Approximately 10-2 of cells infected with XTn5 phage are transduced to KanR

  14. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  15. Acute appendicitis mimicking intestinal obstruction in a patient with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease of the secretory glands caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene. The clinical manifestations of CF are repetitive lung infections, biliary cirrhosis, pancreatic abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders. We report a 21-year-old Taiwanese man with CF who had abdominal pain for 2 days. The diagnosis of CF had been confirmed by peripheral blood analysis of the CFTR gene 5 years before admission. He presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, and crampy abdominal pain, which is atypical for acute appendicitis. The physical examination and a series of studies revealed intestinal obstruction, but acute appendicitis could not be ruled out. After conservative treatment, together with empiric antibiotics, the refractory abdominal pain and leukocytosis with a left-shift warranted surgical intervention. A diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a swollen, hyperemic appendix, a severely distended small intestine, and serous ascites. The laparoscopic procedure was converted to a laparotomy for open disimpaction and appendectomy. He was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. The histologic examination of the appendix was consistent with early appendicitis. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain in adult CF patients is often associated with intestinal obstruction syndrome. The presentation of concurrent appendicitis may be indolent and lead not only to diagnostic difficulties, but also a number of therapeutic choices.

  16. [Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, D; Mahé, M-A; Servois, V; Claude, L

    2009-06-01

    Thoracic irradiation is a major weapon in the treatment of nonmetastatic primary lung cancer, in particular in patients presenting a locally advanced disease of the mediastinium. Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) is one of the main limiting toxicities. The purpose of this work is to sum up the current state of knowledge of the factors of risk of developing ARP. The incidence after conventional irradiation, in patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is about 7 to 10% in the moderate although symptomatic forms of ARP and about 1 to 3% in the severe forms. The factors related to the patient, the tumour or treatments prior to the irradiation do not determine any specific risk of ARP besides an age of over 65 years that remains debatable. The validated predictive factors of ARP are mainly related to the irradiation factors (healthy lung volumes irradiated, average dose of irradiation, etc.). Nevertheless, in spite of the adjustment of these parameters, the individual susceptibility to the toxicity of thoracic radiotherapy remains significant, directing current research to the biological markers intrinsic to the patient. In particular, the involvement of early variations of certain cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TGF-ss) in the occurrence of ARP during irradiation has been suggested and studies are under way to confirm their involvement and determine their role.

  17. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  18. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  19. Time course study of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption in acute mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuofei; Chen, Jiaquan; Ni, Qihong; Qi, Haozhe; Guo, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Lan; Xue, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) is an abdominal vascular condition. Early recanalization is essential to successful treatment. The aim of the study was to establish rabbit models of ASMVT and assess the time course of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption. After surgical exposure of superior mesenteric vein (Sham group), large-vessel (L-group) and small-vessel (S-group) models were established by endothelium damage, stenosis creation, and thrombin injection. At baseline, 6, 9, and 12 h, hemodynamic and serum parameters were tested. Serum from ASMVT patients diagnosed at 24, 36, 48, and 60 h from symptom onset was collected. Intestinal barrier disruption was assessed by tight junction (TJ) protein expression, morphology changes, and bacterial translocation. Mesenteric arteriospasm was measured by flow velocity and intestinal wet/dry weight ratio. The serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and endotoxin in patients was also measured as an indicator for intestinal barrier function. Severe acidosis and lacticemia were observed in both the groups. The L-group experienced greater hemodynamic alteration than the S-group. Intestinal barrier disruption was detected by significantly decreased TJ protein expression, histology and ultrastructure injury of TJ, increased permeability, and bacterial translocation, at 9 h in the S-group and 12 h in the L-group. Secondary mesenteric arteriospasm occurred at the same time of complete intestinal barrier disruption and could be a significant cause of bowel necrosis. Significant increased level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and endotoxin was found in patients at 48 h in the S-group type and 60 h in the L-group type. The ASMVT animal models of both the types were first established. The loss of intestinal barrier function occurred at 6 h in the S-group model and 9 h in the L-group model. For clinical patients, the time window extended to 36 h in the S-group type and 48 h in the L

  20. Surgical results in cases of intestinal radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguchi, Hisatsugu; Ozawa, Tetsuro; Wada, Toshihiro; Tsugu, Yukio (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-05-01

    Surgical procedures were performed on 25 patients suffering from late-phase intestinal tract disorders induced by irradiation. The primary diseases of these cases were almost exclusively gynecological in nature, such as cancer of the uterine cervix. Symptoms observed in these cases were overwhelming ileus followed by melena, fistulation and free perforation, as well as combination thereof. The most common portion involved was the recto-sigmoidal colon, followed by the ileo-cecum and ileum. As for the relationship of symptoms to the disordered portion, ileus was seen mainly in cases of disorders at the ileocecal portion; melena was observed exclusively in cases of disorders at the rectosigmoidal colon; fistulation was manifested mainly as recto-vaginal fistula or ileo-sigmoidal fistula; free perforation was observed at both the ileum and sigmoidal colon. Colostomy was the most frequent surgical method applied. Only 3 cases were able to undergo enterectomy. Other cases were subjected to enteroanastomosis or enterostomy. In most cases it was nearly in possible to excise the disordered portions. As for the effect of surgical procedures on symptoms, cases of melena or fistulation were all subjected to colostomy; the majority of these cases showed improvement in symptoms. Moreover, a high improvement ratio was obtained in cases of ileus which were subjected to enterectomy and enteroanastomosis. Cases of free perforation showed high improvement ratio irrespective of the surgical procedure given. As for postoperative complications, one case of free perforation at the ileum showed anastomotic leakage after partial resection. For cases suffering from late-phase intestinal tract disorders induced by irradiation, immediate resection of the disordered intestinal tract and anastomosis are ideal. However, conservative operations must be considered, based on the focal condition. (author).

  1. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Eleje, George Uchenna; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary.

  2. [Efficacy observation of electroacupuncture intervention on severe acute pancreatitis at early stage complicated with intestinal paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Guang-Wei; Zhao, Shuang-Ping; Tang, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Na

    2011-02-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture intervention on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) at early stage complicated with intestinal paralysis. Sixty-eight cases of SAP were randomly divided into observation group (48 cases) and control group (20 cases). In observation group, according to the course of sickness, the early-stage subgroup (30 cases, hospitalized in 3 d) and late-stage subgroup (18 cases, hospitalized in 3-7 d) were subdivided. In control group, the conventional treatment was applied. In observation group, based on the same treatment as control group, electroacupuncture was supplemented at Zhongwan (CV 12), Zusanli (ST 36), Neiguan (PC 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, the recovery time of intestinal paralysis and laboratory indices, complications, operation transfer rate, death rate and the admission time were compared among groups after treatment. The total effective rate was 83.3% (25/30) in early-stage subgroup, which was superior to 72.2% (13/18) in late-stage subgroup and 65.0% (13/20) in control group (P complications, operation transfer rate, death rate and admission time were all lower remarkably than those in late-stage subgroup and control group (P 0.05). The clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture intervention on SAP complicated with intestinal paralysis is superior remarkably to that of conventional treatment, and the efficacy of electroacupuncture intervention at early stage is better than that at late stage.

  3. Chernobyl 1996. New materials concerning acute radiation syndrome around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupandin, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1996 we have succeeded in getting reliable data on radiation situation in the Khoiniki district. These were data of Civil Defence Headquarters of the Khoiniki district, remaining in private notes of the Chief of the Headquarters. Including the other data or materials, radiation syndromes in particular the acute are described. (J.P.N.)

  4. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    receive pelvic or abdominal radiation as part of their cancer treatment, often manifest bowel symptoms of diarrhea, and many people, even those with...microbiome, mycobiome, colitis, cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...events such as nuclear accidents or through deliberate exposure to radiation such as during treatment for cancer . While a serious nuclear event might

  5. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kareem D; Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dunne, W Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G; Karl, Irene E; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Randomized, controlled study. University research laboratory. Genetically inbred mice. Following induction of acute lung injury, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild-type and C3H/HeJ mice, which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (n = 17); b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha or control antibody (n = 22); and c) C57Bl/6 wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n = 21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n = 24) as well as in a time course analysis following a fixed injury (n = 18). Acute lung injury caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe acute lung injury. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hrs, but proliferation was decreased 36 hrs following acute lung injury while apoptosis returned to normal. Acute lung injury causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving Toll-like receptor 4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the

  6. TACTICS OF BIOCENOSIS-SAVING THERAPY BY USE ANTIBIOTICS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 children aged from 3 to 67 months with acute intestinal infections receiving antibiotic therapy, were clinically and microbiologically examined using gas-liquid chromatographic test with the measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs in coprofiltrates. The influence on the biocenosis is assessed upon treatment with an-tidiarrhoeal medication Gelatin tannat (Adiarin, which acts by forming a protective film on the surface of intestinal mucosa preventing loss of body fluids and microbial toxins. 20 children in the control group received antibiotics, sorbents, probiotics. The study has proved the clinical effect of Gelatin tannat, resulting in reduction of time to normalization of diarrhea and intoxication for 2 days, and data on the probiotic effect of the drug, similar to that of probiotics in the control group which expands the indications for the use of Gelatin tannat for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  

  7. Acute and chronic radiation syndrome in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessel, M.

    1974-11-01

    The paper reports on the incidence and the clinical picture of the radiation syndrome in domestic animals, especially in pigs which are often used in animal experiments. The following parameters which influence the radiation reaction are discussed: type of irradiation (whole-body, partial-body and local irradiation), mean lethal radiation dose, radiation quality and RBE, age and individual radiosensitivity. The auther then describes the various symptoms of the radiation syndrome and the lesions which lead to death (death due to intestinal lesions, death following changes in the central nervous system). The next few chapters treat the symptoms manifested after chronic and internal irradiation. The paper closes with some remarks on the usability of irradiated animals for human consumption. (MG/AK) [de

  8. Wip1 abrogation decreases intestinal tumor frequency in APC(Min/+) mice irrespective of radiation quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Thakor, Hemang; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2014-09-01

    Low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) γ-ray exposure is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to their high-LET nature, energetic iron ions found in space are expected to pose greater CRC risks to astronauts undertaking long-duration space missions beyond low Earth orbit. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is important for cellular DNA damage response and its abrogation has been shown to inhibit spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice, a well-studied mouse model of human CRC. However, the relationship of Wip1 to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis, especially by energetic iron ions, has not been investigated in APC(Min/+) mice. We have previously reported that there is a greater intestinal tumorigenic potential of iron-ion radiation relative to (137)Cs γ rays, so the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether Wip1 abrogation could influence high-LET dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice. Intestinal tumor frequency and grade were assessed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) mice and results were compared to those in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice after exposure to a mean absorbed dose of 2 Gy from (137)Cs γ rays or 1.6 Gy from 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cellular differentiation and proliferation were also assessed in the intestinal tumors of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice. Decreased tumor frequency and lower tumor grade were observed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. Notably, a similar decrease (∼6-fold in both groups) in tumor number was observed in sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. However, tumorigenesis in the energetic iron-ion exposed group was reduced ∼8-fold in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. A significantly lower proliferation/differentiation index in tumors of iron-ion exposed APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice suggests that reduced proliferation and enhanced

  9. Wip1 abrogation decreases intestinal tumor frequency in APCMin/+ mice irrespective of radiation quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Thakor, Hemang; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Low linear energy transfer (low-LET) γ-ray exposure is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to high-LET nature, energetic iron ions are expected to pose greater CRC risks to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is important for cellular DNA damage response and its abrogation is reported to inhibit spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in APCMin/+ mice, a well-studied mouse model of human CRC. However, Wip1 in relation to radiation-induced especially energetic iron ions-induced intestinal tumorigenesis has not been investigated in APCMin/+ mice. While we earlier demonstrated greater intestinal tumorigenic potential of energetic iron ions relative to 137Cs γ rays, the purpose of the current study was to investigate if Wip1 abrogation could influence radiation quality dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in APCMin/+ mice. Intestinal tumor frequency and grade was assessed in APCMin/+;Wip1−/− mice and results were compared to those in APCMin/+;Wip1+/+ mice after exposure to a mean absorbed dose of 2 Gy from 137Cs γ rays or 1.6 Gy from 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cellular differentiation and proliferation were also assessed in the intestinal tumors of irradiated and sham irradiated mice. Decreased tumor frequency and lower tumor grade was observed in APCMin/+;Wip1−/− relative to APCMin/+;Wip1+/+ mice. Notably, similar decrease (~6 fold in both groups) in tumor number was observed in sham-, and γ-irradiated APCMin/+;Wip1−/− relative to APCMin/+;Wip1+/+ mice. However, tumorigenesis in energetic iron ions group was reduced ~8 fold in APCMin/+;Wip1−/− relative to APCMin/+;Wip1+/+ mice. Significantly lower proliferation/differentiation index in tumors of energetic iron ions exposed APCMin/+;Wip1−/− relative to APCMin/+;Wip1+/+ mice suggests reduced proliferation and enhanced differentiation as a result of Wip1 abrogation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates

  10. Acute Effects of Gamma Radiation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-04-01

    intestinal tracts of the first 20 ascending colon (fig. 20). Severe gastric ulcera - tion was prominent in those animals dying on "the 4th through the...the abnormal growth of the epithelial .. .,?.. cells, and hemorrhage resulted from the ulcera - tions. Conversely in the latter it appeared that...localized hemorrhage probably resulted in •• , • " ~ mucosal ulceration. " Microscopic findings "Gastrointestinal tract. The areas of ulcera - b tion in the

  11. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Small bowel; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: intestin grele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Pointreau, Y.; Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHRU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Roche-Forestier, S. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Barillot, I. [Universite Francois-Rabelais, centre de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France)

    2010-07-15

    The small bowel is a hollow organ involved in the transit and absorption of food. In relation to its anatomical location, a significant amount of this organ is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy during abdominal or pelvic irradiation either for primary cancers or metastasis. The acute functional changes during external beam radiation are mainly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. The main late side effects of irradiation of the small intestine are chronic diarrhea, malabsorption with steatorrhoea, abdominal spasms, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and fistulas. The architecture of the small intestine may be considered as parallel with a significant correlation between the irradiated volume of small bowel and the likelihood of acute toxicity, whatever the dose. The literature analysis recommends to consider the volume of small bowel receiving 15 Gy (threshold of 100 to 200 cm{sup 3}) but also 30 and 50 Gy (thresholds of 35 to 300 cm{sup 3}, depending on the level of dose considered). Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on small bowel toxicity. (authors)

  12. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure.

  13. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systematic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure. (Author)

  14. Medical Managment of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The Clinical Care of Victim. New York: Parthenon ; 2002. 8. Fliedner TM, Meineke V, Dainiak N, Gourmelon P, Akashi M, eds. Radi- ation-Induced Multi...Clinical Care of Victims. New York: Parthenon ; 2002: 217-24. 38. Peter RU. Management of skin injuries in radiation accidents: the cutaneous radiation... Parthenon ; 2002: 225-9. 39. Fliedner, TM, Friesecke, I, Beyrer K. Medical Management of Radiation Accidents: Manual on the Acute Radiation Syndrome

  15. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  16. Radiation, an ideal cytotoxic for the study of cell biology in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are highly polarised with the proliferative compartment sometimes subdivided into units of proliferation in many instances. My interests have been in trying to understand how many cellular constituents exist, what their function is and intercommunicants are that ensure appropriate steady state cell replacement rates. Radiation has proved to be a valuable tool to induce cell death, reproductive sterilisation, and regenerative proliferation in these systems, the responses to which can provide information on the number of regenerative cells (a function associated with stem cells). Such studies have helped define the epidermal proliferative units and the structurally similar units on the dorsal surface of the tongue. The radiation responses considered in conjunction with a wide range of cell kinetic lineage tracking and somatic mutation studies with complex mathematical modelling, provide insights into the functioning of the poliferative units (crypts) of the small intestine. Comparative studies have then been undertaken with the crypts in the large bowel. In the small intestine, which rarely develops cancer, various protective mechanisms have evolved to ensure the genetic integrity of the stem cell compartment. Stem cells in the small intestinal crypts have an intolerance of genotoxic damage (including that induced by very low doses of radiation), they do not undergo cell cycle arrest and repair but commit an altruistic p53 dependent cell suicide (apoptosis). This process is compromised in the large bowel by bcl-2 expression. Recent studies have suggested a second genome protection mechanism operating in the stem cells of the small intestinal crypts that may also have a p53 dependence. Such studies have allowed the cell lineages and genome protection mechanisms operating in the small intestinal crypts to be defined

  17. Experimental Justification of Enteral Lavage by Osmotically Active Solution in Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicated by Intraabdominal Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoyanychev E.E.; Ryabkov M.G.; Kudykin M.N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of intra-enteric pressure level on the mechanism causing decompensation of microcirculation defects in the wall of a small intestine and to assess the effectiveness of enteral lavage by hydroxyethyl amylum in case of an increased intra-enteric pressure in acute intestinal obstruction. Materials and Methods. The experiment was carried out on 54 laboratory animals. In I series of the experiment (36 non-pedigree dogs) the processes of microc...

  18. Oral contraceptive and acute intestinal ischemia with mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béliard A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aude Béliard,1 Lucie Verreth,2 Pascale Grandjean2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier du Bois de l’Abbaye (CHBA, Liege, Belgium; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier Régional (CHR Mons Hainaut, Mons, Belgium Background: Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive usage. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contraceptives, and in such cases diagnosis is often delayed.Case presentation: We report the case of a 38-year-old obese female patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. A bowel infection was first diagnosed and treated with antibiotics. Contrast-enhanced tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse ischemia of the small ­intestine with superior mesenteric thrombosis. Laparotomy with segmental resection of both small and large bowel was performed. No predisposing factor of mesenteric venous thrombosis was demonstrated except association of the combined contraceptive with obesity.Conclusion: This report highlights the need for clinicians to suspect venous mesenteric thrombosis in women of reproductive age with acute abdominal pain and poor physical ­findings. Detailed personal history including prescriptions should help to quickly and accurately ­determine the problem. Keywords: hormonal contraceptive, deep venous thrombosis, superior mesenteric vein, obesity, bowel infection

  19. Studies on the acute radiation syndrome following exposure to fast neutrons (6.2 MeV) and Co-60-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.

    1978-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome caused by gamma radiation doses of 600 - 1200 rads and fast neutron doses of 250 - 900 rads was studied by determining the survival rates of whole-body irradiated mice and by histological analysis of the surviving crypt stem cells of the small intestine. The results have shown that survival was more diminished by neutron treatment than by gamma irradiation but that in comparison to neutrons mortality caused by gamma irradiation was increased with increasing time after irradiation. Thus, the determined RBE values varied in the range 2.0 - 2.6, not only as a function of dose but also as a function of time after irradiation. When correlated to LD 50 , the values after gamma irradiation dropped from 1150 to 680 rads in the interval 5 - 100 days after irradiation, while after neutron irradiation the LD 50 decreased from 470 to 330 rads in the same interval. The highest RBE values were obtained for the radiation-induced mortality 5 days after irradiation, i.e., in comparison to gamma radiation neutrons have a stronger effect in the period characterized by the gastrointestinal syndrome. Histological studies of the crypt stem cells of the small intestine were carried out for analyzing the intestinal syndrome 3 - 4 days after irradiation. Depending on the dose the RBE derived from the effect of fast neutrons on the cellular survival rate corresponded to that determined for early mortality 5 - 10 days after irradiation. (author)

  20. Free Total Rhubarb Anthraquinones Protect Intestinal Injury via Regulation of the Intestinal Immune Response in a Rat Model of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Xiong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucosal immune barrier dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. Rhubarb is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine as a laxative in China. It markedly protects pancreatic acinar cells from trypsin-induced injury in rats. Free total rhubarb anthraquinones (FTRAs isolated and extracted from rhubarb display the beneficial effects of antibacteria, anti-inflammation, antivirus, and anticancer. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FTRAs on the protection of intestinal injury and modification of the intestinal barrier function through regulation of intestinal immune function in rats with SAP. We established a rat model of SAP by injecting 3.5% sodium taurocholate (STC, 350 mg/kg into the biliopancreatic duct via retrograde injection and treated the rats with FTRAs (36 or 72 mg/kg or normal saline (control immediately and 12 h after STC injection. Then, we evaluated the protective effect of FTRAs on intestinal injury by pathological analysis and determined the levels of endotoxin (ET, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, capillary permeability, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3 (NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC, casepase-1, secretary immunoglobulin A (SIgA, regulatory T cells (Tregs, and the ratio of Th1/Th2 in the blood and/or small intestinal tissues or mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells. Moreover, the chemical profile of FTRAs was analyzed by HPLC-UV chromatogram. The results showed that FTRAs significantly protected intestinal damage and decreased the levels of ET, IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO in the blood and TNF-α, IL-1β, and protein extravasation in the intestinal tissues in SAP rats. Furthermore, FTRAs significantly decreased the expressions of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, the number of Tregs and the ratio of Th1/Th2, while

  1. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth includes potential pathogens in the carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Prado, Julio; Eades, Susan C; Mirza, Mustajab H; Fugaro, Michael N; Häggblom, Max M; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-10-12

    Carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis are used to study the development of lameness. It is hypothesized that a diet-induced shift in cecal bacterial communities contributes to the development of the pro-inflammatory state that progresses to laminar failure. It is proposed that vasoactive amines, protease activators and endotoxin, all bacterial derived bioactive metabolites, play a role in disease development. Questions regarding the oral bioavailability of many of the bacterial derived bioactive metabolites remain. This study evaluates the possibility that a carbohydrate-induced overgrowth of potentially pathogenic cecal bacteria occurs and that bacterial translocation contributes toward the development of the pro-inflammatory state. Two groups of mixed-breed horses were used, those with laminitis induced by cornstarch (n=6) or oligofructan (n=6) and non-laminitic controls (n=8). Cecal fluid and tissue homogenates of extra-intestinal sites including the laminae were used to enumerate Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Horses that developed Obel grade2 lameness, revealed a significant overgrowth of potentially pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal bacteria within the cecal fluid. Although colonization of extra-intestinal sites with potentially pathogenic bacteria was not detected, results of this study indicate that cecal/colonic lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia develop in horses progressing to lameness. It is hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory state in carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis is driven by an immune response to the rapid overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cecal bacterial communities in the gut. Further equine research is indicated to study the immunological response, involving the lymphatic system that develops in the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  3. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjae Jung

    Full Text Available World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01. Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01. These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  4. Clinico-morphological characteristics of reparation of acute radiation ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, V.D.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Bardychev, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of reparative processes under the effect of various drugs was studied in experimental acute radiation ulcer of rats. It was established that at the stage of marked exudative-necrotic processes the use of antiinflammatory and antiexudative substances (bariz, dimethylsulfoxyde) led to normalization of the microcirculation that reduced the time of radiation ulcer healing. The use of anabolic steroids (retabolil) intensified metabolism that also produced a favourable effect on the reparative processes

  5. Comparison of in vivo murine intestinal radiation protection by E-prostaglandins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.R.; DeLaurentiis, K.

    1987-01-01

    The gastrointestinal cell renewal system is sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. Natural prostaglandins (PGs) and their analogs have been shown to protect intestinal clonogenic cells (stem cells) in vivo from radiation injury. To further investigate structure and activity relationship in PGs as radiation protectors, studies were done with four E-series PGs: E1, E2, 16,16-dimethyl (dm) PGE2, and 15-deoxy, 16-methyl, 16-hydroxy PGE1 (misoprostol). No protection was seen with PGE1 at doses ranging from 1-100 ug/mouse given from 15 min to 3 hrs before 15.0 Gy137Cs. In contrast, the other three E-series PGs increased intestinal clonogenic cell survival when given 15 min before irradiation. The optimum pre-irradiation time of PG administration was 1 hr for PGE2 and 16,16-dm PGE2 and 2 hrs for misoprostol. The degree of maximum radiation protection was markedly different among the four PGs. PGE2 increased survival to 200% of control values and 16,16-dm PGE2 increased survival to about 400% of controls. The greatest radioprotection was seen with misoprostol, which increased survival to 600% of control. These results suggest that molecular alterations in the side chains of PGs change the efficiency of PG-induced radiation protection. The highest protection to date has been observed with misoprostol. This important finding warrants clinical investigation in patients subjected to radiotherapy.

  6. Comparison of in vivo murine intestinal radiation protection by E-prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; DeLaurentiis, K.

    1987-01-01

    The gastrointestinal cell renewal system is sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. Natural prostaglandins (PGs) and their analogs have been shown to protect intestinal clonogenic cells (stem cells) in vivo from radiation injury. To further investigate structure and activity relationship in PGs as radiation protectors, studies were done with four E-series PGs: E1, E2, 16,16-dimethyl (dm) PGE2, and 15-deoxy, 16-methyl, 16-hydroxy PGE1 (misoprostol). No protection was seen with PGE1 at doses ranging from 1-100 ug/mouse given from 15 min to 3 hrs before 15.0 Gy137Cs. In contrast, the other three E-series PGs increased intestinal clonogenic cell survival when given 15 min before irradiation. The optimum pre-irradiation time of PG administration was 1 hr for PGE2 and 16,16-dm PGE2 and 2 hrs for misoprostol. The degree of maximum radiation protection was markedly different among the four PGs. PGE2 increased survival to 200% of control values and 16,16-dm PGE2 increased survival to about 400% of controls. The greatest radioprotection was seen with misoprostol, which increased survival to 600% of control. These results suggest that molecular alterations in the side chains of PGs change the efficiency of PG-induced radiation protection. The highest protection to date has been observed with misoprostol. This important finding warrants clinical investigation in patients subjected to radiotherapy

  7. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs

  9. Evaluation of demographic factors that influence acute radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, Daniela; Millage, Kyle

    2012-08-01

    Casualty estimation tools are critical in planning for nuclear event scenarios. Current consequence assessment models based on healthy adult males may not adequately represent the population. To develop an understanding of the impact of demographic variables on casualty estimates, human data was surveyed to identify key demographic factors that affect acute radiation response. Information on in utero exposures, gender, age, and comorbidity status was collected from atomic bomb survivors, radiation accidents, and clinical oncology. Burn and trauma studies were also examined to gain insight into the impact of demographic variables on acute injury outcomes. Fetal radiation sensitivity is well documented; increased mortality or malformations are observed depending on gestational age. A greater incidence of radiation syndrome was observed among male atomic bomb survivors. Trauma data show increased mortality in males, apparently due to immunological differences between genders. Limited data suggest vulnerability in the very young and old due to immunological status and comorbidities, respectively. Certain genetically susceptible subpopulations demonstrate marked increased sensitivity to radiation exposure. Interaction of radiation and comorbid conditions has not been well studied; however, burn and trauma data indicate that comorbidities negatively impact response to acute injury. Key factors evaluated together with their prevalence indicate the importance of modeling demographic variability in casualty estimations. Also they can help identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide insight on treatment requirements.

  10. Intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased COX-2 gene expression in the gut of elderly rats with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonça; da Silva, Fabiano Pinheiro; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César

    2016-01-01

    The clinical course of acute pancreatitis can vary from mild to severe. In its most severe manifestation, acute pancreatitis is associated with an exacerbated systemic inflammatory response and high mortality rates. The severe form of acute pancreatitis is more frequent in elderly patients than in young patients, but the mechanisms underlying this difference are still under investigation. Rats were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1, young rats; and Group 2, old rats. Acute pancreatitis group was induced by a retrograde injection of a sodium taurocholate solution into the biliopancreatic duct. Using this model of acute pancreatic injury, we designed a study to investigate possible differences in microbial translocation and characteristics of the intestinal barrier between elderly and young rats. There was a significantly higher number of bacterial colonies in the pancreas of elderly rats compared with young rats following pancreas injury, which was associated with a more severe local intestinal inflammatory response that included elevated gene expression of COX-2 and a decreased gene expression of tight junction proteins. We conclude that intestinal damage during acute pancreatitis is exacerbated in elderly rats compared with young rats and that COX-2 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic target to offer tailored treatment for acute pancreatitis in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective Effects of 5-Androstendiol (5-AED) on Radiation-induced Intestinal Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Lee, Seung Sook; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Sun Hoo; Kim, MinSook; Cho, Soo Youn [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We examined the radioprotective effects of 5-androstendiol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the reticularis of the adrenal cortex, as a result of intestinal damage in gamma-irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Thirty mice (C3H/HeN) were divided into three groups; 1) non-irradiated control group, 2) irradiated group, and 3) 5-AED-treated group prior to irradiation. Next, 5-AED (50 mg/kg per body weight) was subcutaneously injected 24 hours before irradiation. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 10 Gy for the histological examination of jejunal crypt survival and the determination of the villus morphology including crypt depth, crypt size, number of villi, villus height, and length of basal lamina, as well as 5 Gy for the detection of apoptosis. The 5-AED pre-treated group significantly increased the survival of the jejunal crypt, compared to irradiation controls (p<0.05 vs. irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 10 Gy). The evaluation of morphological changes revealed that the administration of 5-AED reduced the radiation-induced intestinal damages such as villus shortening and increased length of the basal lamina of enterocytes (p<0.05 vs irradiation controls on 3.5 day after 10 Gy, respectively). The administration of 5-AED decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt, with no significant difference between the vehicle and 5-AED at 12 hours after 5 Gy. The results of this study suggest that the administration of 5-AED has a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation. In turn, these results suggest that 5-AED could be a useful candidate for radioprotection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

  12. Appraisal of radio-protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia against radiation mediated biochemical alterations in intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    In the modern technology world, it is important to concern the possible adverse biological effects of radiation due to its widespread use in diverse fields such as medicine for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, research, industries and construction site. Radiation injuries to living cells to large extent is attributable to its interaction with biological systems which ultimately unleashes large scale destruction to several essential biological macromolecules like water, nucleic acids, proteins, cellular membrane etc., and cause their dysfunctions and damage. The protection of humans against the harmful effects of radiation is a major challenge that needs an urgent solution. Use of radioprotectors is one among the strategies designed in order to minimize the lethal consequences of radiation exposure to normal cells. Plant products appear to have advantages over the synthetic compounds in terms of low/no toxicity at the effective dose. Large numbers of medicinal and aromatic plants are present in the nature, which are considered as the natural source of antioxidants and used in various Ayurvedic formulations for the treatment of different diseases throughout the centuries. The present study is designed to assess the modulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE) against radiation-induced biochemical changes in intestine of Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation to serve as an experimental. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in intestinal proteins, cholesterol, glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase; whereas, TCE supplementation before irradiation showed a significant elevation in all these parameters. Furthermore, treatment with this plant extract caused a significant fall in the radiation induced lipid

  13. Effects of fractionated doses of ionizing radiation on small intestinal motor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterson, M.F.; Sarna, S.K.; Moulder, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The small intestinal motor effects of fractionated doses of ionizing radiation were studied in 6 conscious dogs. Eight strain-gauge transducers were implanted on the small intestine and a single gauge on the ascending colon, of each dog. After control recordings, an abdominal dose of 250 cGy was administered three times a week on alternate days for 3 successive weeks (total dose, 2250 cGy). Recordings were then made for 4 wk of follow-up. Giant migrating contractions occurred 11 times in 520 h of control recordings in the fasted and fed state, with a mean distance of origin of 55 +/- 16 cm from the ileocolonic junction. Abdominal field irradiation significantly increased the incidence and distance of origin of these giant contractions to 438 in 745 recording hours and 158 +/- 7 cm from the ileocolonic junction, respectively. The incidence of giant migrating contractions peaked after the second dose of radiation. The amplitude ratio of radiation-induced giant migrating contractions to phase III contractions, and their duration and velocity of migration, were similar to the control state. The dogs developed diarrhea and vomiting as early as the first fraction of radiation. Irradiation also increased the incidence of retrograde giant contractions from 8 in 520 h of control recording to 42 in 745 h of recording during the radiation schedule. The radiation-induced retrograde giant contractions peaked in incidence on the day of the first fraction of radiation and were more likely to be associated with a vomiting episode than those occurring in the control period. Migrating motor complex cycling persisted during radiation and its cycle length was not different from the control or postradiation values

  14. Consequences of PAI-1 specific deletion in endothelium on radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury to healthy tissues is a real public health problem, since they are one of the most limiting factors that restrict efficiency of radiation therapy. This problematic is also part of the French Cancer Plan 2014-2017, and involves clinical research. Concepts surrounding the development of radiation-induced damage have gradually evolved into a contemporary and integrated view of the pathogenesis, involving all compartments of target tissue. Among them, endothelium seems to be central in the sequence of interrelated events that lead to the development of radiation-induced damage, although there are rare concrete elements that support this concept. By using new transgenic mouse models, this PhD project provides a direct demonstration of an endothelium-dependent continuum in evolution of radiation-induced intestinal damage. Indeed, changes in the endothelial phenotype through targeted deletion of the gene SERPINE1, chosen because of its key role in the development of radiation enteritis, influences various parameters of the development of the disease. Thus, lack of PAI-1 secretion by endothelial cells significantly improves survival of the animals, and limits severity of early and late tissue damage after a localized small bowel irradiation. Furthermore, these mice partially KO for PAI-1 showed a decrease in the number of apoptotic intestinal stem cells in the hours following irradiation, a decrease in the macrophages infiltrate density one week after irradiation, and a change in the polarization of macrophages throughout the pathophysiological process. In an effort to protect healthy tissues from radiation therapy side effects, without hindering the cancer treatment, PAI-1 seems to be an obvious therapeutic target. Conceptually, this work represents the direct demonstration of the link between endothelium phenotype and radiation enteritis pathogenesis. (author)

  15. Clinical and experimental investigation on small intestinal injury following radiation therapy for carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Midori

    1977-01-01

    Radiation injury of the small bowel was observed in 6 of 460 patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix who were treated by radiation between April 1966 and December 1973 at Tokyo Women's Medical College, Department of Radiology. Three of these 6 patients were treated conservatively and the other 3 others underwent surgery but died subsequently. Clinically and surgically these 6 patients showed marked adhesions of intestinal loops, which may be accounted for by the radiation injury of the small bowel. Clinical experience has shown that it is necessary to use a small radiation field to decrease small bowel injury from radiation. An experiment using abdominal radiation in mice confirmed that LD sub(50/30) is larger with a center split, maintaining equal integral doses. In adult dogs, severe small bowel obstruction was observed with over 4000 rad irradiation. Small bowel injury was milder in case with center split, intracavitary irradiation, and small radiation field. It was concluded that center split is one of the methods of preventing radiation injury of the small bowel. (Evans, J.)

  16. Developing diagnostic guidelines for the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kindler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic guidelines seem to be promising for improving medical care. One aspect of a diagnostic guideline for the acute radiation syndrome has been tested against an extensive case history database. Subsequently, the guideline has been optimized for a small set of case histories. The improved performance has been proven by a test against the rest of the case history database

  17. Acute and long term health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects are threshold effects, meaning that the dose must exceed a certain threshold before one sees these effects. Less than the threshold dose results in no observable organ or whole body effect. The severity of the effects correlate directly with the amount of cell damage or cell death that has occurred. 15 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Acute enteritis or gastroenteritis in young dogs as a predisposing factor for intestinal intussusception: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, T S; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Prassinos, N N

    2000-10-01

    Various types of intestinal intussusception were diagnosed in 29 of 220 young dogs with acute enteritis or gastroenteritis, due to canine parvovirus (85 cases) or presumably to other infectious agents, inflammation or less common hypermotility and metabolic derangements (135 cases). As the other causes of the disease were excluded, acute enteritis or gastroenteritis was considered to be the most likely predisposing factor for the intestinal intussusception. The most common type of intussusception was found to be the ileocolic. Of the 21 dogs that underwent surgical resection and anastomosis of the intestine, 18 dogs recovered completely and three died due to complications. The high survival rate was due to the effective pre-operative, surgical and post-operative therapy.

  19. Acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in children at zinder national hospital, Niger: Aetiologies and prognosis

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    Harissou Adamou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To describe the aetiological and prognostic aspects of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction (AMIO in children at Zinder National Hospital (Niger. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on a period to January 2013–June 2015. The database included all children under 15 years of age with a surgical diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for analysis. Results: AMIOs represent 21.78% (n = 78 of child digestive surgical emergencies (n = 358. Median age was 12 months (range: 1 day–15 years. Fifteen (19.23% were neonates and sixty children (76.92% had ≤60 months. The sex ratio (male/female was 2.8. The mean time from onset to presentation was 39.96 ± 36.22 h. Intussusception and strangulated hernias were the main causes of AMIO with, respectively, 43.59% (n = 34 and 29.48% (n = 23. Anorectal malformations represent 17.95% (n = 14 of cases of AMIO. Intestinal resection was made in 22.08% and colostomy in 19.23% of patients. The average length of hospital stay was 6.44 ± 4.30 days. The post-operative complications were recorded in 26 patients (33.33%, mostly surgical site infections. Overall mortality of AMIO was 15.38% (n = 12. It was higher in the neonates (33.33% (P = 0.032. Deaths were associated with delay of admission (P = 0.0005 and waiting time for surgery (P = 0.019. Conclusion: Intussusception and strangulated hernia are the most common cause of AMIO in children. Diagnostic and therapeutic delays, lack of paediatric intensive care and post-operative complications are prognostic factors.

  20. D-xylose test of resorption as a method to determine radiation side effects in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koest, S.; Keinert, K.; Glaser, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The D-xylose test is the most important method to determine a disorder of carbohydrates resorption in proximal small intestine. The application is based on an impaired resorption due to pathological change of small intestine surface, leading to a decreased blood level or decreased excretion in urine. Patients and Method: D-xylose test was applied in 91 patients before, shortly after, 1/2 and 1 year after radiotherapy. All patients received an abdominal radiotherapy. We determined the blood level of D-xylose by a capillary blood sample 1 hour after oral D-xylose administration. Results: A significant decrease of the mean blood level of D-xylose to 1.88 mmol/l was determined after radiotherapy in comparison with 2.17 mmol/l before radiotherapy. Half a year after radiotherapy the mean blood level of D-xylose returned to normal. Regarding a threshold value of D-xylose blood level of 1.70 mmol/l 29 patients (32%) showed a pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption after radiotherapy. Twenty out of the 29 patients already showed a normal resorption half a year after the determination of the resorption disorder, 5 patients after 1 year and 4 patients after 1 1/2 years. There was no correlation between the detection of a disorder of D-xylose resorption and of a loss of body weight. The acute clinical side effects seemed to be more marked in connection with a disorder of D-xylose resorption, but this correlation is not significant. Eleven or 14 of the 29 patients, respectively, with pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption only had complaints of lower or upper gastrointestinal tract, respectively, and 10 patients did not have abdominal complaints at all. Conclusions: The D-xylose test is an important and simple method for determination of radiogen induced carbohydrate malabsorption in proximal small intestine. By means of its radiation side effects on small intestine can also be determined in patients who are otherwise free of complaints. (orig.) [de

  1. Lethal pneumatosis coli in a 12-month-old child caused by acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial nutrition: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kircher Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pneumatosis coli is a rare disease with heterogeneous symptoms which can be detected in the course of various acute and chronic intestinal diseases in children, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal obstruction and intestinal bacteriological infections. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-month-old boy who died of pneumatosis coli caused by an acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial alimentation. Conclusion While intestinal gas gangrene is a highly uncommon cause of pneumatosis coli, it is important to consider it as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients receiving a prolonged artificial food supply. These patients may develop intestinal gas gangrene due to a dysfunctional intestinal barrier.

  2. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  3. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  4. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  5. [Volvulus of the small intestine as a cause of primary acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaearai, H; Achtari, C; Suter, M

    1994-12-01

    As a cause of small intestine occlusion, volvulus is often a consequence of a band or adhesions. Except in infants, it is rarely the primary cause of symptomatology. Between January 1976 and December 1992, 13 patients (7 women and 6 men, mean age of 56.8 years) were admitted in our department for an acute abdomen due to a spontaneous primary volvulus of the small bowel. Clinical examination and laboratory tests did not help in preoperative diagnosis. All patients underwent an explorative laparotomy. Six patients had had prior abdominal surgery but none of them presented adhesion or band. In 8 patients (62%), detorsion was sufficient. Resection of a segment of small bowel was necessary in 4 patients. Gangrenous of the entire bowel was observed in one patient who rapidly died. Two patients presented minor complications. One patient with Down syndrome died of bronchoaspiration. One patient has been reoperated on one year later for recurrence of the volvulus, and underwent a Noble procedure. We conclude that volvulus of the small bowel is a rare cause of acute abdomen that must be remembered. Early surgery is mandatory to reduce the risk of gangrene, which is known to double the mortality. Laparoscopy will be helpful in early diagnosis and therapy.

  6. [Non-Hodgkin's primary intestinal lymphoma - a cause of acute abdominal manifestation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, O; Dumanov, K; Stoilov, S; Doĭnova, P; Drebov, R; Khristozova, I

    2007-01-01

    Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract are the most common type of primary extranodal lymphomas, accounting for 5 to 10% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). From January 1996 to November 2005, 10 patients with primary intestinal lymphomas were submitted with clinical signs of acute abdomen to the Pediatric surgical department in Sofia. The children presented with radiologically proven intussusception, ileal obstruction or peritonitis due to bowel perforation. At exploration the tumor was located in the ileum in 4 cases, in the terminal ileum and coecum in 3 cases, appendix in one and multiple sites were found in 2 cases. Children with localized disease underwent radical resection of the tumor mass with ileo - transverso anastomosis (3), partial bowel resection (4), and appendectomy (1) whereas in 2 children with advanced disease diagnostic biopsy alone with temporary ileostomy in one were accomplished. According to histology, 5 patients had Burkitt lymphoma and 5 lymphoblast NHL. The children were treated according CHOP. Over five - years relapse - free survival for localized disease accounts 6 children. Primary NHL in children often presents with acute abdominal condition requiring surgical exploration. Prognosis depends of adequacy of surgical resection and the adjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. Hematological observations on two cases of acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Huang Shimin

    1990-01-01

    The hematological changes of two cases of acute radiation syndrome were observed. The physical doses of patients Liang and Yan were 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy respectively. According to the changes in WBC and platelet counts and the absolute count of lymphocytes and in comparison with the hematological data of the victims of Y-12 accident in USA in 1958 and those of previous accidents in China, Liang suffered from a moderate or moderate to severe degree, and Yan suffered from a moderate or moderate mild degree of hemopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. This estimation was consistent with their clinical course and physical doses. Some blood cells appeared in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in bone marrow smears of those two cases. The mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed and its clinical significance remains to be studied

  8. Immunotherapy of acute radiation syndromes with antiradiation gamma G globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: If an immunotherapy treatment approach to treatment of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed; consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants- SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of antiradiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-indeced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic and enterotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties that combined with the direct physiochemical direct radiation damage, induce the development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and observed that their toxic properties were neutralized by specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: Rabbits were inoculated with SRD radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum. The hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyperimmune serum revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radiation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate at 30 days, whereas all control animals expired by 30 days following exposure. These inoculated animals also exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of ARS, even those that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments demonstrate that rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against SRD toxins afford significant, albeit

  9. Effects of the ionising radiations on the structure and the function of the intestinal epithelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haton, C.

    2005-06-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly radio-sensitive tissue and damage may occur following either accidental or therapeutic exposure. the deleterious actions of ionizing radiation are linked to the formation of sometimes overwhelming quantities of reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). Production of R.O.S. is both direct and indirect from the secondary effects of irradiation. A better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of injury will lead to more adapted therapeutic approaches to limit the harmful effects of irradiation. The homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium is regulated by three factors: proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. these three factors were studied using the cell model, HT29, in order to analyze modulations of this balance after irradiation. our results, in agreement with other data, showed the establishment of mitotic delay. This arrest of proliferation was followed by apoptosis to be the major mechanism leading to cell death in this model. thus, for the first time, we have shown that irradiated intestinal epithelial cells preserve their capacity to differentiate. This indicates, although indirectly, that intestinal cells have and preserve an intrinsic capacity restore a functional epithelium. R.O.S. are considered as intermediates between the physical nature of radiations and biological responses. It seems essential to understand anti-oxidant mechanisms used by the cell for defence against the deleterious effects of R.O.S post exposure. This study of several anti-oxidant defence mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, was carried out in vivo in the mouse at different times following abdominal irradiation. We observed an early mitochondrial response in the hours following irradiation revealing this organelle as a particular target. We demonstrated a strong alteration of anti-oxidant capacity as revealed by a decrease in S.O.D.s, catalase and an increase of the G.P.X.s and M.T.s. A part of these modifications appeared to depend on an

  10. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  11. Transcriptional corepressor MTG16 regulates small intestinal crypt proliferation and crypt regeneration after radiation-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Shenika V; Reddy, Vishruth K; Mittal, Mukul K; Williams, Amanda M; Washington, M Kay; Harris, Elizabeth; Mah, Amanda; Hiebert, Scott W; Singh, Kshipra; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T; Lund, P Kay; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors implicated in development, malignancy, differentiation, and stem cell function. While MTG16 loss renders mice sensitive to chemical colitis, the role of MTG16 in the small intestine is unknown. Histological examination revealed that Mtg16(-/-) mice have increased enterocyte proliferation and goblet cell deficiency. After exposure to radiation, Mtg16(-/-) mice exhibited increased crypt viability and decreased apoptosis compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Flow cytometric and immunofluorescence analysis of intestinal epithelial cells for phospho-histone H2A.X also indicated decreased DNA damage and apoptosis in Mtg16(-/-) intestines. To determine if Mtg16 deletion affected epithelial cells in a cell-autonomous fashion, intestinal crypts were isolated from Mtg16(-/-) mice. Mtg16(-/-) and WT intestinal crypts showed similar enterosphere forming efficiencies when cultured in the presence of EGF, Noggin, and R-spondin. However, when Mtg16(-/-) crypts were cultured in the presence of Wnt3a, they demonstrated higher enterosphere forming efficiencies and delayed progression to mature enteroids. Mtg16(-/-) intestinal crypts isolated from irradiated mice exhibited increased survival compared with WT intestinal crypts. Interestingly, Mtg16 expression was reduced in a stem cell-enriched population at the time of crypt regeneration. This is consistent with MTG16 negatively regulating regeneration in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MTG16 loss promotes radioresistance and impacts intestinal stem cell function, possibly due to shifting cellular response away from DNA damage-induced apoptosis and towards DNA repair after injury.

  12. Multidisciplinary stepwise management strategy for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis: an intestinal stroke center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuofei; Fan, Xinxin; Ding, Weiwei; Liu, Baochen; Meng, Jiaxiang; Xu, Dandan; He, Changsheng; Yu, Wenkui; Wu, Xingjiang; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) is an uncommon but catastrophic abdominal vascular emergency with high rate of intestinal failure and mortality. The retrospective pilot study was performed to assess the effect of a multidisciplinary stepwise management strategy on survival and mesenteric recanalization in an integrated intestinal stroke center (ISC). A modern management strategy performed by multidisciplinary specialists in ISC was evaluated among 43 ASMVT patients that were classified into central vs peripheral type, operative vs nonoperative, early vs late treated group from March 2009 to April 2013. Patients received specific medical therapy, endovascular treatment, damage-control surgery, selective second-look laparotomy, critical care management, and clinical nutrition support in a stepwise way. The demographics, etiology, imaging characteristics, treatment procedures, complications, clinical outcome, and 1-year follow-up data were analyzed and compared. Confounding factors of mortality were identified by univariate and ROC-curve analysis. A single-center experience of over 5years for this modern strategy was also reported. The protocol of multidisciplinary stepwise management strategy was followed in all ASMVT patients successfully. The 30-day mortality and recanalization rate were 11.63% and 90.70%. Initial damage-control surgery was carried out in 46.51% patients, with selective second-look laparotomy in 23.26% patients. Endovascular thrombolysis was performed in 83.72% patients initially or postoperatively. Bowel resection was necessary in 18 patients with the length of 100.00 (47.50, 222.50) cm. The incidence of short-bowel syndrome was 13.95%. The rate and length of bowel resection, short-bowel syndrome rate were significantly lower in nonoperative and early-treated groups (Pthrombosis. A multidisciplinary stepwise management strategy involving modern surgical and endovascular treatments that focus on early mesenteric recanalization

  13. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  14. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  15. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  16. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  17. THE RATIONALE FOR ALPHA-INTERFERON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN INFANTS WITH FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AND ACUTE INVASIVE INTESTINAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intestinal  infections  in children are a considerable  medical and social problem  worldwide. Immune therapy  could  help  to reduce the frequency of post-infectious functional intestinal dysfunction  in patients  with comorbidities. Aim: To evaluate  the  efficacy of human  recombinant interferon  alpha-2b, administered at acute  phase  of an acute  invasive intestinal  infection to infants in the first months  of age, suffering from functional  bowel  disorders. Materials and methods: This  was  an  open-label,  randomized (envelope method, prospective  study in two parallel groups. The study included  59 infants of the  first months  of life, who were breastfed, had a history of intestinal  dysfunction  and were hospitalized  to  an  infectious  department. We studied  efficacy of recombinant interferon  alpha-2b administered in rectal suppositories  at a dose  of   chromatography with measurement of short-chain fatty acids. Results: Standard treatment was ineffective in 63.3% (95% CI 43.9–80.0% of patients. Administration   of  interferon   alpha-2b   reduced the rate of treatment failure by day 14 to 32% (95% CI 9–56% and  the  risk of persistent  diarrhea  for more than  one month  to 29% (95% CI 5–53%. In those patients  who were administered interferon, inflammation at days 25 to 55 was less severe and the levels of i-forms of short-chain fatty acids were lower. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with recombinant interferon alpha-2b seems to be a promising way to improve  combination treatment of acute invasive intestinal infections in infants with a history of intestinal dysfunction, as it reduces the risk of post-infectious intestinal disorders.

  18. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) on intestinal microflora, translocation, and mortality was studied in mice treated with 7.0 Gy radiation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, selected by in vitro and in vivo methods, increased survival parameters of the mice...

  19. CORRECTION OF LARGE INTESTINE DYSBIOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE HEPATITIS B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar, А.I.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Viral hepatitis is one of the global challenges for modern medicine. Among them, hepatitis B (GB remains one of the most widespread viral diseases of the present day. According to the WHO estimates, more than 1/3 of the world's population (2 billion people has serological evidence of current or transmitted HBV infection, of which 350 million are chronically infected. Separate studies have identified the state of the colon biocenosis in patients with acute hepatitis and found that dysbiotic lesions of varying degrees are found in patients with viral hepatitis in 73.3% - 96% of cases [6-8]. Disturbances of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the microflora reduce the detoxification function of the intestine and increase the toxic load on the liver, which, in turn, negatively affects the development of the basic pathological process. The aim of the work was to determine the degree of dysbiotic changes in the microflora of the large intestine and to evaluate the effectiveness of their correction with a symbiotic drug in patients with acute hepatitis B. Materials and methods. To perform the task, 108 patients with acute hepatitis B, aged 18-69 being on hospital treatment at Kharkiv Regional Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, have been examined. The diagnosis has been set on the basis of clinical anamnestic, epidemiological, laboratory and instrumental data. The etiological verification of the diagnosis has been performed by detecting specific serological markers of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgM, by the ELISA method. The diagnosis of GHB and its clinical and pathogenetic variants of the course, form and degree of severity have been determined according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Security Problems Health (ICD-10, version 2006. According to the purpose of study the patients have been divided into groups as follows: group A - the main one, where patients have

  20. Effect of prior hyperthermia on subsequent thermal enhancement of radiation damage in mouse intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marigold, J.C.L.; Hume, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    Hyperthermia given in conjunction with X-rays results in a greater level of radiation injury than following X-rays alone, giving a thermal enhancement ratio (TER). The effect of prior hyperthermia ('priming') on TER was studied in the small intestine of mouse by giving 42.0 deg C for 1 hour at various times before the combined heat and X-ray treatments. Radiation damage was assessed by measuring crypt survival 4 days after radiation. TER was reduced when 'priming' hyperthermia was given 24-48 hours before the combined treatments. The reduction in effectiveness of the second heat treatment corresponded to a reduction in hyperthermal temperature of approximately 0.5 deg C, a value similar to that previously reported for induced resistance to heat given alone ('thermotolerance') (Hume and Marigold 1980). However, the time courses for development and decay of the TER response were much longer than those for 'thermotolerance', suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in thermal damage following heat alone and thermal enhancement of radiation damage

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  2. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  3. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Immunoprophylaxis by Antiradiation Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: Traditionally, the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) includes supportive therapy, cytokine therapy, blood component transfusions and even stem cell transplantation. Recommendations for ARS treatment are based on clinical symptoms, laboratory results, radiation exposure doses and information received from medical examinations. However, the current medical management of ARS does not include immune prophylaxis based on antiradiation vaccines or immune therapy with hyperimmune antiradiation serum. Immuneprophylaxis of ARS could result from stimulating the immune system via immunization with small doses of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) that possess significant immuno-stimulatory properties. Methods: Principles of immuno-toxicology were used to derive this method of immune prophylaxis. An antiradiation vaccine containing a mixture of Hematotoxic, Neurotoxic and Non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, underwent modification into a toxoid forms of the original SRD radiation toxins. The vaccine was administered to animals at different times prior to irradiation. The animals were subjected to lethal doses of radiation that induced different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. Survival rates and clinical symptoms were observed in both control and vaccine-treated animals. Results: Vaccination with non-toxic doses of Radiation toxoids induced immunity from the elaborated Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD) toxins. Neutralization of radiation toxins by specific antiradiation antibodies resulted in significantly improved clinical symptoms in the severe forms of ARS and observed survival rates of 60-80% in animals subjected to lethal doses of radiation expected to induce different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. The most effective vaccination schedule for the antiradiation vaccine consisted of repeated injections 24 and 34 days before irradiation. The vaccine remained effective for the next two years, although the specific immune memory probably

  4. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri and metabolites of intestinal bacteria as therapeutic agents in acute diarrhea in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tláskal, P.; Kokešová, A.; Schramlová, J.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Adamus, J.; Bubáková, D.; Kočnarová, N.; Kopecký, J.; Mucková, M.; Pacovská, J.; Sládková, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2007), s. 67-74 ISSN 1555-1431 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 00000064203/6041; CZ(CZ) 00064203/6309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : acute diarrhea * metabolites of intestinal bacteria * probiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Effect of early enteral nutrition (EN) on endotoxin in serum and intestinal permeability in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Q-X; Xu, G-X; Shen, M-H

    2017-06-01

    This work aimed at studying the effect of early enteral nutrition (EN) on serum endotoxin and intestinal permeability in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. 70 cases of patients with severe acute pancreatitis were cured in our hospital from April 2015 to January 2016. Patients selected were randomly divided into two groups including a group of patients having parenteral nutrition (group PN) and that had enteral nutrition (group EN). The results were assessed by: 1) the differences of serum endotoxin level; 2) the differences of the lactulose/mannitol ratio of urine, before intervention and one and two weeks after the intervention. Before the intervention, both groups had similar levels of serum endotoxin and the same lactulose/mannitol excretion rate of urine (p>0.05). One and two weeks after the intervention, the serum endotoxin level and the lactulose/mannitol excretion rate of urine of the group PN were significantly higher than the group EN (pEN has a bigger effect on serum endotoxin and intestinal permeability in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. EN can better promote the elimination of serum endotoxin and reduce intestinal permeability. Therefore, EN deserves clinical expansion.

  7. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51 Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51 Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  8. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  9. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  10. The role of radiation therapy in childhood acute leukemia. A review from the viewpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Miwako

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been playing important roles in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia since the 1970s. The first is the preventive cranial irradiation for central nervous system therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The second is the total body irradiation as conditioning before bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission and with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. Although some late effects have been reported, a part of them could be overcome by technical improvement in radiation and salvage therapy. Radiation therapy for children might have a successful outcome on a delicate balance between efficiencies and potential late toxicities. The role of radiation therapy for childhood acute leukemia was reviewed from the standpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology in this paper. (author)

  11. Low and high dose rate heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC 1638N/+ ) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation. The purpose of the current study was to compare intestinal tumorigenesis in APC 1638N/+ mice after exposure to energetic heavy ions at high (50cGy/min) and relatively low (0.33cGy/min) dose rate. Male and female mice (6-8 weeks old) were exposed to either 10 or 50cGy of 28 Si (energy: 300MeV/n; LET: 70keV/μm) or 56 Fe (energy: 1000MeV/n; LET: 148keV/μm) ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Mice (n=20 mice/group) were euthanized and intestinal and colon tumor frequency and size were counted 150days after radiation exposure. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice exposed to 56 Fe was similar for high and low dose rate exposures. Although male mice showed a decreasing trend at low dose rate relative to high dose rate exposures, the differences in tumor frequency between the two types of exposures were not statistically significant after 28 Si radiation. In female mice, intestinal tumor frequency was similar for both radiation type and dose rates tested. In both male and female mice intestinal tumor size was not different after high and low dose rate radiation exposures. Colon tumor frequency in male and female mice after high and low dose rate energetic heavy ions was also not significantly different. In conclusion, intestinal and colonic tumor

  12. Role of vitamin A in modulating the radiation-induced changes in intestinal disccharidases of rats exposed to multifractional gamma-radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, A.A. (Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo Univ. (Egypt)); Hassan, S.H.M. (Dept. of Drug Radiation Research, National Center of Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

    1994-08-01

    Rats were subjected to fractionated whole-body irradiation (20x0.5 Gy). Intestinal lactase activity as well as maltase and sucrase activities were assessed. Vitamin A was administered at daily intraperitoneal dose of 15 000 IU/kg body weight for 7 days prior to radiotherapy and thereafter twice weekly throughout therapy up to 7 days post irradiation. In irradiated rats a marked decrease in intestinal lactase activity of about one-fourth of those in nonirradiated rats was observed. In addition, a significant reduction in maltase and sucrase activities of one half of the control group was observed. The application of vitamin A significantly improved the radiation-induced inhibition of intestinal enzymes. Pretreatment application of vitamin A is more efficient to protect against radiation injury than a posttreatment application. (orig./MG)

  13. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  14. Long-term outcome after extensive intestinal resection for chronic radiation enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Aurelien; Joly, Francisca; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Corcos, Olivier; Bretagnol, Frederic; Bouhnik, Yoram; Panis, Yves; Messing, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Management of chronic radiation enteritis is often controversial, particularly due to the risk of short bowel syndrome. One hundred and seven chronic radiation enteritis patients with short bowel syndrome were studied retrospectively between 1980 and 2009. Survival and home parenteral nutrition dependence rates were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analysis. The survival probabilities were 93%, 67% and 44.5% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, survival was significantly decreased with residual neoplastic disease (HR=0.21 [0.11-0.38], p3 (HR=0.38 [0.20-0.73], p=0.004) and an age of chronic radiation enteritis diagnosis >60 years (HR=0.45 [0.22-0.89], p=0.02). The actuarial home parenteral nutrition dependence probabilities were 66%, 55% and 43% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, this dependence was significantly decreased when there was a residual small bowel length >100 cm (HR=0.35 [0.18-0.68], p=0.002), adaptive hyperphagia (HR=0.39 [0.17-0.87], p=0.02) and the absence of a definitive stoma (HR=0.48 [0.27-0.84], p=0.01). The survival of patients with diffuse chronic radiation enteritis after extensive intestinal resection was good and was mainly influenced by underlying comorbidities. Almost two-thirds of patients were able to be weaned off home parenteral nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  16. [Changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y X; Yu, L; Liu, H J; Cheng, M L

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure and identify characteristic bacteria, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acute liver failure with intestinal microbiota disorders. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were used in this study, including 25 mice in the model group and 5 mice in the control group. An acute liver failure model was induced by D-galactosamine. Microbial DNA was extracted from intestinal contents in different segments of the lower digestive tract (ileum and colon) and feces and then were amplified using PCR. The regions of 16S V3-V4 were subjected to high-throughput sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analyses, including OTU hierarchical clustering, species annotation, alpha-diversity analysis, and LEfSe (LDA Effect Size) analysis. Comparison of continuous data was made using t-test, while comparison of categorical data was made using χ2 test. Results: A total of 10 mice survived in the two groups, with 80% mortality rate in the model group. The alpha-diversity analysis revealed increased bacterial diversity and abundance in the ileum, increased bacterial diversity and reduced bacterial abundance in the colon, and reduced bacterial diversity and insignificantly changed bacterial abundance in feces in the model group compared with the control group. Based on the optimized classification level, significantly reduced abundance of Clostridiaceae (44.95% ± 19.28% vs 7.51% ± 16.57%, P = 0.011) in the ileum, whereas significantly increased abundance of Rikenellaceae (1.08% ± 1.01% vs 4.18% ± 2.39%, P = 0.028), S24-7 (4.75% ± 4.87% vs 22.77% ± 13.05%, P = 0.020), and F16 (0.24% ± 0.28% vs 2.18% ± 1.61%, P = 0.029) in the colon were found in model group compared with the control group. The LEfSe analysis demonstrated that there were significant differences in Staphylococcaceae and S24-7 between the two groups, and S24

  17. Synergistic effect of aluminum and ionizing radiation upon ultrastructure, oxidative stress and apoptotic alterations in Paneth cells of rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahawy, N A; Elsonbaty, S M; Abunour, S; Zahran, W E

    2017-03-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to aluminum along with ionizing radiation results in serious health problems. This study was planned to investigate the impact of oxidative stress provoked by exposure to ionizing radiation with aluminum administration upon cellular ultra structure and apoptotic changes in Paneth cells of rat small intestine . Animals received daily aluminum chloride by gastric gavage at a dose 0.5 mg/Kg BW for 4 weeks. Whole body gamma irradiation was applied at a dose 2 Gy/week up to 8 Gy. Ileum malondialdehyde, advanced oxidative protein products, protein carbonyl and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and inflammation respectively along with superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities as enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, analyses of cell cycle division and apoptotic changes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intestinal cellular ultra structure was investigated using transmission electron microscope.Oxidative and inflammatory stresses assessment in the ileum of rats revealed that aluminum and ionizing radiation exposures exhibited a significant effect upon the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers along with the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor-α accompanied by a significant decreases in the antioxidant enzyme activities. Flow cytometric analyses showed significant alterations in the percentage of cells during cell cycle division phases along with significant increase in apoptotic cells. Ultra structurally, intestinal cellular alterations with marked injury in Paneth cells at the sites of bacterial translocation in the crypt of lumens were recorded. The results of this study have clearly showed that aluminum and ionizing radiation exposures induced apoptosis with oxidative and inflammatory disturbance in the Paneth cells of rat intestine, which appeared to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cellular damage. Furthermore, the

  18. Acute heat stress impairs performance parameters and induces mild intestinal enteritis in broiler chickens: role of acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Rodrigues, M V; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2012-06-01

    Studies on the environmental consequences of stress are relevant for economic and animal welfare reasons. We recently reported that long-term heat stressors (31 ± 1°C and 36 ± 1°C for 10 h/d) applied to broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from d 35 to 42 of life increased serum corticosterone concentrations, decreased performance variables and the macrophage oxidative burst, and produced mild, multifocal acute enteritis. Being cognizant of the relevance of acute heat stress on tropical and subtropical poultry production, we designed the current experiment to analyze, from a neuroimmune perspective, the effects of an acute heat stress (31 ± 1°C for 10 h on d 35 of life) on serum corticosterone, performance variables, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity in chickens. We demonstrated that the acute heat stress increased serum corticosterone concentrations and mortality and decreased food intake, BW gain, and feed conversion (P 0.05). Increases in the basal and the Staphylococcus aureus-induced macrophage oxidative bursts and a decrease in the percentage of macrophages performing phagocytosis were also observed. Finally, mild, multifocal acute enteritis, characterized by the increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the lamina propria of the jejunum, was also observed. We found that the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was responsible for the negative effects observed on chicken performance and immune function as well as for the changes in the intestinal mucosa. The data presented here corroborate with those presented in other studies in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  19. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...subsyndromes: hematopoietic, gastrointestinal (or GI), and cardiovascular/CNS syndrome. The range for hematopoietic syndrome is considered to be 1-6 Gy, roughly

  20. Role of p53 in Anticancer Drug Treatment- and Radiation-Induced Injury in Normal Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shi

    2012-01-01

    In the human gastrointestinal tract, the functional mucosa of the small intestine has the highest capacity for absorption of nutrients and rapid proliferation rates, making it vulnerable to chemoradiotherapy. Recent understanding of the protective role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in the small intestinal mucosa has led researchers to explore new avenues to mitigate mucosal injury during cancer treatment. A traditional p53 inhibitor and two other molecules that exhibit strong protective effects on normal small intestinal epithelium during anticancer drug treatment and radiation therapy are introduced in this work. The objective of this review was to update current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms and targets that inhibit the side effects induced by chemoradiotherapy

  1. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  2. Acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients in Japan. Study of 31 cases at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminuma, Takuya; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Hanyu, Nahoko

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients has increased in Japan. HIV-positive patients are at a higher risk of cancer than the general population. This paper retrospectively reports the acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients who were treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious diseases Center Komagome Hospital (TMCICK). Thirty-one cases involving 24 HIV-positive cancer patients who were treated at TMCICK from January 1997 to March 2009 were included in this study. All acute adverse effects of radiation therapy were examined during, and one month after, the last radiation therapy session. Acute adverse effects were classified according to the site of radiation therapy treatment and analyzed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. Grade 3 acute adverse effects were seen in 17% of cases, and Grade 2 toxicities were found in 23% of patients. Damage to the skin and mucosa, including stomatitis or diarrhea, tended to occur after low-dose radiation therapy; however, no severe acute adverse effects were seen in other organs, such as the brain, lung, and bone. Acute adverse effects tended to occur earlier in HIV-positive patients and became severe more frequently than in the general population. In particular, disorders of the mucosa, such as those of the oral cavity, pharynx, and intestine, tended to occur rapidly. It was shown that radiation therapy is safe when treatment is performed carefully and that it is a very useful treatment for cancer in HIV-positive patients. (author)

  3. Characterization and pharmacological modulation of intestinal inflammation induced by ionizing radiation; Caracterisation et modulation pharmacologique de l'inflammation intestinale induite par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremy, O

    2006-12-15

    The use of radiation therapy to treat abdominal and pelvic malignancies inevitably involves exposure of healthy intestinal tissues which are very radiosensitive. As a result, most patients experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Such symptoms are associated with acute damage to intestine mucosa including radio-induced inflammatory processes. With a rat model of colorectal fractionated radiation, we have shown a gradual development of a colonic inflammation during radiation planning, without evident tissue injury. This radio-induced inflammation is characterized not only by the sur expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a NF-kB activation, but also by a repression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear receptors PPARa and RXRa, both involved in inflammation control. This early inflammation is associated with a discreet neutrophil recruitment and a macrophage accumulation. Macrophages are still abnormally numerous in tissue 27 weeks after the last day of irradiation. Inflammatory process is the most often related to a specific immune profile, either a type Th1 leading to a cellular immune response, or a type Th2 for humoral immunity. According to our studies, a unique abdominal radiation in the rat induces an ileum inflammation and an immune imbalance resulting in a Th2-type profile. Inhibiting this profile is important as its persistence promotes chronic inflammation, predisposition to bacterial infections and fibrosis which is the main delayed side-effect of radiotherapy. The treatment of rats with an immuno-modulator compound, the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (C.A.P.E.), have the potential to both reduce ileal mucosal inflammation and inhibit the radio-induced Th2 status. In order to search new therapeutic molecular target, we has been interested in the PPARg nuclear receptor involved in the maintenance of colon mucosal integrity. In our abdominal irradiation model, we have demonstrated that the prophylactic

  4. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Silver, A.R.J.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  5. Mesenteric cyst(s presenting as acute intestinal obstruction in children: Three cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Makhija

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Presentation of mesenteric cyst as acute obstruction in paediatric age group is rare and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The larger cysts are more likely to have an acute presentation.

  6. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1990-07-01

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author) [pt

  7. JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL PROBIOTIC THERAPY OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL AND CHRONIC DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the comparative efficacy of probiotics with different composition of strains in the complex treatment of acute intestinal infection in 89 children with functional disorders and chronic gastrointestinal tract. Conducted a dynamic study of the intestinal microflora bacteriological method and gas-liquid chromatography with the definition of short-chain fatty acid content of the level of carbohydrates in the feces and stool data. Set different dates for stopping diarrhea and features state of the intestinal ecosystem indicators after treatment in patients receiving comprehensive probiotic containing bifidobacteria and enterococcus, or probiotic containing lactobacillus. 

  8. Intestinal Radiation-Induced Stricture Favours Small Bowel Obstruction by Phytobezoar: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Quercioli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars represent the fifth most frequent cause of acute small bowel obstruction. Phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar. It is a concretion of undigestible fibers derived from ingested vegetables and fruits. We report a case of a woman with a 1-year history of recurrent epigastric and periumbilical abdominal pain with intermittent vomiting caused by phytobezoar of the terminal ileum. After careful investigation of the case and review of literature, we identified the factor involved in bezoar formation as radiation-induced ileal stenosis due to previous treatment for a pelvic tumour. This report provides evidence to consider phytobezoar as a possible cause of small bowel obstruction in patients previously treated with abdominal radiotherapy.

  9. Effect of alanyl glutamine on the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Guo Ma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application value of alanyl glutamine in improving the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction. Methods: A total of 97 elderly patients with intestinal obstruction who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group (n=49 and the control group (n=48. The patients in the control group were given total parenteral nutrition (TPN treatment. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given intravenous injection of alanyl glutamine for 1 week. The plasma prealbumin, albumin, serum related cytokines, L/M, and DAO before and after treatment in the two groups were detected. The serum immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. Results: The plasma prealbumin and albumin levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the serum CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. When compared with before treatment, L/M and plasma DAO level after treatment in the control group were significantly elevated, while those in the observation group were significantly reduced, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant. The serum IgG and IgA levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The serum CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusions: Alanyl glutamine in the treatment of elderly intestinal obstruction can significantly improve the acute inflammatory reaction and

  10. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  11. ILC3 GM-CSF production and mobilisation orchestrate acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Claire; Thornton, Emily E; McKenzie, Brent; Schaupp, Anna-Lena; Huskens, Nicky; Griseri, Thibault; West, Nathaniel; Tung, Sim; Seddon, Benedict P; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2016-01-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to host defence and tissue repair but can induce immunopathology. Recent work has revealed tissue-specific roles for ILCs; however, the question of how a small population has large effects on immune homeostasis remains unclear. We identify two mechanisms that ILC3s utilise to exert their effects within intestinal tissue. ILC-driven colitis depends on production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which recruits and maintains intestinal inflammatory monocytes. ILCs present in the intestine also enter and exit cryptopatches in a highly dynamic process. During colitis, ILC3s mobilize from cryptopatches, a process that can be inhibited by blocking GM-CSF, and mobilization precedes inflammatory foci elsewhere in the tissue. Together these data identify the IL-23R/GM-CSF axis within ILC3 as a key control point in the accumulation of innate effector cells in the intestine and in the spatio-temporal dynamics of ILCs in the intestinal inflammatory response.

  12. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of ellagic acid in the acute and chronic dextrane sulfate sodium models of mice colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Marta; María Giner, Rosa; Ríos, José-Luis; Recio, María Carmen

    2013-12-12

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.; Lythraceae) has traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC). Because its fruits and extracts are rich in ellagitannins, which release ellagic acid when hydrolyzed, consumption of pomegranate products is currently being widely promoted for their potential health effects, including the prevention of inflammatory diseases and cancer. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ellagic acid on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and chronic experimental colitis in two different strains of mice and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. In the acute UC model, female Balb/C mice were treated with DSS (5%) for seven days while concomitantly receiving a dietary supplement of ellagic acid (2%). In the chronic UC model, female C57BL/6 mice received four week-long cycles of DSS (1% and 2%) interspersed with week-long recovery periods along with a diet supplemented with ellagic acid (0.5%). In acute model of UC, ellagic acid ameliorated disease severity slightly as observed both macroscopically and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ). In the chronic UC model, ellagic acid significantly inhibited the progression of the disease, reducing intestinal inflammation and decreasing histological scores. Moreover, mediators such as COX-2 and iNOS were downregulated and the signaling pathways p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and STAT3 were blocked. Our study reinforces the hypothetical use of ellagic acid as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment in chronic UC patients and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related cancer development. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  14. Intestinal biospy in children with coeliac disease; a Swedish national study of radiation dose and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persliden, J.; Pettersson, H.B.L. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Faelth-Magnusson, K. [University of Linkoeping (Sweden). Faculty of Health Sciences

    1995-12-31

    In paediatric patients, fluoroscopy is used to monitor intestinal biopsies obtained for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The radiation dose to the child is dependent on the equipment, the sedation of the patient and the experience of the operator. This study presents patient measurements from a national study in Sweden. The cancer excess lifetime mortality risk (CELMR) and the loss of life expectancy (LLE) are calculated for this patient group. TLD measurements were performed by dosemeters at 40 Swedish paediatric departments performing these biopsies. Information was received on sedation techniques, equipment used and fluoroscopy duration. An exponential curve fit was applied to the entrance and exit dose values and this dose distribution was integrated to get the integral dose. From this the mean absorbed dose in the irradiated volume was calculated. The mean and the median of the mean absorbed dose in the irradiated volume to the children was found to be 1.3 mGy (range 0.05-17.5 mGy) and 0.56 mGy respectively. The mean value of the entrance surface dose was 3.0 mGy (range 0.10-27.1 mGy) and the median was 1.4 mGy. The annual collective dose was calculated to 3.3 man Gy, based on 2500 biopsies per year. Variation in doses was found to depend on, e.g. the age of the equipment, focus to patient distance, sedation and operator experience. With this knowledge of doses received by the children in the diagnosis of coeliac disease, CELMR was found to be 0.5 per 25000 biopsies and LLE was 18 years. Recommendations are given on the proper choice of equipment for the reduction of fluoroscopy doses in pediatric radiology. (Author).

  15. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  16. Computed tomographic findings of radiation-induced acute adrenal injury with associated radiation nephropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieda, Nicola; Ramchandani, Parvati; Siegelman, Evan S

    2013-01-01

    Radiation nephropathy was first recognized in 1906. The kidney is a radiosensitive organ with a tolerance dose (5% complications in 5 years) of 20 Gray. The imaging findings of acute and chronic radiation induced renal injury are previously described. Radiation-induced adrenal injury, to our knowledge, has not been described in the literature. Unlike the kidneys and other upper abdominal organs, the adrenal glands are traditionally thought to be radio-resistant, protected from radiation-induced injury by proximity to adjacent organs and by the adrenal medulla which reportedly has increased radio-resistance. We present the computed tomographic imaging findings of a patient with acute radiation induced adrenal injury which resulted in adrenal insufficiency following radiotherapy of an adjacent thecal metastasis

  17. Abdominal γ-Radiation Induces an Accumulation of Function-Impaired Regulatory T Cells in the Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiard, Fabienne; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc; Linard, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and the functional characteristics of one major component of immune tolerance, the CD4 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a mouse model of abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to a single abdominal dose of γ-radiation (10 Gy). We evaluated small intestine Treg infiltration by Foxp3 immunostaining and the functional suppressive activity of Tregs isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Foxp3 immunostaining showed that radiation induced a long-term infiltration of the intestine by Tregs (levels 5.5 times greater than in controls). Co-culture of Tregs from mesenteric lymph nodes with CD4 + effector cells showed that the Tregs had lost their suppressive function. This loss was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of Foxp3, TGF-β, and CTLA-4 mRNA, all required for optimal Treg function. At Day 90 after irradiation, Tregs regained their suppressive activity as forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression returned to normal. Analysis of the secretory function of mesenteric lymph node Tregs, activated in vitro with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs, showed that this dysfunction was independent of a defect in interleukin-10 secretion. Conclusion: Radiation caused a long-term accumulation of function-impaired Foxp3 + CD4 + Tregs in the intestine. Our study provides new insights into how radiation affects the immune tolerance in peripheral tissues.

  18. DNA copy number analysis from mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Certain mouse strains such as CBA C3H and RFM have high incidence of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data in this series wer generated by using...

  19. The acute radiation syndrome in the 137Cs Brazilian accident, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Cordeiro, J.M.; Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao Mello, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with the most severe degreed of bone marrow impairment are studied. Case descriptions are limited to manifestations and complications related to the 'Acute Radiation Syndrome' (ARS). Medical facilities, exams and therapeutic management are discussed. (MAC) [pt

  20. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  1. Síndrome de Ogilvie (pseudo-obstrução intestinal aguda: relato de caso Ogilvie's Syndrome (Acute pseudo-intestinal obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Marcondes Ribas Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A síndrome de Ogilvie é condição clínica com sinais, sintomas e aparência radiológica de dilatação acentuada do cólon sem causa mecânica e pode complicar com rompimento da parede do cólon e sepse abdominal. O tratamento na maioria das vezes é cirúrgico. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, 49 anos, internada com queixa de dor abdominal e diarréia e apresentando-se confusa, desidratada, taquicárdica, dispnéica, temperatura de 38ºC, abdômen distendido, ausência de ruídos hidro-aéreos e toque retal com fezes pastosas. Estudo radiográfico mostrou padrão de pseudo-obstrução intestinal. A paciente evoluiu com parada de eliminação de gases e fezes e sinais de abdômen agudo infeccioso. Foi submetida à laparotomia com achado de ceco e transverso bastante dilatados e sem sinal de obstrução mecânica. Realizada colectomia subtotal com fechamento do coto distal e ileostomia terminal. CONCLUSÃO: Pensar nessa possibilidade diagnóstica e agir mais rapidamente é a única possibilidade de diminuir a morbimortalidade desses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The Ogilvie's Syndrome is a clinical condition with signals, symptoms and radiological appearance of large bowel swell without mechanical cause. This obstruction can complicate with disruption of the bowel and consequent evolution of abdominal sepse. The treatment is typically surgical. AIM: The aim of this work is report a case of Ogilvie's Syndrome. CASE REPORT: Feminine patient, 49 years-old, interned with a history of abdominal pain and diarrhea and presenting dehydratation, tachycardia , dyspnea, mental confusion, 38ºC of temperature, distended abdomen, absence of hydro-aerial noises and rectal touch with pasty excrements. The x-ray showed a standard of pseudo-intestinal obstruction. The patient evolved with stop of elimination of farts and excrements and signals of infectious acute abdomen. The laparotomy showed cecum and transverse very swelled without signal of

  2. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use.

  3. Modification of intestinal flora with multispecies probiotics reduces bacterial translocation and improves clinical course in a rat model of acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van L.P.; Timmerman, H.M.; Lutgendorff, F.; Verheem, A.; Harmsen, W.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Smidt, H.; Visser, M.R.; Rijkers, G.T.; Gooszen, H.G.; Akkermans, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Infection of pancreatic necrosis by gut bacteria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Use of prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial. The aim of this experiment was assess if modification of intestinal flora with specifically designed

  4. Oral contraceptive and acute intestinal ischemia with mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Béliard, Aude; Verreth, Lucie; Grandjean, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Aude Béliard,1 Lucie Verreth,2 Pascale Grandjean2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier du Bois de l’Abbaye (CHBA), Liege, Belgium; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier Régional (CHR) Mons Hainaut, Mons, Belgium Background: Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive usage. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contracepti...

  5. Acute intestinal obstruction caused by a persimmon phytobezoar after dissolution therapy with Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Soo; Lee, Hyun Suk; Jung, Min Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2007-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions or hard masses of foreign matter that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent reports have demonstrated the efficacy of Coca-Cola administration for the dissolution of phytobezors. Here we report on a 73-year-old man with a very large gastric persimmon diospyrobezoar, and this caused small intestinal obstruction after partial dissolution with oral and injected Coca-Cola.

  6. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    humans is taken into consideration together with the available experimental data in animals to provide quantitative estimates of dose modification...among experimental animals . Physical aspects of irradiation can impact the response to radiation as well. Furthermore, the quality of radiation...associated with radiation exposure, has been studied extensively in experimental animal studies and human populations exposed to radiation. From

  7. Baseline disease is a more important predictor of intestinal necrosis than CT findings in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Toshihisa; Hara, Masahiko; Yunoki, Keiji; Urashima, Masaki; Harano, Masao; Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kouji; Shintani, Ayumi

    2016-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially fatal vascular emergency, and several computed tomographic (CT) findings have been introduced to determine the presence of intestinal ischemia or necrosis, although the most useful finding is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed data of 43 consecutive patients with AMI who were treated during the period from 2006 to 2015. Study patients included both superior mesenteric artery dissection (n = 29) and thrombosis (SMAT, n = 14). Epidemiological data, CT findings, and the primary end point defined as the composite of intestinal ischemia or necrosis based on surgical finding and in-hospital mortality were investigated. The classification and regression tree was used to assess determinants of the primary end point, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics was used to evaluate discriminating accuracy. In total, the primary end point occurred in 27.9% (0.0% in superior mesenteric artery dissection and 85.7% in SMAT). Classification and regression tree demonstrated that the baseline disease was the only and strong determinant of the primary outcome (P< .001), which was also confirmed by the highest area under the curve of 0.968 (95% confidence interval, 0.924-1.000). The baseline disease rather than CT findings is the most important determinant of the primary end point. In patients with AMI, SMAT should undergo exploratory surgery and subsequent surgical treatment without delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-operative stool analysis for intestinal parasites and fecal occult blood in patients with acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Sinan; Lök, Uğur; Gülaçtı, Umut; Çelik, Tuncay

    2016-09-01

    Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy. Demographic and stool analysis data of a total of 136 patients (≥13 years old) who underwent appendectomy between July 2009 and December 2014 were prospectively assessed, and histopathological data of all patients were retrospectively assessed. In histopathological examination after appendectomy, of 136 patients, 75.5% (n=103) had AA, 11.1% (n=15) had perforated appendicitis (PA), and 13.2% (n=18) had a negative appendicitis (normal appendix, NA). Pre-operative stool analysis revealed that 25% (n=34) had intestinal parasites and 14.7% (n=20) of patients had positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Those with positive FOBT represented 9.7% (n=10) of 103 AA patients, 53.3% (n=8) of 15 PA patients, and 11.1% (n=2) of 18 NA patients; this was statistically more significant for PA than other groups (pparasites in stool might not be associated with appendicitis, but it can occasionally lead to pathological findings of appendicitis. A positive FOBT may be a predictor for PA.

  9. Scintigraphic and Endoscopic Evaluation of Radiation-induced Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Micro-pig Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jin; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Noo-Ri; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young-Hoon; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    Micro-pig model can be served as a proper substitute for humans in studying acute radiation syndrome following radiation-exposure accidents, especially showing similar clinico-pathologic response of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome to human. Among acute GI syndrome induced by radiation, GI motility disturbance has not been studied, however, it would be important in a viewpoint of affecting infectious progression from GI tract. Here, we employed scintigraphy of GI transit time and sequential endoscopic examination and tissue sampling in micropigs followed by abdominal radiation exposure. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate objective evidence of GI motility disturbance by scintigraphic evaluation and to find corresponding clinicoapthologic changes in radiation-induced acute GI syndrome

  10. Anti-radiation vaccine: Immunologically-based Prophylaxis of Acute Toxic Radiation Syndromes Associated with Long-term Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting crew from ionizing radiation is a key life sciences problem for long-duration space missions. The three major sources/types of radiation are found in space: galactic cosmic rays, trapped Van Allen belt radiation, and solar particle events. All present varying degrees of hazard to crews; however, exposure to high doses of any of these types of radiation ultimately induce both acute and long-term biological effects. High doses of space radiation can lead to the development of toxicity associated with the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) which could have significant mission impact, and even render the crew incapable of performing flight duties. The creation of efficient radiation protection technologies is considered an important target in space radiobiology, immunology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Two major mechanisms of cellular, organelle, and molecular destruction as a result of radiation exposure have been identified: 1) damage induced directly by incident radiation on the macromolecules they encounter and 2) radiolysis of water and generation of secondary free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce chemical bond breakage, molecular substitutions, and damage to biological molecules and membranes. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants, which neutralize the damaging activities of ROS, are effective in reducing the impact of small to moderate doses of radiation. In the case of high doses of radiation, antioxidants alone may be inadequate as a radioprotective therapy. However, it remains a valuable component of a more holistic strategy of prophylaxis and therapy. High doses of radiation directly damage biological molecules and modify chemical bond, resulting in the main pathological processes that drive the development of acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Which of two types of radiation-induced cellular lethality that ultimately develops, apoptosis or necrosis, depends on the spectrum of incident radiation, dose, dose rate, and

  11. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Mayumi; Asada, Masahiro; Meineke, Viktor; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  12. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Radiation Emergency Medicine Research Program, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujita, Mayumi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Meineke, Viktor [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  13. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Vashchenko, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs

  14. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2014), s. 4770-4778 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : granulocyte colony-stimulating factor * radiation accidents * acute radiation syndrome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  15. Radiation-induced apoptosis in relation to acute impairment of rat salivary gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, GMRM; Cammelli, S; Zeilstra, LJW; Coppes, RP; Konings, AWT

    Purpose: To find an answer to the question: Are the acute radiation effects on salivary gland function, as seen in earlier studies, causally related to radiation-induced apoptosis? Materials and methods: Rat parotid and submandibular glands were X-irradiated with doses up to 25 Gy and morphological

  16. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radiation-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [de

  17. The prevention of radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells by salvianic acid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of radiation always provokes public debate, and the uses of radiation for therapeutic and other purposes have always been associated with some anxiety. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases including cerebrovascular diseases, coronary artery diseases, and myocardial infarction. Salvianolic acid A (SAA d (+-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid is the principal effective, watersoluble constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In our present study, radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC in the presence and absence of SAA were examined. We investigated the effects of SAA on ROS formation and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, the lipid peroxidative index and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH. Finally, we investigated whether the reduction of radiation-induced cell death caused by SAA might be related to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Present findings indicate that SAA is a promising radioprotective agent with a strong antioxidant activity. SAA exerted its protective action on the proliferative activity of HIEC cells as evidenced by decreased cytotoxicity after exposure to γ-radiation. It is possible that SAA achieved its radioprotective action, at least in part, by enhancing DNA repair and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, by scavenging ROS and by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  18. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  19. Late effects of intraoperative radiation therapy on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct in a large animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.E.; Kinslla, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Terrill, R.; Matthews, D.; Johnstone, P.A.S. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Anderson, W.J. [Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, IN (United States); Bollinger, B.K. [National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The late histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct were investigated in dogs. Fourteen adult foxhounds were subjected to laparotomy and varying doses (0-45 Gy) of IORT (11 MeV electrons) delivered to retroperitoneal tissues including the great vessels and ureters, to a loop of defunctionalized small bowel, or to the extrahepatic bile duct. One control animal received an aortic transection and reanastomosis at the time of laparotomy; another control received laparotomy alone. This paper describes the late effects of single-fraction IORT occurring 3-5 years following treatment. Dogs receiving IORT to the retroperitoneum through a 4 X 15 cm portal showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at 20 Gy. At doses ranging from 30-45 Gy, radiation changes in normal tissues were consistently observed. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with encasement of the ureters and great vessels developed at doses {ge}30 Gy. Radiation changes were present in the aorta and vena cava at doses {ge}40 Gy. A 30 Gy dog developed an in-field malignant osteosarcoma at 3 years which invaded the vertebral column and compressed the spinal cord. A 40 Gy animal developed obstruction of the right ureter with fatal septic hydronephrosis at 4 years. Animals receiving IORT through a 5 cm IORT portal to an upper abdominal field which included a defunctionalized loop of small bowel, showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at a dose of 20 Gy. At 30 Gy, hyaline degeneration of the intestinal muscularis layer of the bowel occurred. At a dose of 45 Gy, internal intestinal fistulae developed. One 30 Gy animal developed right ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis at 5 years. A dog receiving 30 Gy IORT through a 5 cm portal to the extrahepatic bile duct showed diffuse fibrosis through the gastroduodenal ligament. These canine studies contribute to the area of late tissue tolerance to IORT. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Late effects of intraoperative radiation therapy on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct in a large animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.E.; Kinslla, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Terrill, R.; Matthews, D.; Johnstone, P.A.S.; Anderson, W.J.; Bollinger, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The late histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct were investigated in dogs. Fourteen adult foxhounds were subjected to laparotomy and varying doses (0-45 Gy) of IORT (11 MeV electrons) delivered to retroperitoneal tissues including the great vessels and ureters, to a loop of defunctionalized small bowel, or to the extrahepatic bile duct. One control animal received an aortic transection and reanastomosis at the time of laparotomy; another control received laparotomy alone. This paper describes the late effects of single-fraction IORT occurring 3-5 years following treatment. Dogs receiving IORT to the retroperitoneum through a 4 X 15 cm portal showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at 20 Gy. At doses ranging from 30-45 Gy, radiation changes in normal tissues were consistently observed. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with encasement of the ureters and great vessels developed at doses ≥30 Gy. Radiation changes were present in the aorta and vena cava at doses ≥40 Gy. A 30 Gy dog developed an in-field malignant osteosarcoma at 3 years which invaded the vertebral column and compressed the spinal cord. A 40 Gy animal developed obstruction of the right ureter with fatal septic hydronephrosis at 4 years. Animals receiving IORT through a 5 cm IORT portal to an upper abdominal field which included a defunctionalized loop of small bowel, showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at a dose of 20 Gy. At 30 Gy, hyaline degeneration of the intestinal muscularis layer of the bowel occurred. At a dose of 45 Gy, internal intestinal fistulae developed. One 30 Gy animal developed right ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis at 5 years. A dog receiving 30 Gy IORT through a 5 cm portal to the extrahepatic bile duct showed diffuse fibrosis through the gastroduodenal ligament. These canine studies contribute to the area of late tissue tolerance to IORT. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Effect of certain natural antioxidants in protecting against damage caused by gamma radiation in ischemic rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in various clinical pathologies one of which is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)- induced injury. Intestinal I/R enhances production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory mediators and induces apoptosis. In other hand. the intestinal tract shows a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to a rapid cell turnover and is often implicated in radiation sickness the radiation damage may either be a consequence of a direct effect resulting in disruption of critical molecule (such as an enzyme or DNA) or an indirect effect through ionization of water molecules and formation of ROS. consequently, supplementation of antioxidants may be a beneficial approach to protect against cellular damages associated with oxidative stress. the current study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o.), tomato extract (67 mg/kg. p.o.) and turmeric (100 mg/kg, p.o) against ileal injury induced in rats by total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for another 30 min. Furthermore, this protective effect of the mentioned drugs was extended into injury that could happened in ileal tissues of rats exposed to (6 Gy) gamma radiation followed by intestinal I/R. Drugs were administered one daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the ischemic insult. Damage induced by I/R was manifested by depletion of ileal content of reduced glutathion (GSH) as well as Lactate dehydrogenas (LDH) activity, associated with elevation of ileal contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Intestinal ischemic insults were exacerbated by radiation injury on comparing different untreated controls; except the ileal content of GSH which has elevated due to the preconditioning effect of irradiation. Vitamin E provided a significant protection against the decrease in LDH activity as well as the increase in TBARS

  2. Elemental diets in the prophylaxis and therapy for intestinal lesions: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.

    1989-01-01

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiologic substances in the intestinal milieu prompted the use of an elemental semihydrolyzed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. Elemental diets have been used in the management of a variety of digestive diseases. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteropathy and in the therapy for delayed radiation enteropathy and Crohn's disease.90 references

  3. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.

    1950-03-17

    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  4. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in acute radiation-induced cerebral edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoguo; Zhang Baomin; Chen Xiaohua; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between changes in expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in brain vascular endothelial cells and acute radiation-induced cerebral edema after 60 Co gamma knife irradiation with a high dose. Methods: The right caudate nucleus of rats were irradiated with 200 Gy 60 Co gamma knife. the rats were sacrificed within 14 days after irradiation. By a light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, the authors studied the formation and development of acute radiation-induced cerebral edema as well as the expression of eNOS in brain vascular endothelial cells. Results: Acute radiation-induced cerebral edema was observed morphologically 2 hours after irradiation and peaked on day 3 after irradiation. The expression of eNOS in brain vascular endothelial cells markedly increased 2 hours after irradiation, which could be consistently visualized during the acute developmental phase of radiation-induced cerebral edema. Conclusion: The increased expression of eNOS may be related to the formation and development of acute radiation-induced cerebral edema after 60 Co gamma knife irradiation with a high dose

  5. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  6. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindekov, Ivan; Vassilieva, Vladimir; Aljakova, Mitko; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Raynova, Yuliana; Idakieva, Krassimira; Doumanov, Lyuba

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from 137 Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/ min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing 2 hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. Keywords: Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin; acute radiation syndrome; radioprotective effect; spleen colony assay; stomach ulcerations

  7. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed γβ- and γη-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at γβ- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at γη-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and systems causing reduction of a level of

  8. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  9. X radiation up-regulates the occurrence and the multiplicity of invasive carcinomas in the intestinal tract of Apc(min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Yamazumi, Kazuyuki; Uemura, Takashi; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Yakata, Yuichi; Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Sekine, Ichiro

    2007-10-01

    X rays are well known to cause genetic damage and to induce many types of carcinomas in humans. The Apc(min/+) mouse, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), contains a truncating mutation in the APC gene and spontaneously develops intestinal adenomas. To elucidate the role of X rays in the development of intestinal tumors, we examined the promotion of carcinogenesis in X-irradiated Apc(min/+) mice. Forty out of 77 (52%) X-irradiated Apc(min/+) mice developed adenocarcinomas that invaded the proprial muscle layer of the small intestine; 24 of 44 (55%) were in males, and 16 of 33 (49%) were in females. In contrast, invasive carcinomas were detected in the small intestines of only 13 of 64 (20%) nonirradiated Apc(min/+) mice; nine of 32 (28%) were in males and four of 32 (13%) were in females. These differences between X-irradiated and nonirradiated Apc(min/+) mice in the occurrence of invasive intestinal carcinomas were statistically significant (P polyps in the large intestine with or without X irradiation; there was no difference in the number of polyps between the two groups. Also, invasive carcinomas were not detected in the large intestine with or without irradiation. The occurrence of mammary tumors, which was observed in Apc(min/+) mice, was found to be increased in irradiated Apc(min/+) mice (P polyps in the small and large intestines with or without X irradiation. X-irradiated Apc(min/+) mice had highly invasive carcinomas in the small intestine with multiplicities associated with invasiveness. Our results suggest that X radiation may promote the invasive activity of intestinal tumors in Apc(min/+) mice.

  10. Evidence from Animal Models: Is a Restricted or Conventional Intestinal Microbiota Composition Predisposing to Risk for High-LET Radiation Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Irene; Schiestl, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota affect cell responses to ionizing radiation at the molecular level and can be linked to the development of the immune system, controlled cell death or apoptosis. We have developed a microbiota mouse model and report here that high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induced the repair of chromosomal DNA lesions more efficiently in conventional than in restricted intestinal microbiota mice. Based on different phylotype densities after whole-body irradiation, bacterial indicator phylotypes were found to be more abundant in restricted in microbiota than in conventional microbiota. Genotoxic phenotypes of irradiated restricted and conventional microbiota mice were compared with ataxia telangiectasia-deficient restricted and conventional microbiota mice, respectively. Those indicator phylotypes, including Bacteroides (Gram-negative bacterium cTPY-13), Barnesiella intestinihominis and others, which were identified in nonirradiated restricted microbiota mice, increase in radiation-exposed conventional microbiota along with a reduction of persistent DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes. The dynamic change of phylotype abundances elucidated a feedback mechanism and effect of intestinal microbiota composition on the adaptive response to high-LET radiation. Several other bacterial phylotypes ( Helicobacter hepaticus , Helicobacter spp and others) were found to be more abundant in conventional than restricted microbiota. In this commentary, mouse models used in cancer research and radiotherapy for the study on the effects of intestinal microbiota composition on normal tissue radiation response are characterized and discussed. Highlights of this commentary: 1. Restricted microbiota phylotypes were correlated with persistent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and were found to orchestrate onco-protective controlled cell death after radiation; 2. Restricted microbiota composition reduced proinflammatory extracellular-stimulated immune responses, but

  11. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at the West China Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 to identify any correlation between the clinical or dosimetric parameters and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) or severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) by t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Of the 68 patients, 33 patients (48.5%) developed ARP, 13 of which (19.1%) developed SARP. Of these 33 patients, 8 (11.8%), 12 (17.6%), 11 (16.2%), and 2 (2.9%) patients were grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ARP, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lung infection during radiotherapy, use of VMAT, mean lung dose (MLD), and dosimetric parameters (e.g. V20, V30) are significantly correlated with RP. Multivariate analysis found that lung infection during radiotherapy, MLD ≥ 12 Gy, and V30 ≥ 13% are significantly correlated with an increased risk of RP. Lung infection during radiotherapy and low radiation dose volume distribution were predictive factors associated with RP and should be accounted for during radiation planning.

  12. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC{sup 1638N/+} Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J.; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Shay, Jerry W. [Department of Cell Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Datta, Kamal, E-mail: kd257@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Methods and Materials: Male and female APC{sup 1638N/+} mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, {sup 12}C, {sup 28}Si, or {sup 56}Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. Results: The highest number of tumors was observed after {sup 28}Si, followed by {sup 56}Fe and {sup 12}C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after {sup 28}Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with {sup 28}Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions.

  13. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC(1638N/+) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling; Shay, Jerry W; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2016-05-01

    There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Male and female APC(1638N/+) mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, (12)C, (28)Si, or (56)Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. The highest number of tumors was observed after (28)Si, followed by (56)Fe and (12)C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after (28)Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with (28)Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC1638N/+ Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J.; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling; Shay, Jerry W.; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Methods and Materials: Male and female APC 1638N/+ mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, 12 C, 28 Si, or 56 Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. Results: The highest number of tumors was observed after 28 Si, followed by 56 Fe and 12 C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after 28 Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with 28 Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions.

  15. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.; Jones, J.; Gonta, S.; Prasad, K.; Rachal, C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  16. Usefulness of the helical CT in gastro intestinally caused acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R. A. de la; Martel, J.; Albillos, J. C.; Oliver, J. M.; Lopez, J.; Trapero, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    At present, there is a vivid debate on the role of the Helical CT (HCT) in the acute abdomen, principally on the usefulness of the non contrast HCT. We aim to present the most common semiological findings and the differential diagnoses, and to give a short description of the indications and protocols, according to the existing literature and to our experience with HCT during the last three years. We believe that the generalization of the use of HCT in emergencies avoid unnecessary surgery and shorten observation times on many occasions, with clear benefits in the clinical management of the patients. (Author) 30 refs

  17. Intestinal amoebiasis in a patient with acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation successfully treated by metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, A; Itabashi, M; Kishimoto, K; Motohashi, K; Hagihara, M; Kuwabara, H; Tanaka, M; Kato, H; Chiba, S; Kunisaki, R; Fujisawa, S

    2015-12-01

    Amoebiasis has rarely been reported in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, although it is a world-wide infection and extremely common. We present a case of intestinal amoebiasis unexpectedly revealed by colonoscopy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen-mismatched unrelated donor for acute myeloid leukemia arising from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and successfully treated by metronidazole. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  19. Effect of ecoimmunonutrition supports on maintenance of integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier in severe acute pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-fang; Lu, Zheng; Gao, Jun; Li, Zhao-shen; Gong, Yan-fang

    2006-04-20

    One of the major causes of death in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is severe infection owing to bacterial translocation. Some clinical studies suggested that ecoimmunonutrition (EIN) as a new strategy had better treatment effect on SAP patients. But the experiment studies on the precise mechanism of the effect of EIN were less reported. In this study, we mainly investigated the effects of EIN on bacterial translocation in SAP model of dogs. SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in healthy hybrid dogs. The SAP dogs were supported with either parenteral nutrition (PN) or elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) or EIN. The levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase and plasma endotoxin were detected before and after pancreatitis induction. On the 7th day after nutrition supports, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, and pancreas were collected for bacterial culture with standard techniques to observe the incidence of bacterial translocation. Pathology changes of pancreas were analyzed by histopathologic grading and scoring of the severity of pancreas, and the degree of intestinal mucosal damage was assessed by measuring mucosal thickness, villus height, and crypt depth of ileum. Compared with PN and EEN, EIN significantly decreased the levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase, plasma endotoxin, and the incidence of bacterial translocation. Furthermore, compared with the others, the histology scores of inflammation in pancreas and the ileum injury (ileum mocosa thickness, villus height, and crypt depth) were significantly alleviated by EIN (P dogs. Early EIN was safe and more effective treatment for SAP dogs.

  20. Activation of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling by berberine improves intestinal mucosal barrier of rats with acute endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Yuan, Xiaoming; Zhou, Guangrong; Feng, Aiwen

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) play a role in the maintenance of gut mucosal barrier function. Nevertheless, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 and tight junction protein (TJP) expression in small intestinal mucosa are often impaired during endotoxemia. In this model of acute endotoxemia, the regulatory effect of berberine on IGF-I/IGFBP-3 and TJP expression in ileal mucosa was evaluated. The findings revealed systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) suppressed mRNA and protein expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, but berberine ameliorated their production. LPS injection inhibited occludin and claudin-1 protein generation, and this inhibitory effect of LPS was abolished by berberine. Inhibition of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 signaling by AG1024 or siRNAs reduced berberine-induced occludin and claudin-1 production. Additionally, GW9662 was found to repress berberine-induced IGF-I/IGFBP-3 expression, indicating of a cross-link between PPARγ and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of intestinal cells of differing topographical and hierarchical status to ten cytotoxic drugs and five sources of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijiri, K.; Potter, C.S. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK). Paterson Labs.)

    1983-02-01

    The spatial distribution of cell death among the epithelial cells lining the adult mouse small intestinal mucosa at various times after a range of doses of 10 different drugs as well as after internal or external irradiation (..beta.. particles from tritium, ..gamma..- and X-rays and neutrons) has been recorded. Cell death, expressed as pycnosis or apoptosis, has been recorded for each cell position up the side of the crypts of the small intestine. Adriamycin and the various forms of radiation tend to kill cells preferentially at cell position 4-5 i.e. on cells very early in the lineage, probably stem cells. Isopropyl-methane-sulphonate, nitrogen mustard and possibly Actinomycin-D act on cell position 6-7, while 5-fluorouracil, Myleran, cyclophosphamide, and cycloheximide tend to kill cells at cell position 7-9. Vincristine and hydroxyurea are the 2 agents that exhibit a specificity for cells highest up the crypt, i.e. latest in transit population of the cell lineage by acting on cell positions 10 or 11. The data also suggest that normal healthy cells continue to migrate up the crypt and onto the villus in spite of considerable cell death and reduced cell production.

  2. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  3. Study of radiation safety education practices in acute care Texas hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemley, A.A.; Hedl, J.J. Jr.; Griffin, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A survey study was performed to assess the extent of radiation safety education and training in acute care Texas hospitals for radiologic technologists and other hospital personnel. The findings revealed a self-perceived need by hospital administrative personnel and were interpreted to suggest a quantitative need for increased radiation safety education for several classes of hospital personnel. The findings are discussed relative to potential certification requirements for technologists and implications for the training of other personnel

  4. Study and comparative evaluation of radiation lesions and recovery processes in the large intestine affected by radionuclides of the rare earth group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrent'ev, L.N.

    1975-01-01

    Prolonged chronic irradiation of rat large intestine tissues with various types of β-radiators revealed a definite dependence between the tissue doses, damaging effect and nature of recovery. Alterations in blood vessels and inclusions of microbial flora in the necrotized sites of the tunica mucosa were partly responsible for promoting the duration of inflammatory and recovery processes [ru

  5. Small intestine biopsy of children with coeliac disease: Influence of X-ray equipment on radiation dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persliden, J. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Pettersson, H.B.L. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Stenhammar, L. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Central Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Faelth-Magnusson, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    1994-10-01

    In paediatric radiology intestinal biopsies for the diagnosis of coeliac disease are performed using fluoroscopy. The radiation exposure to the child depends on the X-ray equipment. We report patient measurements from three different equipments (A, B and C) together with a phantom study simulating children of different thicknesses relative to age. The median values of the mean absorbed dose to the child in the irradiated volume were 1.2 mGy (A), 0.79 mGy (B) and 0.15 mGy (C). The results show that the increase in tube potential with increasing distance in one equipment decreases the dosage, and also that modern equipment should be employed. Particularly old image intensifiers should not be used. With an optimal choice of equipment the dosage to the child can be reduced fourfold. The combination of an optimal technique of sedation and an experienced operator can reduce the dosage tenfold. (orig.)

  6. Investigations of the dependence of radiation effects on the stem cells of the small intestine mucous membrane on dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gindele, S.

    1984-01-01

    For the study of the dependence of the radiation effects on the stem cells of the small intestine mucous membrane on dose fractionation mice from the strain C3H were exposed to a one-time irradiation, an irradiation in three fractions, five fractions on one day, five fractions on two days and an irradiation in ten fractions. It was shown, that the survival curves for the higher fractionation numbers were shifted to the right from the ones with higher total doses and have a lower slope than the curves lying more to the left. The accumulation of a total dose for an iso-effect is not proportional to the increase in the number of fractions, but instead in the area above 5 fractions reaches a plateau. The survival curve of the one-time dose which I constructed in the shoulder area showed a strong agreement with the survival curve which was given by Withers and Hussey. (orig.) [de

  7. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-06-20

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung.

  8. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Bo; Jiang Liping; Wu Ying; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai; Zhao Fengling; Fu Baohua; Istvan, Turai

    2008-01-01

    On 26 April 1999, three persons were accidentally exposed by high dose 60 Co irradiation. They suffered from severe (one case) or moderate (two cases) hemopoietic form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). As part of the comprehensive treatment, strict reverse isolation and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy were applied. All the patients recovered after an appropriate treatment for 83 days. In our experience, the correct diagnosis and effective treatment at an early stage proved to be helpful to the patients in pulling out from the critical stage of acute radiation sickness. To avoid menstruation by the female patient just in the critical stage, we modified her menstruation cycle by testosterone. In our view, GM-CSF should be given as early as possible with enough dosage for promoting early hematological reconstruction. The experience obtained from the medical management of these patients is valuable for the treatment of such patients in the future. (author)

  9. Acute toxicity profile of craniospinal irradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in children with medulloblastoma: A prospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Maurice C.; Kusters, Johannes M.; Gidding, Corrie E.; Schieving, Jolanda H.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.; Janssens, Geert O.

    2015-01-01

    To report on the acute toxicity in children with medulloblastoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with daily intrafractionally modulated junctions. Newly diagnosed patients, aged 3–21, with standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) medulloblastoma were eligible. A dose of 23.4 or 36.0Gy in daily fractions of 1.8Gy was prescribed to the craniospinal axis, followed by a boost to the primary tumor bed (54 or 55.8Gy) and metastases (39.6–55.8Gy), when indicated. Weekly, an intravenous bolus of vincristine was combined for patients with SR medulloblastoma and patients participating in the COG-ACNS-0332 study. Common toxicity criteria (CTC, version 2.0) focusing on skin, alopecia, voice changes, conjunctivitis, anorexia, dysphagia, gastro-intestinal symptoms, headache, fatigue and hematological changes were scored weekly during radiotherapy. From 2010 to 2014, data from 15 consecutive patients (SR, n = 7; HR, n = 8) were collected. Within 72 h from onset of treatment, vomiting (66 %) and headache (46 %) occurred. During week 3 of treatment, a peak incidence in constipation (33 %) and abdominal pain/cramping (40 %) was observed, but only in the subgroup of patients (n = 9) receiving vincristine (constipation: 56 vs 0 %, P = .04; pain/cramping: 67 vs 0 %, P = .03). At week 6, 73 % of the patients developed faint erythema of the cranial skin with dry desquamation (40 %) or moist desquamation confined to the skin folds of the auricle (33 %). No reaction of the skin overlying the spinal target volume was observed. Headache at onset and gastro-intestinal toxicity, especially in patients receiving weekly vincristine, were the major complaints of patients with medulloblastoma undergoing craniospinal irradiation with IMRT

  10. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  11. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  12. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in radiation exposed small intestinal mucosa of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo; Lee, Kyoung Ja; Rhee, Chung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes whose main function is the degradation of the extracellular matrix. Several studies have revealed that MMPs and TIMPs are related to the wound healing process and in photoaging caused by ultraviolet irradiation. However, the expressions of MMP and TIMP after irradiation have not, to the best of our knowledge, been studied. This study investigates the expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in rat intestinal mucosa following irradiation. The entire abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated using a single dose method. The rats were sacrificed on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 following irradiation. Histopathological observations were made using hematoxilin and eosin staining. The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were examined using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and ELISA. Radiation induced damage, associated with atrophic villi, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed from the first postirradiation day, and severe tissue damage was observed on the second and the third postirradiation days. An increase in mitosis and the number of regenerating crypts, as evidence of regeneration, were most noticeable on the fifth postirradiation day. From the immunohistochemistry, the MMP-2 expression was observed from the first postirradiation day, but was most conspicuous on the third and the fifth postirradiation days. The TIMP-2 expression was most conspicuous on the fifth postirradiation day. From the immunoblotting, the MMP-2 expression was strongly positive on the third postirradiation day, and that of TIMP-2 showed a strong positive response on the fifth postirradiation day. In ELISA, tests, the expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2. were increased in the postirradiation groups compared to those of the normal controls, and showed a maximum increase on the fifth postirradiation day. These results were statistically significant. The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were increased in the intestinal mucosa of the rats

  13. Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating in the small intestine Hemorragia digestiva baja severa originada en el intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ríos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH is generally self-limiting, and the most frequent etiologies are located at colonic level. The objective here is to analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic handling of acute LGIH when its etiology was located in the small intestine. Patients and methods: between 1975 and March 2002, 12 acute cases of LGIH originating in the small intestine were admitted to our service. All consulted the hospital with acute rectorrhage, requiring a transfusion of at least 3 units of concentrated red blood cells. The mean age was 54 ± 21 years, 58% were women, and 83% had experienced previous episodes of LGIH. Results: in eleven cases (92% an urgent lower and upper endoscopy was performed without locating the source of bleeding. An arteriography was indicated in 7 patients (58%, which located the bleeding origin in 5 of them. In two cases a scintigraphy was performed, showing a Meckel's diverticulum in one patient and a normal image in another. All were operated on; in 8 cases (67%, surgery was urgent; in 9 cases, a tumor was found, and in three additional patients, a case of Meckel's diverticulum was found, with a resection being carried out for all lesions. Histology showed a leiomyoma in 7 cases, a Meckel's diverticulum in 3 cases, a leiomyoblastoma in 1, and an angioma in the remaining case. After a mean follow-up of 132 ± 75 months, the leiomyoblastoma resulted in death, and there was a relapse in the case of angioma, which was successfully embolized with interventional radiology. Conclusions: acute LGIH originating in the small intestine should be considered a possible etiology when digestive endoscopy does not locate the source of bleeding, with arteriography being a useful diagnostic technique for bleeding localization. Surgery is the definitive treatment - it confirms the etiology and rules out the presence of malignancy.Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva baja (HDB es generalmente autolimitada y

  14. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because deficits in visuospatial attention and working memory were identified, qualitative analysis of the results suggested that the white matter tracts in the right frontoparietal region and prefrontal cortex may be particularly vulnerable to radiation injury. Conclusion. The study findings support vulnerability of the right ...

  15. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  16. Acute esophagus toxicity in lung cancer patients after intensity modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; de Bois, Josien; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van den Heuvel, Michel; Knegjens, Joost; van Herk, Marcel; Belderbos, José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One

  17. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  18. Effective chemotherapy of acute myelocytic leukemia occurring after alkylating agent or radiation therapy for prior malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, W.P.; Karp, J.E.; Burke, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven consecutive patients with acute myelocytic leukemia occurring as a second malignancy were treated with high-dose, timed, sequential chemotherapy. Eight of the patients were felt to have ''secondary'' acute leukemia because they had received an alkylating agent or radiation therapy. The other three patients were considered controls. Despite a median age of 65, four of the eight secondary leukemia patients achieved complete remission with this regimen. One of the three control patients also achieved complete remission. This remission rate and duration are comparable to what was achieved with this treatment of ''primary'' acute myelocytic leukemia during the same period of time. These results suggest that patients with leukemia occurring after an alkylating agent or radiation therapy are not at especially high risk if treated aggressively

  19. The Effects of Acute Mobile Phone Radiation on the Anxiety Level of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Esmaili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Despite two decades of using mobile phone, the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation remain controversial. The study was conducted to determine the effect of mobile phone waves on anxiety-like behaviors in male rats. Methods A total number of 80 male naive rats were, randomly, divided into eight groups (Control, 900, 1 800, and 2 100 MHz exposure. The acute and chronic effects of mobile phone radiation on the anxiety profile was compared considering a 45-min session and seven sessions of radiation (45 min/day using the elevated plus-maze (EPM in rats. The number of rats entering the open and closed arms and their duration of stay in each of the arms were assessed. To estimate the oxidative stress, Superoxide Dismutase level in the blood serum was evaluated. Results The results obtained in the EPM showed no significant differences among the groups after acute exposure to mobile phone radiation (P > 0.05. No significant differences were observed among the groups in terms of their serum superoxide dismutase level (P > 0.05. Conclusions Short time mobile phone radiation had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors and serum enzyme activity; this may be due to low tissue irritation during acute exposure to mobile phone waves.

  20. A case of radiation enteritis with intestinal obstruction due to incarceration of foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Hidehiro; Isobe, Tsugumasa; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Imahori, Tsutomu; Naka, Fumihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Ida, Masahiro; Matsubara, Fujitsugu [Tatsunokuchi Houju Memorial Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A 66-year-old woman was seen at the hospital because of an abdominal pain and vomiting. There were previous histories of undergoing ileocecal resection 30 years and total hysterectomy with irradiation for uterine cancer 29 years earlier. Abdominal CT showed a shadow of foreign body, and barium enema revealed a filling defect in the ileum and stenosis at the anastomosis. In addition to these findings the patient deposed that she had ingested a seed of `ume` (Japanese apricot). The patient was diagnosed as intestinal obstruction due to the foreign body and underwent an operation. The postoperative course is good, however, this patient has many other disorders probable resulting from irradiation, such as stenosis of ureter, cutaneous pigmentation and tumor, adenoma of the rectum. Long term and periodic follow-up is important for the patient entertaining possible occurrence of other disorders and second cancer. (author)

  1. The effect of tetrandrine and extracts of centella asiatica on acute radiation dermatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Dai, Yu-Shiang; Chen, Be-Fong [Mackay Memorial Hospital, TW (China)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Radiation injury to the skin is one of the major limiting factors in radiotherapy. We designed this study using Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the reduction in skin injury achieved using natural products from plant extracts as protection. The acute skin reaction in tetrandrine- and Madecassol-treated animals appeared earlier, but was significantly less severe, than in the control group. The peak skin reactions in the tetrandrine group were less serious than those of the control group at three different radiation doses. At a high dose irradiation, the healing effect of tetrandrine is better than Madecassol and vaseline. The histologic findings indicate that tetrandrine and Madecassol are able to reduce acute radiation reactions by their anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  2. Analgesic effect of bupivacaine eluting porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) in ferrets undergoing acute abdominal hernia defect surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brenda M; Ko, Jeff C; Hall, Paul J; Saunders, Alan T; Lantz, Gary C

    2011-05-15

    Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is used as a biological implant for abdominal wall hernia repair to facilitate wound healing and augment local tissue strength. This prospective, randomized, blinded study evaluated local pain control provided by bupivacaine adsorbed to SIS for repair of acutely created abdominal wall full thickness muscle/fascial defects in ferrets. Eighteen healthy ferrets were randomly and equally assigned to three groups: (1) SIS with bupivacaine subjected to surgery, (2) SIS with no bupivacaine subjected to surgery, and (3) anesthesia only control group. Ferrets in groups 1 and 2 were anesthetized with butorphanol and sevoflurane for the surgery. Control ferrets were anesthetized in the same fashion for the same duration without surgery. Behavior and pain were evaluated in all ferrets by behavioral observation, algometer, and palpometer measurements, and heart and respiratory rates each obtained before surgery and at various intervals for 96 h after surgery. When pain reached a predetermined threshold, buprenorphine was used as a rescue analgesic. The serum and combined tissue concentrations of bupivacaine were analyzed. Overall, the palpometer testing was better tolerated in the bupivacaine treated SIS group than by the untreated SIS group (P = 0.04). There was an observed physiologically significant difference in algometer and other palpometer readings as well as heart and respiratory rates. All ferrets in the untreated SIS group were rescued while 33% of the SIS-bupivacaine groups were rescued (P pain relief over 2-4 days with no clinical adverse effects observed in the ferrets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 on experimental radiation enteritis in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation enteritis in patients treated by abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is characterized by acute mucosal disruption and chronic intestinal fibrosis. Using a model of localized intestinal irradiation in the rat, we showed remote intestinal dysfunction outside the irradiation field along the whole gut, probably associated with perturbations in the systems regulating intestinal functions. Based on the hypothesis of consequential late effects, acute administration of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2, a growth factor with specific trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, limited the apparition of both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting the severity of acute tissue damage may also limit chronic sequelae. The study of GLP-2 effects on epithelial cells in co-culture with either subepithelial myo-fibroblasts or enteric nervous system emphasized the problem of the modelization of complex systems in vitro, and suggested a synergic action from these different actors in vivo. (author)

  4. Vasculotide, an Angiopoietin-1 mimetic, reduces acute skin ionizing radiation damage in a preclinical mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Elina; Yohan, Darren; Chin, Lee Cl; Kim, Anthony; Huang, Xiaoyong; Sade, Shachar; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Daniel J; Liu, Stanley K

    2014-08-26

    Most cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, but the treatment can also damage the surrounding normal tissue. Acute skin damage from cancer radiotherapy diminishes patients' quality of life, yet effective biological interventions for this damage are lacking. Protecting microvascular endothelial cells from irradiation-induced perturbations is emerging as a targeted damage-reduction strategy. Since Angiopoetin-1 signaling through the Tie2 receptor on endothelial cells opposes microvascular perturbations in other disease contexts, we used a preclinical Angiopoietin-1 mimic called Vasculotide to investigate its effect on skin radiation toxicity using a preclinical model. Athymic mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or Vasculotide and their flank skin was irradiated with a single large dose of ionizing radiation. Acute cutaneous damage and wound healing were evaluated by clinical skin grading, histology and immunostaining. Diffuse reflectance optical spectroscopy, myeloperoxidase-dependent bioluminescence imaging of neutrophils and a serum cytokine array were used to assess inflammation. Microvascular endothelial cell response to radiation was tested with in vitro clonogenic and Matrigel tubule formation assays. Tumour xenograft growth delay experiments were also performed. Appreciable differences between treatment groups were assessed mainly using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests comparing areas under curves, followed by post-hoc comparisons. In vivo, different schedules of Vasculotide treatment reduced the size of the irradiation-induced wound. Although skin damage scores remained similar on individual days, Vasculotide administered post irradiation resulted in less skin damage overall. Vasculotide alleviated irradiation-induced inflammation in the form of reduced levels of oxygenated hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase bioluminescence and chemokine MIP-2. Surprisingly, Vasculotide-treated animals also had higher microvascular endothelial cell

  5. Medical Managment of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waselenka, Jamie K; MacVittie, Thomas J; Blakely, William F; Pesik, Nicki; Wiley, Albert L; Dickerson, William E; Tsu, Horace; Confer, Dennis L; Coleman, Norman; Seed, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... This consensus document was developed by the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group to provide a framework for physicians in internal medicine and the medical subspecialties to evaluate...

  6. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  7. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  8. Dissimilar genome response to acute and chronic low-dose radiation in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Olga; Ponton, Andre; Filkowski, Jody; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The long-term genetic consequences of chronic exposure to low-dose irradiation constitutes a major concern to the general public and research community, especially as chronic radiation has recently been proven to be much more mutagenic and carcinogenic than previously thought. Here we report the results of the first ever comparison of the effects of acute and chronic whole body low-dose radiation exposure on global gene expression. We found a substantial difference between males and females in the expression of genes involved in signaling, growth control, transcription and other pathways upon acute and chronic radiation exposure. Specifically, we found sex differences in the expression of genes coding for G protein-coupled receptors and nuclear receptors. We also found different induction of PKCδ, PKCβ and PKCμ, members of PKC signaling pathway as well as in TGF and WNT signaling in males and females. Very pronounced difference, that was confirmed on the level of protein, was observed in the expression of WNT5A that plays an important role in carcinogenesis and muscle regeneration. WNT5A expression was significantly elevated only in chronically exposed females. We also provide the first evidence of the effect of ionizing radiation on the estrogen receptor in females. Repetitive irradiation of muscle tissue has been linked to development of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), which, enigmatically, occurs more frequently in males. Our data may be used to study possible mechanisms of RMS development upon chronic radiation exposure. They may provide some clues about the molecular background of the sex differences of RMS occurrence and may in the future lead to the discovery of new biomarkers for RMS predisposition in the irradiated tissue. Overall, differences in male and female responses to acute and chronic low-dose radiation obtained by this study were more drastic than we could have predicted. If confirmed in other experimental systems, these findings could potentially lead

  9. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  10. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  11. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, ≤ 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  12. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  13. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho; Jo, Sung Kee; Jang, Jong Sik

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products

  14. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbumani, S.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  15. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  16. The influence of lumenal pH on the severity of acute radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, J.P.; Kimm, G.E.; Bonsack, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The severity of acute radiation injury to small bowel mucosa in rats was studied as a function of lumenal pH at the time of irradiation. Indices of injury were surviving crypt numbers, mucosal height and mucous-containing goblet cells. Animals were sacrificed 5 days postirradiation. For all three parameters and on each day postirradiation, the pH 9 segment showed less damage than segments with lumenal pH 7 or 5. The authors conclude that lumenal pH at the time of irradiation plays a significant role in the severity of acute mucosal injury. Alkaline pH is relatively protective. (author)

  17. The roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in colon tight junction protein expression and intestinal mucosa structure in a mouse model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Sa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a common clinical disease and one of the most severe complications of acute liver failure (ALF. Although the mechanism responsible for SBP is unclear, cytokines play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α on the structure of the intestinal mucosa and the expression of tight junction (Zona Occludens 1; ZO-1 protein in a mouse model of ALF. Methods We induced ALF using D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α and assessed the results using transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of administration of anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-TNF-α R1 antibody before administration of GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α, respectively, on TNF-α were also assessed. Results Morphological abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of ALF mice were positively correlated with serum TNF-α level. Electron microscopic analysis revealed tight junction (TJ disruptions, epithelial cell swelling, and atrophy of intestinal villi. Gut bacteria invaded the body at sites where TJ disruptions occurred. Expression of ZO-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in both ALF models, as was the level of ZO-1 protein. Prophylactic treatment with either anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a receptor1 (anti-TNF-α R1 antibody prevented changes in intestinal tissue ultrastructure and ZO-1 expression. Conclusion TNF-α affects the structure of the intestinal mucosa, decreases expression of ZO-1, and affects the morphology of the colon in a mouse model of ALF. It also may participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of SBP complicated to ALF.

  18. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E Synthase mRNA in Quail Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fu, CP Liu1, ZW Zhang1, W Liao2 and SW Xu1,*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The cold temperature, a common environmental stress, reduces the immunity and re-production activities of the poultry. This study aims to investigate the role of acute and chronic cold exposure in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. A total of 96 quail with 15 days of age were randomly allocated into 12 groups (8 each group for exposure to acute (up to 12 h and chronic (up to 20 days cold temperature (12±1°C. After that, different segments of the intestine were harvested and subjected to morphology observations under the light and electronic microscopes. qRT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of COX-2 and PTGES, and DNA sequencing was performed to analyze PCR products. The data showed that under acute cold stress, expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA was first decreased and then increased in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. However, chronic cold stress induced expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of quail, which was then reduced after 20 days of cold exposure. Morphologically, significant changes were also observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after both acute and chronic cold stresses to the animals. The data from the current study indicated that both acute and chronic cold stresses were able to induce inflammation responses in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, which might be due to the cold-damaged intestinal morphology.

  19. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by enzyme immune-assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Multifactor fundamental research under experimental and industrial conditions on farm and laboratory animals and also on humans blood serum of Chernobyl NPP clean-up workers conducted within 1982 - 2002 have enabled us to establish the existence of two previously unknown phenomena: the phenomenon of reversible redistribution of cytobiochemical parameters in the blood-interstices-lymph-blood system of irradiated animals, which supports compensatory maintenance of homeostasis. The phenomenon of specific immunochemical reactions to the radiological effect, involving the formation of high molecular mass glycoprotein (molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa) - radiation antigens (SDR - specific radiation determinant) in the lymphoid system with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1) , toxic (2) gastrointestinal (3) and typical (4) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay (EIA), antiradiation vaccine, antiradiation serum, method of immune-lymph-plasmosorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (SDR) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of SDR in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of SDR -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination

  20. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author)

  1. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author).

  2. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  3. A mathematical model for leukemogenesis of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Ban, N.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in C3H/He mice irradiated. Our previous study indicated that the leukemogenesis of AML was associated with a deletion of chromosome 2 directly induced by acute radiation. We hypothesized that radiation-induced AML needs both inactivation of one allele of a causative gene directly induced by acute radiation and another mutational event at the other allele. We analyzed data using a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis. Model fitting was based on the maximum likelihood method. Our model analysis suggested that a single exposure might induce the long-lasting delayed cell death of radiation-induced initiated cells, and that the incidence of AML may be determined through both radiation-induced initiation and persistent increase of delayed cell death of the initiated cell induced by radiation

  4. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  6. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  7. Psychological stress affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, A E; Bennett, N C; Herst, P M

    2017-11-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates many pathological conditions including inflammatory skin conditions. The effect of psychological stress on acute radiation-induced skin reactions has not been documented before. Here, we aimed to explore if psychological stress could aggravate skin reaction severity in breast cancer patients. We conducted a secondary analysis of patient data obtained during a randomised, controlled clinical trial for acute radiation-induced skin reaction severity in 78 breast cancer patients. Patients were assessed three times a week during treatment. Skin reaction severity was measured using the modified Radiation-Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale (RISRAS) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grades. Stress levels were determined using a 5-point LIKERT scale to rate physical well-being, managing stress levels, house, family, work and other commitments. A total of 20 patients (26%) of the 78-patient cohort were considered stressed. Skin reaction severity in stressed patients was twice that of non-stressed patients (p stressed patients were five times more likely to develop moist desquamation. Our results show that psychological stress aggravates skin reaction severity during radiation therapy. This research needs to be validated in a more rigorous manner by incorporating a validated scale such as the Distress Thermometer and Impact Thermometer in future skin trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at days 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + CD8 + T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

  9. Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Fantuzzi, Giamila, E-mail: giamila@uic.edu [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-08-07

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at days 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4{sup +}, CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

  10. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis. Nine (1.4%) patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients), 78% of patients (7 patients) with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29-155; p acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-37.4); p = 0.038). Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung disease should be assessed for safer irradiation of areas involving the lung field.

  11. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  12. Effect of radiation on apoptosis in small intestine and colon of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guirong; Guo Guozhen; Tian Furong; Wang Jin; Zhang Liyan; Guo Yao

    2000-01-01

    To discuss the changes of apoptosis level in small bowel and colon of mice after γ-ray irradiation. The mice were irradiated with different doses (1,6,12 Gy). The incidence of apoptosis in small bowel and colon were observed at different time (6,12,24h) after irradiation using morphological method. Then results indicate that there were apoptosis in small bowel of normal mice, the number of apoptotic cell was 0.038 +- 0.059 per whole crypt. No apoptosis was observed in colon of normal mice and irradiated mice; The incidence of apoptosis significantly increased in small bowel after different doses of irradiation (p < 0.05). The apoptosis peak appeared at 12, 24, 6 h after 1, 6, 12 Gy irradiation; The incidence of apoptosis was higher in small bowel than that of colon after different doses of irradiation and at different time after irradiation. From the results the authors propose that the radiation-damaged cells might be more effectively removed in small bowel than in colon after irradiation. Radiation-damaged cells may tend to remain in colon and related to later tumorigenesis

  13. Radioprotection of Intestinal Stem Cells and Whole Body Radiation Lethality from Photons and Neutrons by Prostaglandins along or in Combination with WR-2721

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Hanson, DL. Henninger, and R.J.M. Fry, Time dependence of intestinal proliferative cell risk vs. stem cell risk to radiation or colcemid cytotoxicity...agents, In: Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens (O.F. Nygaard and M.G. Simic , Eds.) pp. 639-653. Academic Press, Inc. (1983). 9. J. Denekamp, A. Rojas...and F.A. Stewart, Is radioprotection by WR-2721 restricted to normal tissues? In: Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens (0. F. Nygaard and M.G. Simic

  14. Protection of Radiation-Induced Damage to the Hematopoietic System, Small Intestine and Salivary Glands in Rats by JNJ7777120 Compound, a Histamine H4 Ligand

    OpenAIRE

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J.; Carabajal, Eliana; Prestifilippo, Juan P.; Rossi, Luis; Elverdin, Juan C.; Merani, Susana; Bergoc, Rosa M.; Rivera, Elena S.; Medina, Vanina A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg) starting 24 h be...

  15. Intestine-specific MTP and global ACAT2 deficiency lowers acute cholesterol absorption with chylomicrons and HDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutjdir, Mohamed; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol absorption involves the chylomicron and HDL pathways and is dependent on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and ABCA1, respectively. Chylomicrons transport free and esterified cholesterol, whereas HDLs transport free cholesterol. ACAT2 esterifies cholesterol for secretion with chylomicrons. We hypothesized that free cholesterol accumulated during ACAT2 deficiency may be secreted with HDLs when chylomicron assembly is blocked. To test this, we studied cholesterol absorption in mice deficient in intestinal MTP, global ACAT2, and both intestinal MTP and global ACAT2. Intestinal MTP ablation significantly increased intestinal triglyceride and cholesterol levels and reduced their transport with chylomicrons. In contrast, global ACAT2 deficiency had no effect on triglyceride absorption but significantly reduced cholesterol absorption with chylomicrons and increased cellular free cholesterol. Their combined deficiency reduced cholesterol secretion with both chylomicrons and HDLs. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, free cholesterol accumulated in the absence of MTP and ACAT2 is unavailable for secretion with HDLs. Global ACAT2 deficiency causes mild hypertriglyceridemia and reduces hepatosteatosis in mice fed high cholesterol diets by increasing hepatic lipoprotein production by unknown mechanisms. We show that this phenotype is preserved in the absence of intestinal MTP in global ACAT2-deficient mice fed a Western diet. Further, we observed increases in hepatic MTP activity in these mice. Thus, ACAT2 deficiency might increase MTP expression to avoid hepatosteatosis in cholesterol-fed animals. Therefore, ACAT2 inhibition might avert hepatosteatosis associated with high cholesterol diets by increasing hepatic MTP expression and lipoprotein production. PMID:25030663

  16. On clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.I.; Ivanov, I.A.; Nikiforov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Main features of clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period are described. Search for ways of activization of recovery to improve the efficiency of treatments and to accelerate patients rehabilitation is of great interest for clinical medicine. It is outlined that correction of post-irradiation disorders of energy and plastic metabolism by means of influence on cell metabolism must begin as early as possible already at the initial period of disease

  17. Effectiveness of Aloe vera leaf extract against low level exposure to gamma radiation induced injury in intestinal mucosa of Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: Human beings can not deny the presence of all sorts of incoming radiations, which are detrimental to life. The small intestine represents one of the major dose limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy because of its high radio sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Aloe vera, a potential radioprotector. Radioprotective efficacy of aloe vera leaf extract in intestinal mucosa in mice (1 g/kg body weight/day) was studied from 6h to day 20 after gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy(. Villus height, goblet cells/villus section, total cells are good parameters for the assessment of radiation damage. The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15 consecutive days and served as experimental group. On 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6, 12, 24 h and 5, 10, 20 days. Aloe vera pretreatment resulted in a significant increase (p<0.001) in villus height, total cells whereas globlet cells showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) from respective irradiated controls at each autospy day. The results suggest that Aloe vera pretreatment provides protection against radiation-induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss mice

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  19. Dose Response for Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius After Acute Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Safina Wan Abdul Razak; Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius is locally known as Grey oyster. The species is popular and widely cultivated throughout the world mostly in Asia Europe as their simple and low cost production technology and higher biological efficiency. Mutation induction is an alternative ways for improving available commercial strain for better quality traits. Dose response is important in evaluating effects of mutagenesis via acute gamma radiation. Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius was exposed to acute gamma radiation ranged from 0 Gy, 0.1 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, 0.8 kGy, 0.9 kGy, 1.0 kGy, 1.5 Gy, 2.0 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy at dose rate 0.013 kGy/ min. growth performance was measured at 2 days interval to get the LD 50 . Increasing of the irradiation dose found to decrease the growth performance of the monokaryon mycelium. LD 50 was revealed at 1.56 kGy for mono karyon mycelium. Discoveries of the works are important for the improvement of Pleurotus species via acute gamma radiation and benefiting to growers and mushroom industries. (author)

  20. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Doppler Ultrasonography: Comprehensive Evaluation of Acute Rejection After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Zhao, Jingwen; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Hongtao; Niu, Ningning

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical application of color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) for the diagnosis of acute rejection after liver transplantation. B-Mode CDFI and ARFI assessments were performed in 76 patients who underwent biopsy after liver transplantation at our institution, between October 2011 and October 2014. The study group included 56 patients with acute rejection confirmed by biopsy, with 20 patients whose liver function recovered within 1 month of transplantation forming the control group. Anteroposterior diameter of the liver, hemodynamic index (consisting of the portal vein diameter, portal vein flow velocity, and hepatic vein flow waveform), and ARFI shear wave velocity (SWV) were measured. We used logistic regression modeling and receiver operating curve to evaluate between-group differences. Compared with the control group, patients with acute rejection exhibited increased anteroposterior diameter (P = .035) and change in hemodynamic index (P = .021), including increased portal vein diameter, decreased portal vein flow, and loss of triphasic waveform of hepatic vein flow. Acoustic radiation force impulse SWV was markedly increased in the acute rejection group (P liver transplantation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Protective effects of parmelia tinctorum preparations on acute radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Ge; Li Songnian; Liu Peixun; Sheng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiation protection effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations in dosage, drug administration time, administration methods and different preparation methods on acute radiation-injured mice, and find out the best therapeutic project. Methods: Kunming mice were injected (ip) with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations before irradiation respectively, then irradiated by 9 Gy 60 Co γ-ray. The 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. By the same method, another group of mice were injected (ip) with Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h before irradiation respectively, the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations from intramuscular and oral routes were compared with the same method. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum water extract preparations and alcohol extract preparations were compared. Results: A certain dosage (20-80 mg/kg) of Parmelia tinctorum preparations could greatly improve the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors of radiation-injured mice. Parmelia tinctorum preparations had significant therapeutic effect on 60 Co γ-ray radiation-injured mice at 15 min-1 h before irradiation. Administration of Parmelia tinctorum preparations by intramuscular injection showed a little lower efficacy than by intraperitoneal injection, but administration the same dose orally had no significant radiation protective effect. Parmelia tinctorum preparations extracted by water injected (ip) before irradiation had the same radiation protective effect with those extracted by 50% alcohol. Conclusion: Parmelia tinctorum preparations have a certain protective effect on acute radiation-injured mice. The best therapeutic project is injected (ip) with 40 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 30 min before irradiation. (authors)

  2. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83).

  3. Topical Calendula and Betamethasone Valerate in the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy for many cancers, including breast cancer. Despite the high prevalence of acute radiation dermatitis as well as wet desquamation, only a few trials studying the prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. In spite of these studies, some controversy still exists about regarding treatments for acute radiation dermatitis, as does some concern about their long-term complications. For this reason, we conducted a clinical trial for a new treatment with the same effectiveness as corticosteroids, but fewer complications. Methods: This trial included 60 patients with pathologic diagnoses of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy had been planned. Patients were 30-73 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy over five weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy over six weeks divided in 200 cGy fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: one group received a moderately-potent glucocorticoid steroid, 0.1% betamethasone ointment (30, and the other received the new treatment, 0.1% calendula ointment (30. All patients applied their respective drugs twice daily within the tangential field from the first day of radiation treatment until one month after treatment was completed. Starting one week after radiation therapy commenced, patients were monitored weekly for symptoms of dermatitis and the degree of severity as well as possible adverse drug effects, in addition to such monitoring on the days of their appointments. Four weeks after termination of therapy, patients were again examined, at which time they completed a questionnaire about dermatologic complications. Results: The mean time to develop dermatitis was 3.7 weeks for the betamethasone group and 3.87 weeks for the calendula group. Maximal dermatitis intensity during treatment in the betamethasone group was: 0, 6.7%; I, 73.3%; II, 16

  4. Development of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The space radiation environment, particularly solar particle events (SPEs), poses the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to humans; and organ doses from SPE exposure may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or within lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUMDOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE, written in FORTRAN, are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The ARR code is written in C. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in friendly way. A GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept example for future integration of other human space applications risk projection models. The current version of the ARRBOD GUI is a new self-contained product and will have follow-on versions, as options are added: 1) human geometries of MAX/FAX in addition to CAM/CAF; 2) shielding distributions for spacecraft, Mars surface and atmosphere; 3) various space environmental and biophysical models; and 4) other response models to be connected to the BRYNTRN. The major components of the overall system, the subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces are described in this

  5. Abdominal tuberculosis presenting as intestinal obstruction- Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the complications of abdominal tuberculosis is intestinal obstruction, which can be acute, chronic or acute on chronic. Other complications include intestinal haemorrhage, perforation of the intestine (rare), faecal fistula, cold abscess formation, mal-absorption syndrome and dissemination of the tuberculosis to other ...

  6. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Kim, Myung-Hee; Norman, Ryan; Patel, Zarana; Simonsen, Lisa; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Crew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.

  7. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radition-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die vorliegende Arbeit soll tierexperimentelle Ergebnisse zur Pathogenese akuter Funktionsstoerungen der Harnblase nach Bestrahlung zusammenfassen. Material und Methoden: Transurethrale zystometrische Messungen dienen zur longitudinalen Erfassung der Harnblasenfunktion bei der Maus. Mit dieser Methode koennen strahlenbedingte Stoerungen der Speicherkapazitaet quantifiziert werden. In histologischen Untersuchungen wurden Veraenderungen in der

  8. Intestinal bacteria in charge of radiation-induced inhibition of tumor metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Koike, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors previously reported that caecal irradiation prior to an i.v. challenge of tumor cells inhibited lung metastases formation. The authors here identified bacteria in charge of the radiation effect and reported kinetics of bacterial flora after abdominal irradiation. C3Hf/He male mice in either SPF, germ-free or gnotobiotic condition received abdominal irradiation with /sup 137/Cs γ-ray of 12 Gy and received an i.v. challenge of 10 fibrosarcoma (NFSa) 7 days thereafter. Gnotobiotes which were mono-associated with Enterobacter cloacae(Ent. cloacae) showed significantly smaller number of lung metastases than germ-free mice while monoassociation with Bifidobacilli failed to exert any inhibition. In SPF mice, Ent. cloacae translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes at day 5 to 7 of irradiation while Bifidobacilli and Lactobacili were detectable only at day 14. Considering that Ent. cloacae possess endotoxin while Bifidobacilli and Lactobacilli do not, abdominal irradiation probably releases endotoxin from caecum to the rest of the body, resulting in stimulation of the host defence mechanism against metastases

  9. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  10. Comparison of the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and intestinal crypt of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Yang, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, D.; Kim, J. C.; Shin, T.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the dose-response curves for the frequency of apoptosis in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and intestinal crypt using whole-body gamma irradiation. The incidence of gamma-ray-induced apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labelling (TUNEL) method. TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the DG and intestinal crypt were increased in a dose-dependent pattern (0-2 Gy). The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, with a significant relationship between the appearance of apoptosis and irradiation dose. The slopes of the dose-response curves in the DG were much steeper (∼5-6-fold) than those in the intestinal crypt within the range of 0-1 Gy exposure. Hippocampal DG might be a more effective and sensitive evaluation structure than the intestinal crypt to estimate the degree of radiation exposure in damaged organs of adult mice exposed to low irradiation dose. copy; The Author 2011. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All rights reserved. (authors)

  11. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts be-cause organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user-friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations direc-torate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts' organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and opera-tion planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI prod-uct, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  12. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts, because organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and operation planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI product, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  13. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  15. Dosimetric predictors of radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in IMRT for nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor H F; Ng, Sherry C Y; Leung, T W; Au, Gordon K H; Kwong, Dora L W

    2012-09-01

    We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs, and weightings should be considered for dose sparing

  16. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting in IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victor H.F., E-mail: vhflee@hku.hk [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Ng, Sherry C.Y.; Leung, T.W.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Kwong, Dora L.W. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Methods and Materials: Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs

  17. Acute pancreatitis secondary to duodeno-duodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal membrane, in a patient with intestinal malrotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Oehlenschläger; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Kjærulf Pless, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Duodeno-duodenal intussusception is often caused by an intraluminal tumour. The condition is rare owing to the retroperitoneal fixation of the duodenum, which is sometime absent in cases of intestinal malrotation. We describe the case of a 19-year old man admitted to hospital with abdominal pain ...

  18. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  19. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  20. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  1. Histopathological investigation of differences between female and male rats on radiation-induced acute lung toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal BU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced acute and chronic lung toxicity is one of the important adverse events that has a negative influence on quality of life. It is widely accepted today that there are important factors such as personal sensibility and genetic differences between patients which effect both treatment response and treatment toxicity. In this study, the influence of gender differences on acute lung toxicity due to radiotherapy is investigated. Accordingly, it is examined if there is a relation between gender and histopathologically proven vasculitis and pneumonia in the lung tissues of male and female rats that are sacrificed 6 weeks after radiotherapy. It is concluded that the gender differences in rats have no effect on lung toxicity.

  2. Clinical study on the effect of Yangyinjiandu decoction on acute radiation esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ping; Wang Fawei; Cui Shuxiang; Jiao Shunchang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Yangyinjiandu decoction for acute radiation esophagitis. Methods: Lung cancer and mediastinal tumor treated by radiotherapy(portals including oesophagus to a radical tumoricidal dose≥40 Gy, with≥10 cm oesophagus include in radiotherapy). Patients were randomly divided according to the time of acceptance into the treatment group and the control group. All parameters of the two groups were basically similar and comparable. The treatment group was given Yangyinjiandu decoction (one dose daily, water decoction, 200 ml, twice a day) taken in the morning and in the evening before the end of radiotherapy. The control group was given oral vitamin C tablet 100 mg once a day before the end of radiotherapy. Five days after radio-therapy, the control group took oral prednisone 5 mg three times a day and amoxicillin 5g three times a day. All the above medicines were continued for 7 days. Results: The commencement of complication was 14.86 ± 0.34 days in the treatment group and 13.55 ± 0.26 days in the control group (P<0.01). The degree of complication was significant]y less mild in the treated group than the control group. Complication of acute group II and III radiation esophagitis rates were 5 and 0 in the treatment group and 16 and 6 in the control group (P<0.05). The overall effective rate were 95.2% and marked effective rate 12.0% of the treated group but were statistically higher than those of the control group. Conclusions: Yangyinjiandu decoction is effective and better reliable in treating acute radiation esophagitis. (authors)

  3. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  5. Biotelemetering study of the mobility of dogs treated with acute radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.V.; Sharonin, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    For the investigation of the motoric activity of dogs after gamma irradiation in doses of 350 and 650 R, use was made of a biotelementric (non-contact) method of registration based on the use of standing radio waves. The method permits the determination of the distance covered by the animals in the enclosure during the observation, and the speed of their movement. Using these data as a basis, an analysis is made of spontaneous motoric activity during various periods of the clinical development of acute radiation sickness. (author)

  6. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells leading to acute myeloid leukemia in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhiko Ban; Tomoko Kusama

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (RI-AML) in mice is charaterized by deletion and/or rearrangement of chromosome 2. While chromosome 2 has been suspected to be a target of RI-AML, radiation-sensitive site of the chromosome might be implicated in the leukemogenesis. There were few cytogenetical studies, however, focusing on chromosomal rearrangements shortly after irradiation, and little was known about the frequency and pattern of chromosome 2 aberrations during the early period. In this study, metaphase samples were prepared from whole-body irradiated mice 24 hours after irradiation, most of the cells considered to be in the first mitotic stage. Distribution of chromosomal breakpoints on the metaphase samples were analyzed to study the relationship between chromosome aberrations and RI-AML. (author)

  7. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS – treatment of the reduced host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslet L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Christiane Bay2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Gentofte; 2University of Copenhagen, Medical Faculty, Copenhagen; 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Køge University Hospital, Køge, DenmarkBackground: The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes.Methods: Review of the current literature.Results: The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage’s important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS.Recommendation: Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least ~2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250–400 µg GM-CSF/m2 or 5 µg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of

  8. Degree and therapy of acute radiation syndromes. Introduction of a suggestion on acute radiation sickness therapy made by strategic national stockpile radiation working group of USA. part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Pan Zhen; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines, blood transfusion, and stem-cell transplantation in selected cases. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents. (authors)

  9. The efficacy of octreotide in the therapy of acute radiation-induced diarrhea: a randomized controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Melek N.; Yavuz, A. Aydin; Aydin, Fazil; Can, Gamze; Kavgaci, Halil

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although the somatostatin analog octreotide is currently used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and secretory diarrhea associated with various disorders, its role in the management of radiation enteritis is not well defined. We performed a randomized study that compared octreotide acetate with diphenoxylate hydrochloride plus atropine sulfate, the drug commonly used as therapy for acute radiation-induced diarrhea (ARID). Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with Grade 2 (four to six stools per day) or Grade 3 (≥ seven stools per day, National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) diarrhea associated with pelvic radiotherapy were assigned randomly to receive octreotide s.c., 100 μg three times daily (n=33) or diphenoxylate and atropine orally, 2.5 mg four times daily (n = 28). Radiotherapy was delivered to all patients in a conventional manner, with high-energy photons in a total dose ≥45 Gy, which exceeds the tolerance of intestine. Overall, there was no significant difference in patient characteristics or radiotherapy applied between the two arms. Patients were evaluated daily for the primary study end point, resolution of diarrhea, as well as for interruption of pelvic radiotherapy. Results: Within 3 days, ARID completely resolved in 20 patients in the octreotide arm (2 within the first day, 11 within the second day, and 7 within the third day) vs. only 4 (all within the second day of therapy) in the diphenoxylate arm (p=0.002). On the diphenoxylate arm, 15/28 patients were required to discontinue pelvic radiotherapy; on the octreotide arm, 6/33 patients were required to discontinue pelvic radiotherapy for an average of 1.89±0.5 and 0.45±0.2 days, respectively (p=0.003). No side effects were observed in either arm. Three patients on the diphenoxylate arm and only 1 on the octreotide arm required further treatment for parenteral replenishment of fluids and electrolytes or other antidiarrheal treatments. Conclusion

  10. The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment: Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Eating Disorder Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan C; Watson, Hunna J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Huh, Eun Young; Tarantino, Lisa M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Carroll, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the microbe-gut-brain axis to psychopathology is of interest in anorexia nervosa (AN), as the intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in metabolic function and weight regulation. We characterized the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in AN, using stool samples collected at inpatient admission (T1; n = 16) and discharge (T2; n = 10). At T1, participants completed the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Patients with AN were compared with healthy individuals who participated in a previous study (healthy comparison group; HCG). Genomic DNA was isolated from stool samples, and bacterial composition was characterized by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequencing results were processed by the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline. We compared T1 versus T2 samples, samples from both points were compared with HCG (n = 12), and associations between psychopathology and T1 samples were explored. In patients with AN, significant changes emerged between T1 and T2 in taxa abundance and beta (between-sample) diversity. Patients with AN had significantly lower alpha (within-sample) diversity than did HCG at both T1 (p = .0001) and T2 (p = .016), and differences in taxa abundance were found between AN patients and HCG. Levels of depression, anxiety, and eating disorder psychopathology at T1 were associated with composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. We provide evidence of an intestinal dysbiosis in AN and an association between mood and the enteric microbiota in this patient population. Future directions include mechanistic investigations of the microbe-gut-brain axis in animal models and association of microbial measures with metabolic changes and recovery indices.

  11. Successful Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis with Aloe Vera: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Arash; Akbari, Jafar; Alipour, Abbas; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Ala, Shahram; Salehifar, Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side-effect that affects up to 50% of patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a topical preparation of Aloe vera in the treatment of ARP induced by radiotherapy of pelvic area. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 20 consecutive patients with ARP after external-beam radiation therapy (46-72 Gy) of pelvic malignancies were randomized to receive either Aloe vera 3% or placebo ointment, 1 g twice daily for 4 weeks. These patients presented with at least two of the following symptoms: rectal bleeding, abdominal/rectal pain, diarrhea, or fecal urgency. These symptoms were rated by the patients in terms of their severity (grade 0-4) for each of the symptoms mentioned earlier at baseline and then weekly for 4 weeks. A symptom index was calculated by the addition of the scores (16 most symptomatic). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria and psychosocial status of the patients were also recorded weekly. The lifestyle impact of the symptoms was assessed by questionnaire grading from 0 (no effect on daily activity) to 4 (afraid to leave home). There was a significant (p Aloe vera) for diarrhea (median score: 0.67 vs. 0.11), fecal urgency (median score: 0.89 vs. 0.11), clinical presentation total (median score: 4.33 vs. 1.22), RTOG total (median score: 2.89 vs. 0.89), and lifestyle (median score: 1.1 vs. 0.33). Hemorrhage and abdominal/rectal pain did not improve significantly. The odds ratios for advantage of Aloe vera over placebo for "clinical presentation total" and "RTOG total" were 3.97 (1.3-11.9) and 5.9 (1.6-21.6), respectively. A substantial number of patients with radiation proctitis seem to benefit from therapy with Aloe vera 3% ointment.

  12. Dynamics of ceruloplasmin amd of some blood parameters in piglets suffering from acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) were followed up after treatment with gamma rays of 60 Co with a dose of 4 Ey (dose power 0.68 Ey/min) in the blood serum of male piglets of an average life weight of 18+-3 kg. CP level from 217 E/l raised to 376 E/l on the 16th hour after radiation and on the 16th day decreased to 296 e/l. Moreover, serum copper increased from 25 μmol/l to 42.3 μmol/l on the 16th hour following irradiation but on the 14th day its level dropped to 32.5 μmol/l. Erythrocyte and leucocyte count decreased from 5.83x10 12 /l and 19.94x10 12 /l to 2.47x10 12 /l and 2.0x10 9 /l, respectively. Besides, serum albumin decreased, but α-and β-globulins increased. Examination of ailing piglets showed a paraclinical pattern of an inflammatory process by acute radiation disease. CP as an antioxidant participates in reactions with toxic radiacals on radiation. By the rising of its level on radiation it again was characterized as an acute-phase protein. Serum CP was determined according to the method of Ravin using as substrate P-phenylendiamine dihydrochloride; serum copper - by the test of Boehringer Mannheim; serum proteins were studied electrophoretically on agarose gels using veronal buffer, pH 8.6

  13. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Giuseppe; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight.

  14. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pani

    Full Text Available During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays or during chronic (Californium-252 exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight.

  15. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ozawa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease.Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis.Nine (1.4% patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients, 78% of patients (7 patients with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29-155; p < 0.001 and performance status (≥2; odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-20.8; p = 0.049 were significant predictive factors. Further analysis of the 84 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease revealed that involvement of more than 10% of the lung field was the only independent predictive factor associated with the risk of acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-37.4; p = 0.038.Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung

  16. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, Ruediger S., E-mail: ruediger.goertz@uk-erlangen.de; Schuderer, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna@schuderer-floss.de; Strobel, Deike, E-mail: deike.strobel@uk-erlangen.de; Pfeifer, Lukas, E-mail: Lukas.Pfeifer@uk-erlangen.de; Neurath, Markus F., E-mail: Markus.Neurath@uk-erlangen.de; Wildner, Dane, E-mail: Dane.Wildner@uk-erlangen.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  17. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  19. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  20. Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisdorf, Daniel; Chao, Nelson; Waselenko, Jamie K; Dainiak, Nicholas; Armitage, James O; McNiece, Ian; Confer, Dennis

    2006-06-01

    Evaluation and management of victims of exposure to myelosuppressive radiation in a military, terrorist, or accidental event is challenging. The hematopoietic syndrome with marrow suppression and pancytopenia follows intermediate intensity radiation exposure and as such produces a clinical syndrome similar to that after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Therefore, hematologists, oncologists, and transplantation physicians have the opportunity and challenge to plan for care of irradiation victims. Management of the hematopoietic syndrome, as a component of acute radiation sickness, requires understanding its manifestations and implementation of clinical biodosimetry to provide appropriate therapeutic support. Hematopoietic growth factors may be of value if administered early as a component of supportive care. Planning for urgent stem cell transplantation for those with intermediate- to high-dose radiation (4-10 Gy) may be required. Establishing contingency plans for triage, assessment, supportive care, and treatment resembles the development of phase II trials, with defined eligibilities, treatment plans, and incorporated data collection to assess results and plan further improvements in care. The hematology/oncology community is most suited to participate in such contingency planning, and the necessary elements for its success are reviewed.

  1. Acutely exacerbated hypertension and increased inflammatory signs due to radiation treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teno, Shinichi; Tanabe, Akiyo; Nomura, Kaoru; Demura, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Hypertension and norepinephrine hypersecretion in a 59-year-old woman suffering from malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple metastases were appropriately controlled with α- and β- blockers, and α-methyltyrosine (α-MT), a catecholamine-synthesis inhibitor. Metastasized vertebrae were treated with external radiation to relieve pain, but this treatment had to be interrupted at a total dose of 20 Gy because the patient suffered acutely exacerbated hypertension (200/110 mmHg), tachycardia (160 beats/min) and a low-grade fever. Simultaneously her serum levels of LDH, potassium, urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell count, CRP and norepinephrine were significantly increased, suggesting that this episode was due to radiation-induced tissue destruction and the leakage of catecholamines and possibly interleukin-6, a cytokine mediating inflammation which is reportedly present in pheochromocytoma. The marked hypertension was controlled by continuous iv administration of phentolamine and propranolol. Although radiation therapy effectively relieves pain due to neoplasmic metastasis to the bone, physicians should be aware that life-threatening complications such as the above occur in malignant pheochromocytoma. Sufficient pretreatment with adrenergic blocking agents and/or α-MT and careful monitoring of the patient's general condition during radiation therapy, even at a low dose, are highly recommended. (author)

  2. Special investigations of hemoglobin in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravko, B.J.; Panasyuk, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of penetrating radiation into the UV, visible and IR spectra of hemoglobin obtained from guinea-pigs being irradiated by the 300 and 600 cGy doses is studied. The change of the absorption intensity in the range of 275 nm of aqueous hemoglobin solutions depending on the stage and duration of the radiation pathology is revealed. The displacement of amide absorption bands into a shorter area of hemoglobin fluctuations frequencies of irradiated animals in the period from the 1 to 19-th day after the irradiation by the 300 cGy dose and during the whole period of the acute radiation pathology after the irradiation by the 600 cGy dose is established by the use of the IR-spectroscopy method. For the relative quantitative estimation of the denaturized hemoglobins by radiation, radiotoxins and by other physical and chemical factors, one suggests to use the formulas of the hem optical density relation coefficient to the globin optical density

  3. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  4. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-02-20

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10-23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R=-0.80, p=0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R=0.81, p=0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains.

  5. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  6. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  7. Countermeasure development : Specific Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy of Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes (CARS) are extremely severe injuries. Combination of Radiation and Thermal factors induce development of the acute pathologi-cal processes in irradiated mammals: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMOD), toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). Also, high doses of Radiation and Thermal injury induce for-mation of following Toxin groups: A. Specific Radiation Toxins; B. Specific Thermal Toxins; C. Nonspecific Histiogenic Pro-inflammatory and Inflammatory Toxins (NHIT). Specific Radi-ation Toxins (SRT) include four major group of Toxins: Cerebrovascular Radiation Toxins (Cv RT), Cardiovascular Radiation Toxins (Cr RT), Gastrointestinal Radiation Toxins (Gi RT), and Hematopoietic Radiation Toxins (Hp RT). CvRT, Cr RT, Gi RT groups of toxins are defined as Neurotoxins and Hp RT group is defined as Hematotoxins. Specific Thermal Toxins (STT) were isolated from the burned skin (Voul S., Colker I. 1972). The group of Nonspecific Histio-genic Inflammatory Toxins (NHIT) includes high amount of tissue toxins which are peptides with medium molecular weight. This group of polypeptides can be a significant factor as a part of developing of the general inflammation reaction. However, NHIT toxins can't induce many reactions and changes which are specific for radiation. Specific Radiation Toxins (SRT) can induce specific processes and reactions such as clonogenic cell death -programmed apoptotic necrosis. Although besides high doses of radiation, other forms of cell death such as Pyroptosis or Oncosis should be considered. We postulate that NHIT toxins are similar for high doses of radiation and thermal injury. Specific Radiation Toxins (SRT) are induced by high doses of radiation. Specific Thermal Toxins (STT) toxins which formation is induced by a Thermal Factor are different from SRT. Administration of STT toxins or NHIT toxins (IV or IM) to

  8. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  9. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  10. Effect of Bovine Lactoferrin Treatment Followed by Acute Stress on the IgA-Response in Small Intestine of BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Juárez, Ma Concepción; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Barbosa-Cabrera, Reyna Elizabeth; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) has a pivotal role in gut homeostasis, which can be disturbed by stress. SIgA is formed by IgA-dimers (associated by the J-chain) and the secretory component, a protein derivative of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Given the gut immuno-modulatory properties of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), the aim of this study was to compare, after bLf treatment followed by acute stress, the IgA response and IgA-associated parameters in proximal versus distal small intestine. Male BALB/c mice (n = 6) were orally treated with bLf (50, 500, and 5000 μg) for 7 days, then stressed by immobilization for 1 h, and sacrificed. In proximal and distal segments, levels were determined of IgA in gut secretions (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), the α-/J-chain and pIgR proteins in epithelial cells (Western-blot), and mRNA expression of the α-/J-chain, pIgR, and interleukins (ILs) in mucosa (RT-PCR). Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (significance at P stress, bLf triggered higher levels of IgA, SIgA, and anti-bLf-IgA as well as greater mRNA expression of pIgR, IL-4, and IL-6 (500 µg) in proximal intestine, while inducing higher levels of the total IgA, α-/J-chain, and pIgR proteins as well as greater mRNA expression of the α-chain and IL-4 (5000 µg) in distal intestine. Compared to unstressed/bLf-untreated mice, plasma corticosterone (a stress biomarker, measured by ELISA) increased in stressed/bLf-treated (0, 50 and 500 µg) and unstressed/bLf-treated (5000 µg) mice. The interplay of corticosterone with gut neuroendocrine factors may have elicited signals creating anti-inflammatory conditions for an IgA-response profile in each intestinal region, according to the bLf concentration administered.

  11. The acute effects of postoperative radiation therapy on the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap used in immediate breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Shelli Hood; Lyons, Janice A.; Crowe, Joseph; Lucas, Armand; Yetman, Randall J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the acute effects of postoperative radiation therapy on the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction following modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five consecutive patients were treated with postoperative radiation therapy after TRAM flap reconstruction between 1985 and 1999. The radiation records for these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Information regarding treatment techniques, timing, and dose was obtained and correlated with the extent of erythema, desquamation, and the need for treatment break. Results: The median age was 48 years. The median dose of chest wall radiation was 5040 cGy. Additional boost doses were delivered in 13 patients. Twelve patients (48%) developed mild erythema in the treatment field during the course of treatment and 13 patients (52%) developed moderate (40%) or brisk (12%) erythema. Only 10 patients (40%) developed any kind of desquamation; 5 patients (20%) developed dry desquamation and another 5 patients (20%) developed moist desquamation. No patients required a break in the course of treatment because of acute side effects. None of the parameters evaluated (the use of chemotherapy prior to radiation, the interval between surgery and radiation, smoking, prior incidence of fat necrosis, the use of bolus during radiation, and the use of a boost) were predictive of an increased incidence of either the extent of erythema or the development of desquamation in the treatment field. Conclusion: Postmastectomy radiation for TRAM flap reconstruction is well tolerated and is not associated with an increased incidence of acute side effects. Radiation technique and the use of preradiation chemotherapy do not appear to be correlated with an increased incidence of acute side effects

  12. Radiation protection of the murine intestine by Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E/sub 1/ analogue, given alone or with WR-2721, is stereospecific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.R.; Houseman, K.A.; Nelson, A.K.; Collins, P.W.

    1988-06-01

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 1/ analogue, is one of the most effective radiation protectors of the PGs investigated to date. Misoprostol-induced protection is also additive to protection by the widely studied thio compound, WR-2721. The mechanism of PG-induced radiation protection and its interaction with WR-2721 is unknown. One important step in the investigation of the mechanism is to determine if PG-induced protection and its interaction with WR-2721 is mediated through PG receptor sites. A direct determination of receptor sites on murine intestinal clonogenic cells could not be made; however an indirect approach was possible. Misoprostol is composed of four stereoisomers of about equal proportions of which only one is gastric antisecretory and cytoprotective. Studies reported here compared radiation protection by this active isomer with that of one of the three inactive isomers. Furthermore, the additional protection of the two isomers when administered with WR-2721 was investigated. Results showed that only the active isomer was protective from radiation injury and this isomer was the only one which afforded additional protection with WR-2721. These data show that PG-induced radiation protection is receptor site dependent and stereospecific.

  13. Radiation protection of the murine intestine by Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, given alone or with WR-2721, is stereospecific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; Houseman, K.A.; Nelson, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin (PG) E 1 analogue, is one of the most effective radiation protectors of the PGs investigated to date. Misoprostol-induced protection is also additive to protection by the widely studied thio compound, WR-2721. The mechanism of PG-induced radiation protection and its interaction with WR-2721 is unknown. One important step in the investigation of the mechanism is to determine if PG-induced protection and its interaction with WR-2721 is mediated through PG receptor sites. A direct determination of receptor sites on murine intestinal clonogenic cells could not be made; however an indirect approach was possible. Misoprostol is composed of four stereoisomers of about equal proportions of which only one is gastric antisecretory and cytoprotective. Studies reported here compared radiation protection by this active isomer with that of one of the three inactive isomers. Furthermore, the additional protection of the two isomers when administered with WR-2721 was investigated. Results showed that only the active isomer was protective from radiation injury and this isomer was the only one which afforded additional protection with WR-2721. These data show that PG-induced radiation protection is receptor site dependent and stereospecific. (author)

  14. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F; Wildner, Dane

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n=21) and lipomatosis (n=30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n=35), chronic pancreatitis (n=53) and adenocarcinoma (n=52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n=4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  16. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrenc e should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die radiogene Oesophagitis ist eine haeufige akute Nebenwirkung bei kurativen wie palliativen Bestrahlungen thorakaler und zervikaler Tumoren. Spaete Gewebereaktionen sind selten, koennen aber schwerwiegend sein. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogen verursachten Oesophagitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Therapeutisch stehen die Sicherung der Ernaehrung und die

  17. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, a pro-oxidant, ameliorated radiation induced gastro-intestinal injury through perturbation of cellular redox and activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Lokesh

    Detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are observed at the doses above 1 Gy. Treatment modalities are available up to doses of 6 Gy including bonemarrow transplantation and administration of antibiotics. However, exposure to IR doses above 8 Gy results in gastro-intestinal (GI) syndrome characterised by denudated villi, apoptosis of crypt cells and elevated inflammatory responses. Multiple strategies have been employed to investigate novel agents to protect against IR induced injury. Since cellular redox homeostasis plays a pivotal role in deciding the cell fate, present study was undertaken to explore the potential of 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), a pro-oxidant, to ameliorate IR induced GI syndrome. NQ protected INT 407 cells against IR induced cell death of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. NQ induced perturbation in cellular redox status and induced the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Thiol antioxidant and inhibitors of Nrf2 pathway abrogated the radioprotection offered by NQ. Further, knocking down Nrf2 rescind the NQ mediated protection against IR induced cell death. In conclusion, NQ protects against IR radiation induced GI syndrome in vitro by perturbing cellular redox and activating Nrf2 pathway. This is the first report highlighting the potential of a pro-oxidant to ameliorate IR induced GI injury.

  18. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R 2 , 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  19. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  20. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  1. Co-existence of acute appendicitis and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the small intestine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Unver

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Coexistence of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor located in the gastrointestinal system with acute appendicitis is a rare event. Complete surgical excision should be regarded as the mainstay of the treatment. Long-term follow up with serial imaging techniques is recommended.

  2. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  3. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  4. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  5. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Liu, Yuan; Moore, Michael G.; Johnstone, Peter A. S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  6. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  7. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  8. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, pbone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, pmarrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, pbone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure to high dose whole body γ-radiation on bone turnover. PMID:23954507

  9. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  10. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  11. A randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study of mesalazine for the prevention of acute radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resbeut, Michel; Marteau, Philippe; Cowen, Didier; Richaud, Pierre; Bourdin, Sylvain; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Mere, Pascale; N'Guyen, Tan D.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Symptoms of acute radiation enteritis (ARE), dominated by diarrhea, occur in more than 70% of patients receiving pelvic irradiation. Eicosanoids and free radicals release have been implicated in the pathogenesis. Mesalazine (5-ASA) is a potent inhibitor of their synthesis in the mucosa and could therefore be of some interest in preventing ARE. Patients and methods: The study was performed in six radiotherapy units in France who agreed on standardized irradiation procedures. One hundred and fifty-three patients planned for external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis ≥45 Gy for prostate (n = 97) or uterus (n = 54) cancer were randomized on a double blind basis to receive prophylactic 5-ASA (4 g/day Pentasa[reg]) or placebo. Patients with concomitant chemotherapy were excluded. Prostate and uterus cancers were chosen since these centropelvic tumors require a similar radiotherapy protocol during the first step of treatment and involve a comparable volume of small intestine. The symptoms of ARE and their severity were assessed every week during irradiation, and 1 and 3 months after its end. All patients followed a low fiber and low lactose diet. End points were diarrhea, use of antidiarrheal agents, abdominal pain, and body weight. Efficacy was evaluated using intention to treat. Results: (means ± SD) Groups did not differ for age (mean 64 ± 9 years), sex, tumor site, or irradiation procedure. During irradiation, diarrhea occurred in 69% and 66% of the 5-ASA and placebo groups, respectively (χ 2 , P = 0.22). Curves of survival without diarrhea did not differ between groups (logrank P = 0.09). Severity of diarrhea did not differ between groups except at d15 where it was significantly more severe in the 5-ASA group (ANOVA P = 0.006). Duration of diarrhea did not differ (22 ± 15 days in both groups, P = 0.88). Abdominal pain was less frequently reported in the 5-ASA group at d28 (34% vs. 51%, P 0.048). Use of antidiarrheal agents and body weight

  12. Absence of ATM truncations in patients with severe acute radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Raymond A.; Goozee, Gary R.; Birrell, Geoff; Zhi Ming Fang; Hasnain, Homa; Lavin, Martin; Kearsley, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Severe acute toxicity limits the effective use of radiotherapy in patients who are radiosensitive, and it is not usually possible to identify these radiohypersensitive (R-H) individuals before treatment commences. Five such R-H patients were detected over a 3-year period. We undertook this study to determine whether the severe acute radiohypersensitivity of these five individuals showed any correlation with cellular and molecular parameters known to be abnormal in radiosensitivity-related syndromes such as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Methods and Materials: Lymphoblastoid cells were isolated from fresh blood from the 5 R-H individuals who had previously demonstrated clinical R-H at least 9 months prior to sampling. Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were established to determine the extent of postradiation chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle delay, cell proliferation, and tumor suppressor p53 protein stabilization. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and protein truncation (PTT) assays were used to test for the possibility of mutations in the gene mutated in A-T, termed ATM. Results: LCLs derived from R-H subjects retained a significantly higher degree of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations when compared to normal control LCLs. p53 stabilization by ionizing radiation appeared normal in all but one R-H subject. There was no evidence of A-T gene truncation mutations in any of the R-H subjects tested. Conclusions: All R-H subjects in this study had their cellular radiosensitivity confirmed by the chromosomal aberration assay. Delayed p53 stabilization at 4 hours postirradiation in one R-H subject suggested that different etiologies may apply in the radiohypersensitivity investigated in this study

  13. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those reportedis'gi m3 from other parts of the coun- try. Mortality from childhood intestinal obstruction is still high in our environment. References. 1. Otu AA. Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute intestinal obstruction. Postgrad. Doctor (Afr) 1992; 14: 51. 2.

  14. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  15. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 μg/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  16. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  17. Assessment of acute and late effects to high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1994-11-01

    We have begun to reassess late tissue effects available from the Charged Particle Cancer Radiotherapy program at Berkeley. Our quantitative approach is limited in the analysis of these Phase I/II studies by not having equivalent patient numbers for each of the particle beams studied, by not having completely comparable follow-up times, by variations in the sizes of the fields compared, by variations in the skin scoring photographic documentation available from the patient charts, and by variations in the fractionation sizes, numbers and schedules. Despite these limitations, preliminary evidence demonstrates acute skin reactions with a shift to increasing lower dose per fraction per field for the maximum skin reactions of helium, carbon and neon ions compared to electrons. Comparisons with skin reactions from low-energy neutrons indicate that Bragg peak carbon ions (initial energy 308 MeV/nucleon) are slightly less effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak neon ions (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) corrected for differences in reference radiation are slightly more effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak silicon (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) result in an enhanced acute skin reaction, and a premature appearance of late effects that may indicate a significantly different mechanism of damage and/or repair

  18. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  19. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  20. Intrarectal amifostine suspension may protect against acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Menard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Simone, Nicole L.; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears; Godette, Denise J.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Sciuto, Linda C.; Coleman, Jonathan; Pinto, Peter; Albert, Paul S.; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test the ability of intrarectal amifostine to limit symptoms of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: The first 18 patients received 1 g of intrarectal amifostine suspension placed 30-45 min before each radiation treatment. The following 12 patients received 2 g of amifostine. Total dose prescribed ranged from 66 to 76 Gy. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The suspension remained intrarectal during treatment and was expelled after treatment. For gastrointestinal symptoms, during treatment and follow-up, all patients had a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade recorded. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-24 months). With 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine, there was a nearly significant decrease in RTOG Grade 2 acute rectal toxicity. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18) compared with 0% (0/12) in the 2-g group (p = 0.06). No Grade 3 toxicity or greater occurred in this study. Conclusion: This trial suggests greater rectal radioprotection from acute effects with 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine suspension. Further studies should be conducted in populations at higher risk for developing symptomatic acute and late proctitis

  1. Induction of NKG2D ligands by gamma radiation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may participate in the tissue damage during acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé, Monique; Buzyn, Agnès; Bogiatzi, Sofia I; Lambert, Marion; Soumelis, Vassili; Dal Cortivo, Liliane; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Brousse, Nicole; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2008-03-27

    Immunopathology of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) involves secretion of proinflammatory cytokines with subsequent expression of danger signals by injured host tissues. This explanation, however, does not explain the cluster of aGVHD target organs (skin, gut, and liver). NKG2D ligands (MICA/B and ULBP1-3 proteins) are stress-induced molecules that act as danger signals to alert NK and alphabeta or gammadelta CD8 T cells through engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor. We observed a strong and reversible induction of MICA/B expression in skin and liver sections during aGVHD. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma-radiation up-regulated expression of MICA/B and ULBP proteins in vitro on skin and intestine epithelial cell lines and ex vivo in normal skin explants. This NKG2D-ligand induction was regulated by a complex interplay between NFkB and JNK activation pathways. Our data suggest that NKG2D ligand induction might participate in the amplification loop that leads to tissue damage during aGVHD.

  2. Cholinesterase response in the rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and small intestine of the BALB/c mice and the radioprotective actions of exogenous ATP after lethal dose of neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeinfeld, D.; De Villiers, N.

    1993-01-01

    The rhabdomyosarcoma tumors were subjected to different doses of 2.0, 3.8 and 7.0 Gy from a neutron beam facility p(66 MeV)/Be. Elevated levels of cholinesterase activity are observed in which there is a correlation between the different doses of neutron radiation and the augmentation response of this enzyme. The increase of cholinesterase activity after 7 Gy neutron irradiation as a feature of involvement in the homeostatic mechanism maintaining the proper choline/acetylcholine ratio in the cell is also observed at 1 and 24 h in both tissues, rhabdomyosarcoma and small intestine. The activity of the enzyme after neutron irradiation with prior administration of ATP showed smaller increases when compared with increase observed after neutron irradiation alone. Moreover in the present work the protective mechanism of ATP in the response of cholinesterase activity is marked differential between both, normal and tumoral tissue and correlated inversely with the administered of the following concentrations of exogenous ATP (8, 25, 80, 250, and 700 mg/kg body weight) prior to exposure to 7 Gy neutron radiation. These results reflect the radioprotective ability of exogenous ATP to exert a number of metabolic adaptations as a defense mechanism in which the cell exposed to neutron radiation could remain viable because the injury is potentially repairable. (orig.) [de

  3. Sarcocystid organisms found in bile from a dog with acute hepatitis: a case report and review of intestinal and hepatobiliary Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2016-03-01

    Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Intestinal microbiome disruption in patients in a long-term acute care hospital: A case for development of microbiome disruption indices to improve infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Alison Laufer; de Man, Tom J B; Kraft, Colleen S; Perry, K Allison; Chan, Austin W; Lieu, Sung; Mikell, Jeffrey; Limbago, Brandi M; McDonald, L Clifford

    2016-07-01

    Composition and diversity of intestinal microbial communities (microbiota) are generally accepted as a risk factor for poor outcomes; however, we cannot yet use this information to prevent adverse outcomes. Stool was collected from 8 long-term acute care hospital patients experiencing diarrhea and 2 fecal microbiota transplant donors; 16S rDNA V1-V2 hypervariable regions were sequenced. Composition and diversity of each sample were described. Stool was also tested for Clostridium difficile, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Associations between microbiota diversity and demographic and clinical characteristics, including antibiotic use, were analyzed. Antibiotic exposure and Charlson Comorbidity Index were inversely correlated with diversity (Spearman = -0.7). Two patients were positive for VRE; both had microbiomes dominated by Enterococcus faecium, accounting for 67%-84% of their microbiome. Antibiotic exposure correlated with diversity; however, other environmental and host factors not easily obtainable in a clinical setting are also known to impact the microbiota. Therefore, direct measurement of microbiome disruption by sequencing, rather than reliance on surrogate markers, might be most predictive of adverse outcomes. If and when microbiome characterization becomes a standard diagnostic test, improving our understanding of microbiome dynamics will allow for interpretation of results to improve patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  6. Estimating the Incidence of Acute Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community in the UK: A Retrospective Telephone Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Viviani

    Full Text Available To estimate the burden of intestinal infectious disease (IID in the UK and determine whether disease burden estimations using a retrospective study design differ from those using a prospective study design.A retrospective telephone survey undertaken in each of the four countries comprising the United Kingdom. Participants were randomly asked about illness either in the past 7 or 28 days.14,813 individuals for all of whom we had a legible recording of their agreement to participate.Self-reported IID, defined as loose stools or clinically significant vomiting lasting less than two weeks, in the absence of a known non-infectious cause.The rate of self-reported IID varied substantially depending on whether asked for illness in the previous 7 or 28 days. After standardising for age and sex, and adjusting for the number of interviews completed each month and the relative size of each UK country, the estimated rate of IID in the 7-day recall group was 1,530 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 1135-2113, while in the 28-day recall group it was 533 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 377-778. There was no significant variation in rates between the four countries. Rates in this study were also higher than in a related prospective study undertaken at the same time.The estimated burden of disease from IID varied dramatically depending on study design. Retrospective studies of IID give higher estimates of disease burden than prospective studies. Of retrospective studies longer recall periods give lower estimated rates than studies with short recall periods. Caution needs to be exercised when comparing studies of self-reported IID as small changes in study design or case definition can markedly affect estimated rates.

  7. Effect of bra use during radiation therapy for large-breasted women: Acute toxicity and treated heart and lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lanea M M; Cohen, Randi; Sopka, Dennis M; Li, Tianyu; Li, Linna; Anderson, Penny R; Fowble, Barbara L; Freedman, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Large breast size presents special problems during radiation simulation, planning, and patient treatment, including increased skin toxicity, in women undergoing breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy (BCT). We report our experience using a bra during radiation in large-breasted women and its effect on acute toxicity and heart and lung dosimetry. From 2001 to 2006, 246 consecutive large-breasted women (bra size ≥38 or ≥D cup) were treated with BCT using either 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In 58 cases, at the physicians' discretion, a custom-fit bra was used during simulation and treatment. Endpoints were acute radiation dermatitis and dosimetric comparison of heart and lung volumes in a subgroup of 12 left-sided breast cancer patients planned with and without a bra. The majority of acute skin toxicities were grade 2 and were experienced by 90% of patients in a bra compared with 70% of patients not in a bra (P = .003). On multivariate analysis significant predictors of grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity included the use of 3DCRT instead of IMRT (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-8.5) and the use of a bra (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.8). For left-sided patients, the use of a bra was associated with a volume of heart in the treatment fields decreased by 63.4% (P = .002), a volume of left lung decreased by 18.5% (P = .25), and chest wall separation decreased by a mean of 1 cm (P = .03). The use of a bra to augment breast shape and position in large-breasted women is an alternative to prone positioning and associated with reduced chest wall separation and reduced heart volume within the treatment field. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Literature review and global consensus on management of acute radiation syndrome affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Gent, Robert Nicolas; Carr, Zhanat; Schneider, Rita; Bader, Judith; Buglova, Elena; Chao, Nelson; Coleman, C Norman; Ganser, Arnold; Gorin, Claude; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Huff, L Andrew; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Powles, Ray; Schünemann, Holger; Shapiro, Alla; Stenke, Leif; Valverde, Nelson; Weinstock, David; White, Douglas; Albanese, Joseph; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-10-01

    The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature. English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/or shock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak recommendation is made for the use

  9. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  10. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Santos, Adriana; Martins, Lidiane C; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael J; Sakuraba, Roberto; Lopes, Cleverson P; Cruz, José C

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  11. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  12. Acute radiation reactions in oral and pharyngeal mucosa: tolerable levels in altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Jack F.; Harari, Paul M.; Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H.

    2003-01-01

    by up to roughly 3-5 Gy10 in BED, with a request for further evidence. Conclusions:It is suggested that total BED should be used, as specified above. Parameters of α=0.35 Gy- 1 , α/β=10 Gy, Tk=7 days and Tp=2.5 days are suggested. The 'acute/ tolerance zone' then turns out to be 59-61 Gy10 for radiation-only treatments. Further information about the decrement caused by concurrent head-and-neck cancer chemoradiotherapy, possibly 3-5 Gy10, is required

  13. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  14. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M [Harbor Biosciences, 9171 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 180, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  15. Effects of cranial radiation on hearing in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibadoux, G.M.; Pereira, W.V.; Hodges, J.M.; Aur, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who were admitted to our Total Therapy IX study between December 1975 and July 1977 was studied. Their treatment included combined chemotherapy, 2400 rads of cranial radiation, and intrathecal methotrexate. Subjects initially received an otologic examination and middle ear function testing. Audiometric testing was not done until ears were free of outer or middle ear pathology. If the child had no outer or middle ear disease, audiometric thresholds were obtained for the test frequencies: 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Pure-tone thresholds were obtained before irradiation (61 patients) and at 6, 12, and 36 months thereafter (49, 46, and 22 patients, respectively). The median age of time of baseline testing was 10 years, 2 months. A paired sample test based on group data was used to test whether there were any significant changes from the threshold values at 6, 12, and 36 months after irradiation. Thresholds were not significantly affected for any test frequency at any test time. Assessments of individual audiograms indicated that none of the children had any significant reductions in hearing levels at the end of the third year after cranial irradiation

  16. Interactions of radiation and adriamycin, bleomycin, mitomycin C or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in intestinal crypt cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H

    1984-01-01

    .40), at which interval the D0 surprisingly increased by a factor of 1.4. Administration of MM-C from 24 h before to 24 h after irradiation enhanced the radiation response. The effect peaked on administration 6 h before irradiation (DEF = 1.21) and diminished by application after irradiation. Cis-DDP enhanced......The interactions of radiation and adriamycin (ADM), bleomycin (BLM), mitomycin C (MM-C), or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cis-DDP) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. ADM administered from 24 h before to 48 h after irradiation resulted in an almost...... constant enhancement of the radiation response, the dose effect factor (DEF) being 1.19. The effect of BLM was extremely dependent on the sequence and interval between drug administration and irradiation. The most pronounced effect was observed when BLM was given 2 h before irradiation (DEF = 2...

  17. Acute-phase response reactants as objective biomarkers of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fazilat F; Poon, Ian; Zhang, Liying; Elliott, Liz; Hodson, Ian D; Sagar, Stephen M; Wright, James

    2012-07-01

    Current evaluation of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer relies on subjective scoring with interrater variability. We evaluated serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as objective markers of radiation-induced mucositis. Weekly serum CRP and ESR levels were measured in patients treated for head and neck cancer with radiation ± chemotherapy. Acute radiation toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute of Canada-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCIC-CTC) version 2.0 and the Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ). ESR and CRP levels were significantly elevated by 3 weeks (p = .01) and 6 weeks (p = .0002), respectively, and independent of age or pretreatment surgery. ESR was significantly dependent on radiation dose (p = .0004) and significantly higher with chemoradiation (p = .03). Serum ESR and CRP rise reliably in a radiation dose-dependent manner. ESR correlated with clinical symptoms and distinguished patients receiving chemoradiation. ESR and CRP may be an objective and sensitive marker of radiation-induced mucositis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  19. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Methods Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease...

  20. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  1. Radiation-induced acute dysphagia. Prospective observational study on 42 head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alterio, D.; Gerardi, M.A.; Fodor, C.; Ciardo, D.; Ferrari, A.; Colangione, S. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); Cella, L.; D' Avino, V.; Conson, M.; Palma, G. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Spoto, R.; Dicuonzo, S.; Jereczek-Fossa, B.A. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Oncology and Hemato-oncology, Milan (Italy); Zurlo, V.; Bruschini, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Milan (Italy); Sabbatini, A.; Valoriani, F. [European Institute of Oncology, Dietetic and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Milan (Italy); Pacelli, R. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Federico II University School of Medicine, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Maisonneuve, P. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Milan (Italy); Preda, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Cossu Rocca, M. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Urogenital and Head and Neck Tumors, Department of Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Rondi, E. [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Scientific Directorate, Milan (Italy); Sanguineti, G. [Istituto Tumori Regina Elena, Rome (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Acute toxicity in head and neck (H and N) cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) has a crucial role in compliance to treatments. The aim of this study was to correlate doses to swallowing-associated structures and acute dysphagia. We prospectively analyzed 42 H and N cancer patients treated with RT. Dysphagia (grade ≥ 3) and indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion were classified as acute toxicity. Ten swallowing-related structures were considered for the dosimetric analysis. The correlation between clinical information and the dose absorbed by the contoured structures was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression method using resampling methods (bootstrapping) was applied to select model order and parameters for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modelling. A strong multiple correlation between dosimetric parameters was found. A two-variable model was suggested as the optimal order by bootstrap method. The optimal model (Rs = 0.452, p < 0.001) includes V{sub 45} of the cervical esophagus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016) and D{sub mean} of the cricopharyngeal muscle (OR = 1.057). The model area under the curve was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.95). Our results suggested that the absorbed dose to the cricopharyngeal muscle and cervical esophagus might play a relevant role in the development of acute RT-related dysphagia. (orig.) [German] Bei Kopf-Hals-Tumorpatienten, die mit einer kurativen Strahlentherapie (''radiation therapy'', RT) behandelt werden, spielt die Akuttoxizitaet eine entscheidende Rolle fuer die Patientencompliance bei der Behandlung. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Dosen im Bereich des Schluckapparates mit der akuten Dysphagie zu korrelieren. Prospektiv analysiert wurden 42 mit einer RT behandelten Patienten. Eine Dysphagie III und/oder die Indikation fuer eine PEG(perkutane endoskopische Gastrostomie)-Anlage wurden als Akuttoxizitaet klassifiziert. Fuer die dosimetrische

  2. The analysis of prognostic factors affecting post-radiation acute reaction after conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spych, Michał; Gottwald, Leszek; Klonowicz, Małgorzata; Biegała, Michał; Bibik, Robert; Fijuth, Jacek

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the risk of acute side effects in the lung after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An attempt was made to single out clinical factors and factors related to treatment technique which may induce acute post-radiation pneumonitis. The analysis concerned 34 consecutive patients who underwent radical radiation therapy for NSCLC. Intensity of early toxicity was evaluated using modified RTOG/EORTC toxicity score. The endpoint for this analysis was the occurrence of radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or higher. Factors related to treatment techniques were included in the statistical analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients included in the study suffered from acute post-radiation pneumonitis. The results of the study revealed the existence of lung tissue sensitivity to low doses of ionizing radiation. The multivariate analysis showed that total lung volume receiving a low dose of 10 Gy increased the risk of post-radiation pneumonitis (p = 0.01). Acute post-radiation pneumonitis was a relevant clinical problem in patients who underwent radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The lung volume receiving a dose of 10 Gy was the most important dosimetric factor which influenced the post-radiation acute pneumonitis.

  3. Intestinal TSH production is localized in crypt enterocytes and in villus 'hotblocks' and is coupled to IL-7 production: evidence for involvement of TSH during acute enteric virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Virginia L; Montufar-Solis, Dina; Cheng, Elly; Estes, Mary K; Klein, John R

    2005-06-15

    The immune and neuroendocrine systems have been shown to work conjointly in a number of ways. One aspect of this has to do with a potential role for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the regulation of the mucosal immune system, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain vague. To more thoroughly understand how TSH participates in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) development and immunity, experiments have been conducted to define local sites of intestinal TSH production, and to characterize changes that occur in the synthesis of TSH during acute enteric virus infection. Here, we demonstrate that TSH in the small intestine is specifically localized to regions below villus crypts as seen by immunocytochemical staining, which revealed high-level TSH staining in lower crypts in the absence of IL-7 staining, and TSH and IL-7 co-staining in upper crypt regions. Additionally, prominent TSH staining was evident in TSH 'hotblocks' sparsely dispersed throughout the epithelial layer. In rotavirus-infected mice, the TSH staining pattern differed significantly from that of non-infected animals. Notably, at 2 and 3 days post-infection, TSH expression was high in and near apical villi where virus infection was greatest. These findings lend credence to the notion that TSH plays a role both in the development of intestinal T cells, and in the process of local immunity during enteric virus infection.

  4. Intestinal failure: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Philip; Lal, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the gut to absorb necessary water, macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), micronutrients, and electrolytes sufficient to sustain life and requiring intravenous supplementation or replacement. Acute IF (types 1 and 2) is the initial phase of the illness and may last for weeks to a few months, and chronic IF (type 3) from months to years. The challenge of caring for patients with IF is not merely the management of the underlying condition leading to IF or the correct provision of appropriate nutrition or both but also the prevention of complications, whether thromboembolic phenomenon (for example, venous occlusion), central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, IF-associated liver disease, or metabolic bone disease. This review looks at recent questions regarding chronic IF (type 3), its diagnosis and management, the role of the multidisciplinary team, and novel therapies, including hormonal treatment for short bowel syndrome but also surgical options for intestinal lengthening and intestinal transplant. PMID:29399329

  5. The analysis of prognostic factors affecting post-radiation acute reaction after conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Spych, Michał; Gottwald, Leszek; Klonowicz, Małgorzata; Biegała, Michał; Bibik, Robert; Fijuth, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to evaluate the risk of acute side effects in the lung after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An attempt was made to single out clinical factors and factors related to treatment technique which may induce acute post-radiation pneumonitis. Material and methods The analysis concerned 34 consecutive patients who underwent radical radiation therapy for NSCLC. Intensity of early toxicity was evaluated...

  6. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition with butyrate acutely increases structural aspects of intestinal adaptation after an 80% jejunoileal resection in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholome, Anne L; Albin, David M; Baker, David H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific...

  7. Derivation of hazardous doses for amphibians acutely exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Takata, Toshitaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of effect benchmark values for each taxonomic group, which has been difficult due to lack of experimental effects data, is required for more adequate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Estimation of effects doses from nuclear DNA mass and subsequent species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis were proposed as a method for such a derivation in acute irradiation situations for assumed nuclear accident scenarios. As a case study, 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s), at which only 5% of species are acutely affected at 50% or higher lethality, were estimated on a global scale. After nuclear DNA mass data were obtained from a database, 50% lethal doses (LD 50 s) for 4.8 and 36% of the global Anura and Caudata species, respectively, were estimated by correlative equations between nuclear DNA mass and LD 50 s. Differences between estimated and experimental LD 50 s were within a factor of three. The HD 5 s obtained by the SSD analysis of these estimated LD 50 s data were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata, respectively. This approach was also applied to the derivation of regional HD 5 s. The respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan. This HD 5 value for the Japanese Anura was significantly higher than the global value, while Caudata had no significant difference in global and Japanese HD 5 s. These results suggest that this approach is also useful for derivation of regional benchmark values, some of which are likely different from the global values. - Highlights: ► A possible method was proposed for derivation of an effect benchmark value for each taxonomic group. ► 50% lethal doses were estimated from nuclear DNA mass in amphibian species. ► 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s) were estimated by species sensitivity distribution. ► Respective HD 5 s were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata globally. ► Respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan.

  8. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  9. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  10. Counter-Radiation Balm and its Medical Properties at Radiation Injuries and Functional Disorders in Gastrointestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkadze, R.; Shalamberidze, M.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that the Counter-Radiation Balm (CRB) is fairly effective in normalization of secretory phenomena and eubiotic state of the digestive tract in conditions of their functional disorders induced by various causes. The CRB has normalizing effect on an intestional flora during experimental dysbacterioses, induced with irradiation and starvation. This holds true in both bone marrow- and mixed patterns of acute radiation disease (ARD). The CRB somewhat decreases a toxic constituent of ARD, increases colonization resistance of the intestine to external microbial invasions and precludes extension of intestinal area for conditionally-pathogene flora. (author)

  11. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  12. [Correlation study of physical and biologic parameters to acute radiation pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-hai; Li, Zhi-ping; Chen, Xiao-mei; Liu, Xiao-jing; Wu, Wen-chao; Xu, Yong; Li, Ping; Zhang, Jin-tao; Zeng, Hui

    2008-09-01

    To study the relationship between the level of plasma transform growth factor-betal (TGF-betal), interleukin-6 (IL-6), thrombomodulin (TM) dose-volume factors and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP). Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy and chemotherapy were applied to 27 lung cancer patients, 15 esophageal carcinoma, and 1 thymoma patients. 19 patients received adjuvant radiochemotherapy, and 25 patients received concurrent radio-chemotherapy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the serum IL-6, TGF-betal and TM levels of patients before radiotherapy (B-RT) and at 30 Gy(M-RT). ARP was graded according to NCI common toxicity criteria (CTCAE v 3.0), Grade 2 or more ARP was taken as the main end point. The relationship between the levels of serum TGF-betal, IL-6, TM, parameters of lung function and dose-volume factors, and the incidence rate of ARP were analyzed. Mean lung dose (MLD) and the Vx were considered as the dose-volume factors. Among 44 patients, 15 of them had ARP. 9 got grade 2 ARP and 6 had grade 3. After received a dose of 30 Gy, TGF-betal value in M-RT was (396 +/- 338) and (866 +/- 270) pg/mL in non-ARP and ARP group (P = 0.000). The ARP incidence rate in or =60 age group were 46.15% (12/26) and 16.67% (3/18) (P = 0.042), and 45.45% (15/33), 0% (0/11) (P = 0.017) in had smoking history and nonsmoking history group, respectively. 1 out of 13 patients (7.69%) who had increased M-RT TM value suffered of ARP, while 14 out of 31 patients (45.16%) whose M-RT TM value lower than pr-RT suffered of ARP (P = 0.044). The results of multivariate analysis implied that the MLD and the value of TGF-betal in M-RT were associated with severe ARP. TGF-beta1 and MLD are significant indicators of ARP. FEV1 actual value/predicted value% might have predicting effect for the severity of ARP.

  13. Acute radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese breast cancer patients with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Tomo; Oguchi, Masahiko; Kumada, Madoka; Nemoto, Keiko; Iwase, Takuji; Yamashita, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate acute morbidity, radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis, of Japanese patients treated with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS), compared to conventional RT. Japanese patients who received whole breast RT after BCS between October 2003 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had selected the conventional or hypofractionated schedule received whole breast irradiation of 50 Gy in 25 fractions plus boost or 40 Gy in 16 fractions plus boost. Radiation dermatitis and symptomatic pneumonitis were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Of 443 consecutive patients, 377 (85%) received the conventional schedule and 66 (15%) received the hypofractionated schedule. Of patients treated with the conventional schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation dermatitis were observed in 16 (4%), 278 (74%), 77 (20%) and 6 (2%), respectively. Of patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis were observed in 11 (17%), 49 (74%), 5 (8%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Grade 2-3 dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule (9%) was observed less frequently than that by the conventional schedule (22%) (chi-square test; P = 0.016). Moreover, of patients treated with the conventional schedule, 4 (1%) had Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No patient treated with the hypofractionated schedule had symptomatic pneumonitis. Radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule is acceptable. Especially, radiation dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule is milder than that by the conventional schedule.

  14. The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang Sheng; Fang, Hong; Song, Yunlong; Li, Dechang; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Hongxian; Meng, Limin; Wang, Ping; Wang, Dong; Fan, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I–II and grade III–IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADC_p_r_e), ADC after treatment (ADC_p_o_s_t) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADC_p_r_e, ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were higher in grade I–II group than in grade 0 group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADC_p_o_s_t, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were higher in grade III–IV group than in grade I–II group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADC_p_o_s_t, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADC_p_o_s_t, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the radiation injury of rectum.

  15. The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang Sheng, E-mail: lxsheng500@163.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fang, Hong, E-mail: hongfang196808@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Song, Yunlong, E-mail: yunlongsong010@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Li, Dechang, E-mail: dechangli1972@sina.com [Department of Pathology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Yingjie, E-mail: wangyj19710813@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Zhu, Hongxian, E-mail: hongxian0102@sina.cn [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Meng, Limin, E-mail: liminmeng1977@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang1978@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: dongwang1964@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fan, Hongxia, E-mail: fanhongxia1975@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I–II and grade III–IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADC{sub pre}), ADC after treatment (ADC{sub post}) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADC{sub pre}, ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade I–II group than in grade 0 group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade III–IV group than in grade I–II group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADC{sub post}, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the

  16. Automyelotherapy efficiency limit in treatment for acute radiation sickness as determined by experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Automyelotherapy is the most effective method for treatment of acute radiation sickness. Therapy with use of frozen long-storage hemopoietic cells owing to their complex procurement and storage may be recommended only to a limited cohort with a high risk for uncontrolled irradiation. Prognosis of substitution therapy outcome is based, firstly, on knowledge of a maximum irradiation dose at which a therapeutic effect is manifested. Such information may be obtained only in experiment. The object of research is to establish the upper limit of irradiation dose at which therapeutic results of automyelotherapy are manifested. Research was performed on guinea pigs irradiated with doses from 5 to 10 Gy. A bone marrow cell suspension was obtained from anesthetizied animals by diaphysis puncture and lavage of 2 tibial bones. An effective therapeutic dose of cells (120 mln) was transplanted which guaranteed 100% survival of animals irradiated with the dose of 8.5 Gy exceeding the minimum absolute lethal dose by 7%. As the irradiation dose was further increased up to 10, 11 and 13 Gy survival of treated animals decreased to 61, 55 and 22% respectively. Although all treated guinea pigs perished after irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, their life span increased twice as much versus control and reached 9.5 days. Experimental data have confirmed that there is a limit of automyelotherapy efficacy. In the described experiment, it amounted to 15 Gy. The analysis of dose-effect'' relationship in treated and control animals has demonstrated DRF being equal to 1.8. This index characterizes the maximum therapeutic result of automyelotherapy. (author)

  17. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. Methods We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiothera...

  18. Acute ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Acute ileus backgrounds are multiple. Dynamic ileus may take place during peritonitis, some nervous diseases, parathyroid diseases, hysteria. Mechanical ileus is connected with some obstacle in intestines. Small intestines ileus is rarely seen and may be caused by a tumor gall stones, invagination, swallowed foreign bodies. For exclusion of abdominal organs injury and gall stone ileus, if the roentgenological picture isn't clear enough, ultrasonography or computerized tomography of the abdomen are carried out

  19. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  20. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  1. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  2. In vitro effects of recombinant human stem cell factor on hematopoietic cells from patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuansheng; Cheng Tao; Xu Yanqun

    1994-01-01

    The effects of rhSCF, rhPIXY 321, rhGM-CSF and rhIL-3 on clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from five cases of acute radiation sickness were studied. The results showed that rhSCF could stimulate clonal proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells and the best results were obtained when the concentration of rhSCF was 5 x 10 4 ng/L. Clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from four cases of acute radiation sickness was stimulated while that from one case was inhibited. Moreover, the responsiveness of cells to rhSCF was correlated with the doses of radiation. Analysis of cell surface antigen, cell morphology and histochemistry revealed that rhSCF promoted predominantly the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage lineage. rhSCF in combination with other three factors could further enhance the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells. The effects of rhPIXY 321, a fusion protein of GM-CSF and IL-3, were also analysed and found it to be a novel valuable hematopoietic growth factor

  3. GRK2 moderates the acute mitochondrial damage to ionizing radiation exposure by promoting mitochondrial fission/fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonietta; Sorriento, Daniela; Gambardella, Jessica; Pacelli, Roberto; Prevete, Nella; Procaccini, Claudio; Matarese, Giuseppe; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido; Ciccarelli, Michele

    2018-12-01

    The modern understanding of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 has grown towards the definition of a stress protein, for its ability to rapidly compartmentalize within the cell in response to acute stimulation. Also, mitochondria can be regulated by GRK2 localization. We show that Ionizing Radiation (IR) exposure acutely damages mitochondria regarding mass, morphology, and respiration, with recovery in a framework of hours. This phenomenon is actively regulated by GRK2, whose overexpression results to be protective, and reciprocally, deletion accelerates degenerative processes. The regulatory effects of the kinase involve a new interactome that includes binding HSP90 and binding and phosphorylation of the key molecules involved in the process of mitochondrial fusion and recovery: MFN-1 and 2.

  4. Comparison of the acute effects of radiation therapy including or excluding the thymus, on the lymphocyte subpopulations of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.A.; Byfield, P.E.; Byfield, J.E.; Small, R.C.; Benfield, J.; Pilch, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation therapy to either mediastinum or pelvis causes a rapid decrease in circulating lymphocytes of both B and T types and in addition an impairment in the function of the remaining lymphocytes, as measured by their ability to proliferate in response to mitogens. The acute depression is short-lived. Substantial recovery is apparent within 3 wk after cessation of therapy; however, most patients show a modest, chronic depression in both numbers and functional capacities of circulating lymphocytes. T cells are somewhat more sensitive than B cells, but both are affected. Irradiation of the thymus per se seems to have little influence on the acute changes which occur, as patients receiving pelvic and mediastinal (including thymic) radiotherapy show a similar degree of lymphopenia and depression of lymphocyte responsiveness

  5. [Low dose volume histogram analysis of the lungs in prediction of acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-bin; Zhu, Shu-chai; Gao, Hong-mei; Li, You-mei; Liu, Zhi-kun; Li, Juan; Su, Jing-wei; Wan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of low dose volume of the lung on acute radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) only, and to analyze the relation of comprehensive parameters of the dose-volume V5, V20 and mean lung dose (MLD) with acute RP. Two hundred and twenty-two patients with esophageal cancer treated by 3D-CRT have been followed up. The V5-V30 and MLD were calculated from the dose-volume histogram system. The clinical factors and treatment parameters were collected and analyzed. The acute RP was evaluated according to the RTOG toxicity criteria. The acute RP of grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 68 (30.6%), 40 (18.0%), 8 (3.6%) and 1 (0.5%) cases, respectively. The univariate analysis of measurement data:The primary tumor length, radiation fields, MLD and lung V5-V30 had a significant relationship with the acute RP. The magnitude of the number of radiation fields, the volume of GTV, MLD and Lung V5-V30 had a significant difference in whether the ≥ grade 1 and ≥ grade 2 acute RP developed or not. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that MLD, Lung V5, V20 and V25 were independent risk factors of ≥ grade 1 acute RP, and the radiation fields, MLD and Lung V5 were independent risk factors of ≥ grade 2 acute RP. The ≥ grade 1 and ≥ grade 2 acute RP were significantly decreased when MLD less than 14 Gy, V5 and V20 were less than 60% and 28%,respectively. When the V20 ≤ 28%, the acute RP was significantly decreased in V5 ≤ 60% group. When the MLD was ≤ 14 Gy, the ≥ 1 grade acute RP was significantly decreased in the V5 ≤ 60% group. When the MLD was >14 Gy, the ≥ grade 2 acute RP was significantly decreased in the V5 ≤ 60% group. The low dose volume of the lung is effective in predicting radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with 3D-CRT only. The comprehensive parameters combined with V5, V20 and MLD may increase the

  6. Comparison of effective radiation doses in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikefjord, E.N.; Thorsen, F.; Rorvik, J. [Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the effective radiation dose in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain, and to explore technical and practical factors affecting the effective dose. Subjects and methods: One hundred nineteen patients with acute flank pain were included. All patients were examined using both MDCT and excretory urography. CT involved one acquisition from the upper kidney margin to the symphysis pubis. The only protocol variation was in the tube current (mAs), which was made according to patient body mass. The excretory urography protocol consisted of three images, with more when supplementary images were needed. Effective radiation doses were computer-simulated using dosimetry programs for CT and conventional radiography, based on Norwegian Radiological Protection Board dose data sets. Mean and SDs of measured patient doses were calculated and compared. Further analyses of dose variations in body mass categories (body mass index) were conducted, as were analyses concerning the number of images taken. Results: The mean effective doses were 7.7 mSv with MDCT and 3.63 mSv with excretory urography. The effective dose varied both in and between techniques but could be predicted. Radiation risk decreased significantly with increased patient weight. Conclusion: The average effective dose with MDCT was more than double that with excretory urography. However, the appropriate dose could be strongly predicted by the patient's body mass index and by procedure. An optimum low-dose protocol should be considered before initiating unenhanced MDCT for ureteral colic in order to minimize the radiation-induced cancer risk and to secure adequate image quality. (author)

  7. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Coronary CT angiography for acute chest pain triage: techniques for radiation exposure reduction; 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Matetzky, Shlomi; Eshet, Yael; Goitein, David; Hamdan, Ashraf; Segni, Elio Di; Konen, Eli

    2011-10-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used daily in acute chest pain triage, although exposing patients to significant radiation dosage. CCTA using prospective ECG gating (PG CCTA) enables significant radiation reduction. To determine whether the routine use of 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) can increase the proportion of patients scanned using PG CCTA technique, lowering radiation exposure, without decreasing image quality. The study comprised 232 patients, 116 consecutive patients scanned using 128 MDCT (mean age 49 years, 79 men, BMI 28) and 116 consecutive patients (mean age 50 years, 75 men, BMI 28) which were scanned using 64 MDCT. PG CCTA was performed whenever technically permissible by each type of scanner: 64 MDCT = stable heart rate (HR) exposure was 6.2 ± 4.8 mSv and 10.4 ± 7.5 mSv for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.008). The 128 MDCT scanner enables utilization of PG CCTA technique in a greater proportion of patients, thereby decreasing the related radiation significantly, without hampering image quality.

  9. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  10. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  11. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  12. Inhibitory effect of magnesium sulfate on reaction of lipid hyperoxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Zhou Juying; Yu Zhiying; Qin Songbing; Xu Xiaoting; Li Li; Tu Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: 60 maturity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron. MgSO 4 was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental-therapeutic group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points ranging from the 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d after irradiation, the brain tissue were taken. The xanthine oxidase and colorimetric examination were used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) respectively in the rat brain respectively. Results: Compared with blank control group, the SOD in brain of experimental control group decreased significantly (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the lipid peroxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries and alleviate the damage induced by free radicals to brain tissue. (authors)

  13. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition with butyrate acutely increases structural aspects of intestinal adaptation after an 80% jejunoileal resection in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholome, Anne L; Albin, David M; Baker, David H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific...... and decreasing apoptosis within 4 hours postresection. The intestinotrophic mechanism(s) underlying butyrate's effects may involve GLP-2. Ultimately, butyrate administration may enable an infant with short-bowel syndrome to successfully transition to enteral feedings by maximizing their absorptive area....

  14. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  15. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  16. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  17. Chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces intestinal anti-inflammatory microRNA expression during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Lawrance C; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n=3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n=4) or THC (THC/SIV; n=4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation. Whether

  18. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  19. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure

  20. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Acute radiation pneumonitis after conformational radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer: clinical, dosimetric, and associated-treatment risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Etienne Giroux; Fernandez, Diego; Chatellier, Gilles; Klotz, Sylvain; Giraud, Philippe; Durdux, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Conformational thoracic radiotherapy (CTR) is a key-treatment in locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) is one of the major complications. To evaluate the predictors of ARP after CTR in the treatment of LA-NSCLC. A total of 47 consecutive patients (pts) were treated with CTR for LA-NSCLC and retrospectively analyzed. The mean total dose of radiation therapy (RT) was 65 Gy, with respiratory gating (RG) in 19 cases. Induction and concomitant chemotherapy was performed in 33 pts (70%) and 41 pts (87%), respectively. Eleven pts (23%) had an ARP resulting in death for one pt. In univariate analysis, age, sex, pretherapeutic value of forced expiratory volume (FEV), not-gated radiotherapy and type of concomitant chemotherapy did not appear as contributing factors in contrast to the administration of induction gemcitabine ( p = 0.03). The occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with nontumor lung volumes irradiated to 13 Gy (V13, p = 0.04), 20 Gy (V20, p = 0.02), and 25 Gy (V25, p = 0.006), the mean lung dose ( p = 0.008) and lung normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) ( p = 0.004). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with age >75 years (odds ratio (OR) = 16.72, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.77-157.87) and administration of induction gemcitabine (OR = 18.08, CI 95% 1.09-300.08). ARP is a common acute complication, requiring close posttreatment follow-up, particularly for elderly patients. The use of gemcitabine before radiation should be avoided. The benefits and risks of CTR must be carefully analyzed, according to the dosimetric parameters.

  2. Acute radiation pneumonitis after conformational radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer: Clinical, dosimetric, and associated-treatment risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Giroux Leprieur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conformational thoracic radiotherapy (CTR is a key-treatment in locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC. Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP is one of the major complications. Aims: To evaluate the predictors of ARP after CTR in the treatment of LA-NSCLC. Materials and methods: A total of 47 consecutive patients (pts were treated with CTR for LA-NSCLC and retrospectively analyzed. The mean total dose of radiation therapy (RT was 65 Gy, with respiratory gating (RG in 19 cases. Induction and concomitant chemotherapy was performed in 33 pts (70% and 41 pts (87%, respectively. Results: Eleven pts (23% had an ARP resulting in death for one pt. In univariate analysis, age, sex, pretherapeutic value of forced expiratory volume (FEV, not-gated radiotherapy and type of concomitant chemotherapy did not appear as contributing factors in contrast to the administration of induction gemcitabine ( p = 0.03. The occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with nontumor lung volumes irradiated to 13 Gy (V13, p = 0.04, 20 Gy (V20, p = 0.02, and 25 Gy (V25, p = 0.006, the mean lung dose ( p = 0.008 and lung normal tissue complication probability (NTCP ( p = 0.004. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with age >75 years (odds ratio (OR = 16.72, confidence interval (CI 95% 1.77-157.87 and administration of induction gemcitabine (OR = 18.08, CI 95% 1.09-300.08. Conclusion: ARP is a common acute complication, requiring close posttreatment follow-up, particularly for elderly patients. The use of gemcitabine before radiation should be avoided. The benefits and risks of CTR must be carefully analyzed, according to the dosimetric parameters.

  3. Combined exposure to simulated microgravity and acute or chronic radiation reduces neuronal network integrity and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Rafi

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. This study aimed at assessing the effect of these combined conditions on neuronal network density, cell morphology and survival, using well-connected mouse cortical neuron cultures. To this end, neurons were exposed to acute low and high doses of low LET (X-rays) radiation or to chronic low dose-rate of high LET neutron irradiation (Californium-252), under the simulated microgravity generated by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch space). High content image analysis of cortical neurons positive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin unveiled a reduced neuronal network integrity and connectivity, and an altered cell morphology after exposure to acute/chronic radiation or to simulated microgravity. Additionally, in both conditions, a defect in DNA-repair efficiency was revealed by an increased number of γH2AX-positive foci, as well as an increased number of Annexin V-positive apoptotic neurons. Of interest, when combining both simulated space conditions, we noted a synergistic effect on neuronal network density, neuronal morphology, cell survival and DNA repair. Furthermore, these observations are in agreement with preliminary gene expression data, revealing modulations in cytoskeletal and apoptosis-related genes after exposure to simulated microgravity. In conclusion, the observed in vitro changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by space simulated conditions provide us with mechanistic understanding to evaluate health risks and the development of countermeasures to prevent neurological disorders in astronauts over long-term space travels. Acknowledgements: This work is supported partly by the EU-FP7 projects CEREBRAD (n° 295552)

  4. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  5. The role of serine protease HtrA in acute ulcerative enterocolitis and extra-intestinal immune responses during Campylobacter jejuni infection of gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M. Heimesaat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualised in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarised epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i. with either strain mice harboured comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to wild-type strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes six days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to wild-type strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.

  6. Flaxseed Mitigates Acute Oxidative Lung Damage in a Mouse Model of Repeated Radiation and Hyperoxia Exposure Associated with Space Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Solomides, Charalambos C; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct extravehicular activities (EVA). Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours and be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health. We have developed a mouse model of total body radiation and hyperoxia exposure and identified acute damage of lung tissues. In the current study we evaluated the usefulness of dietary flaxseed (FS) as a countermeasure agent for such double-hit exposures. We evaluated lung tissue changes 2 weeks post-initiation of exposure challenges. Mouse cohorts (n=5/group) were pre-fed diets containing either 0% FS or 10% FS for 3 weeks and exposed to: a) normoxia (Untreated); b) >95% O 2 (O 2 ); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O 2 and IR (O 2 +IR) 3 times per week for 2 consecutive weeks, where 8-hour hyperoxia treatments were spanned by normoxic intervals. At 2 weeks post challenge, while control-diet fed mice developed significant lung injury and inflammation across all challenges, FS protected lung tissues by decreasing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophils (pspace exploration.

  7. Changes in causes of acute gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom over 15 years: microbiologic findings from 2 prospective, population-based studies of infectious intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Clarence C; O'Brien, Sarah J; Tompkins, David S; Bolton, Frederick J; Berry, Lisa; Dodds, Julie; Choudhury, Dalia; Halstead, Fenella; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Mather, Katherine; Rait, Greta; Ridge, Alan; Rodrigues, Laura C; Wain, John; Wood, Bernard; Gray, James J

    2012-05-01

    Large-scale, prospective studies of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in developed countries are uncommon. Two studies of IID incidence and etiology have been conducted in the United Kingdom: the Infectious Intestinal Disease Study in England (IID1) in 1993-1996 and the Second Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community (IID2) in 2008-2009. We examined changes in etiology and diagnostic yield of IID cases over 15 years. Fecal samples submitted by IID cases were examined for a range of bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. We calculated the percentage of specimens positive for each organism based on traditional methods and on traditional and molecular methods combined. We compared the distributions of organisms in the 2 studies. For pathogens investigated in both studies, 40% of fecal samples submitted by cases in IID2 were positive compared with 28% in IID1. Viruses were most frequent among community cases in IID2. Campylobacter was the most common bacterial pathogen among cases presenting to healthcare. Major differences between the 2 studies were increases in the detection of norovirus and sapovirus and a decline Salmonella. Most fecal specimens were negative for the pathogens tested in both studies, so new strategies are needed to close the diagnostic gap. Among known pathogens, effective control of norovirus, rotavirus, and Campylobacter remain high priorities. The reduction in nontyphoidal salmonellosis demonstrates the success of Europe-wide control strategies, notably an industry-led Salmonella control program in poultry in the United Kingdom.

  8. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  10. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that priming of the skin with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) before being injured would enhance wound healing. Four groups, each comprising 20 immunocompetent hairless mice, were exposed to simulated solar irradiation in escalating UVR doses; 0 standard erythema dose (SED) = control, 1...

  11. Acute effects of exposure to space radiation on CNS function a