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Sample records for acute intestinal radiation

  1. Assessment of recovery of the intestine after acute radiation injury

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    Baer, A.R.; Cheeseman, C.I.; Thomson, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Several aspects of intestinal function and morphology are affected by acute radiation damage, including changes in the activity of proliferative cells in the crypts, immune cell populations, and the transport of various substrates. This study was designed to compare the time course of the recovery of intestinal proliferation, transport, and leukocyte population following radiation injury. Rats received a single dose of 6 Gy to the abdomen from a /sup 137/Cs source and were studied 3, 7, and 14 days later. No changes in the passive uptake of L-glucose or D-leucine were observed in the jejunum. Active transport of D-glucose and maximal water uptake were reduced at 3 days but had returned to normal by 7 days, whereas L-leucine uptake required more than 7 days to return to control levels. Mucosal permeability, assessed by an in vivo potential difference technique, remained increased 7 days after irradiation. Ornithine decarboxylase, an indicator of DNA synthetic activity, was elevated following radiation treatment and remained so even after 14 days. By comparison, myeloperoxidase activity, used as a quantitative monitor of granulocyte numbers, was still reduced after 7 days. These data indicate that while certain parameters of gut function may return to normal soon after radiation injury, the recovery of other factors is more prolonged. Thus the return of transport function to normal values post irradiation may be viewed as an adaptive change rather than simply the recovery of the tissue.

  2. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG)

  3. Higher sensitivity of LEC strain rat in radiation-induced acute intestinal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Endoh, D; Kon, Y; Yamashita, T; Hashimoto, N; Sato, F; Kasai, N; Namioka, S

    1992-04-01

    LEC strain rats (LEC rats), which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4-5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats (WKAH rats). Radiation-induced acute intestinal death occurred at doses higher than 6.5 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 12.8 Gy in WKAH rats, respectively. By the probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/7 value of LEC rats was estimated to be 7.03 Gy which was significantly lower than that (12.99 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of small intestines from LEC rats 2 days after irradiation at the dose of 8.5 Gy showed severe epithelial death together with edema, whereas little or no significant changes were noted in intestinal epithelium of 8.5 Gy-irradiated WKAH rats. These results suggest that the radiosensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation appears to be higher than that of other strains of rats.

  4. Protective effect of vitamin A on acute radiation injury in the small intestine

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    Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Balkan, Mujdat; Demiriz, Murat; Dirican, Bahar; Oner, Koksal; Pak, Yucel [Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Tibet, Hasan

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin A on the development of early radiation-induced reactions in the rat small intestine. The early effects of intraoperative gamma-radiation on the small bowel utilizing the terminal ileum of Sprague-Dawley rats and the protective effect of supplemental vitamin A on acute radiation injury were investigated. Three groups were included in the study: group I (10 rats) was the surgical control group; group II (13 rats) underwent only intraoperative irradiation; and group III (10 rats) was the vitamin A plus irradiation group. Exteriorized terminal ileal segments of groups II and III were exposed to a single fraction of 20 Gy of intraoperative gamma-irradiation. On the seventh postoperative day, terminal ileal segments of all rats were resected and histopathologically evaluated for ulceration, enteritis cystica profunda, atypical epithelial regeneration, fibrosis, vascular sclerosis, and inflammatory process. Although none of the above findings were present in the surgical control group, group III rats experienced less severe effects than group II rats. The results suggest the early side effects of radiation may be prevented by vitamin A supplementation. (author)

  5. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Caloglu; Vuslat Yurut Caloglu; Tulin Yalta; Omer Yalcin; Cem Uzal

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC) to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6), Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8), Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8), and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8). The rats in all groups were irradiated individually...

  6. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Caloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6, Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8, Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8, and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8. The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg or amifostine (200 mg/kg was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009 compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003 and LC+RT group (P = 0.029 compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009. There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.

  7. Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract; Syndrome aigu d'irradiation: les atteintes du systeme gastro-intestinal

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    Griffiths, N.M.; Dublineau, I.; Lebrun, F.; Linard, C.; Monti, P.; Picard, C.; Scanff, P.; Aigueperse, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2002-06-01

    Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to ionising radiation at medium to high doses results in the manifestation of mixed pathologies. Following the analysis of several radiation accidents it is clear that intestinal injury influences patient survival. However the appearance of the classically defined gastrointestinal syndrome is not always evident. Nevertheless injury to the gastrointestinal tract, in particular loss of barrier function, seems to play an important role in the development of Multiple Organ Failure such as reported in the recent accident at Tokai Mura. Ionising radiation overexposure results in changes in intestinal motility and nutrient, fluid and electrolyte absorption and secretion all which may contribute to the genesis of diarrhea. In addition to modified cellular transport properties for nutrients or electrolytes, important loss of epithelial cells is also a major contributing factor. Intestinal functions are controlled by many factors such as neurotransmitters, locally released mediators from endocrine cells or immunocompetent cells in addition to luminal agents. To date, treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is mainly symptomatic. However treatments such as growth factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as cellular transplantation remain to be validated in the radiation accident situation. (author)

  8. Acute intestinal anisakiasis: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, H N; Avcu, S; Pauwels, W; Mortelé, K J; De Backer, A I

    2012-09-01

    Small bowel anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease that results from consumption of raw or insufficiently pickled, salted, smoked, or cooked wild marine fish infected with Anisakis larvae. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis in a 63-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints one day after ingestion of raw wild-caught herring from the Northsea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated thickening of the distal small bowel wall, mucosa with hyperenhancement, mural stratification, fluid accumulation within dilated small-bowel loops and hyperemia of mesenteric vessels. In patients with a recent history of eating raw marine fish presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints and CT features of acute small bowel inflammation the possibility of anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal syndromes.

  9. Radiation-induced intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meritxell Mollà; Julián Panés

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes that are the main limiting factor in the application of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Recently, a considerable investigative effort has been directed at determining the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces leukocyte recruitment, in order to create strategies to prevent intestinal inflammatory damage. In these review, we consider current available evidence on the factors governing the process of leukocyte recruitment in irradiated organs, mainly derived from experimental studies, with special attention to adhesion molecules, and their value as therapeutic targets.

  10. Intestinal tuberculosis presenting as acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the outcome of intestinal tuberculosis presenting as acute abdomen. Study design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration: Bolan Medical Complex Hospital (BMC) Quetta and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from Nov 2003 to Nov 2005 from Bolan Medical Complex and from Nov 2005 to Nov 2006 in CMH Quetta. Material and Method: Thirty seven patients of acute abdomen presenting with intestinal obstruction were admitted; 28 from emergency department and 9 from out patient department. Twenty seven patients were from BMC and 10 from CMH Quetta. Patients were diagnosed as having abdominal tuberculosis on the basis of operative findings and histopathological reports. Results: Out of 37 patients presenting with acute abdomen due to intestinal obstruction, 54% were male and 46% were female with M: F ratio of 1: 1.2. Age of the patient ranged from 20 to 50 years, with maximum frequency between 30 to 40 years. Abdominal pain was the commonest presenting feature in all patients followed by constipation in 81.1% patients. Peritonism was seen in 27% patients. Different operative procedures performed were adhesionolysis 65.8%, segmental resection 7.9%, right hemicolectomy 10.5%, stricturoplasty 7.9% and ileostomy 1.3%. Mesenteric lymph node biopsy 40.8%. Conclusion: Intestinal tuberculosis is still a very important surgical problem in our country presenting as acute abdomen. A suspicion must always be kept during laparotomy and adequate tissue histopathology should supplement the diagnosis. (author)

  11. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and 137Cs γ rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and γ-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome

  12. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

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    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  13. Acute radiation syndrome in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the different types of irradiation dramatically changes the clinical course of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in the case of short term exposure. The recent experience has been compared mostly with the data on the atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The comparison of the injuries from different radiation exposures resulted in the possibility to receive summarized data and the actual basis of the observed difference. The situation with total relatively uniform irradiation is observed when human position is at long distance from powerful radiation sources or when he changes his position, as seen in atomic bomb survivors, the results of nuclear weapon tests and the patients in the Chernobyl accident. This is connected with the ARS of bone, marrow and intestine. The situation characterized by the clinical signs of the large area of skin and mucosa injuries was observed in nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. In the case of the more localized and less severe beta injuries of skin and mucosa, the long term effects may be important. The majority of accidents in peaceful period are related to the uneven exposure from near sources, and the situation of the combination of external and internal irradiation is related to uneven irradiation and the predominance of internal exposure. (K.I.)

  14. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5+ stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5+ stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5+ stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5+ stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  15. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  16. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

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    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  17. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  18. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  19. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.)

  20. Bone marrow transplantation enhances trafficking of host-derived myelomonocytic cells that rescue intestinal mucosa after whole body radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells were demonstrated within intestines after radiation damage and were reported to be responsible for intestine repair. However, there was a discrepancy between intestine epithelial clonogenic regeneration, and mouse survival after BM transplantation (BMT) and radiation. The contribution of BM to acute intestine repair after radiation needed further investigation. Methods: Mouse survival, intestine microcolony assay, immunohistochemical studies of both intestine and BM were evaluated in mice after whole body irradiation (WBI) and BMT. Immunoblotting, flowcytometry, and double immunostaining were used to evaluate the amount and the character of stroma cells within intestines of recipient mice after receiving gender-mismatched BMT or BMT from green fluorescence donors. Results: Stromal cell proliferation within the lamina propria correlated with the beneficial effect of BMT to intestine recovery and day-8 survival of mice. Few donor-derived cells were found before the completion of intestine repair. The number of host but not donor-derived myelomonocytic and stromal cells increased dramatically within one week after radiation and BMT. Depletion of myelomonocytic cells of recipient mice abolished the mitigating effect of BMT. Conclusions: Besides rescuing injured BM from aplasia, BMT triggers trafficking of host CD11b(+) myelomonocytic cells from the host marrow to the radiation-injured intestinal mucosa, enhancing the proliferation of intestinal stroma cells, leading secondarily to epithelial regeneration.

  1. Advances in small intestinal ionizing radiation injury research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intestinal ionising radiation injuries are a dose limiting factor in the course of radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic malignancies. In this paper it is reviewed that ionizing radiation injuries of small intestine,including clinical symptoms, epithelium and submucosa changes, signal molecular expression changes, histological and ultrastructure changes. The ongoing works of our laboratory on subjects of intestinal injuries induced by heavy ions and protection against these injuries are also presented. (authors)

  2. Fetus-in-fetu presenting as acute intestinal obstruction

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    Singh Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition in which a fetiform calcified mass is often present in the abdomen of its host; a newborn or infant. We present the case of a three-month-old male baby with acute intestinal obstruction and abdominal mass. X-ray abdomen and ultrasonogram revealed a cystic mass with calcification. On laparotomy, a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass causing high intestinal obstruction was identified. Total excision of the mass was done. Diagnosis of fetus-in-fetu was confirmed on histopathology. Postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  3. Differences in Radiation Dose Response between Small and Large Intestinal Crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Suzuki, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    The protection of intestinal epithelial cells from the lethal effects induced by high-dose radiation is an important issue in radiotherapy and in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome. However, the effects of middle- and low-dose radiation on intestinal epithelial cells remain unclear. Because the accumulation of DNA damage in intestinal stem cells may be crucial for the development of cancer-initiating cells, it is important to understand the kinetics of DNA repair and tissue response (which are involved in the elimination of damaged cells and tissue injury repair) to middle- to low-dose irradiation. In this study, mice were X-ray irradiated with 0.1, 1 or 4 Gy, after which the small intestine (duodenum and ileum) and colon were harvested from the animals. DNA damage repair and the elimination of damaged cells were quantified by measuring the number of foci of 53BP1, a surrogate marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Tissue-proliferative response was evaluated by determining the number of Ki-67(+) and mitotic cells. Intra-crypt response differed considerably between the small intestine and the colon. In the small intestine, 53BP1 foci were detected immediately after irradiation, but rapidly disappeared thereafter, especially noticeable in Lgr5(+) stem cells. Cellular growth was temporally arrested; however, cell numbers and mitotic cell numbers in the crypt did not change. The kinetics of DNA damage repair in Lgr5(+) stem cells were similar to those in the small intestines, while the colon was more susceptible to radiation-induced damage. Preferential cell loss in the lower crypt was clearly observed in the colon; and after low-dose X-ray irradiation, only the colon exhibited considerably reduced cell numbers and dramatic induction of mitosis. These results suggest that differences in radiation dose response between the small and the large intestine may depend on the growth activity of stem cells after DNA repair. PMID:27556352

  4. Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to ionising radiation at medium to high doses results in the manifestation of mixed pathologies. Following the analysis of several radiation accidents it is clear that intestinal injury influences patient survival. However the appearance of the classically defined gastrointestinal syndrome is not always evident. Nevertheless injury to the gastrointestinal tract, in particular loss of barrier function, seems to play an important role in the development of Multiple Organ Failure such as reported in the recent accident at Tokai Mura. Ionising radiation overexposure results in changes in intestinal motility and nutrient, fluid and electrolyte absorption and secretion all which may contribute to the genesis of diarrhea. In addition to modified cellular transport properties for nutrients or electrolytes, important loss of epithelial cells is also a major contributing factor. Intestinal functions are controlled by many factors such as neurotransmitters, locally released mediators from endocrine cells or immunocompetent cells in addition to luminal agents. To date, treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is mainly symptomatic. However treatments such as growth factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as cellular transplantation remain to be validated in the radiation accident situation. (author)

  5. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy × 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  6. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

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    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  7. Protective effect of adeturone on protein assimilation in the gastro-intestinal tract following acute X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of adeturone and AET on the process of assimilation of food stuffs in the gastro-intestinal tract and possibilities for its protection from radiation injury were studied. Comparative assessment of the protective capabilities of adeturone and AET on the process of protein hydrolysis and absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract and the loss of serum proteins in the small intestines in acute X-irradiation revealed that the two radioprotectors adeturone and AET, being chemical agents, induce almost identical and transient changes in the absorption of protein hydrolysis products in the gastro-intestinal tract. These changes seem to have no aggravating effect on the course of radiation injury. In comparison with AET, adeturone exerts superior radioprotective effect on the processes studied, following exposure to a lethal X-ray dose of 800 r. (author)

  8. Curcumin Attenuates Gamma Radiation Induced Intestinal Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Intestine exhibits numerous morphological and functional alterations during radiation exposure. Oxidative stress, a factor implicated in the intestinal injury may contribute towards some of these alterations. The present work was designed to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric on y-radiation-induced oxidative damage in the small intestine by measuring alterations in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TSARS), serotonin metabolism, catecholamine levels, and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in parallel to changes in the architecture of intestinal tissues. In addition, monoamine level, MAO activity and TSARS level were determined in the serum. Curcumin was supplemented orally via gavages, to rats at a dose of (45 mg/ Kg body wt/ day) for 2 weeks pre-irradiation and the last supplementation was 30 min pre exposure to 6.5 Gy gamma radiations (applied as one shot dose). Animals were sacrificed on the 7th day after irradiation. The results demonstrated that, whole body exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has induced oxidative damage in small intestine obvious by significant increases of TSARS content, MAO activity and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and by significant decreases of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels. In parallel histopathological studies of the small intestine of irradiated rats through light microscopic showed significant decrease in the number of villi, villus height, mixed sub mucosa layer with more fibres and fibroblasts. Intestinal damage was in parallel to significant alterations of serum MAO activity, TBARS, 5-HT, DA, NE and EPI levels. Administration of curcumin before irradiation has significantly improved the levels of monoamines in small intestine and serum of irradiated rats, which was associated with significant amelioration in MAO activity and TBARS contents

  9. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  10. β-Arrestin-2 modulates radiation-induced intestinal crypt progenitor/stem cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Tian, H; Jiang, J; Yang, Y; Tan, S; Lin, X; Liu, H; Wu, B

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal crypt progenitor/stem (ICPS) cell apoptosis and vascular endothelial cell apoptosis are responsible for the initiation and development of ionizing radiation (IR)-evoked gastrointestinal syndrome. The signaling mechanisms underlying IR-induced ICPS cell apoptosis remain largely unclear. Our findings provide evidence that β-arrestin-2 (βarr2)-mediated ICPS cell apoptosis is crucial for IR-stimulated intestinal injury. βArr2-deficient mice exhibited decreased ICPS cell and intestinal Lgr5(+) (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5-positive) stem cell apoptosis, promoted crypt proliferation and reproduction, and protracted survival following lethal doses of radiation. Radioprotection in the ICPS cells isolated from βarr2-deficient mice depended on prolonged nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation via direct interaction of βarr2 with IκBα and subsequent inhibition of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Unexpectedly, βarr2 deficiency had little effect on IR-induced intestinal vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in mice. Consistently, βarr2 knockdown also provided significant radioresistance by manipulating NF-κB/PUMA signaling in Lgr5(+) cells in vitro. Collectively, these observations show that targeting the βarr2/NF-κB/PUMA novel pathway is a potential radiomitigator for limiting the damaging effect of radiotherapy on the gastrointestinal system. Significance statement: acute injury to the intestinal mucosa is a major dose-limiting complication of abdominal radiotherapy. The issue of whether the critical factor for the initiation of radiation-induced intestinal injury is intestinal stem cell apoptosis or endothelial cell apoptosis remains unresolved. βArrs have recently been found to be multifunctional adaptor of apoptosis. Here, we found that β-arrestin-2 (βarr2) deficiency was associated with decreased radiation-induced ICPS cell apoptosis, which prolonged survival in

  11. Intestinal failure after surgery for complicated radiation enteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Girvent, M.; Carlson, G. L.; Anderson, I.; Shaffer, J; Irving, M; N. A. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1997, a total of 16 patients were referred to a tertiary Intestinal Failure Unit (IFU) following surgery elsewhere for complications of radiation enteritis. Eleven were female with a mean age of 43 years (range 21-71 years) and the most common primary site of malignancy was genitourinary (n = 13). Patients had undergone an average of two laparotomies (range 1-7 laparotomies) for complications of radiation enteritis prior to transfer to the IFU. On admission, the principal pro...

  12. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  13. The Effect of Intestinal Permeability and Endotoxemia on the Prognosis of Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Young Yool; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Joo; Chung, Won Gil; Chon, Chang Uk; Oh, Tae Yun; Shin, Jun Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Early intestinal mucosal damage plays an important role in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous studies have shown that intestinal permeability (IP), serum endotoxin and cytokines contribute to the early intestinal barrier dysfunction in AP. This study explored the predictive capacity of IP, endotoxemia and cytokines as prognostic indicators in AP patients. Methods Eighty-seven AP patients were included in the study. The patients were classified into three groups according...

  14. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation of viral component in the acute intestinal infections overall structure mainly consists in determination of rotavirus infection prevalence excluding other pathogens. As the part of viral etiology hospital infections epidemiological surveillance in non-infections children’s hospital the study of acute viral intestinal infections etiological structure and molecular genetics characterization of identified enteric viruses is conducted. The syndrome diagnosis of acute intestinal infections cases was introduced — an identification and evaluation of patients with signs of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, that is not related to the underlying disease. A set of laboratory methods included identification of various intestinal pathogens DNA (RNA by PCR-RT method; genotyping of enteric viruses using sequencing; nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA fragments using the BLAST software package for identification of closely related strains and an online service for automatic genotyping of noroviruses by Norovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Alignment of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the software MEGA 5.0. The obtained sequence fragments of the genome was downloaded in GenBank international database. The use of molecular genetics research methods allowed to differentiate viral pathogens of acute intestinal infections and to establish the fact of nosocomial transmission. The proportion of viral etiology acute intestinal

  15. Evaluation and management of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute radiation dermatitis remains one of the most commonly observed side effect during radiation therapy leading to complication such as superinfection or treatment disruption. Its management is characterized by a great heterogeneity. Few strategies have demonstrated a benefit in preventing radiation dermatitis, which relies mostly on decreasing dose delivered to the skin and skin care practices. Simple emollients and use of topical steroids can be useful in early stages. The singularity of the skin toxicity seen with cetuximab and radiotherapy warrants a specific grading system and distinctive clinical treatment with use of antibiotics. (authors)

  16. Blood and small intestine cell kinetics under radiation exposures: Mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mathematical models which describe the dynamics of two vital body systems (hematopoiesis and small intestinal epithelium) in mammals exposed to acute and chronic radiation are developed. These models, based on conventional biological theories, are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations. Their variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning, that provides successful identification and verification of the models in hand. It is shown that the predictions of the models qualitatively and quantitatively agree with the respective experimental data for small laboratory animals (mice, rats) exposed to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates. The explanation of a number of radiobiological effects, including those of the low-level long-term exposures, is proposed proceeding from the modeling results. All this bears witness to the validity of employment of the developed models, after a proper identification, in investigation and prediction of radiation effects on the hematopoietic and small intestinal epithelium systems in various mammalian species, including humans. In particular, the models can be used for estimating effects of irradiation on astronauts in the long-term space missions, such as Lunar colonies and Mars voyages.

  17. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  18. A prospective comparison of acute intestinal toxicity following whole pelvic versus small field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yeon Joo Kim, Jin-hong Park, In-Ha Yun, Young Seok KimDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Republic of KoreaPurpose: To compare the acute intestinal toxicity of whole pelvic (WP and small field (SF intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for prostate cancer using dosimetric and metabolic parameters as well as clinical findings.Methods: Patients who received IMRT in either a definitive or postoperative setting were prospectively enrolled. Target volume and organs at risk including intestinal cavity (IC were delineated in every patient by a single physician. The IC volume that received a 10–50 Gy dose at 5-Gy intervals (V10–V50 and the percentage of irradiated volume as a fraction of total IC volume were calculated. Plasma citrulline levels, as an objective biological marker, were checked at three time points: baseline and after exposure to 30 Gy and 60 Gy.Results: Of the 41 patients, only six experienced grade 1 acute intestinal toxicity. Although all dose–volume parameters were significantly worse following WP than SF IMRT, there was no statistically significant relationship between these dosimetric parameters and clinical symptoms. Plasma citrulline levels did not show a serial decrease by radiotherapy volume difference (WP versus SF and were not relevant to the irradiated doses.Conclusion: Given that WP had comparable acute intestinal toxicities to those associated with SF, WP IMRT appears to be a feasible approach for the treatment of prostate cancer despite dosimetric disadvantages.Keywords: prostate cancer, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, intestinal toxicity, citrulline

  19. [Acute intestinal obstruction revealing enteropathy associated t-cell lymphoma, about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Abdoul Aziz; Adamou, Harissou; Magagi, Ibrahim Amadou; Brah, Souleymane; Habou, Oumarou

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare complication of celiac disease (CD). We report a case of EATL associated with CD revealed by acute intestinal obstruction. A North African woman of 38 years old with a history of infertility and chronic abdominal pain was admitted in emergency with acute intestinal obstruction. During the surgery, we found a tumor on the small intestine with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the specimen objectified a digestive T lymphoma CD3+ and immunological assessment of celiac disease was positive. The diagnosis of EATL was thus retained. Chemotherapy (CHOEP protocol) was established as well as gluten-free diet with a complete response to treatment. The EATL is a rare complication of CD that can be revealed by intestinal obstruction. The prognosis can be improved by early treatment involving surgery and chemotherapy. Its prevention requires early diagnosis of celiac and gluten-free diets. PMID:27217874

  20. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition.AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes,bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP's severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP's process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP.

  1. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  2. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  3. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  4. Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu extract prevents radiation-induced small intestinal injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice. Methods: Proliferation improvement of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) was tested by MTT assay in vitro. The preventive effect of the prescription was also tested in vivo. Mice were treated with Shenlingbaizhu by intragastric administration immediately after receiving local irradiation to the abdomen at a dose of 10 Gy (60Co γ-ray). The body mass, diarrhea and survival were recorded. The pathological changes in the jejunum of mice were stained by HE and observed. Results: Shenlingbaizhu Extract could significantly promote the proliferation of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Shenlingbaizhu Extract treatment reduced the diarrhea of irradiated mice, improved the intestinal structural recovery and increased the mice survival. Conclusion: Traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract shows significant protective effect on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, providing data for clinical treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. (authors)

  5. An unusual cause of the acute abdomen: computed tomography angiography findings of the intestinal intramural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The intestinal intramural hematoma is a rare abdominal emergency condition resulting from submucosal or subserosal hemorrhage. The various causes of this condition are anticoagulant therapy, trauma, surgery, biopsy and spontaneous. The most common cause of this condition is blunt abdominal trauma. Objectives and tasks: In this report we aimed to present computed tomography (CT) angiography findings of the intestinal wall hematoma which is an unusual cause of acute abdomen. Materials and methods: A 67-year-old man presented to our emergency department complaining of severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The physical examination revealed right upper quadrant and epigastric abdominal tenderness. Sonographic examination revealed free fluid in the right paracolic area and minor pelvis. Due to these findings, the patient underwent CT angiography examination with suspicion of acute intestinal ischemia. Results: Diffuse atherosclerotic calcified plaques in the abdominal aorta and moderate degree stenosis proximal celiac truncus were determined on CT angiography images. Mesenteric arterial system was patent. On CT images most remarkable finding was diffuse wall thickening reaching up to 1.5 cm at the widest part in small intestinal segments. These findings were seen in the right half of abdomen and pelvis, approximately 12 cm and 20 cm small intestinal segment, respectively. The patient was using warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid medication due to heart valve replacement surgery. This history and CT angiography findings were consistent with intestinal mural hematoma. Conclusion: In the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen, intestinal intramural hematoma must be kept in mind, especially in patients using anticoagulant drugs. In such cases, CT angiographic examination is rapid, effective and reliable method in both determination of the vascular abnormality and evaluation of the intestinal wall pathologies

  6. Bone marrow transplantation rescues intestinal mucosa after whole body radiation via paracrine mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our previous study reveals bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recruits host marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells to radiation-injured intestine, enhancing stromal proliferation, leading secondarily to epithelial regeneration. In this study, we propose BMT ameliorates intestinal damage via paracrine mechanisms. Materials and methods: Angiogenic cytokines within the intestinal mucosa of mice after whole body irradiation (WBI) with or without BMT were measured by cytokine array and ELISA. BM conditioned medium (BMCM) with or without treatment with neutralizing antibodies to angiogenic cytokines were continuously infused into mice for three days after radiation. Carrageenan was used to deplete myelomonocytic cells of mice. Results: BMT increased VEGF, bFGF and other angiogenic and chemotactic cytokines in the intestinal mucosa within 24 h after WBI. Infusion of BMCM ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal damage with improved stromal activity and prolonged survival of mice. Neutralization of bFGF, PDGF and other angiogenic cytokines within BMCM abolished the mitigating effect to the intestine. Pretreatment of carrageenan to recipient mice reversed some of the cytokine levels, including VEGF, bFGF and IGF within the intestinal mucosa after BMT. Conclusions: Our result suggests BMT recruits host myelomonocytic cells and enhances intestinal stroma proliferation after radiation by secreting cytokines enhancing angiogenesis and chemotaxis. Host myelomonocytic cells further uplift the paracrine effect to enhance intestinal mucosal recovery.

  7. AGGRESSIVE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR ACUTE-LEUKEMIA FREQUENTLY CAUSES INTESTINAL PROTEIN LEAKAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAENEN, S; MUSKIET, FAJ; MARRINK, J; HALIE, MR

    1991-01-01

    Cytostatic drugs are known to produce disturbances in intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. To further explore the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of cytostatic therapy, 37 patients with acute leukaemia were investigated during and/or after remission induction courses by the use of the differential

  8. Recombinant Thrombomodulin (Solulin) Ameliorates Early Intestinal Radiation Toxicity in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Wang, Junru; Garg, Sarita; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal radiation toxicity occurs during and after abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Endothelial cells play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced intestinal damage. We demonstrated that the endothelial cell surface receptor thrombomodulin (TM), a protein with anticoagulant, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties, mitigates radiation-induced lethality in mice. The goal of this study was to determine whether recombinant TM (Solulin) can protect the intestine from toxicity in a clinically relevant rat model. A 4 cm loop of rat small bowel was exposed to fractionated 5 Gy X radiation for 9 consecutive days. The animals were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or Solulin (3 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/kg/day) for 27 days starting 4 days before irradiation. Early intestinal injury was assessed two weeks after irradiation by quantitative histology, morphometry, immunohistochemistry and luminol bioluminescence imaging. Solulin treatment significantly ameliorated intestinal radiation injury, made evident by a decrease in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) immunoreactivity, collagen-I deposition, radiation injury score (RIS) and intestinal serosal thickening. These findings indicate the need for further development of Solulin as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent to mitigate radiation-induced intestinal damage. PMID:27459702

  9. Recombinant Thrombomodulin (Solulin) Ameliorates Early Intestinal Radiation Toxicity in a Preclinical Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Wang, Junru; Garg, Sarita; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal radiation toxicity occurs during and after abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Endothelial cells play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced intestinal damage. We demonstrated that the endothelial cell surface receptor thrombomodulin (TM), a protein with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, mitigates radiation-induced lethality in mice. The goal of this study was to determine whether recombinant TM (Solulin) can protect the intestine from toxicity in a clinically relevant rat model. A 4 cm loop of rat small bowel was exposed to fractionated 5 Gy X radiation for 9 consecutive days. The animals were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or Solulin (3 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/kg/day) for 27 days starting 4 days before irradiation. Early intestinal injury was assessed two weeks after irradiation by quantitative histology, morphometry, immunohistochemistry and luminol bioluminescence imaging. Solulin treatment significantly ameliorated intestinal radiation injury, made evident by a decrease in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) immunoreactivity, collagen-I deposition, radiation injury score (RIS) and intestinal serosal thickening. These findings indicate the need for further development of Solulin as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent to mitigate radiation-induced intestinal damage. PMID:27459702

  10. Acute Radiation Syndrome. Consequences and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.D.; Pesternikova, V.S.; Sumina, M.V.; Azizova, T.V.; Yurkov, N.N. [Branch No 1 State Research Center of Russia, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The consequences and outcomes of an Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), induced by external gamma radiation for 59 persons (49 men and 10 women) have been estimated. All incidents have taken place more than 40 years ago in the yearly years of adjustment of an atomic industry (1950-1953-38 persons, 1954-1958-21 persons). According to the degree of severity ARS 5 groups are selected: the severest degree - 7 individuals (average dose in group 43.8{+-}12.8 Sv), severe - 4 individuals (9.3{+-}1.5 Sv), medium - 14 individuals (2.2{+-}0.8 Sv), a light degree - 15 individuals (0.93{+-}0.13 Sv), ''erased'' from - 19 individuals (0.85{+-}0.07 Sv). In all cases, except for lethal (the severest degree), the characteristics of morphological composition of the peripheral blood were restored in the first year after ARS and now correspond to physiological standard. In 2 cases the moderate hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis was diagnosed. A marker of the acute exposure was the chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. The frequency of chromosome aberrations correlates with severity degree of ARS (from 3-7 up to 35-50 stable aberrations per 100 cells). In cases of ARS with severe degree the early development of a cerebral atherosclerosis is detected. The radiation cataract was diagnosed in 5 patients (an exposure doses 4.0-9.8 Sv, a period of development 2-5 years). During the first years after ARS in 80% of cases the complete labour rehabilitation is reached. Of 53 patients with known vital status by 45 year of monitoring 19 persons (35.8%) have died, of these in 2 cases the causes of death are not determined. In remaining cases the causes of death were ARS of severest degree (7 persons), Ischemic Heart Disease (5 persons), malignant tumors (4 persons), accidents and traumas (2 persons). (author)

  11. Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating in the small intestine Hemorragia digestiva baja severa originada en el intestino delgado

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ríos; M. J. Montoya; Rodríguez, J M; P. Parrilla

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) is generally self-limiting, and the most frequent etiologies are located at colonic level. The objective here is to analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic handling of acute LGIH when its etiology was located in the small intestine. Patients and methods: between 1975 and March 2002, 12 acute cases of LGIH originating in the small intestine were admitted to our service. All consulted the hospital with acute rectorrhage, requiring a transfus...

  12. Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  13. Neutralization of Osteopontin Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yohei; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Ochani, Mahendar; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Osteopontin (OPN), a glycoprotein secreted from immune-reactive cells, plays a deleterious role in various inflammatory diseases. Considering OPN as a pro-inflammatory molecule, we hypothesize that the treatment with its neutralizing antibody (anti-OPN Ab) protects mice against intestinal I/R-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Intestinal I/R was induced in mice by superior mesenteric artery occlusion with a vascular clip. After 45 min of occlusion, the clip was removed and anti-OPN Ab (25 μg/mouse) or normal IgG isotype control (25 μg/mouse) was immediately administrated intravenously. Blood, small intestine, and lung tissues were collected at 4 h after reperfusion for various analyses. After intestinal I/R, mRNA and protein levels of OPN were significantly induced in the small intestine, lungs, and blood relative to sham-operated animals. Compared with the IgG control group, treatment of anti-OPN Ab significantly reduced plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine (IL-6 and MIP-2) and organ injury markers (AST, ALT, and LDH). The histological architecture of the gut and lung tissues in anti-OPN Ab-treated intestinal I/R-induced mice showed significant improvement versus the IgG control mice. The lung inflammation measured by the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MIP-2 was also significantly downregulated in the anti-OPN Ab-treated mice as compared with the IgG control mice. Besides, the lung MPO and neutrophil infiltration in anti-OPN Ab-treated mice showed significant reduction as compared with the IgG control animals. In conclusion, we have demonstrated beneficial outcomes of anti-OPN Ab treatment in protecting against ALI, implicating a novel therapeutic potential in intestinal I/R. PMID:26974422

  14. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  15. Characterization and pharmacological modulation of intestinal inflammation induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation therapy to treat abdominal and pelvic malignancies inevitably involves exposure of healthy intestinal tissues which are very radiosensitive. As a result, most patients experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Such symptoms are associated with acute damage to intestine mucosa including radio-induced inflammatory processes. With a rat model of colorectal fractionated radiation, we have shown a gradual development of a colonic inflammation during radiation planning, without evident tissue injury. This radio-induced inflammation is characterized not only by the sur expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a NF-kB activation, but also by a repression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear receptors PPARa and RXRa, both involved in inflammation control. This early inflammation is associated with a discreet neutrophil recruitment and a macrophage accumulation. Macrophages are still abnormally numerous in tissue 27 weeks after the last day of irradiation. Inflammatory process is the most often related to a specific immune profile, either a type Th1 leading to a cellular immune response, or a type Th2 for humoral immunity. According to our studies, a unique abdominal radiation in the rat induces an ileum inflammation and an immune imbalance resulting in a Th2-type profile. Inhibiting this profile is important as its persistence promotes chronic inflammation, predisposition to bacterial infections and fibrosis which is the main delayed side-effect of radiotherapy. The treatment of rats with an immuno-modulator compound, the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (C.A.P.E.), have the potential to both reduce ileal mucosal inflammation and inhibit the radio-induced Th2 status. In order to search new therapeutic molecular target, we has been interested in the PPARg nuclear receptor involved in the maintenance of colon mucosal integrity. In our abdominal irradiation model, we have demonstrated that the prophylactic

  16. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  17. Pharmacological management of acute radiation morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Kimmig, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Christian-Albrecht-Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: The acute radiation morbidity may be a serious problem for the patient and may be decreased by pharmacological approaches. Material and methods: A database research (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI, etc.) was performed in order to obtain pharmacological approaches to decrease the acute radiation morbidity. The evaluation was focused on therapeutic principles but not on special drugs. Results: Different approaches may be chosen to protect healthy tissues from the effects of ionizing radiation: 1. Administration of cyto- or radioprotective agents prior to irradiation, 2. administration of agents to avoid additional secondary toxicity by inflammation or superinfection during the treatment cycle (supportive care) and 3. administration of rescue agents, such as bone marrow CSFs or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), after therapy. For radioprotection, there are reports on cellular protection by vitamine E, vitamine C, beta carotene, ribose-cysteine, glutamine, Mgcl2/adenosine triphosphate and WR-2721 (amifostine). In general, preclinical studies show that the combination of pretreatment with amifostine, irradiation, and G-CSF after radiation enhances hematologic recovery. Assessment of these combined effects, including local supportive therapies, merits further clinical investigation. There are data from prospective studies as well as from empirical clinical experience, that radioprotection and clinical supportive care may reduce the treatment related morbidity by 10 to 30% either. Conclusions: A further improvement of the therapeutic ratio is to be expected by systemically combined application of radioprotectors, supportive care and rescue agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die strahlentherapeutische Fruehmorbiditaet kann auf das Ergebnis einer Strahlenbehandlung Einfluss nehmen und kann durch medikamentoese Verfahren gelindert werden. Material und Methoden: Eine Datenbankrecherche (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI u.a.) wurde durchgefuehrt, um einen Ueberblick ueber

  18. Survival after intestinal mucormycosis in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, R; Arnau, E; Julia, A; Lopez, A; Nadal, A; Allende, E

    1986-12-15

    A young woman with acute myelocytic leukemia developed acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding immediately after a first remission induction of her leukemia. After the site of bleeding was located in the descending colon, a necrotic bleeding ulcer was resected. Histologic examination of the ulcer established the diagnosis of gastrointestinal mucormycosis. Treatment with amphotericin B was administered because of the high risk of dissemination. The patient has been followed for 9 months with no evidence of relapse of infection. Survival after gastrointestinal mucormycosis in acute leukemia has not previously been reported in the English language literature. Success in managing mucormycosis depends on the adherence to the recommended principles of early aggressive diagnostic measures, excisional surgery, amphotericin B therapy, and control of the underlying predisposing condition.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches. PMID:27182446

  20. Autologous bone marrow stromal cell transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis induced by a moderate dose of radiation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Li, Hongyu; Qi, Xingshun; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-05-01

    Radiation enteritis is one of the most common complications of cancer radiotherapy, and the development of new and effective measures for its prevention and treatment is of great importance. Adult bone marrow stromal stem cells (ABMSCs) are capable of self-renewal and exhibit low immunogenicity. In this study, we investigated ABMSC transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis. We developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis using abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy in a single X-ray dose of 14 Gy. ABMSCs were cultured in vitro, identified via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and double labeled with CM-Dil and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) before transplantation, which took place 48 hours after abdominal irradiation in a single fraction. The dog model of acute radiation enteritis was transplanted with cultured ABMSCs labeled with CM-Dil and SPIO into the mesenteric artery through the femoral artery. Compared with untreated control groups, dogs treated with ABMSCs exhibited substantially longer survival time and improved relief of clinical symptoms. ABMSC transplantation induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and the recovery of intestinal function. Furthermore, ABMSC transplantation resulted in elevated serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-11 (IL10) and intestinal radioprotective factors, such as keratinocyte growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and platelet-derived growth factor-B while reducing the serum level of the inflammatory cytokine IL17. ABMSCs induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and regulated the secretion of serum cytokines and the expression of radioprotective proteins and thus could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective mitigators of and protectors against acute radiation enteritis.

  1. Claudin-3 expression in radiation-exposed rat models: A potential marker for radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sehwan; Lee, Jong-geol; Bae, Chang-hwan; Lee, Seung Bum [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Sook [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sunhoo, E-mail: sunhoo@kcch.re.kr [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Irradiation increased intestinal bacterial translocation, accompanied by claudin protein expression in rats. • Neurotensin decreased the bacterial translocation and restored claudin-3 expression. • Claudin-3 can be used as a marker in evaluating radiation induced intestinal injury. - Abstract: The molecular events leading to radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure are not well known. The influence of the expression of claudin proteins in the presence and absence of neurotensin was investigated in radiation-exposed rat intestinal epithelium. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, irradiation, and irradiation + neurotensin groups, and bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node and expression of claudins were determined. Irradiation led to intestinal barrier failure as demonstrated by significant bacterial translocation. In irradiated terminal ilea, expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was significantly decreased, and claudin-2 expression was increased. Administration of neurotensin significantly reduced bacterial translocation and restored the structure of the villi as seen by histologic examination. Among the three subtype of claudins, only claudin-3 expression was restored. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of neurotensin on the disruption of the intestinal barrier is associated with claudin-3 alteration and that claudin-3 could be used as a marker in evaluating radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  2. Role of damage control enterostomy in management of children with peritonitis from acute intestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Ameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal anastomosis in severely ill children with peritonitis from intestinal perforation, intestinal gangrene or anastomotic dehiscence (acute intestinal disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Enterostomy as a damage control measure may be an option to minimize the high morbidity and mortality. This report evaluates the role of damage control enterostomy in the treatment of these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 52 children with acute intestinal disease who had enterostomy as a damage control measure in 12 years. Results: There were 34 (65.4% boys and 18 (34.6% girls aged 3 days-13 years (median 9 months, comprising 27 (51.9% neonates and infants and 25 (48.1% older children. The primary indication for enterostomy in neonates and infants was intestinal gangrene 25 (92.6% and perforated typhoid ileitis 22 (88% in older children. Enterostomy was performed as the initial surgery in 33 (63.5% patients and as a salvage procedure following anastomotic dehiscence in 19 (36.5% patients. Enterostomy-related complications occurred in 19 (36.5% patients, including 11 (21.2% patients with skin excoriations and eight (15.4% with hypokalaemia. There were four (7.7% deaths (aged 19 days, 3 months, 3½ years and 10 years, respectively directly related to the enterostomy, from hypokalaemia at 4, 12, 20 and 28 days postoperatively, respectively. Twenty other patients died shortly after surgery from their primary disease. Twenty of 28 surviving patients have had their enterostomy closed without complications, while eight are awaiting enterostomy closure. Conclusion: Damage-control enterostomy is useful in management of severely ill children with intestinal perforation or gangrene. Careful and meticulous attention to fluid and electrolyte balance, and stoma care, especially in the first several days following surgery, are important in preventing morbidity and mortality.

  3. Temporal relationship of serum markers and tissue damage during acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Guzmán-de la Garza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is essential to identify a serological marker of injury in order to study the pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia reperfusion. In this work, we studied the evolution of several serological markers after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The markers of non-specific cell damage were aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, the markers of inflammation were tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 beta, and the markers of intestinal mucosal damage were intestinal fatty acid binding protein and D-lactate. We used Chiús classification to grade the histopathological damage. METHODS: We studied 35 Wistar rats divided into groups according to reperfusion time. The superior mesenteric artery was clamped for 30 minutes, and blood and biopsies were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after reperfusion. We plotted the mean ± standard deviation and compared the baseline and maximum values for each marker using Student’s t-test. RESULTS: The maximum values of interleukin-1 beta and lactic dehydrogenase were present before the maximal histopathological damage. The maximum tumor necrosis factor alpha and D-lactate expressions coincided with histopathological damage. Alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransferase had a maximum expression level that increased following the histopathological damage. The maximum expressions of interluken-6 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein were not significantly different from the Sham treated group. CONCLUSION: For the evaluation of injury secondary to acute intestinal ischemia reperfusion with a 30 minute ischemia period, we recommend performing histopathological grading, quantification of D-lactate, which is synthesized by intestinal bacteria and is considered an indicator of mucosal injury, and quantification of tumor necrosis factor alpha as indicators of acute inflammation three hours after reperfusion.

  4. Attenuative effects of G-CSF in radiation induced intestinal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Gong, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Dae; Heo, Kyu; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Mo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to protect from radiationinduced myelosuppression. Growing evidence suggests that G-CSF also has many important non-hematopoietic functions in other tissues, including the intestine (Kim et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of G-CSF on intestinal injury. Examination 12 hours after radiation (5 Gy) revealed that the G-CSF treated mice were significantly protected from apoptosis of jejunal crypt, compared with radiation controls. G-CSF treatment attenuated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased survival crypt, the number of villi, villous shortening, crypt depth and length of basal lamina of 10 enterocytes compared with the radiation control 3.5 days after radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF attenuated the change of peripheral blood from radiation-induced myelosuppression and displayed attenuation of mortality in lethally-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. The present results support the suggestion that G-CSF administrated prior to radiation plays an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, possibly due to the protection of hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against radiation. The results indicate that G-CSF protects from radiation-mediated intestinal damage and from hematopoietic injury. G-CSF treatment may be useful clinically in the prevention of injury following radiation.

  5. Acute and Chronic Cutaneous Reactions to Ionizing Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Fleta N.; Simmons, Brian J.; Aaron H. Wolfson; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an important treatment modality for a variety of malignant conditions. However, development of radiation-induced skin changes is a significant adverse effect of radiation therapy (RT). Cutaneous repercussions of RT vary considerably in severity, course, and prognosis. When they do occur, cutaneous changes to RT are commonly graded as acute, consequential-late, or chronic. Acute reactions can have severe sequelae that impact quality of life as well as cancer treatment. Th...

  6. Acute radiation nephritis. Its evolution on sequential bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute radiation nephritis typically affects the kidneys 3-12 months after radiation exposure and may occur with doses as low as 2500 rads. After an initial latent period, the affected portions of the kidneys become swollen and edematous, and develop multiple petechiae. Necrotizing vasculitis and interstitial hemorrhage occur, and the end stage is that of scarring. Two patients are presented in whom localized acute radiation nephritis developed, and whose kidneys demonstrated the characteristic sequential changes of this entity on serial bone imaging

  7. Analysis of changes in intestinal microflora of irradiated mice. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Pinegin, B.V.; Korshunov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on 3 groups of CBA mice exposed to doses of 900, 600 and 300 R ..gamma..-rays, it was demonstrated that the integral severity of post-radiation microflora in the intestine can be determined by means of information index h, which takes into consideration all changes occurring in different representatives of the intestinal microflora. Differential analysis of the mechanisms of radioinduced changes in microflora indicates that it is based on a decrease in lactobacilli and increase in enterococcus, proteus, colibacillus and yeast in the small intestine, with increase in colibacillus, clostridia, proteus and enterococcus in the large intestine.

  8. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  9. [Intestinal tuberculosis--cause of acute surgical abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, M; Ion, D; Ionescu, S; Tica, M R

    2001-01-01

    Tuberculosis, in its various forms, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries in immunodeficitary patients. The indicatives of epidemiology of tuberculosis show that Romania presents a fresh outbreak of the disease in the last few years. The purpose of this paper is to present from the various forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the intestinal tipe which have a high incidence. The authors describe theirs preliminary experience of intraoperative small and large bowel emergencies resections in a short period (1 year) of three young patients (between 30 and 40 years old) with history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The pathology was complex (bowel obstructions, peritonitis) and so were the surgical operations (resections, devirations). The patients showed short and long term good results.

  10. The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem that plays an important role in host immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are linked to multiple inflammatory diseases in humans, including acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD. aGVHD is one of the major obstacles in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT, characterized by tissue damage in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, liver, lung, and skin. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota in the control of immune responses during aGVHD. Additionally, the possibility of using probiotic strains for potential treatment or prevention of aGVHD will be discussed.

  11. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  12. Acute inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine in adult: MDCT findings and criteria for differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Russo, Anna [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Daniele, Stefania; Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Maisto, Francesco [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia

    2009-03-15

    Inflammatory changes of the intestine leading to acute abdomen could represent a frequent diagnostic challenge for radiologists actively involved in the emergency area. MDCT imaging findings needs to be evaluated considering the clinical history and symptoms and other abdominal findings that could be of help in differential diagnosis. Several protocols have been suggested and indicated in the imaging of patient with acute intestine. However, a CT protocol in which the precontrast scanning of the abdomen is followed by i.v. administration of contrast medium using the 45-55 s delay could be effective for an optimal visualization of the bowel wall. It is important to learn to recognize how the intestine reacts to the injury and how it 'talks', in order to become aware of the different patterns of disease manifestation related to an acute intestinal condition, for an effective diagnosis of active and acute inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. IDIOPATHIC SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS CAUSING ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION AND GANGRENE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction resulting from encasement of variable lengths of bowel by dense fibro-collagenous membrane. It is more common in young females, and shows tropical and sub-tropical distribution. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable cause from clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the descriptive term “abdominal cocoon syndrome”. SEP presents with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. In the era of laparoscopic surgery, inadvertent damage to the small bowel at insertion of the trocar and cannula can occur by being unaware of this condition resulting in unnecessary bowel resection. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to bowel gangrene or intestinal perforation, representing life threatening conditions. We report the clinical presentation of a 75-year-old female presenting with signs of intestinal obstruction whose imaging findings revealed abdominal cocoon with bowel gangrene leading to perforation and the same confirmed at surgery. Surgical excision of the fibrotic sac encasing the bowel, resection of gangrenous bowel segment and end ileostomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised membrane confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. To our knowledge, only a few cases of abdominal cocoon with perforation have been reported in literature so far. Radiologists should be aware of this relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction, its imaging findings and complications, as preoperative diagnosis will prevent delay and aid in treatment planning to the surgeon. Identification of soft tissue density membrane encasing congregated small bowel loops into a single area on computed-tomography gives diagnostic clue. Surgical excision of sac, release of bowel loops and adhesions with partial intestinal resection when necessary is the treatment.

  14. HGF Gene Modification in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduces Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury by Modulating Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Effective therapeutic strategies to address intestinal complications after radiation exposure are currently lacking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which display the ability to repair the injured intestine, have been considered as delivery vehicles for repair genes. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-gene-modified MSCs on radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII.Female 6- to 8-week-old mice were radiated locally at the abdomen with a single 13-Gy dose of radiation and then treated with saline control, Ad-HGF or Ad-Null-modified MSCs therapy. The transient engraftment of human MSCs was detected via real-time PCR and immunostaining. The therapeutic effects of non- and HGF-modified MSCs were evaluated via FACS to determine the lymphocyte immunophenotypes; via ELISA to measure cytokine expression; via immunostaining to determine tight junction protein expression; via PCNA staining to examine intestinal epithelial cell proliferation; and via TUNEL staining to detect intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis.The histopathological recovery of the radiation-injured intestine was significantly enhanced following non- or HGF-modified MSCs treatment. Importantly, the radiation-induced immunophenotypic disorders of the mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches were attenuated in both MSCs-treated groups. Treatment with HGF-modified MSCs reduced the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the tight junction protein ZO-1, and promoted the proliferation and reduced the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.Treatment of RIII with HGF-gene-modified MSCs reduces local inflammation and promotes the recovery of small intestinal histopathology in a mouse model. These findings might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for RIII.

  15. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  16. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  17. Effects of bone marrow transplantation and bone marrow shielding on the intestinal radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hemopoietic tissue transplantation and bone marrow shielding on early intestinal injury in mice after high does gamma irradiation were studied. Fresh bone marrow cells (2 x 106) transplanted after 12 Gy and 10 Gy whole body irradiation had no protective effect on intestinal injury. In mice exposed to 14 Gy whole body or abdominal region irradiation, there was no difference in the decrease of intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of crypt mitosis. Therefore hemopoietic tissue shielding could not reduce severity of intestinal damage. These results showed that the radiation injury of intestinal tract is essentially a direct effect of γ-ray and has not obvious relationship to the hemopoietic tissues

  18. Protection against radiation injury to the small intestine by an intrapelvic silicone breast prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a patient with non resectable pelvi-perineal recurrence of epidermoid carcinoma of the anus, a silicone breast prosthesis inserted into the lower pelvis made it possible to irradiate the malignant lesion without risk of radiation-induced damage to the small intestine displaced upward by the prosthesis. This unusual technique, indicated when epipooplasty cannot be performed, has several advantages over other techniques of radioprotection of the small intestine

  19. The role of ER stress response on ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sang; Kim, Kwang Seok; Woo, Sang Keun; Lee, Yong Jin; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Kang, Seong Man; Lim, Young Bin [Laboratory of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is the primary pathologic factor that initiates radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, mechanism involved in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is not clearly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is triggered by perturbation of the ER functions, leading to the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive signaling cascade aimed at restoring ER homeostasis by facilitating the degradation of misfolded proteins and expanding the protein folding capacity of the cell. Recently, IR has also been shown to induce ER stress, thereby activating the UPR signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we report the role of ER stress responses in IR-induced intestinal epithelial cell death. We show that chemical ER stress inducers, such as tunicamycin or thapsigargin, enhance IR-induced caspase3 activation. Knockdown of xbp1 or atf6 with siRNA leads to inhibition of IR-induced caspase3 activation. Taken together, our results suggest a pro-apoptotic role of ER stress in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Our findings could contribute to the development of new strategies based on modulating ER stress responses to prevent IR-induced intestinal injury.

  20. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on intestinal mucosal permeability in early phase of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; LI Fei; JIA Jian-guo; DIAO Yong-peng; LI Zong-xin; SUN Jia-bang

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been used widely for many years in China to treat acute pancreatitis.We have investigated the effects of Dachengqi decoction on intestinal mucosal permeability and outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Methods Forty patients with sustained SAP that required admission to the surgical intensive care unit were enrolled prospectively in the study. All of these patients were divided randomly into the Dachengqi decoction group (n=20) and control group (n=20) on admission. Intestinal permeability was assessed by measuring absorption of two metabolically inert markers, lactulose (L) and mannitol (M), which were administered orally. Serum concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the ratio of lactulose to mannitol in urine (L/M) were detected in all patients.Results Compared with those in the control group, urinary L/M ratio decreased significantly in the Dachengqi decoction group on the 7th day after admission (P=0.001). Also, serum concentrations of LPS were reduced on the 5th and 7th day after admission (P=0.006, P=0.008, respectively). Incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and pancreatic infection was significantly lower in the Dachengqi decoction group compared with those in the control group (P=0.038, P=0.025, respectively).Conclusion Dachengqi decoction may promote the recovery of intestinal mucosal permeability and decrease the incidence of MODS and pancreatic infection in patients with SAP.

  1. Influence of radiotherapy on condition of intestinal microflora in urological cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy of patients with prostatic carcinoma the microflora of the intestine and its dynamics were studied. The mostly patients with chronic affections of the digestive tract showed considerable alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora. The radiation effects in the minor pelvis area were accompanied by acute radiation injuries and a chronic radiogenic intestinal syndrome deteriorating the existing disorders of the quantitative as well as the qualitative composition of the intestinal flora considerably and contributing to the maintenance of pathological processes in the intestine. The application of preparations normalizing the intestinal flora additionally to the suppressive therapy of the intestinal radiation injuries turned out to be appropriate. (author)

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol, curcumin and simvastatin in acute small intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bereswill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The health beneficial effects of Resveratrol, Curcumin and Simvastatin have been demonstrated in various experimental models of inflammation. We investigated the potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of the above mentioned compounds in a murine model of hyper-acute Th1-type ileitis following peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that after peroral administration of Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin, mice were protected from ileitis development and survived the acute phase of inflammation whereas all Placebo treated controls died. In particular, Resveratrol treatment resulted in longer-term survival. Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin treated animals displayed significantly increased numbers of regulatory T cells and augmented intestinal epithelial cell proliferation/regeneration in the ileum mucosa compared to placebo control animals. In contrast, mucosal T lymphocyte and neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in treated mice were reduced. In addition, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-23p19, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 was found to be significantly lower in the ileum of treated animals as compared to Placebo controls. Furthermore, treated animals displayed not only fewer pro-inflammatory enterobacteria and enterococci but also higher anti-inflammatory lactobacilli and bifidobacteria loads. Most importantly, treatment with all three compounds preserved intestinal barrier functions as indicated by reduced bacterial translocation rates into spleen, liver, kidney and blood. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral treatment with Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin ameliorates acute small intestinal inflammation by down-regulating Th1-type immune responses and prevents bacterial translocation by maintaining gut barrier function. These findings provide novel

  3. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  4. Acute and Chronic Cutaneous Reactions to Ionizing Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Fleta N; Simmons, Brian J; Wolfson, Aaron H; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is an important treatment modality for a variety of malignant conditions. However, development of radiation-induced skin changes is a significant adverse effect of radiation therapy (RT). Cutaneous repercussions of RT vary considerably in severity, course, and prognosis. When they do occur, cutaneous changes to RT are commonly graded as acute, consequential-late, or chronic. Acute reactions can have severe sequelae that impact quality of life as well as cancer treatment. Thus, dermatologists should be informed about these adverse reactions, know how to assess their severity and be able to determine course of management. The majority of measures currently available to prevent these acute reactions are proper skin hygiene and topical steroids, which limit the severity and decrease symptoms. Once acute cutaneous reactions develop, they are treated according to their severity. Treatments are similar to those used in prevention, but incorporate wound care management that maintains a moist environment to hasten recovery. Chronic changes are a unique subset of adverse reactions to RT that may develop months to years following treatment. Chronic radiation dermatitis is often permanent, progressive, and potentially irreversible with substantial impact on quality of life. Here, we also review the etiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, prevention, and management of late-stage cutaneous reactions to radiotherapy, including chronic radiation dermatitis and radiation-induced fibrosis. PMID:27250839

  5. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  6. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  7. [Acute intestinal occlusion caused by phytobezoar in Israel. Role of oranges and persimmons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, F; Dona, G; Kaufman, M; Weisberg, D; Krispin, M

    1985-05-01

    Forty-one patients were operated upon for acute intestinal obstruction secondary to the presence of phytobezoars, 34 of these patients (83%) having a history of previous gastric surgery for ulcer. The etiologic factor in 44% of cases was oranges and in 56% persimmons (Kakis). Treatment was by enterotomy in 27 patients (65,85%) and by "milking" in 14 (34,15%). Postoperative mortality was 2,44% (1 case). Recurrence was noted in three cases (7,3%) including one with an ileocutaneous fistula, treatment being by enterotomy in 2 cases and "milking" in the third patient. First intention intestinal resection was never required. Five patients required several admissions for subacute obstruction treated conservatively. These findings suggest that gastric surgery predisposes to intestinal obstruction by phytobezoar. Careful exploration of the digestive tube and particularly the stomach should avoid postoperative relapse, while prevention depends on a dietary regimen avoiding excessive intake of foods rich in cellulose, particularly oranges and persimmon fruit. PMID:4044688

  8. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; BAKKAL, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: An...

  9. The radiation dose induced by double-contrast examination of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis analyses the value of double-contrast examinations of the small intestine using water and methyl cellulose for clinical diagnostics in terms of technical feasibility, radiation dose to the patient, and rate of complications, in comparison to clinical relevance. The analysis relies on data obtained with 737 patients in the period January 1, 1976 until December 31, 1982. (MBC)

  10. Small Intestinal Obstruction with Intussusception due to Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma is known to precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML and can be the only clinical manifestation. Gastrointestinal involvement by AML is rare with the commonest site being small intestine. Patients present with vague abdominal pain and/or obstruction. Prognosis is usually poor as most of them rapidly progress to AML. We report a case of 25-year-old man with complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting of one-year duration. OGD scopy revealed infiltration of lesser curvature of stomach. Subsequently patient came back within a week with signs and symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction for which an ileal resection was done. Although the histology of stomach biopsy and ileal segments showing similar features were thought to be non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Bone marrow investigations confirmed involvement by AML. Patient succumbed to the disease due to extensive involvement of AML. This case highlights the primary gastrointestinal manifestation of AML which can often prove to be a diagnostic difficulty clinically and histologically. Prompt diagnosis is essential to hasten the management.

  11. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  12. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  13. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs

  14. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Psychological Aspects of Acute Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper generally describes personality structure and needs and then relates these to the psychological aspects of radiation injury. Three levels in the personality structure are defined as child, adult, and parent. This is followed by a description of two major need systems the first of which, if not met, results in the death of the individual and the second, if not met, results in significant emotional disruption of the individual. This is followed by a discussion of coping phases and stress patterns of radiation injury, including the effects of the illusion of immunity characterized by the feeling that ''things can happen to others, but not to me'', and the ''nuclear mystique'' which is characterized by a magical quality attached to radiation due partly to the lack of sense organ response to radiation exposure. Following impact, treatment in the reactive.phase, which includes moderate and severe emotional reactions, involves a series of compensating emotions. These include the illusion of centrality, the feeling of abandonment, altruism, and amorality. The ''aftermath'' reaction is treated from the standpoint of the ''tormenting memory'', the ''amnesiac reaction'', the ''fear of recurrence'' and the individual’s need to cope with both his medical condition and reactions of others to his condition. The recovery phase is treated from the standpoint of unacceptable and acceptable disability. Finally, a recommended psychological treatment for the physician to use in radiation accident cases is made involving the individual's psychological needs, as well as the physician's psychological role which includes: authoritative support, acceptance, optimism, and avoidance of the appearance of an overly scientific approach. Effective organizing, planning or training for the care of radiation accident cases must consider the psychological factors developed. Recommendations for mental health programs which include employee screening and counselling programs are made

  16. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Small bowel; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: intestin grele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Pointreau, Y.; Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHRU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Roche-Forestier, S. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Barillot, I. [Universite Francois-Rabelais, centre de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France)

    2010-07-15

    The small bowel is a hollow organ involved in the transit and absorption of food. In relation to its anatomical location, a significant amount of this organ is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy during abdominal or pelvic irradiation either for primary cancers or metastasis. The acute functional changes during external beam radiation are mainly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. The main late side effects of irradiation of the small intestine are chronic diarrhea, malabsorption with steatorrhoea, abdominal spasms, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and fistulas. The architecture of the small intestine may be considered as parallel with a significant correlation between the irradiated volume of small bowel and the likelihood of acute toxicity, whatever the dose. The literature analysis recommends to consider the volume of small bowel receiving 15 Gy (threshold of 100 to 200 cm{sup 3}) but also 30 and 50 Gy (thresholds of 35 to 300 cm{sup 3}, depending on the level of dose considered). Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on small bowel toxicity. (authors)

  17. Analysis of radiation-induced small intestinal tumors in APCMin/+mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of radiation on intestinal tumorigenesis was studied using APCMin/+ mouse, a hetero-knockout strain with highly tumorigenic sensitivity due to the lack of tumor suppressing adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene (the causing gene of human familial polyposis) (Min: multiple intestinal neoplasia). Offspring crossed by male APCMin/+ and female wild type c57BL/6N mice were used for experiments. Those offspring at the age of 2 weeks were irradiated by 2 Gy of 60Co-gamma ray at 1.22 Gy/min with the irradiator RE-1082 and were maintained thereafter for 9 and 19 weeks, when they were sacrificed for physical, hematological and histological examinations. No significant radiation-related changes were observed in wild type mice. In comparison with non-irradiated APCMin/+ mice, followings were observed with significance in irradiated animals: the peripheral hemoglobin value was decreased; spleen weight was increased; number of tumors present in small intestine increased to 2-fold; and a colorectal tumor as big as >2 mm diameter was observed in one mouse. Thus radiation promoted the intestinal tumor formation in APCMin/+ mice. (T.T.)

  18. Radiation-induced intestinal neoplasia in a genetically-predisposed mouse (Min)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellender, M.; Larder, S.M.; Harrison, J.D.; Cox, R.; Silver, A.R.J. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    A mouse lineage with inherited predisposition to multiple intestinal neoplasia (min) has been proposed as a model to study human colorectal cancer. Min mice are heterozygous for the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene implicated in human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). There is an increased risk of intestinal cancer in humans following radiation exposure and the min mouse model may be used to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. The present study showed a 2 Gy dose of x-rays doubles the tumour numbers in the murine gastrointestinal tract of F1 min heterozygotes. The distribution of tumours through the gut was also recorded. (authors)

  19. Influence of intestinal early enteral nutrition therapy on intestinal barrier function and immune response of patients with radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of early enteral nutrition therapy on the intestinal barrier function and immune response of the patients with radiation enteritis (ER) so as to find a relatively simple and effective method to treat RE. Methods: Fifty-six patients with radiation enteritis (RE) diagnosed by colonoscopy, X-rays, and pathology were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: experimental group undergoing enteral nutrition therapy, and control group undergoing conventional therapy only. Peripheral blood samples were collected 1, 11, and 21 days after admission. Plasma diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, endotoxin, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, and levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and CD4/CD8 ratio were examined. Five cases from the experimental group and 5 cases from the control group underwent second-time operation because of incomplete intestinal obstruction, intestinal stenosis, or recurrent tumor respectively. The biopsy specimens of the terminal ileum or distal descending colon taken during the first and second operations underwent pathological examination. Peripheral blood samples were collected 1, 11, and 21 days after admission. Plasma diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, endotoxin, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, and levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and CD4/CD8 ratio were examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the intestinal function and blood immunological indices between these 2 groups. The levels of DAO, D-lactic acid, and endotoxin,and the L/M ratio 11 days after admission of the experiment group were all significantly lower than those of the control group (t=2.568, 2.427, 2.143, 2.443, P<0.05), and all those indices 21 days after admission of the experiment group were all much more significantly lower in comparison with the control group (t=6.019, 12.834, 7.837, 7.997, P<0.01). The levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and CD4/CD8 ratio 11 days after admission of the experimental group were all significantly higher than

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on the transport function in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data testifying to the fact that radiation damages the physiological process of absorption of nutritious substances (amino acids, sugars) by the intestine are given. The defect of assimilation, caused by radiation is manifested with respect to energy dependent sugars and amino acids and does not affect the substrates, the transport of which does not depend upon Na+ and energy. Energy dependent systems of assimilation of substrates by enterocytes are connected both with glycolytic and aerobic methods of energy production; radiation influences the both methods

  1. The effect of probiotics for preventing radiation-induced morphological changes in intestinal mucosa of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Wontaek; Cho, Heunglae; Ahn, Kijung; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Dongwon

    2014-10-01

    Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for abdominal or pelvic cancer, but there is a common and serious complication such as radiation-induced enteritis. Probiotics is reported to have positive effects against radiation-induced enteropathy. In this study, morphological changes of bowel mucosa were analyzed in rats to presume the effect of probiotics on radiation-induced enteritis and its correlation with radiation dose. A total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received a solution containing 1.0×10(8) colony-forming units of Lactiobacillus acidophilus or water once daily for 10 days. Each of two groups was divided into three subgroups and abdomino-pelvic area of each subgroup was irradiated with 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively on the seventh day of feeding the solutions. All rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation and the mucosal thickness and villus height of jejunum, ileum and colon were measured. The morphological parameters of the small intestine represented significant differences between two solution groups irradiated 10 or 15 Gy, except for villus height of jejunum in 15 Gy-subgroup (P=0.065). There was no significant morphometric difference between two groups irradiated with 20 Gy of radiation. Probiotics appear to be effective for the morphological shortening of small intestinal mucosa damaged by radiation less than or equal to 15 Gy. PMID:25368490

  2. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure.

  3. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systematic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure. (Author)

  4. Increased Susceptibility of Radiation-Induced Intestinal Apoptosis in SMP30 KO Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Jung Goo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30 knockout (KO mice have been reported to be susceptible to apoptosis, however, the role of SMP30 has not been characterized in the small intestine. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of SMP30 in the process of spontaneous and γ-radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse small intestine. Eight-week-old male wild-type (WT mice and SMP30 KO mice were examined after exposure to 0, 1, 3, 5, and 9 Gy of γ-radiation. Apoptosis in the crypts of the small intestine increased in the 0 to 5 Gy radiated SMP30 KO and WT mice. Radiation-induced apoptosis and the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio in the SMP30 KO mice were significantly increased in comparison to each identically treated group of WT mice (p 0.05, indicating that increased apoptosis of crypt cells of SMP30 KO by irradiation can be associated with SMP30 depletion. These results suggested that SMP30 might be involved in overriding the apoptotic homeostatic mechanism in response to DNA damage.

  5. CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotide Treatment Protects against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Intestine Injury.

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    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available the bone marrow and the intestine are the major sites of ionizing radiation (IR-induced injury. Our previous study demonstrated that CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN treatment mitigated IR-induced bone marrow injury, but its effect on the intestine is not known. In this study, we sought to determine if CpG-ODN have protective effect on IR-induced intestine injury, and if so, to determine the mechanism of its effect.Mice were treated with CpG-ODN after IR. The body weight and survival were daily monitored for 30 days consecutively after exposure. The number of surviving intestinal crypt was assessed by the microcolony survival assay. The number and the distribution of proliferating cell in crypt were evaluated by TUNEL assay and BrdU assay. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 in crypt were analyzed by Immunohistochemistry assay. The findings showed that the treatment for irradiated mice with CpG-ODN diminished body weight loss, improved 30 days survival, enhanced intestinal crypts survival and maintained proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The reason might involve that CpG-ODN up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein and down-regulated the expression of Bax protein and caspase-3 protein.CpG-ODN was effective in protection of IR-induced intestine injury by enhancing intestinal crypts survival and maintaining proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The mechanism might be that CpG-ODN inhibits proliferating cell apoptosis through regulating the expression of apoptosis-related protein, such as Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3.

  6. Intestinal amebiasis: A concerning cause of acute gastroenteritis among hospitalized Lebanese children

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    Amal Naous

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem worldwide. More severe disease is associated with young age, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristic nature of intestinal amebiasis among pediatric population, and compare it with other causes of gastroenteritis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study conducted at Makassed General Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012, including all pediatric patients between birth and 15 years of age, who presented with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Results: One thousand three hundred ninety-five patients were included in the study, and were divided into four groups: Group I (Entameba histolytica group = 311 cases, 22.3%, group II (Rotavirus group = 427 cases, 30.6%, group III (bacterial group = 107 cases, 7.7%, group IV (unidentified group = 550 cases, 39.4%. Significant leukocytosis, neutrophilia and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Entemaba histolytica cases with a picture of severe invasive disease in young infants. Conclusion: Entameba histolytica can be an emerging serious infection, especially when it finds suitable environmental conditions and host factors, so we should be ready to face it with effective preventive measures.

  7. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Tyrosine Kinase 2 Transduces IL-22 Signals To Protect from Acute Colitis.

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    Hainzl, Eva; Stockinger, Silvia; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Berry, David; Lassnig, Caroline; Schwab, Clarissa; Rosebrock, Felix; Milinovich, Gabriel; Schlederer, Michaela; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Kenner, Lukas; Han, Xiaonan; Decker, Thomas; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

    2015-11-15

    In the intestinal tract, IL-22 activates STAT3 to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis and tissue healing. The mechanism has remained obscure, but we demonstrate that IL-22 acts via tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), a member of the Jak family. Using a mouse model for colitis, we show that Tyk2 deficiency is associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease. Colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice have less p-STAT3 in colon tissue and their IECs proliferate less efficiently. Tyk2-deficient primary IECs show reduced p-STAT3 in response to IL-22 stimulation, and expression of IL-22-STAT3 target genes is reduced in IECs from healthy and colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice. Experiments with conditional Tyk2(-/-) mice reveal that IEC-specific depletion of Tyk2 aggravates colitis. Disease symptoms can be alleviated by administering high doses of rIL-22-Fc, indicating that Tyk2 deficiency can be rescued via the IL-22 receptor complex. The pivotal function of Tyk2 in IL-22-dependent colitis was confirmed in Citrobacter rodentium-induced disease. Thus, Tyk2 protects against acute colitis in part by amplifying inflammation-induced epithelial IL-22 signaling to STAT3. PMID:26432894

  8. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth mimicking acute flare as a pitfall in patients with Crohn's Disease

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    Reinshagen Max

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by excessive proliferation of colonic bacterial species in the small bowel. Potential causes of SIBO include fistulae, strictures or motility disturbances. Hence, patients with Crohn's Disease (CD are especially predisposed to develop SIBO. As result, CD patients may experience malabsorption and report symptoms such as weight loss, watery diarrhea, meteorism, flatulence and abdominal pain, mimicking acute flare in these patients. Methods One-hundred-fifty patients with CD reporting increased stool frequency, meteorism and/or abdominal pain were prospectively evaluated for SIBO with the Hydrogen Glucose Breath Test (HGBT. Results Thirty-eight patients (25.3% were diagnosed with SIBO based on positive findings at HGBT. SIBO patients reported a higher rate of abdominal complaints and exhibited increased stool frequency (5.9 vs. 3.7 bowel movements/day, p = 0.003 and lower body weight (63.6 vs 70.4 kg, p = 0.014. There was no correlation with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. SIBO was significantly more frequent in patients with partial resection of the colon or multiple intestinal surgeries; there was also a clear trend in patients with ileocecal resection that did not reach statistical significance. SIBO rate was also higher in patients with affection of both the colon and small bowel, while inflammation of the (neoterminal ileum again showed only tendential association with the development of SIBO. Conclusion SIBO represents a frequently ignored yet clinically relevant complication in CD, often mimicking acute flare. Because symptoms of SIBO are often difficult to differentiate from those caused by the underlying disease, targeted work-up is recommended in patients with corresponding clinical signs and predisposing factors.

  9. Lethal pneumatosis coli in a 12-month-old child caused by acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial nutrition: a case report

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    Kircher Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pneumatosis coli is a rare disease with heterogeneous symptoms which can be detected in the course of various acute and chronic intestinal diseases in children, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal obstruction and intestinal bacteriological infections. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-month-old boy who died of pneumatosis coli caused by an acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial alimentation. Conclusion While intestinal gas gangrene is a highly uncommon cause of pneumatosis coli, it is important to consider it as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients receiving a prolonged artificial food supply. These patients may develop intestinal gas gangrene due to a dysfunctional intestinal barrier.

  10. Radioprotective effect of thiola on radiation induced functional and structural changes in rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible role of the sulphydryl compound (thiola) as a radioprotector against gamma radiation-induced changes in the rat intestine has been studied. Animals were subjected to different doses of radiation, namely 2, 4, 6, and 10 Gy. Intestinal glucose absorption, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity were measured and histopathological examination were performed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days postirradiation. Our results reveal that whole body gamma irradiation induced reduction of glucose absorption and alkaline phosphatase activity which was more pronounced on the third day after exposure. Damage to the intestine was mild after exposure to 2 and 4 Gy, manifested as oedema and congestion in addition to pyknosis of the nuclei of basal cells, while villus sloughing and necrosis of basal cells were observed 3 days after exposure to 6 and 10 Gy. It could be concluded that pretreatment of animals with thiola 30 min before exposure to radiation offered a significant radioprotective effect resulting in recovery of most of the parameters studied within 14 days

  11. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and serum amyloid A secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells during the acute phase response.

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    Vreugdenhil, A C; Dentener, M A; Snoek, A M; Greve, J W; Buurman, W A

    1999-09-01

    The acute phase proteins LPS binding protein (LBP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are produced by the liver and are present in the circulation. Both proteins have been shown to participate in the immune response to endotoxins. The intestinal mucosa forms a large surface that is continuously exposed to these microbial products. By secretion of antimicrobial and immunomodulating agents, the intestinal epithelium contributes to the defense against bacteria and their products. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of the inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta on the release of LBP and SAA by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In addition, the induction of LBP and SAA release by cell lines of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatic cells was compared. The data obtained show that in addition to liver cells, IEC also expressed LBP mRNA and released bioactive LBP and SAA upon stimulation. Regulation of LBP and SAA release by IEC and hepatocytes was typical for class 1 acute phase proteins, although differences in regulation between the cell types were observed. Endotoxin did not induce LBP and SAA release. Glucocorticoids were demonstrated to strongly enhance the cytokine-induced release of LBP and SAA by IEC, corresponding to hepatocytes. The data from this study, which imply that human IEC can produce LBP and SAA, suggest a role for these proteins in the local defense mechanism of the gut to endotoxin. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tissues other than the liver are involved in the acute phase response.

  12. A prospective comparison of acute intestinal toxicity following whole pelvic versus small field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

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    Kim, Yeon Joo; Park, Jin-hong; Yun, In-Ha; Kim, Young Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the acute intestinal toxicity of whole pelvic (WP) and small field (SF) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer using dosimetric and metabolic parameters as well as clinical findings. Methods Patients who received IMRT in either a definitive or postoperative setting were prospectively enrolled. Target volume and organs at risk including intestinal cavity (IC) were delineated in every patient by a single physician. The IC volume that received a 10–50 Gy dose at 5-Gy intervals (V10–V50) and the percentage of irradiated volume as a fraction of total IC volume were calculated. Plasma citrulline levels, as an objective biological marker, were checked at three time points: baseline and after exposure to 30 Gy and 60 Gy. Results Of the 41 patients, only six experienced grade 1 acute intestinal toxicity. Although all dose–volume parameters were significantly worse following WP than SF IMRT, there was no statistically significant relationship between these dosimetric parameters and clinical symptoms. Plasma citrulline levels did not show a serial decrease by radiotherapy volume difference (WP versus SF) and were not relevant to the irradiated doses. Conclusion Given that WP had comparable acute intestinal toxicities to those associated with SF, WP IMRT appears to be a feasible approach for the treatment of prostate cancer despite dosimetric disadvantages. PMID:27022287

  13. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

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    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  14. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

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    Enjae Jung

    Full Text Available World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01. Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01. These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Protective Effects of 5-Androstendiol (5-AED) on Radiation-induced Intestinal Injury

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    Kim, Joong Sun; Lee, Seung Sook; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Sun Hoo; Kim, MinSook; Cho, Soo Youn [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We examined the radioprotective effects of 5-androstendiol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the reticularis of the adrenal cortex, as a result of intestinal damage in gamma-irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Thirty mice (C3H/HeN) were divided into three groups; 1) non-irradiated control group, 2) irradiated group, and 3) 5-AED-treated group prior to irradiation. Next, 5-AED (50 mg/kg per body weight) was subcutaneously injected 24 hours before irradiation. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 10 Gy for the histological examination of jejunal crypt survival and the determination of the villus morphology including crypt depth, crypt size, number of villi, villus height, and length of basal lamina, as well as 5 Gy for the detection of apoptosis. The 5-AED pre-treated group significantly increased the survival of the jejunal crypt, compared to irradiation controls (p<0.05 vs. irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 10 Gy). The evaluation of morphological changes revealed that the administration of 5-AED reduced the radiation-induced intestinal damages such as villus shortening and increased length of the basal lamina of enterocytes (p<0.05 vs irradiation controls on 3.5 day after 10 Gy, respectively). The administration of 5-AED decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt, with no significant difference between the vehicle and 5-AED at 12 hours after 5 Gy. The results of this study suggest that the administration of 5-AED has a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation. In turn, these results suggest that 5-AED could be a useful candidate for radioprotection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

  16. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  17. Appraisal of radio-protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia against radiation mediated biochemical alterations in intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the modern technology world, it is important to concern the possible adverse biological effects of radiation due to its widespread use in diverse fields such as medicine for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, research, industries and construction site. Radiation injuries to living cells to large extent is attributable to its interaction with biological systems which ultimately unleashes large scale destruction to several essential biological macromolecules like water, nucleic acids, proteins, cellular membrane etc., and cause their dysfunctions and damage. The protection of humans against the harmful effects of radiation is a major challenge that needs an urgent solution. Use of radioprotectors is one among the strategies designed in order to minimize the lethal consequences of radiation exposure to normal cells. Plant products appear to have advantages over the synthetic compounds in terms of low/no toxicity at the effective dose. Large numbers of medicinal and aromatic plants are present in the nature, which are considered as the natural source of antioxidants and used in various Ayurvedic formulations for the treatment of different diseases throughout the centuries. The present study is designed to assess the modulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE) against radiation-induced biochemical changes in intestine of Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation to serve as an experimental. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in intestinal proteins, cholesterol, glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase; whereas, TCE supplementation before irradiation showed a significant elevation in all these parameters. Furthermore, treatment with this plant extract caused a significant fall in the radiation induced lipid

  18. Consequences of PAI-1 specific deletion in endothelium on radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced injury to healthy tissues is a real public health problem, since they are one of the most limiting factors that restrict efficiency of radiation therapy. This problematic is also part of the French Cancer Plan 2014-2017, and involves clinical research. Concepts surrounding the development of radiation-induced damage have gradually evolved into a contemporary and integrated view of the pathogenesis, involving all compartments of target tissue. Among them, endothelium seems to be central in the sequence of interrelated events that lead to the development of radiation-induced damage, although there are rare concrete elements that support this concept. By using new transgenic mouse models, this PhD project provides a direct demonstration of an endothelium-dependent continuum in evolution of radiation-induced intestinal damage. Indeed, changes in the endothelial phenotype through targeted deletion of the gene SERPINE1, chosen because of its key role in the development of radiation enteritis, influences various parameters of the development of the disease. Thus, lack of PAI-1 secretion by endothelial cells significantly improves survival of the animals, and limits severity of early and late tissue damage after a localized small bowel irradiation. Furthermore, these mice partially KO for PAI-1 showed a decrease in the number of apoptotic intestinal stem cells in the hours following irradiation, a decrease in the macrophages infiltrate density one week after irradiation, and a change in the polarization of macrophages throughout the pathophysiological process. In an effort to protect healthy tissues from radiation therapy side effects, without hindering the cancer treatment, PAI-1 seems to be an obvious therapeutic target. Conceptually, this work represents the direct demonstration of the link between endothelium phenotype and radiation enteritis pathogenesis. (author)

  19. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  20. Thalidomide effect in endothelial cell of acute radiation proctitis

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    Ki-Tae Kim; Hiun-Suk Chae; Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Whang Choi; Kyu-Yong Choi; Sang-Young Rho; Suk-Jin Kang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether thalidomide prevents microvascular injury in acute radiation proctitis in white rats. METHODS: Fourteen female Wistar rats were used:six in the radiation group,six in the thalidomide group,and two in normal controls.The radiation and thalidomide groups were irradiated at the pelvic area using a single 30 Gy exposure.The thalidomide (150 mg/kg) was injected into the peritoneum for 7 d from the day of irradiation.All animals were sacrificed and the rectums were removed on day 8 after irradiation.The microvessels of resected specimens were immunohistochemically stained with thrombomodulin (TM),yon Willebrand Factor (vWF),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).RESULTS: The microscopic scores did not differ significantly between the radiation and thalidomide groups,but both were higher than in the control group.Expression of TM was significantly lower in the endothelial cells (EC) of the radiation group than in the control and thalidomide groups (P < 0.001).The number of capillaries expressing vWF in the EC was higher in the radiation group (15.3 ± 6.8) than in the control group (3.7 ± 1.7),and the number of capillaries expressing vWF was attenuated by thalidomide (10.8 ± 3.5,P < 0.001).The intensity of VEGF expression in capillaries was greater in the radiation group than in the control group and was also attenuated by thalidomide (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: The mechanisms of acute radiationinduced proctitis in the rats are related to endothelial cell injury of microvessel,which may be attenuated with thalidomide.

  1. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

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    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  2. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  3. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  4. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

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    Chaoul Nada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi, and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun to 35% (ileum at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum or IgM (duodenum plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses

  5. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  6. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... activity in the colon and small intestine of the rat. METHODS: Rats were fed ethanol in a liquid diet for six weeks. Control rats received a similar diet but with ethanol isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates. Retinol dehydrogenase was analyzed from cell cytosol samples from the small and the large...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p retinol...

  7. A novel in vitro survival assay of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microcolony assay developed by Withers and Elkind has been a gold standard to assess the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to high (≥8 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation (IR), but is not applicable in cases of exposure to lower doses. Here, we developed a novel in vitro assay that enables assessment of the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower IR doses. The assay includes in vitro culture of small intestinal stem cells, which allows the stem cells to develop into epithelial organoids containing all four differentiated cell types of the small intestine. We used Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/ROSA26-tdTomato mice to identify Lgr5+ stem cells and their progeny. Enzymatically dissociated single crypt cells from the duodenum and jejunum of mice were irradiated with 7.25, 29, 101, 304, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mGy of X-rays immediately after plating, and the number of organoids was counted on Day 12. Organoid-forming efficiency of irradiated cells relative to that of unirradiated controls was defined as the surviving fraction of stem cells. We observed a significant decrease in the surviving fraction of stem cells at ≥1000 mGy. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses and passage of the organoids revealed that proliferation of stem cells surviving IR is significantly potentiated. Together, the present study demonstrates that the in vitro assay is useful for quantitatively assessing the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower doses of IR as compared with previous examinations using the microcolony assay. (author)

  8. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  9. 017. Exogenous acute lipoid pneumonitis from animal fat aspiration (part of intestine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Manos, Emmanouil; Kolovos, Dimitrios; Batsouli, Vassiliki; Pathiaki, Eirini; Mavromati, Evagelia; Divani, Smaroula; Vardouli, Anna; Panagopoulos, Angelos; Karkanis, Konstantinos; Angel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the aspiration of animal fats, bronchoscopy is promptly necessary, not only for removing the foreign body but also for its therapeutic importance in order to avoid severe lipoid pneumonia, because fat acids are very toxic for the bronchial mucosa. Methods Patient 84 years old, nonsmoker, with a medical history of heart disease under acenocoumarol, referred accidental aspiration of cooked animal intestine, 12 hours ago, with rough cough and dyspnea that started instantly. To be noted, the patient presented with wheezing in both lungs. Thoracic CT scan images reveal a suspicion of aspiration, confirmed by indirectly evidence (right middle lobe atelectasis and also mediastinum transposition to the left and consolidation with atelectasis in the left lower lobe, as evidence of previous infections-possible aspirations, emerged from his case story). Therefore, urgent bronchoscopy was performed and the foreign body, that was movable with the cough, was removed. Bronchial lavage was performed due to acute infection in whole bronchial tree. A reactive granuloma tissue was noted in the entrance of the middle lobe, but because of the anticoagulant intake biopsy wasn’t performed. During his hospitalization the patient was under antibiotics, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Results At the time of revaluation, two weeks after, the patient was non symptomatic while the new CT scan showed evidence of residual infection in the left lung and atelectasis of the right middle lobe on the left. Bronchoscopy was reperformed and biopsy was taken in the entrance of the right middle lobe because of the noted reactive granuloma tissue, seen at the first bronchoscopy. No signs of bronchial inflammation were found (impressive improvement due to immediate intervention). Conclusions Animal fat aspiration causes acute bronchial inflammation and therefore, lipoid pneumonia within a few hours, due to rapid hydrolysis of releasing fatty acids. Removing the animal fat with the

  10. Effect of Pseudomonas contamination or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on acute radiation lethality after neutron or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of antibiotic decontamination of Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract prior to whole-body neutron or gamma irradiation was studied. It was observed that for fission neutron doses greater than 5.5 Gy, cyclotron-produced neutron doses greater than 6.7 Gy, and 137Cs gamma-ray doses greater than 14.4 Gy, the median survival time of untreated rats was relatively constant at 4.2 to 4.5 days, indicating death was due to intestinal injury. Within the dose range of 3.5 to 5.5 Gy of fission neutrons, 4.9 to 6.7 Gy of cyclotron-produced neutrons, and 9.6 to 14.4 Gy of gamma rays, median survival time of these animals was inversely related to dose and varied from 12 to 4.6 days. This change in survival time with dose reflects a transition in the mechanisms of acute radiation death from pure hematopoietic, to a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic, to pure intestinal death. Decontamination of the GI tract with antibiotics prior to irradiation increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this transitional dose range. Contamination of the intestinal flora with Pseudomonas aeruginosa prior to irradiation reduced median survival time 1 to 5 days in the same radiation dose range. Pseudomonas-contaminated animals irradiated within this transitional dose range had maximum concentrations of total bacteria and Pseudomonas in their livers at the time of death. However, liver bacteria concentration was usually higher in gamma-irradiated animals, due to a smaller contribution of hematopoietic injury in neutron-irradiated animals. The effects of both decontamination of the GI tract and Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract were negligible in the range of doses in which median survival time was dose independent, i.e., in the pure intestinal death dose range

  11. MicroRNA signature of intestinal acute cellular rejection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mucosal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, T; Sotolongo, B; Island, E R; Tryphonopoulos, P; Selvaggi, G; Moon, J; Tekin, A; Amador, A; Levi, D M; Garcia, J; Smith, L; Nishida, S; Weppler, D; Tzakis, A G; Ruiz, P

    2012-02-01

    Despite continuous improvement of immunosuppression, small bowel transplantation (SBT) is plagued by a high incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) that is frequently intractable. Therefore, there is a need to uncover novel insights that will lead to strategies to achieve better control of ACR. We hypothesized that particular miRNAs provide critical regulation of the intragraft immune response. The aim of our study was to identify miRNAs involved in intestinal ACR. We examined 26 small intestinal mucosal biopsies (AR/NR group; 15/11) obtained from recipients after SBT or multivisceral transplantation. We investigated the expression of 384 mature human miRNAs and 280 mRNAs associated with immune, inflammation and apoptosis processes. We identified differentially expressed 28 miRNAs and 58 mRNAs that characterized intestinal ACR. We found a strong positive correlation between the intragraft expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-142-3p, miR-886-3p and miR-132) and 17 mRNAs including CTLA4 and GZMB. We visualized these miRNAs within cells expressing CD3 and CD14 proteins in explanted intestinal allografts with severe ACR. Our data suggested that miRNAs have a critical role in the activation of infiltrating cells during intestinal ACR. These differences in miRNA expression patterns can be used to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for immunosuppressive agents. PMID:22026534

  12. [Treatment of extensive acute radiation burn and its complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye-yang; Wang, Jin-lun; Li, Gang; Lin, Wei-hua; Liang, Min; Huang, Jun; Sun, Jing-en

    2013-06-01

    This article reports the treatment of a patient suffered from acute radiation burn covering 41% TBSA, with deep partial-thickness and full-thickness injury, produced by exposure to a large-scale industrial electron accelerator. An open wound began to appear and enlarged gradually 10 weeks after the exposure. Serious wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy and hypoproteinemia developed successively since 3 weeks after the wound formation. Skin grafts failed to survive, resulting in enlargement of the wound. After being treated with proper measures, including parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, appropriate antibiotics, steroid administration for nephropathy, deep debridement for wounds followed by skin grafting, the patient was cured and discharged after undergoing 15 operations in 500 days. The clinical condition of an extensive acute radiation burn is complicated. We should pay close attention to the changes in functions of organs, and strengthen the therapeutic strategies to support the function of organs to reduce the incidence of systemic complications. The control of the infection and the timely and effective repair of the wound are still the key points of the treatment of an extensive local radiation injury.

  13. Hydroclimatic variables and acute gastro-intestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada: A time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.; Parkes, M. W.; Li, L.; Takaro, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Using epidemiologic time series analysis, we examine associations between three hydroclimatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and waterborne acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) in two communities in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The communities were selected to represent the major hydroclimatic regimes that characterize BC: rainfall-dominated and snowfall dominated. Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime, and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatology plays a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI in these settings. Further, this study highlights that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic variability on AGI are different in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime versus a rainfall-dominated regimes. We conclude by proposing that the watershed may be an appropriate context for enhancing our understanding of the complex linkages between hydroclimatic variability and waterborne illness in the context of a changing climate.

  14. A Case Report of Acute Cellular Rejection Following Intestinal Transplantation Managed With Adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B; Jafri, S-M; Kazimi, M; Mullins, K; Raoufi, M; Segovia, M C

    2016-03-01

    There is a higher incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in small bowel transplantation (SBT) compared with transplantation of other solid organs. Although there are reports on the use of infliximab to successfully treat ACR refractory to other treatments, there are no reports, to our knowledge, regarding the use of adalimumab. We present a case of a female patient with a history of Crohn's disease who underwent an isolated SBT and developed an episode of severe ACR. She was initially treated with methylprednisolone, thymoglobulin, basiliximab, and a dosage adjustment of tacrolimus. Results of repeat endoscopies and biopsies revealed no significant improvement. The patient initiated treatment with adalimumab every 2 weeks for a total of 6 months, in addition to maintenance treatment with prednisone and tacrolimus. Subsequent evaluations showed gradual improvement to normal mucosa and villi without ulceration. A regimen that incorporates adalimumab can thus be used to treat ACR after intestinal transplantation. Larger multicenter studies are needed to show the full efficacy of this therapeutic regimen.

  15. Absence of intestinal PPARγ aggravates acute infectious colitis in mice through a lipocalin-2-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2. Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion.

  16. Exploratory laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions in children: A review of 10 years of experience with 334 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to review 10 years of experience in the management of children with acute intestinal conditions requiring exploratory laparotomy. Patients and Methods : This retrospective study included 334 children (244 boys and 90 girls who underwent laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions between Jan 1, 2000 to Dec 31, 2009. Patients were grouped into two categories: group A (n = 44 included patients who needed laparotomy with terminal ileostomy and group B (n = 290 included patients who needed laparotomy without terminal ileostomy. We excluded neonates and patients with jejunoileal and colonic atresias, anorectal malformations, congenital pouch colon, neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, Hirschsprung′s disease, appendicitis, abdominal trauma and gastrointestinal tumours. Results : During the last 10 years, 334 laparotomies were performed in children under 12 years: 59.88% for intestinal obstruction and 40.11% for perforation peritonitis. Causes in order of frequency were: ileal perforations 34.13%; intussusceptions 26.34%; Meckel′s obstruction 10.17%; congenital bands and malrotation 6.88%; postoperative adhesions 5.98%; miscellaneous peritonitis 5.68%; miscellaneous intestinal obstructions 4.79%; abdominal tuberculosis 4.19% and roundworm intestinal obstruction 1.79%. Ileostomy closures (n = 39 was tolerated well by all except one. The mortalities were 28 (8.38% in group B and 6 (1.79% in group A. Conclusions: The need for re-exploration not only increases the morbidity but also increases mortality as well. Diverting temporary ileostomy adds little cumulative morbidity to the primary operation and is a safe option for diversion in selected cases. The best way to further reduce the mortality is to create ileostomy at first operation.

  17. Effects of the ionising radiations on the structure and the function of the intestinal epithelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly radio-sensitive tissue and damage may occur following either accidental or therapeutic exposure. the deleterious actions of ionizing radiation are linked to the formation of sometimes overwhelming quantities of reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). Production of R.O.S. is both direct and indirect from the secondary effects of irradiation. A better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of injury will lead to more adapted therapeutic approaches to limit the harmful effects of irradiation. The homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium is regulated by three factors: proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. these three factors were studied using the cell model, HT29, in order to analyze modulations of this balance after irradiation. our results, in agreement with other data, showed the establishment of mitotic delay. This arrest of proliferation was followed by apoptosis to be the major mechanism leading to cell death in this model. thus, for the first time, we have shown that irradiated intestinal epithelial cells preserve their capacity to differentiate. This indicates, although indirectly, that intestinal cells have and preserve an intrinsic capacity restore a functional epithelium. R.O.S. are considered as intermediates between the physical nature of radiations and biological responses. It seems essential to understand anti-oxidant mechanisms used by the cell for defence against the deleterious effects of R.O.S post exposure. This study of several anti-oxidant defence mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, was carried out in vivo in the mouse at different times following abdominal irradiation. We observed an early mitochondrial response in the hours following irradiation revealing this organelle as a particular target. We demonstrated a strong alteration of anti-oxidant capacity as revealed by a decrease in S.O.D.s, catalase and an increase of the G.P.X.s and M.T.s. A part of these modifications appeared to depend on an

  18. Late radiation injuries of the intestine and their treatment. [Side effects of x-ray and gamma therapy of gynecologic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumors of female genitalia and some other tumors in which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumors, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites, and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients, these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation injuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet.

  19. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mirouliaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy among children for whom radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used for treatment. When hypothalamus-pituitary axis is exposed to radiotherapy, children′s hormone level and quality of life are influenced. The aim of this study is to determine late effects of radiotherapy on hormonal level in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this study 27 children with ALL, who have been referred to Shahid Ramezanzadeh Radiation Oncology Center in Yazd-Iran and received 18-24 Gy whole brain radiation with Cobalt 60 or 9 MV linear accelerator, were assessed. These patient′s basic weight, height and hormonal levels were measured before radiotherapy and also after different periods of time. Results: GHD (growth hormone deficiency after clonidine stimulation test was observed in 44% ( n=12 and that in 50% of them ( n=6, less than 1 year, had been passed from their radiation therapy. None of these patients demonstrated hormone deficiency in other axes. Conclusions: This study showed that even application of a 18-24 Gy radiation dose might influence growth hormone levels; therefore, we recommend reduction of radiotherapy dose in such patients whenever possible.

  20. Intestinal expressions of eNOSmRNA and iNOSmRNA in rats with acute liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Qin; Yang-De Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM To observe the gene expression change of eNOSmRNA and iNOSmRNA in the small and large intestines with acute liver failure (ALF), and to reveal the biological function of NO on the pathogenesis of ALF and multiple organs dysfunction at the molecular level.``METHODS Sixty male Wistar rats were selected,weighing from 250 g to 350 g, and divided into 5 groupsrandomly: SO, AUF (6 h, 12 h), L-Arg, L-NAME, L-Arg and L-NAIVE, each group with 10 rats. The dose of L-Arg was 300 mg. kg-1, and L-NAME was 30 mg-kg-1, the reagents diluted by normal saline were injected through tail vein 30minutes pre- and post-operation. The rats in the ALF group were respectively sacrificed postoperatively at 6 h,]2 h, and the rats in the other groups were sacrificed postoperatively at 6 h. The tissues of small and large intestines were harvested in 4% paraforaldehyde containing the reagent of DEPC and fixed at 6 h, embedded in paraffin, and 4 μm section was cut. The expression of eNOSmRNA and iNOSmRNA in these tissues was determined with in situ hybridization, and analyzed with the imaging analysis system of CMM-3 and SPSS statistical software.``RESULTS The expression of eNOSmRNA in the large intestine and iNOSmRNA in the small and large intestines increased significantly at 6 h after ALF, but the expression of iNOSmRNA in the small and large intestines reduced notably at 12h after ALF (P<0.05); the expression of eNOSmRNA in the large intestine and iNOSmRNA in the small and large intestines decreased significantly with the reagents of L-Arg at 6 h ALF, but the expression of eNOSmRNA and iNOSmRNA in the small and large intestines decreased totally with the reagents of L-NAME or association with L-Arg 6 h ALF.``CONCLUSION The expression of eNOSrnRNA in the large intestine increased notably at the early stage of ALF, NO induced by the enzyme of eNOS from the transplantation of eNOSmRNA can protect the function of the large intestine, the high expression of iNOSmRNA is involved in the

  1. Electrical impedance spectroscopy as electrical biopsy for monitoring radiation sequelae of intestine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS) by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively.

  2. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy as Electrical Biopsy for Monitoring Radiation Sequelae of Intestine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ju Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively.

  3. Alterations of intestinal immune function and regulatory effects of L-arginine in experimental severe acute pancreatitis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Feng Qiao; Tian-Jing Lü; Jia-Bang Sun; Fei Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the changes of intestinal mucosal immune function in rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis(SAP) and the regulatory effect of L-arginine.METHODS: Male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into pancreatitis group, sham-operation group, and L-arginine treatment group. Animals were killed at 24, 48, and 72 h after SAP models were developed and specimens were harvested. Endotoxin concentration in portal vein was determined by limulus endotoxin analysis kit. CD3+, CD4+,CD8+ T lymphocytes in intestinal mucosal lamina propria were examined by immunohistochemistry. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in cecum feces was examined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared to the control group, plasma endotoxin concentration in the portal vein increased, percentage of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets in the end of intestinal mucosal lamina propria reduced significantly,CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased, and SIgA concentrations in cecum feces reduced at 24, 48, and 72 h after SAP developed. Compared to SAP group, the L-arginine treatment group had a lower level of plasma endotoxin concentration in the portal vein, a higher CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte percentage in the end of intestinal mucosal lamina propria,an increased ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and a higher SIgA concentration in cecum feces.CONCLUSION: Intestinal immune suppression occurs in the early stage of SAP rats, which may be the main reason for bacterial and endotoxin translocation. L-arginine can improve the intestinal immunity and reduce bacterial and endotoxin translocation in SAP rats.

  4. Interleukin 1 beta initially sensitizes and subsequently protects murine intestinal stem cells exposed to photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been shown to prevent early bone marrow-related death following total-body irradiation, by protecting hematopoietic stem cells and speeding marrow repopulation. This study assesses the effect of IL-1 on the radiation response of the intestinal mucosal stem cell, a nonhematopoietic normal cell relevant to clinical radiation therapy. As observed with bone marrow, administration of human recombinant IL-1 beta (4 micrograms/kg) to C3H/Km mice 20 h prior to total-body irradiation modestly protected duodenal crypt cells. In contrast to bone marrow, IL-1 given 4 or 8 h before radiation sensitized intestinal crypt cells. IL-1 exposure did not substantially alter the slope of the crypt cell survival curve but did affect the shoulder: the X-ray survival curve was offset to the right by 1.01 +/- 0.06 Gy when IL-1 was given 20 h earlier and by 1.28 +/- 0.08 Gy to the left at the 4-h interval. Protection was greatest when IL-1 was administered 20 h before irradiation, but minimal effects persisted as long as 7 days after a single injection. The magnitude of radioprotection at 20 h or of radiosensitization at 4 h increased rapidly as IL-1 dose increased from 0 to 4 micrograms/kg. However, doses ranging from 10 to 100 micrograms/kg produced no further difference in radiation response. Animals treated with saline or IL-1 had similar core temperatures from 4 to 24 h after administration, suggesting that thermal changes were not responsible for either sensitization or protection. Mice irradiated 20 h after IL-1 had significantly greater crypt cell survival than saline-treated irradiated controls at all assay times, which ranged from 54 to 126 h following irradiation. The intervals to maximum crypt depopulation and initiation of repopulation were identical in both saline- and IL-1-treated groups

  5. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureban, Sripathi M; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J; Houchen, Courtney W

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.

  6. Acute radiation syndrome, c.aused by single whole-body external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general characteristic of conceptions of the material substrate of various forms and types of radiation injuries from the moment of a wide use of radiation energy and radioactive substances up to the present time, the dependence of structural changes on the type of ionizing radiation, dose and forms of its effect, are presented. The pathological anatomy of particular manifestations of acute radiation disease in various systems of the organism is described. The attention is paid to the variant of radiation disease taking place during non-uniform general irradiation. Local and general morphological changes which develop in skin, hyperdermic fat and skeleton muscles simultaneously in the zone of massive local effect against the background of the general radiation injury, are described for the first time. Delayed alterations in blood vessels and interstitial tissue after the acute radiation disease are described as well as the pathomorphology and histochemistry of trophic disorders in the acute and delayed periods of acute radiation disease

  7. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  8. VSL#3 probiotics provide protection against acute intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S Y; Young, P Y; Lukowski, C M; Madsen, K L; Sis, B; Churchill, T A; Khadaroo, R G

    2013-12-01

    Acute intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury (AII/R) is an adaptive physiologic response during critical illness, involving mesenteric vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion. Prevention of AII/R in high risk patient populations would have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of VSL#3 probiotic treatment in a murine model of AII/R. Adult 129/SvEv mice were subjected to an experimental AII/R model using superior mesenteric artery occlusion. Animals were pre-treated with either three days or two weeks of VSL#3 probiotics. Local tissue injury markers were assessed by levels of myeloperoxidase and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB). Systemic and local cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL- 10, TNFα, and interferon gamma were measured by ELISA and multiplex fluorescent detection. VSL#3 probiotics reduced local tissue inflammation and injury due to AII/R. A two-week course of VSL#3 was more effective than a shorter three-day course. The reduction in local inflammation from the two-week course of VSL#3 is correlated to a significant reduction in levels of active IL-1β, and tissue levels of myeloperoxidase. Levels of active NFкB were significantly elevated in the vehicle-fed AII/R mice, corroborating with tissue inflammation, which were attenuated by VSL#3 administrations. VSL#3 did not cause any systemic inflammation or lung injury. VSL#3 probiotics are effective in reducing local tissue injury from AII/R by down-regulating pro-inflammatory mediators and immune cell recruitment. This study highlights a potential role for VSL#3 in management of patients at high risk for AII/R.

  9. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  10. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni [Geriatrics Research Inst., Maebashi (Japan). Hospital; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm{sup 3} (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  11. Chromosomal mechanisms in murine radiation acute myeloid leukemogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Breckon, G.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Chromosome 2 abnormalities, particularly interstitial deletions, characterize murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemias (AMLs). Here, G-band analyses in CBA/H mice of early (1-6 month) post 3 Gy X-radiation events in bone marrow cells in vivo and karyotype evolution in one unusual AML are presented. The early event analysis showed that all irradiated animals carry chromosome 2 abnormalities, that chromosome 2 abnormalities are more frequent than expected and that interstitial deletions are more common in chromosome 2 than in the remainder of the genome. On presentation AML case N122 carried a t(2; 11) terminal translocation which, with passaging, evolved into a del2(C3F3). Therefore two pathways in leukaemogenesis might exist, one deletion-driven, the other terminal tranlocation-driven involving interstitial genes and terminal genes respectively of chromosome 2. As all irradiated individuals carried chromosome 2 abnormalities, the formation of these aberrations does not determine individual leukaemogenic sensitivity as only 20-25% of animals would be expected to develop AML. Similar lines of argument suggest that chromosome 2 abnormalities are necessary but not sufficient for radiation leukaemogenesis in CBA/H nor are they rate limiting in leukaemogenesis. (Author).

  12. Protective effects of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; ZHANG Fan; XIA Zhong-yuan; LIN Hui; MO An-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats and its protective mechanism.Methods:n lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and morphometry computer image analysis. Arterial blood gas analysis, lung permeability index, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents in lungs were measured. The histological changes of lung tissue were observed under light microscope.Results:The expression of HO-1 in RPR-pretreatment group and hemin group was obviously higher than that in sham-operation group and I/R group (P < 0.01). The level of MDA and lung permeability index in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group were significantly lower than those in I/R group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while the activity of SOD in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group was obviously higher than that in I/R group (P<0.01 ). Under light microscope, the pathologic changes induced by I/R were significantly attenuated by RPR.Conclusion : Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion may result in acute lung injury and pretreatment with RPR injection can attenuate the injury. The protective effect of RPR on the acute lung injury is related to its property of inducing HO-1 expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  13. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma

  14. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  15. Practical approaches to effective management of intestinal radiation injury: Benefit of resectional surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Perrakis; Evangelos Athanassiou; Dimitra Vamvakopoulou; Maria Kyriazi; Haris Kappos; Nikolaos C Vamvakopoulos; Iakovos Nomikos

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome of patients undergoing surgical resection of the bowel for sustained radiation-induced damage intractable to conservative management.METHODS: During a 7-year period we operated on 17 cases (5 male, 12 female) admitted to our surgical department with intestinal radiation injury (IRI). They were originally treated for a pelvic malignancy by surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. During follow-up, they developed radiation enteritis requiring surgical treatment due to failure of conservative management.RESULTS: IRI was located in the terminal ileum in 12 patients, in the rectum in 2 patients, in the descending colon in 2 patients, and in the cecum in one patient. All patients had resection of the affected region(s). There were no postoperative deaths, while 3 cases presented with postoperative complications (17.7%). All patients remained free of symptoms without evidence of recurrence of IRI for a median follow-up period of 42 mo (range, 6-96 mo).CONCLUSION: We report a favorable outcome without IRI recurrence of 17 patients treated by resection of the diseased bowel segment.

  16. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  17. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  18. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author)

  19. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of acute radiation reaction in breast cancer patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startseva, Zh A.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Usova, AV; Frolova, I. G.; Simonov, K. A.; Velikaya, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    A clinical case with acute radiation reaction of the left breast after organ-preserving surgery with 10 Gy IORT (24.8 Gy) conventional radiation therapy has been presented. Comprehensive MRI examination showed signs of radiation- induced damage to skin, soft tissues and vessels of the residual breast.

  20. Role of p53 in Anticancer Drug Treatment- and Radiation-Induced Injury in Normal Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the human gastrointestinal tract, the functional mucosa of the small intestine has the highest capacity for absorption of nutrients and rapid proliferation rates, making it vulnerable to chemoradiotherapy. Recent understanding of the protective role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in the small intestinal mucosa has led researchers to explore new avenues to mitigate mucosal injury during cancer treatment. A traditional p53 inhibitor and two other molecules that exhibit strong protective effects on normal small intestinal epithelium during anticancer drug treatment and radiation therapy are introduced in this work. The objective of this review was to update current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms and targets that inhibit the side effects induced by chemoradiotherapy

  1. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation.

  2. Characterization and pharmacological modulation of intestinal inflammation induced by ionizing radiation; Caracterisation et modulation pharmacologique de l'inflammation intestinale induite par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremy, O

    2006-12-15

    The use of radiation therapy to treat abdominal and pelvic malignancies inevitably involves exposure of healthy intestinal tissues which are very radiosensitive. As a result, most patients experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Such symptoms are associated with acute damage to intestine mucosa including radio-induced inflammatory processes. With a rat model of colorectal fractionated radiation, we have shown a gradual development of a colonic inflammation during radiation planning, without evident tissue injury. This radio-induced inflammation is characterized not only by the sur expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a NF-kB activation, but also by a repression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear receptors PPARa and RXRa, both involved in inflammation control. This early inflammation is associated with a discreet neutrophil recruitment and a macrophage accumulation. Macrophages are still abnormally numerous in tissue 27 weeks after the last day of irradiation. Inflammatory process is the most often related to a specific immune profile, either a type Th1 leading to a cellular immune response, or a type Th2 for humoral immunity. According to our studies, a unique abdominal radiation in the rat induces an ileum inflammation and an immune imbalance resulting in a Th2-type profile. Inhibiting this profile is important as its persistence promotes chronic inflammation, predisposition to bacterial infections and fibrosis which is the main delayed side-effect of radiotherapy. The treatment of rats with an immuno-modulator compound, the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (C.A.P.E.), have the potential to both reduce ileal mucosal inflammation and inhibit the radio-induced Th2 status. In order to search new therapeutic molecular target, we has been interested in the PPARg nuclear receptor involved in the maintenance of colon mucosal integrity. In our abdominal irradiation model, we have demonstrated that the prophylactic

  3. The acute radiation syndrome in the 137Cs Brazilian accident, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with the most severe degreed of bone marrow impairment are studied. Case descriptions are limited to manifestations and complications related to the 'Acute Radiation Syndrome' (ARS). Medical facilities, exams and therapeutic management are discussed. (MAC)

  4. Modification of intestinal flora with multispecies probiotics reduces bacterial translocation and improves clinical course in a rat model of acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van L.P.; Timmerman, H.M.; Lutgendorff, F.; Verheem, A.; Harmsen, W.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Smidt, H.; Visser, M.R.; Rijkers, G.T.; Gooszen, H.G.; Akkermans, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Infection of pancreatic necrosis by gut bacteria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Use of prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial. The aim of this experiment was assess if modification of intestinal flora with specifically designed multisp

  5. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  6. Computed tomographic findings of radiation-induced acute adrenal injury with associated radiation nephropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation nephropathy was first recognized in 1906. The kidney is a radiosensitive organ with a tolerance dose (5% complications in 5 years) of 20 Gray. The imaging findings of acute and chronic radiation induced renal injury are previously described. Radiation-induced adrenal injury, to our knowledge, has not been described in the literature. Unlike the kidneys and other upper abdominal organs, the adrenal glands are traditionally thought to be radio-resistant, protected from radiation-induced injury by proximity to adjacent organs and by the adrenal medulla which reportedly has increased radio-resistance. We present the computed tomographic imaging findings of a patient with acute radiation induced adrenal injury which resulted in adrenal insufficiency following radiotherapy of an adjacent thecal metastasis

  7. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use.

  8. Síndrome de Ogilvie (pseudo-obstrução intestinal aguda: relato de caso Ogilvie's Syndrome (Acute pseudo-intestinal obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Marcondes Ribas Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A síndrome de Ogilvie é condição clínica com sinais, sintomas e aparência radiológica de dilatação acentuada do cólon sem causa mecânica e pode complicar com rompimento da parede do cólon e sepse abdominal. O tratamento na maioria das vezes é cirúrgico. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, 49 anos, internada com queixa de dor abdominal e diarréia e apresentando-se confusa, desidratada, taquicárdica, dispnéica, temperatura de 38ºC, abdômen distendido, ausência de ruídos hidro-aéreos e toque retal com fezes pastosas. Estudo radiográfico mostrou padrão de pseudo-obstrução intestinal. A paciente evoluiu com parada de eliminação de gases e fezes e sinais de abdômen agudo infeccioso. Foi submetida à laparotomia com achado de ceco e transverso bastante dilatados e sem sinal de obstrução mecânica. Realizada colectomia subtotal com fechamento do coto distal e ileostomia terminal. CONCLUSÃO: Pensar nessa possibilidade diagnóstica e agir mais rapidamente é a única possibilidade de diminuir a morbimortalidade desses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The Ogilvie's Syndrome is a clinical condition with signals, symptoms and radiological appearance of large bowel swell without mechanical cause. This obstruction can complicate with disruption of the bowel and consequent evolution of abdominal sepse. The treatment is typically surgical. AIM: The aim of this work is report a case of Ogilvie's Syndrome. CASE REPORT: Feminine patient, 49 years-old, interned with a history of abdominal pain and diarrhea and presenting dehydratation, tachycardia , dyspnea, mental confusion, 38ºC of temperature, distended abdomen, absence of hydro-aerial noises and rectal touch with pasty excrements. The x-ray showed a standard of pseudo-intestinal obstruction. The patient evolved with stop of elimination of farts and excrements and signals of infectious acute abdomen. The laparotomy showed cecum and transverse very swelled without signal of

  9. A case of radiation enteritis in which the site of the intestinal obstruction was diagnosed preoperatively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Nobuaki; Chiba, Mitsuro; Iizuka, Masahiro; Otaka, Michiro; Ito, Ryo; Kodama, Koh; Masamune, Osamu (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    A 47-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of severe epigastralgia, nausea and vomiting. The patient underwent a total hysterectomy for stage II cervical carcinoma seven years ago. She had a postoperative radiation therapy of 5000 rads to her pelvis. She received another 6000 rads to her abdomen for para-aortic lymph nodes metastasis three years ago. The plain film of the abdomen showed fluid levels and a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was made. She was treated with conservative therapy which temporarily relieved her symptoms. Barium enema and colonoscopy showed a narrowed lumen and prominent submucosal telangiectasia in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Small bowel enema showed a long narrowed segment in the jejunum and a short stenotic segment in the ileum. Reduced motility, saw-tooth contour, and increased fold thickness were observed in the lesions. For recurrent obstructive symptoms, partial resection of the ileum was electively performed. The resected specimen demonstrated marked wall thickness and three annular strictures. Microscopically, fibrosis, scars of deep ulcer extending to the submucosa and serosa, and thicknening of the wall of submucosal arterioles were observed. (author).

  10. Role of toll-like receptors in acute gastrointestinal radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces various disorders according to the radiation sensitivity of each organ. Acute gastrointestinal radiation syndrome is a serious illness that is caused by exposure of gastrointestinal tract to high amounts of ionizing radiation in radiation accidents or radiation therapy in cancer treatment. Although the pathological mechanism have been well studied in human and animals, no effective treatments have been developed to date. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is one of the best-characterized families of innate immune receptors, which induce innate immune response against pathogen infection. However, contrary to their protective function, recent studies have suggested that immune responses triggered by TLRs play deleterious roles by aggravating tissue inflammation in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This review describes recent advancement of our understanding of acute gastrointestinal radiation syndrome and the contributions of TLR to its pathological mechanisms. (author)

  11. Enhanced intestinal tumor multiplicity and grade in vivo after HZE exposure: mouse models for space radiation risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Daniela; Datta, Kamal; Doiron, Kathryn; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Fornace, Albert J

    2010-08-01

    Carcinogenesis induced by space radiation is considered a major risk factor in manned interplanetary and other extended missions. The models presently used to estimate the risk for cancer induction following deep space radiation exposure are based on data from A-bomb survivor cohorts and do not account for important biological differences existing between high-linear energy transfer (LET) and low-LET-induced DNA damage. High-energy and charge (HZE) radiation, the main component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), causes highly complex DNA damage compared to low-LET radiation, which may lead to increased frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, and contribute to carcinogenic risk in astronauts. Gastrointestinal (GI) tumors are frequent in the United States, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer accounting for 10% of all cancer deaths. On the basis of the aforementioned epidemiological observations and the frequency of spontaneous precancerous GI lesions in the general population, even a modest increase in incidence by space radiation exposure could have a significant effect on health risk estimates for future manned space flights. Ground-based research is necessary to reduce the uncertainties associated with projected cancer risk estimates and to gain insights into molecular mechanisms involved in space-induced carcinogenesis. We investigated in vivo differential effects of gamma-rays and HZE ions on intestinal tumorigenesis using two different murine models, ApcMin/+ and Apc1638N/+. We showed that gamma- and/or HZE exposure significantly enhances development and progression of intestinal tumors in a mutant-line-specific manner, and identified suitable models for in vivo studies of space radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:20490531

  12. The energetic state of rat's small intestine mitochondria under exposure to X-ray ionizing radiation with low intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of low-intensity ionizing radiation with single dose (0.055 Gy x min-1) in doses of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Gy on a metabolic state of the respiratory chain of rat's small intestine mitochondria is investigated. The damage of relations of the oxidative phosphorylation processes in mitochondria, which is expressed in the uncoupling of the processes of respiration and phosphorylation and in a decline of the phosphorylation rate and the activity of ATP-hydrolase reactions, is established. These changes are observed at all time of research and intensified with a growth of the radiation absorbed dose.

  13. Anti-radiation vaccine: Immunologically-based Prophylaxis of Acute Toxic Radiation Syndromes Associated with Long-term Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting crew from ionizing radiation is a key life sciences problem for long-duration space missions. The three major sources/types of radiation are found in space: galactic cosmic rays, trapped Van Allen belt radiation, and solar particle events. All present varying degrees of hazard to crews; however, exposure to high doses of any of these types of radiation ultimately induce both acute and long-term biological effects. High doses of space radiation can lead to the development of toxicity associated with the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) which could have significant mission impact, and even render the crew incapable of performing flight duties. The creation of efficient radiation protection technologies is considered an important target in space radiobiology, immunology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Two major mechanisms of cellular, organelle, and molecular destruction as a result of radiation exposure have been identified: 1) damage induced directly by incident radiation on the macromolecules they encounter and 2) radiolysis of water and generation of secondary free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce chemical bond breakage, molecular substitutions, and damage to biological molecules and membranes. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants, which neutralize the damaging activities of ROS, are effective in reducing the impact of small to moderate doses of radiation. In the case of high doses of radiation, antioxidants alone may be inadequate as a radioprotective therapy. However, it remains a valuable component of a more holistic strategy of prophylaxis and therapy. High doses of radiation directly damage biological molecules and modify chemical bond, resulting in the main pathological processes that drive the development of acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Which of two types of radiation-induced cellular lethality that ultimately develops, apoptosis or necrosis, depends on the spectrum of incident radiation, dose, dose rate, and

  14. Radiation-induced apoptosis in relation to acute impairment of rat salivary gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, GMRM; Cammelli, S; Zeilstra, LJW; Coppes, RP; Konings, AWT

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To find an answer to the question: Are the acute radiation effects on salivary gland function, as seen in earlier studies, causally related to radiation-induced apoptosis? Materials and methods: Rat parotid and submandibular glands were X-irradiated with doses up to 25 Gy and morphological

  15. Characteristic of endocrine cells of rat small intestine after administration of cryopreserved placenta on the background of acute aseptic peritoneal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepitko K.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern conceptions about mechanisms of inflammation of the small intestine could not be formed without an understanding of intercellular relationships that are realized by biologically active signaling molecules produced by endocrine cells. Methods. The experimental study has been carried out on the small intestine extracted from 140 adult male rats. Electron and light microscopy methods were used. Acute aseptic inflammation was modeled by intraperitoneal carrageenan injection; influence of subcutaneously cryopreserved placenta injection was analyzed. Results. After modeling of the acute aseptic peritoneal inflammation the maximal increase of ECL-cells was noted on the 21st day. The slowest restoration of endocrine cells number occurred on all measured parameters and was observed on day 30th of the observation. In case of administration of cryopreserved placenta at the early stages (days 3rd – 7th the increase of average number of EC- and ECL-cells promoted the enhanced permeability of vessels in the lamina propria. The decrease in number of P-cells prevented the development of hyperacid gastritis. Reduction in the average number of D1- cells prevented the excessive vasodilatation and facilitated the excretion of excess fluid from the foci of inflammation. In simultaneous subcutaneous administration of cryopreserved placenta and modeling of acute aseptic peritoneal inflammation the number of ЕС- and ЕСL-cells increased, accelerating the vascular response to inflammation. Conclusion. Active appearance of low-differentiated cells including those with “shapes of mitosis” on the day 14th indicates restoration of structural components of the small intestine mucosa and processes of absorption and parietal digestion after placenta administration during acute aseptic inflammation. Citation: Shepitko KV. [Characteristic of endocrine cells of rat small intestine after administration of cryopreserved placenta on the background of

  16. Abdominal γ-Radiation Induces an Accumulation of Function-Impaired Regulatory T Cells in the Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and the functional characteristics of one major component of immune tolerance, the CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a mouse model of abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to a single abdominal dose of γ-radiation (10 Gy). We evaluated small intestine Treg infiltration by Foxp3 immunostaining and the functional suppressive activity of Tregs isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Foxp3 immunostaining showed that radiation induced a long-term infiltration of the intestine by Tregs (levels 5.5 times greater than in controls). Co-culture of Tregs from mesenteric lymph nodes with CD4+ effector cells showed that the Tregs had lost their suppressive function. This loss was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of Foxp3, TGF-β, and CTLA-4 mRNA, all required for optimal Treg function. At Day 90 after irradiation, Tregs regained their suppressive activity as forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression returned to normal. Analysis of the secretory function of mesenteric lymph node Tregs, activated in vitro with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs, showed that this dysfunction was independent of a defect in interleukin-10 secretion. Conclusion: Radiation caused a long-term accumulation of function-impaired Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs in the intestine. Our study provides new insights into how radiation affects the immune tolerance in peripheral tissues.

  17. Changes of gastric and intestinal blood flow, serum phospholipase A2 and interleukin-1β in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Jian-Guo Qu; Xue-Qing Wang; Guo-Zuo Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between gastric and intestinal microcirculatory impairment and inflammatory mediators released in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).METHODS: A total of 64 rats were randomized into control group and ANP group. ANP model was induced by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate under the pancreatic membrane.Radioactive biomicrosphere technique was used to measure the gastric and intestinal tissue blood flow at 2 and 12 h after the induction of ANP, meanwhile serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities and interleukin-1β levels were determined. Pathologic changes in pancreas, gastric and intestinal mucosae were studied. RESULTS: The gastric blood flow in ANP group (0.62±0.06 (P<0.01) at 2 and 12 h after induction of ANP. The intestinal blood flow in ANP group (0.80±0.07 and (P<0.01). Serum PLA2 activities (94.29±9.96 and 103.71± 14.40) U/L and IL-1β levels (0.78±0.13 and 0.83±0.20) μg/L in ANP group were higher than those in control group (65.27±10.52 and 66.63±9.81) U/L, (0.32±0.06 and 0.33±0.07) μg/L (P<0.01). At 2 and 12 h after introduction of the model, typical pathologic changes were found in ANP. Compared with control group, the gastric and intestinal mucosal pathologic changes were aggravated significantly (P<0.01) at 12 h after induction of ANP. Gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis, multiple ulcer and hemorrhage occurred.CONCLUSION: Decrease of gastric and intestinal blood flow and increase of inflammatory mediators occur simultaneously early in ANP, both of them are important pathogenic factors for gastric and intestinal mucosal injury in ANP.

  18. Effect of ecoimmunonutrition supports on maintenance of integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier in severe acute pancreatitis in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the major causes of death in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is severe infection owing to bacterial translocation. Some clinical studies suggested that ecoimmunonutrition (EIN) as a new strategy had better treatment effect on SAP patients. But the experiment studies on the precise mechanism of the effect of EIN were less reported. In this study, we mainly investigated the effects of EIN on bacterial translocation in SAP model of dogs.Methods SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in healthy hybrid dogs. The SAP dogs were supported with either parenteral nutrition (PN) or elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) or EIN. The levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase and plasma endotoxin were detected before and after pancreatitis induction. On the 7th day after nutrition supports, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, and pancreas were collected for bacterial culture with standard techniques to observe the incidence of bacterial translocation. Pathology changes of pancreas were analyzed by histopathologic grading and scoring of the severity of pancreas, and the degree of intestinal mucosal damage was assessed by measuring mucosal thickness, villus height, and crypt depth of ileum.Results Compared with PN and EEN, EIN significantly decreased the levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase, plasma endotoxin, and the incidence of bacterial translocation. Furthermore, compared with the others, the histology scores of inflammation in pancreas and the ileum injury (ileum mocosa thickness, villus height, and crypt depth) were significantly alleviated by EIN (P<0.05). Moreover, concerning liver function, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin were ameliorating significantly in the EIN group.Conclusion Our results suggested that EIN could maintain the integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier and reducing the incidence of bacterial translocation

  19. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.

    1950-03-17

    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  20. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  1. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  2. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees Emile Parde, Departement de Radiologie, 38 - La Tronche (France)

    1997-03-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  3. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  4. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  5. Usefulness of the helical CT in gastro intestinally caused acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, there is a vivid debate on the role of the Helical CT (HCT) in the acute abdomen, principally on the usefulness of the non contrast HCT. We aim to present the most common semiological findings and the differential diagnoses, and to give a short description of the indications and protocols, according to the existing literature and to our experience with HCT during the last three years. We believe that the generalization of the use of HCT in emergencies avoid unnecessary surgery and shorten observation times on many occasions, with clear benefits in the clinical management of the patients. (Author) 30 refs

  6. Oral glutamine supplementation improves intestinal permeability dysfunction in a murine acute graft-vs.-host disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, Rainer; Häsler, Robert; Stüber, Eckhard; Ellrichmann, Mark; Schäfer, Heiner; Geismann, Claudia; Hampe, Jochen; Bewig, Burkhard; Wedel, Thilo; Böttner, Martina; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Arlt, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Although a profound barrier dysfunction has been reported, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanism evoking gastrointestinal graft-vs.-host disease (GI-GvHD) and apparent therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oral glutamine on the course of GI-GvHD in an acute semiallogenic graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) in irradiated B6D2F1 mice. An acute semiallogenic GvHD was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice to irradiated B6D2F1 mice. Half of the GvHD animals received oral glutamine supplementation for 6 days started at the time of lymphocyte transfer. Six days after induction of the semiallogenic GvHD, jejunum specimens were prepared. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the tight junction protein occludin was investigated by PCR. Histological changes along with the apoptotic response were evaluated and intestinal permeability was assessed. Animals with GvHD showed a strong increase in paracellular permeability as a sign of the disturbed barrier function. TNF-α expression was significantly increased and the expression of the tight junction protein occludin decreased. GvHD led to mucosal atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, crypt apoptosis, and a disintegration of the tight junctions. Glutamine-treated mice showed reduced expression of TNF-α, increased occludin expression, fewer histological changes in the jejunum, smaller number of apoptotic cells in the crypt, and reduced gastrointestinal permeability. In conclusion, oral glutamine seems to have beneficial effects on the severity of inflammatory changes in the course of GvHD and might be a therapeutic option.

  7. Elemental diets in the prophylaxis and therapy for intestinal lesions: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiologic substances in the intestinal milieu prompted the use of an elemental semihydrolyzed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. Elemental diets have been used in the management of a variety of digestive diseases. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteropathy and in the therapy for delayed radiation enteropathy and Crohn's disease.90 references

  8. The TGF-β/Smad repressor TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury independently of a Smad signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hneino

    Full Text Available Despite advances in radiation delivery protocols, exposure of normal tissues during the course of radiation therapy remains a limiting factor of cancer treatment. If the canonical TGF-β/Smad pathway has been extensively studied and implicated in the development of radiation damage in various organs, the precise modalities of its activation following radiation exposure remain elusive. In the present study, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 signaling and target genes expression may depend on radiation-induced modifications in Smad transcriptional co-repressors/inhibitors expressions (TGIF1, SnoN, Ski and Smad7. In endothelial cells (HUVECs and in a model of experimental radiation enteropathy in mice, radiation exposure increases expression of TGF-β/Smad pathway and of its target gene PAI-1, together with the overexpression of Smad co-repressor TGIF1. In mice, TGIF1 deficiency is not associated with changes in the expression of radiation-induced TGF-β pathway-related transcripts following localized small intestinal irradiation. In HUVECs, TGIF1 overexpression or silencing has no influence either on the radiation-induced Smad activation or the Smad3-dependent PAI-1 overexpression. However, TGIF1 genetic deficiency sensitizes mice to radiation-induced intestinal damage after total body or localized small intestinal radiation exposure, demonstrating that TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In conclusion, the TGF-β/Smad co-repressor TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced normal tissue damage by a Smad-independent mechanism.

  9. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  10. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Radiation Emergency Medicine Research Program, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujita, Mayumi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Meineke, Viktor [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  11. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  12. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B Phototherapy Ameliorates Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Intestine by Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyama, Satoshi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Ibata, Soushi; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Murase, Kazuyuki; Kawano, Yutaka; Takada, Kohichi; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) has been widely used in dermatological phototherapy. As for the application of NB-UVB phototherapy to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we previously reported that it was highly efficacious for cutaneous lesions of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and that expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by NB-UVB might be one of the mechanisms. In order to examine whether NB-UVB irradiation through expansion of Treg cells is effective for the treatment of not only cutaneous aGVHD but also aGVHD of inner organs such as the intestine or liver, we conducted experiments in which a murine lethal aGVHD model, characterized by severe involvement of the intestine, was irradiated with NB-UVB. We found that NB-UVB irradiation improved the clinical score and survival rate. The pathological score of aGVHD was improved in all affected organs: intestine, liver, and skin. In the serum of mice irradiated with NB-UVB, the levels of Treg cells-associated cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated. The numbers of infiltrating Treg cells in inflamed tissue of the intestine and those in spleen were increased in mice treated with NB-UVB. This is the first report demonstrating that NB-UVB phototherapy has the ability to ameliorate intestinal aGVHD through the expansion of Treg cells. PMID:27031239

  13. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B Phototherapy Ameliorates Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Intestine by Expansion of Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akari; Sato, Tsutomu; Iyama, Satoshi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Ibata, Soushi; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Murase, Kazuyuki; Kawano, Yutaka; Takada, Kohichi; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) has been widely used in dermatological phototherapy. As for the application of NB-UVB phototherapy to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we previously reported that it was highly efficacious for cutaneous lesions of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and that expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by NB-UVB might be one of the mechanisms. In order to examine whether NB-UVB irradiation through expansion of Treg cells is effective for the treatment of not only cutaneous aGVHD but also aGVHD of inner organs such as the intestine or liver, we conducted experiments in which a murine lethal aGVHD model, characterized by severe involvement of the intestine, was irradiated with NB-UVB. We found that NB-UVB irradiation improved the clinical score and survival rate. The pathological score of aGVHD was improved in all affected organs: intestine, liver, and skin. In the serum of mice irradiated with NB-UVB, the levels of Treg cells-associated cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated. The numbers of infiltrating Treg cells in inflamed tissue of the intestine and those in spleen were increased in mice treated with NB-UVB. This is the first report demonstrating that NB-UVB phototherapy has the ability to ameliorate intestinal aGVHD through the expansion of Treg cells.

  14. Absence of Intestinal PPARγ Aggravates Acute Infectious Colitis in Mice through a Lipocalin-2–Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Parag; Ling, Teo Wei; Korecka, Agata; Li, Yinghui; D'Arienzo, Rossana; Bunte, Ralph M.; Berger, Thorsten; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Chambon, Pierre; Mak, Tak Wah; Wahli, Walter; Pettersson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2). Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion. PMID:24465207

  15. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed γβ- and γη-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at γβ- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at γη-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and systems causing reduction of a level of

  16. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  17. Malrotación intestinal en adultos: causa infrecuente de abdomen agudo oclusivo Intestinal malrotation in adults: infrecuent cause of acute oclusive syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Etchevers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El 90 % de los casos de obstrucción por malrotación intestinal ocurre en niños menores de 1 año de edad, siendo altamente infrecuente en adultos. Un paciente de sexo masculino, de 31 años de edad, con antecedente de episodios de dolor abdominal, vómitos y constipación que alternaban con períodos de normalidad desde la niñez es admitido en el hospital por sintomatología similar, la que no cede. Luego de estudios radiológicos y de laboratorio se decide su intervención quirúrgica con el diagnóstico de obstrucción intestinal. El diagnóstico intraoperatorio realizado fue de malrotación intestinal tipo I, practicándose la operación de Ladd. La evolución del paciente es favorable. La infrecuente presentación de esta patología en adultos es lo que motiva la presentación del caso.The 90 % of the bowel obstruction caused by intestinal malrotation occurred in children younger than 1 year, this type of obstruction is very uncommon in adults. This is a male of 31 years old, with history of abdominal pain, vomits and constipation since he was a child. These symptoms were sporadical, he didn't need any surgical treatment. Recently he was admitted in our institution presenting similar symptoms, without remission of them. After imaging and laboratory studies, was performed a surgery, and the intraoperatoty diagnosis was intestinal malrotation type I. The surgical treatment was the Ladd Operation. The postsurgery evolution was good. Discharged 4 days after the surgery. The aim of this article is to present a rare case of intestinal obstruction in adults caused for an intestinal malrotation.

  18. The effects of acute radiation exposure on the serum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood samples were collected from the experimental animals 24 hrs after irradiation of gamma doses upto 80 Gy. Native PAGE showed a decreasing trend in gamma globulin fraction of serum from the irradiated group compared to control, while SDS PAGE indicated an enhanced tendency in protein of molecular weight 30,000 to 40,000. Serum albumin slightly decreased with radiation doses as a result of decrease in total protein amount. Radiation exposure had little or no effects on such lipid related components as phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol, respectively. Among others, glutamic pyryvic transaminase (GPT) showed a drastic decrease in its amount 24 hrs after radiation exposure, which can be applied to the health care program for radiation workers. (Author)

  19. The role of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor in acute intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghua Xu; Nicholas H Hunt; Shisan Bao

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance of mucosal pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).GM-CSF influences the development of hemopoietic cells.The precise role of GM-CSF in IBD remains to be elucidated.GM-CSF gene knockout (GM-CSF-/-) and wild-type (Wt) mice were challenged with 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days.The ensued clinical and pathological changes,macrophage infiltration,colonic cytokine production,and bacterial counts were examined.DSS-treated GM-CSF-/- mice developed more severe acute colitis than DSS-treated Wt mice,reflected by a greater body weight loss,more rectal bleeding,and aggravated histopathological changes.More infiltrating macrophages were observed in GM-CSF-/-,compared with Wt mice following DSS challenge,correlating with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)production.The levels of colonic IL-17 and TNF-α were increased significantly in GM-CSF-/- mice,but not in Wt mice,following DSS administration.The level of IL-6 was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the colon of GM-CSF-/-and Wt mice,respectively,following DSS challenge.No significant changes in IL-4 and IFN-y were detected in Wt and GM-CSF-/-mice following DSS treatment.The bacteria recovery from colon was increased about 15- and 5-fold,respectively,in Wt mice and GM-CSF-/- mice following DSS challenge.These results suggest that GM-CSF-/- mice are more susceptible to acute DSS-induced colitis,possibly because of an impaired gut innate immune response as a result of diminished GM-CSF.

  20. Acquired protein C deficiency in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia, splenic, renal, and intestinal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Roula A; Jalkh, Khalil S; Farhat, Hussein Z; Sayad, Paul E; Kadri, Adel M

    2011-03-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3V) when he presented with pallor, abdominal pain, anorexia, and fatigue. Induction chemotherapy was started according to the AML-BFM 98 protocol along with Vesanoid (ATRA, All-trans retinoic acid). On the sixth day of induction, he developed splenic and gallbladder infarcts. Splenectomy and cholecystectomy were performed while chemotherapy induction continued as scheduled. Four days later, he developed ischemic areas in the kidneys and ischemic colitis in the sigmoid colon. Hypercoagulation studies showed severe deficiency of protein C. Tests showed protein C 16% (reference range 70-140%), protein S 87% (reference range 70-140%), antithrombin III 122% (reference range 80-120%), prothrombin time 13.6 s (reference = 11.3), INR (international normalized ratio) 1.21, partial thromboplastin time 33 s (reference = 33), fibrinogen 214 mg/dl, D-dimer 970 μg/ml, factor II 98%, and that antinuclear antibody, antiphospholipid antibodies, mutation for factor II gene (G20210A), and mutation for Arg506 Gln of factor V were all negative (factor V Leiden). There was no evidence of clinical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). He was treated with low molecular weight heparin and did well. He continues to be in complete remission 7 years later with normal protein C levels. Acquired protein C deficiency can occur in a variety of settings and has been reported in acute myelocytic leukemia. However, clinically significant thrombosis in the absence of clinical DIC, such as our case, remains extremely rare.

  1. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  2. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pani; Mieke Verslegers; Roel Quintens; Nada Samari; Louis de Saint-Georges; Patrick Van Oostveldt; Sarah Baatout; Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during ch...

  3. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  4. Effect of CpG-ODN combined with radiation on micronuclei cell of the human intestinal crypt epithelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order study the changes of micronuclei cell frequency in the non-immune cell types, the human intestinal crypt epithelial cell (HIEC) was treated by CpG-ODN after radiation. MTT assay and micronuclei assay were used in this research. The result of MTT assay shows that CpG-ODN does not have any toxicity to HIEC in the concentration range of 0.00-1.25 μmol/L. Micronuclei assay measurement indicates that CpG-ODN can protect HIEC from radiation damage by reducing the micronucleus frequency (MNF) and the micronucleus cell frequency (MNCF). The experiment results reveal that CpG-ODN is safe and may have radioprotection effect on some non-immune human cell types. (authors)

  5. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  6. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with γ-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage

  7. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  8. Acute toxicity profile of craniospinal irradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in children with medulloblastoma: A prospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report on the acute toxicity in children with medulloblastoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with daily intrafractionally modulated junctions. Newly diagnosed patients, aged 3–21, with standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) medulloblastoma were eligible. A dose of 23.4 or 36.0Gy in daily fractions of 1.8Gy was prescribed to the craniospinal axis, followed by a boost to the primary tumor bed (54 or 55.8Gy) and metastases (39.6–55.8Gy), when indicated. Weekly, an intravenous bolus of vincristine was combined for patients with SR medulloblastoma and patients participating in the COG-ACNS-0332 study. Common toxicity criteria (CTC, version 2.0) focusing on skin, alopecia, voice changes, conjunctivitis, anorexia, dysphagia, gastro-intestinal symptoms, headache, fatigue and hematological changes were scored weekly during radiotherapy. From 2010 to 2014, data from 15 consecutive patients (SR, n = 7; HR, n = 8) were collected. Within 72 h from onset of treatment, vomiting (66 %) and headache (46 %) occurred. During week 3 of treatment, a peak incidence in constipation (33 %) and abdominal pain/cramping (40 %) was observed, but only in the subgroup of patients (n = 9) receiving vincristine (constipation: 56 vs 0 %, P = .04; pain/cramping: 67 vs 0 %, P = .03). At week 6, 73 % of the patients developed faint erythema of the cranial skin with dry desquamation (40 %) or moist desquamation confined to the skin folds of the auricle (33 %). No reaction of the skin overlying the spinal target volume was observed. Headache at onset and gastro-intestinal toxicity, especially in patients receiving weekly vincristine, were the major complaints of patients with medulloblastoma undergoing craniospinal irradiation with IMRT

  9. Cell-permeable intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protect and rescue intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we constructed bacterial expression plasmids containing genes of XIAP (full-length, BIR2 domain and BIR3-RING domain with and without mutations of auto-ubiquitylation sites) and cIAP2 proteins fused to a protein-transduction domain (PTD) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) and purified these cell-permeable recombinant proteins. When the TAT-conjugated IAPs were added to rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC6, these proteins were effectively delivered into the cells and inhibited apoptosis, even when added after irradiation. Our results suggest that PTD-mediated delivery of IAPs may have clinical potential, not only for radioprotection but also for rescuing the GI system from radiation injuries. (author)

  10. Cell-permeable intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protect and rescue intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki-Horibuchi, Shiori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Nagako; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we constructed bacterial expression plasmids containing genes of XIAP (full-length, BIR2 domain and BIR3-RING domain with and without mutations of auto-ubiquitylation sites) and cIAP2 proteins fused to a protein-transduction domain (PTD) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) and purified these cell-permeable recombinant proteins. When the TAT-conjugated IAPs were added to rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC6, these proteins were effectively delivered into the cells and inhibited apoptosis, even when added after irradiation. Our results suggest that PTD-mediated delivery of IAPs may have clinical potential, not only for radioprotection but also for rescuing the GI system from radiation injuries.

  11. Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Song, Myoung-Sub; Seo, Heung-Sik; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significan...

  12. Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating in the small intestine Hemorragia digestiva baja severa originada en el intestino delgado

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    A. Ríos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH is generally self-limiting, and the most frequent etiologies are located at colonic level. The objective here is to analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic handling of acute LGIH when its etiology was located in the small intestine. Patients and methods: between 1975 and March 2002, 12 acute cases of LGIH originating in the small intestine were admitted to our service. All consulted the hospital with acute rectorrhage, requiring a transfusion of at least 3 units of concentrated red blood cells. The mean age was 54 ± 21 years, 58% were women, and 83% had experienced previous episodes of LGIH. Results: in eleven cases (92% an urgent lower and upper endoscopy was performed without locating the source of bleeding. An arteriography was indicated in 7 patients (58%, which located the bleeding origin in 5 of them. In two cases a scintigraphy was performed, showing a Meckel's diverticulum in one patient and a normal image in another. All were operated on; in 8 cases (67%, surgery was urgent; in 9 cases, a tumor was found, and in three additional patients, a case of Meckel's diverticulum was found, with a resection being carried out for all lesions. Histology showed a leiomyoma in 7 cases, a Meckel's diverticulum in 3 cases, a leiomyoblastoma in 1, and an angioma in the remaining case. After a mean follow-up of 132 ± 75 months, the leiomyoblastoma resulted in death, and there was a relapse in the case of angioma, which was successfully embolized with interventional radiology. Conclusions: acute LGIH originating in the small intestine should be considered a possible etiology when digestive endoscopy does not locate the source of bleeding, with arteriography being a useful diagnostic technique for bleeding localization. Surgery is the definitive treatment - it confirms the etiology and rules out the presence of malignancy.Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva baja (HDB es generalmente autolimitada y

  13. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  14. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  15. Calcitriol analog ZK191784 ameliorates acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis by modulation of intestinal dendritic cell numbers and phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ZK1916784, a low calcemic analog of calcitriol on intestinal inflammation.METHODS: Acute and chronic colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) according to standard procedures. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with ZK1916784 or placebo and colonic inflammation was evaluated. Cytokine production by mesenterial lymph node (MLN) cells was measured by ELISA.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) within the colonic tissue,and the effect of the calcitriol analog on DCs was investigated.RESULTS: Treatment with ZK191784 resulted in significant amelioration of disease with a reduced histological score in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. In animals with acute DSS colitis, down-regulation of colonic inflammation was associated with a dramatic reduction in the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and a significant increase in intereleukin (IL)-10 by MLN cells.Similarly, in chronic colitis, IL-10 expression in colonic tissue increased 1.4-fold when mice were treated with ZK191784, whereas expression of the Th1-specific transcription factor T-beta decreased by 81.6%. Lower numbers of infiltrating activated CD11c+ DCs were found in the colon in ZK191784-treated mice with acute DSS colitis, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by primary mucosal DCs was inhibited in the presence of the calcitriol analog.CONCLUSION: The calcitriol analog ZK191784 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties in experimental colitis that were at least partially mediated by the immunosuppressive effects of the derivate on mucosal DCs.

  16. The combined impact of plant-derived dietary ingredients and acute stress on the intestinal arachidonic acid cascade in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Anthony; Jolly, Cecile; Eide, Torunn; Jordal, Ann-Elise O; Svardal, Asbjørn; Olsen, Rolf-Erik

    2010-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of substituting high levels of dietary fish oil (FO) and fishmeal (FM) for vegetable oil (VO) and plant protein (PP) on the intestinal arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the carnivorous fish species Atlantic salmon. Four diets were fed to salmon over a period of 12 months, including a control FMFO diet, with varying replacements of plant-derived ingredients: 80 % PP and 35 % VO; 40 % PP and 70 % VO; 80 % PP and 70 %VO. Subsequently, fish were examined pre- (0 h) and post- (1 h) acute stress for blood parameters and intestinal bioactive lipidic mediators of inflammation (prostaglandins). Plasma cortisol responses were greatest in the FMFO group, while 80 % PP and 70 % VO fish exhibited increased plasma chloride concentrations. The n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in intestinal glycerophospholipids from 70 % VO groups significantly decreased in both proximal and distal regions due to elevated levels of 18 : 2n-6 and the elongation/desaturation products 20 : 2n-6 and 20 : 3n-6. Increases in n-6 PUFA were not concomitant with increased AA, although the AA:EPA ratio did vary significantly. The 40 % PP and 70 % VO diet produced the highest intestinal AA:EPA ratio proximally, which coincided with a trend in elevated levels of PGF2alpha, PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in response to stress. PGE2 predominated over PGF2alpha and 6-keto-PGF1alpha (stable metabolite of PGI2) with comparable concentrations in both intestinal regions. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression was an order of magnitude higher in distal intestine, compared with proximal, and was significantly up-regulated following stress. Furthermore, the 80 % PP and 70 % VO diet significantly amplified proximal COX-2 induction post-stress. Results demonstrate that high replacements with plant-derived dietary ingredients can enhance COX-2 induction and synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the intestine of salmon in response to acute physiological stress. PMID:19943982

  17. Prophylaxis and treatment of acute radiation ulcers in rats with low-power infrared laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursova, Larisa V.; Kaplan, Michael A.; Nikitina, Rosa G.; Maligina, Antonina I.

    1999-12-01

    Exposure of radiation ulcers in rats to low-power infrared laser radiation (LPLR) (wavelength--890 nm, pulse power--6 W, frequency--150 and 300 Hz, irradiation time--10 min) noticeably accelerates their healing, reduces exudative processes, increases number of specialized cells in wound. Application of LPLR prior to radiation damage decreases ulcer dimensions.

  18. Radiation Induced Acute Changes During Early Organogenesis of Mammalian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experiments were performed to study the acute changes induced during early embryonic organogenesis after gamma irradiation to doses 0.5,1,2,and 3 Gy on the ninth day of gestation. The changes observed at full term included number of viable fetuses, fetal size, fetal weight and incidence of embryonic absorption sites. Other parameters observed were related to dimensions of lateral fetal length, tail length and antro-posterior and lateral measurements of skull. Results indicated that embryonic absorption sites showed a significant incidence at higher doses of two and three Gy, which reflected on the number of fetuses reaching full term. The occurrence of these and the other changes observed are related to dose magnitude and the mechanisms underlying them are considered due to the high radiosensitivity of embryonic tissue during early organogenesis. The data obtained has a serious implications related to exposures of pregnant women

  19. Effects of dose rates on radiation-induced replenishment of intestinal stem cells determined by Lgr5 lineage tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the dynamics of intestinal Lgr5+ stem cells is important for elucidating the mechanism of colonic cancer development. We previously established a method for evaluating Lgr5+ stem cells by tamoxifen-dependent Lgr5-lineage tracing and showed that high-dose-rate radiation stimulated replenishment of colonic stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose-rate radiation on stem cell maintenance. Tamoxifen (4OHT)-injected Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2 × ROSA-LSL-LacZ mice were used, LacZ-labeled colonic crypts were enumerated, and the loss of LacZ+ crypts under low-dose-rate radiation was estimated. After 4OHT treatment, the number of LacZ-labeled Lgr5+ stem cells was higher in the colon of infant mice than in adult mice. The percentage of LacZ-labeled crypts in infant mice rapidly decreased after 4OHT treatment. However, the percentage of labeled crypts plateaued at ∼2% at 4 weeks post-treatment and remained unchanged for up to 7 months. Thus, it will be advantageous to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose-rate radiation. Next, we determined the percentages of LacZ-labeled crypts irradiated with 1 Gy administered at different dose rates. As reported in our previous study, mice exposed to high-dose-rate radiation (30 Gy/h) showed a marked replenishment (P = 0.04). However, mice exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (0.003 Gy/h) did not exhibit accelerated stem-cell replenishment (P = 0.47). These findings suggest the percentage of labeled crypts can serve as a useful indicator of the effects of dose rate on the stem cell pool. (author)

  20. cis-Urocanic acid attenuates acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Albert

    Full Text Available On exposure to sunlight, urocanic acid (UCA in the skin is converted from trans to the cis form and distributed systemically where it confers systemic immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to determine if administration of cis-UCA would be effective in attenuating colitis and the possible role of IL-10. Colitis was induced in 129/SvEv mice by administering 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS for 7 days in drinking water. During this period mice received daily subcutaneously injections of cis-UCA or vehicle. To examine a role for IL-10, 129/SvEv IL-10(-/- mice were injected for 24 days with cis-UCA or vehicle. Clinical disease was assessed by measurement of body weight, stool consistency, and presence of blood. At sacrifice, colonic tissue was collected for histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase and cytokines. Splenocytes were analyzed for CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells via flow cytometry. Murine bone-marrow derived antigen-presenting cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS ± UCA and cytokine secretion measured. Our results demonstrated that cis-UCA at a dose of 50 µg was effective in ameliorating DSS-induced colitis as evidenced by reduced weight loss and attenuated changes in colon weight/length. This protection was associated with reduced colonic expression of CXCL1, an increased expression of IL-17A and a significant preservation of splenic CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells. cis-UCA decreased LPS induced CXCL1, but not TNFα secretion, from antigen-presenting cells in vitro. UCA reduced colonic levels of IFNγ in IL-10(-/- mice but did not attenuate colitis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that cis-urocanic acid is effective in reducing the severity of colitis in a chemically-induced mouse model, indicating that pathways induced by ultraviolet radiation to the skin can influence distal sites of inflammation. This provides further evidence for a possible role for sunlight exposure in modulating inflammatory

  1. Therapeutic effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 on experimental radiation enteritis in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation enteritis in patients treated by abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is characterized by acute mucosal disruption and chronic intestinal fibrosis. Using a model of localized intestinal irradiation in the rat, we showed remote intestinal dysfunction outside the irradiation field along the whole gut, probably associated with perturbations in the systems regulating intestinal functions. Based on the hypothesis of consequential late effects, acute administration of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2, a growth factor with specific trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, limited the apparition of both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting the severity of acute tissue damage may also limit chronic sequelae. The study of GLP-2 effects on epithelial cells in co-culture with either subepithelial myo-fibroblasts or enteric nervous system emphasized the problem of the modelization of complex systems in vitro, and suggested a synergic action from these different actors in vivo. (author)

  2. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  3. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  4. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E Synthase mRNA in Quail Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fu, CP Liu1, ZW Zhang1, W Liao2 and SW Xu1,*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The cold temperature, a common environmental stress, reduces the immunity and re-production activities of the poultry. This study aims to investigate the role of acute and chronic cold exposure in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. A total of 96 quail with 15 days of age were randomly allocated into 12 groups (8 each group for exposure to acute (up to 12 h and chronic (up to 20 days cold temperature (12±1°C. After that, different segments of the intestine were harvested and subjected to morphology observations under the light and electronic microscopes. qRT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of COX-2 and PTGES, and DNA sequencing was performed to analyze PCR products. The data showed that under acute cold stress, expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA was first decreased and then increased in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. However, chronic cold stress induced expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of quail, which was then reduced after 20 days of cold exposure. Morphologically, significant changes were also observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after both acute and chronic cold stresses to the animals. The data from the current study indicated that both acute and chronic cold stresses were able to induce inflammation responses in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, which might be due to the cold-damaged intestinal morphology.

  5. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author)

  6. Acute skin lesions due to localized ``hot particle`` radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-06-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small (<0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles. Hanford mini-swine were exposed to localized doses from 0.2 to over 600 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70{mu}m depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit.

  7. Influence of live combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus capsules inflammation factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function of severe acute pancreatitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Shi; Ling-Yun Wu; Jian-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of inflammation factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function on severe acute pancreatitis patients treated with bifidobacterium triple viable capsules.Methods:88 cases severe acute pancreatitis patients were divided into observation group and control group according to admission order, 44 cases in each group, all patients were given conventional treatment, on this base, patients in observation group were treated by oral bifidobacterium triple viable capsules, they were treated for one week, detected the serum inflammatory factors: the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and intestinal mucosal barrier function index: endotoxin, diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) in the two groups before and after treatment.Results:The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in two groups after treatment were significantly reduced than before treatment, and after treatment the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group, all the difference was statistically significant; The levels of endotoxin, DA, D-lactic acid, L/M in two groups after treatment were significantly reduced than before treatment, and the levels of endotoxin, DA, D-lactic acid,L/M after treatment in observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion: Based on conventional treatment combined bifidobacterium triple viable capsules can significantly reduce inflammation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, it can protect the intestinal mucosal barrier function, and has important clinical significance.

  8. Investigations of the dependence of radiation effects on the stem cells of the small intestine mucous membrane on dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study of the dependence of the radiation effects on the stem cells of the small intestine mucous membrane on dose fractionation mice from the strain C3H were exposed to a one-time irradiation, an irradiation in three fractions, five fractions on one day, five fractions on two days and an irradiation in ten fractions. It was shown, that the survival curves for the higher fractionation numbers were shifted to the right from the ones with higher total doses and have a lower slope than the curves lying more to the left. The accumulation of a total dose for an iso-effect is not proportional to the increase in the number of fractions, but instead in the area above 5 fractions reaches a plateau. The survival curve of the one-time dose which I constructed in the shoulder area showed a strong agreement with the survival curve which was given by Withers and Hussey. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Qingre Buyi Decoction (清热补益汤) on Nitric Oxide and Histomorphology of Intestinal Mucosa in Rats with Radiation Enteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiao-fan(丁小凡); LI De-xing(李德杏); ZHAO Lin (赵林)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of Qingre Buyi Decoction (清热补益汤, QBD) in prevention and treatment of radiation enteritis in rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, the TCM group, the WM group, the model group and the control group, 12 in each group. Rats in the former three groups were given orally with QBD, norfloxacin and normal saline once a day for 7 successive days, after being irradiated with X-ray at single dose of 10 Gy for modeling of radiation enteritis,while rats in the control group were untreated. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the medication. NO concentration, mean height and number of villi per centimeter in their small intestinal mucosa were measured. Results: The intestinal NO concentration was significantly lower in the TCM and WM groups than that in the model group(P<0.05), while the number of villi was significantly more and the height higher in the former two groups than those in the model group (P<0.01 for both), but no significant difference was shown between the TCM group and the WM group. Conclusion: QBD could inhibit the production of NO, increase the number and height of intestinal villi in rats with radiation enteritis, suggesting that it could reduce the inflammatory reaction of intestinal mucosa to irradiation, protect mucosa from radiation damage, and promote the regeneration of mucosa.

  10. The roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in colon tight junction protein expression and intestinal mucosa structure in a mouse model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Sa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a common clinical disease and one of the most severe complications of acute liver failure (ALF. Although the mechanism responsible for SBP is unclear, cytokines play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α on the structure of the intestinal mucosa and the expression of tight junction (Zona Occludens 1; ZO-1 protein in a mouse model of ALF. Methods We induced ALF using D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α and assessed the results using transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of administration of anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-TNF-α R1 antibody before administration of GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α, respectively, on TNF-α were also assessed. Results Morphological abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of ALF mice were positively correlated with serum TNF-α level. Electron microscopic analysis revealed tight junction (TJ disruptions, epithelial cell swelling, and atrophy of intestinal villi. Gut bacteria invaded the body at sites where TJ disruptions occurred. Expression of ZO-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in both ALF models, as was the level of ZO-1 protein. Prophylactic treatment with either anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a receptor1 (anti-TNF-α R1 antibody prevented changes in intestinal tissue ultrastructure and ZO-1 expression. Conclusion TNF-α affects the structure of the intestinal mucosa, decreases expression of ZO-1, and affects the morphology of the colon in a mouse model of ALF. It also may participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of SBP complicated to ALF.

  11. Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of a Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Neuropeptide Y, and Substance P, in rat adrenal cortex after acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Kosanović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP, Neuropeptide Y (NPY, and the absence of Substance P (SP immunoreactivity in the rat adrenal cortex. VIP- and NPY-immunoreactivity were detected in nerve fibers around the small blood vessels projecting into the capsule and cortical zones surrounding blood vessels and cortical cells. After acute heat stress, VIP- and NPY-immunoreactivities in the nerve fibers were reduced, probably as a result of the release of these peptides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173023

  12. Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil

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    Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax.

  13. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  14. Chanqes of osseous tissue following radiation therapy and in acute radiation trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on ionizing radiation effect with harmful doses on man skeleton are analyzed. Pathomorphological and rentgenological changes in bones of patients, who underwent radiotherapy course are studied; the pointed out changes were observed as radiation complications. It is noted that pathological process in the bone develops comparatively slowly following therapeutic fractionated irradiation

  15. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  16. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in radiation exposed small intestinal mucosa of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ja; Rhee, Chung Sik [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes whose main function is the degradation of the extracellular matrix. Several studies have revealed that MMPs and TIMPs are related to the wound healing process and in photoaging caused by ultraviolet irradiation. However, the expressions of MMP and TIMP after irradiation have not, to the best of our knowledge, been studied. This study investigates the expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in rat intestinal mucosa following irradiation. The entire abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated using a single dose method. The rats were sacrificed on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 following irradiation. Histopathological observations were made using hematoxilin and eosin staining. The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were examined using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and ELISA. Radiation induced damage, associated with atrophic villi, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed from the first postirradiation day, and severe tissue damage was observed on the second and the third postirradiation days. An increase in mitosis and the number of regenerating crypts, as evidence of regeneration, were most noticeable on the fifth postirradiation day. From the immunohistochemistry, the MMP-2 expression was observed from the first postirradiation day, but was most conspicuous on the third and the fifth postirradiation days. The TIMP-2 expression was most conspicuous on the fifth postirradiation day. From the immunoblotting, the MMP-2 expression was strongly positive on the third postirradiation day, and that of TIMP-2 showed a strong positive response on the fifth postirradiation day. In ELISA, tests, the expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2. were increased in the postirradiation groups compared to those of the normal controls, and showed a maximum increase on the fifth postirradiation day. These results were statistically significant. The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were increased in the intestinal mucosa of the rats

  17. Strategy and tactics for stimulation of haemopoiesis in patients developing the acute radiation syndrome. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is essentially based on the outcome of a concerted research action of the European Communities entitled 'Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims as a Basis for a Computerized Guidance System' (METREPOL) which was conducted as a joint effort between research establishments in Paris, Oxford, Rotterdam, Munich and Ulm. The results of this concerted action have been published by the British Institute of Radiology in 2001 with the following title: 'Medical Management of Radiation Accidents: Manual on the Acute Radiation Syndrome'. In this manual, experience was used from more than 800 case histories of persons that were subjected to whole body radiation exposure during radiation accidents. A total of 70 accidents in 14 countries provided the material for the manual including data on medical management and follow-up of the Chernobyl and Tokaimura accidents presented in detail in this Technical Document. These case histories form the core of an international database system entitled SEARCH (System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories). The haematopoietic cell renewal systems are of paramount importance in the clinical management of the acute radiation syndrome for two reasons. First of all, the haematopoietic tissue is distributed throughout the skeleton characterized by an enormous haematopoietic cell turnover as well as by a high radiation sensitivity. Furthermore, it is regulated to act as one organ by humoral factors and by a continuous monitoring of stem cell content in the bone marrow units by a migration stream of circulating haematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, the haematopoietic blood cell response patterns after total body exposure to ionizing radiation reflect in a very precise way the extent of damage to the entire organism and are able to predict the probable clinical course of the patient and allows preparation for the different treatment options. Thus, it is obvious that the

  18. Interactions of radiation and 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate in intestinal crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of radiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CTX), or methotrexate (MTX) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. 5-FU given from 48 hr before to 24 hr after irradiation resulted in an almost constant, increased cell kill except at injection 6 hr after irradiation, which resulted in a more pronounced effect. CTX enhanced the radiation effect only when given simultaneously with or up to 3 hr after irradiation. The effect of MTX, extremely dependent on the sequence and interval between drug administration and irradiation, was most prominent when administered 1 hr before irradiation. At this drug-radiation interval, the D0 surprisingly increased by a factor of 2.4, whereas MTX 15 min before irradiation displaced the survival curve to the left without changing the D0. The influence of MTX on the radiation response disappeared when the drug was given either 96 hr before or 3 hr after irradiation

  19. 肠道急性放射损伤机制及防治研究%Mechanisms of acute intestine injury by y-ray irradiaton and its therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guiying; REN Dongqing; ZHOU Yuankai

    2005-01-01

    BALB/c mice and human intestinal epithelial cells were irradiated to different doses by 60Co γ-rays. They were sampled for chromosome pattern analysis, intestinal morphology, and a number of other biomedical tests to investigate mechanisms of acute intestine injury by γ-ray irradiation and its effective treatment methods. The resuits indicated that:( a ) The intestinal epithelium stem cells from the normal mice (including infantility crypt cells ) could survive at intestinal crypt in mice after irradiation.(b) Bell-shaped curves correlating the crypt survival fraction and exogenous nucleic acids (RNA, DNA)doses were obtained, with the optimal doses for different routes of administration estimated.( c ) Comparing the different routes ( regional intestinal lumen, intramuscular, hypodermic, intraperitoneal and intravenous ) of RNA (ribonucleic acid ) administration, the intravenous injection seemed to be the most effective.( d ) The earlier time of RNA administration, the more effective it was. One injection within 6h after irradiation had the same effect as multi-injections.( e ) The intestinal RNA could enhance the crypt survival of all small intestines segmentes in mice after γ-irradiation, increase the number of leucocytes and platelets in the peripheral blood and enhance the formation ability of bone marrow GM-CFU in mice after γ-irradiation.(f) The intestinal RNA could decrease apoptosis and inhibit the expression of P53 in intestinal crypt cell after γ-irradiation.( g ) The intestinal RNA may improve the cell survival by regulating the cell cycle of the irradiated cells.( h ) The change in the gene expression of the irradiated small intestinal tissue could be induced by the intestinal RNA administration, and 18 new gene sequences or fragments which were related with damage recovery of the intestine RNA administration (the registration number was AF240164-240181 in GeneBank) were found.This fact suggests that: (1) Intestine epithelium stem cell of normal

  20. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  1. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  2. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  3. A case of radiation enteritis with intestinal obstruction due to incarceration of foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Hidehiro; Isobe, Tsugumasa; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Imahori, Tsutomu; Naka, Fumihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Ida, Masahiro; Matsubara, Fujitsugu [Tatsunokuchi Houju Memorial Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A 66-year-old woman was seen at the hospital because of an abdominal pain and vomiting. There were previous histories of undergoing ileocecal resection 30 years and total hysterectomy with irradiation for uterine cancer 29 years earlier. Abdominal CT showed a shadow of foreign body, and barium enema revealed a filling defect in the ileum and stenosis at the anastomosis. In addition to these findings the patient deposed that she had ingested a seed of `ume` (Japanese apricot). The patient was diagnosed as intestinal obstruction due to the foreign body and underwent an operation. The postoperative course is good, however, this patient has many other disorders probable resulting from irradiation, such as stenosis of ureter, cutaneous pigmentation and tumor, adenoma of the rectum. Long term and periodic follow-up is important for the patient entertaining possible occurrence of other disorders and second cancer. (author)

  4. Influencing factors of rat small intestinal epithelial cell cultivation and effects of radiation on cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ze Ran; Yong Ping Su; Yong Jiang Wei; Guo Ping Ai; Tian Min Cheng; Yuan Lin

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTIONCrypt epithelial cells in normal small intestineproliferate at a high speed. But they are verydifficult to culture in vitro and passage stably. A lotof studies have been done[1-16]. Some domestic labsisolated and cultured crypt cells from embryonalintestines and aseptic animal intestine, but failed.We introduced normal rat epithelial cell line-IEC-6from the USA and its living condition for stablepassage was successfully established after trials. Thecell line was testified to be the small intestinalepithelial cell by electron microscopy,immunihistochemistry and enzymatic histoch-emistry. It has been applied to some relatedresearch work[17-21]. It was found that manyfactors were involved in the culture system. Ourpresent study focuses on the culture method and theinfluencing factors on IEC-6.

  5. Protective effects of parmelia tinctorum preparations on acute radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiation protection effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations in dosage, drug administration time, administration methods and different preparation methods on acute radiation-injured mice, and find out the best therapeutic project. Methods: Kunming mice were injected (ip) with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations before irradiation respectively, then irradiated by 9 Gy 60Co γ-ray. The 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. By the same method, another group of mice were injected (ip) with Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h before irradiation respectively, the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations from intramuscular and oral routes were compared with the same method. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum water extract preparations and alcohol extract preparations were compared. Results: A certain dosage (20-80 mg/kg) of Parmelia tinctorum preparations could greatly improve the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors of radiation-injured mice. Parmelia tinctorum preparations had significant therapeutic effect on 60Co γ-ray radiation-injured mice at 15 min-1 h before irradiation. Administration of Parmelia tinctorum preparations by intramuscular injection showed a little lower efficacy than by intraperitoneal injection, but administration the same dose orally had no significant radiation protective effect. Parmelia tinctorum preparations extracted by water injected (ip) before irradiation had the same radiation protective effect with those extracted by 50% alcohol. Conclusion: Parmelia tinctorum preparations have a certain protective effect on acute radiation-injured mice. The best therapeutic project is injected (ip) with 40 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 30 min before irradiation. (authors)

  6. Maintenance of radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis: Cellular and molecular features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valérie Haydont; Marie-Catherine Vozenin-Brotons

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in cell and molecular radiobiology clearly showed that tissue response to radiation injury cannot be restricted to a simple cell-killing process, but depends upon continuous and integrated pathogenic processes, involving cell differentiation and crosstalk between the various cellular components of the tissue within the extracellular matrix. Thus, the prior concept of primary cell target in which a single-cell type (whatever it's epithelial or endothelial cells) dictates the whole tissue response to radiation injury has to be replaced by the occurrence of coordinated multicellular response that may either lead to tissue recovery or to sequel development. In this context, the present review will focus on the maintenance of the radiation-induced wound healing and fibrogenic signals triggered by and through the microenvironment toward the mesencnymal cell compartment, and will highlight how sequential and sustained modifications in cell phenotypes will in cascade modify cell-to-cell interactions and tissue composition.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Kim, Myung-Hee; Norman, Ryan; Patel, Zarana; Simonsen, Lisa; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Crew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.

  8. Oral infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli triggers immune response and intestinal histological alterations in mice selected for their minimal acute inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Amanda Bardella; Tino-De-Franco, Milene; Amaral, José Araujo; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Cabrera, Wafa Hanna Koury; Bordenalli, Marcela Aparecida; Carbonare, Cristiane Barros; Álvares, Eliana Parisi; Carbonare, Solange Barros

    2014-06-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a leading cause of infant diarrhea, is an important public health problem in Brazil and other developing countries. In vitro assays of bacterial adhesion to cultured cells are important tools for studying bacterial pathogenicity but do not reproduce all the events that occur in natural infections. In this study, the effects of oral infection with EPEC on mice selected for their minimal acute inflammatory response (AIR min) were evaluated. Mice were orally infected with EPEC and variations in body weight, bacterial shedding and antibody production observed. The infected animals developed seric and secretory anti-EPEC antibodies; however, neither mortality nor diarrhea was observed. Light microscopy of their intestines demonstrated histological modifications that were not present in controls. However, electron microscopy did not show bacteria attached to the intestinal epithelia to form attaching and effacing lesions, characteristic of EPEC in humans. The bacteria were detected in Peyer's patches and intestinal contents up to 5 hr post-infection. When human anti-EPEC secretory immunoglobulin A or avian immunoglobulin Y antibodies were administered to infected animals, they developed minor histological alterations compared with non-treated animals. In summary, it was found that EPEC triggers immune responses and intestinal histological alterations but does not produce evidence of diarrheal disease in mice infected by the oral route. This study of EPEC experimental infection provides a better understanding of the effects of antibodies on bacterial infections and may provide a suitable model for the design and testing of immunobiological products for active or passive immunization. PMID:24750489

  9. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes. PMID:27223827

  10. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts be-cause organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user-friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations direc-torate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts' organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and opera-tion planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI prod-uct, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  11. Anti-Human Tissue Factor Antibody Ameliorated Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Human Tissue Factor Knock-In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Marco; Li, Li; Cypel, Marcelo; Soderman, Avery; Picha, Kristen; Yang, Jing; Liu, Mingyao

    2008-01-01

    Background Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI) transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859) were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. Conclusions This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies. PMID:18231608

  12. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase reduces acute radiation induced lung toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golson Maria L

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute RT-induced damage to the lung is characterized by inflammatory changes, which proceed to the development of fibrotic lesions in the late phase of injury. Ultimately, complete structural ablation will ensue, if the source of inflammatory / fibrogenic mediators and oxidative stress is not removed or attenuated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD in mice ameliorates acute radiation induced injury by inhibiting activation of TGFβ1 and downregulating the Smad 3 arm of its signal transduction pathway. Methods Whole thorax radiation (single dose, 15 Gy was delivered to EC-SOD overexpressing transgenic (XRT-TG and wild-type (XRT-WT animals. Mice were sacrificed at 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 10 and 14 weeks. Breathing rates, right lung weights, total/differential leukocyte count, activated TGFβ1 and components of its signal transduction pathway (Smad 3 and p-Smad 2/3 were assessed to determine lung injury. Results Irradiated wild-type (XRT-WT animals exhibited time dependent increase in breathing rates and right lung weights, whereas these parameters were significantly less increased (p vs. XRT-WT. Conclusion This study shows that overexpression of EC-SOD confers protection against RT-induced acute lung injury. EC-SOD appears to work, in part, via an attenuation of the macrophage response and also decreases TGFβ1 activation with a subsequent downregulation of the profibrotic TGFβ pathway.

  13. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Experimental study of MSCs promoting haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in treatment for mice with acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in enhancing the effects of haploid matched bone marrow cells transplantation in mice with acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Methods: The survival of mice infused with different levels of MSCs and bone marrow cells after 8 Gy TBI were examined. BALB/c female mice irradiated with 8 Gy of 60Co γ-rays were randomly divided into two groups, MSCs group, infused with MSCs of female CB6F1 mice labeled with cm-DiI and bone marrow monocytes of male CB6F1, Control group, only infused with bone marrow monocytes. Peripheral blood counts, T-lymphocyte subpopulation of peripheral, blood cells, the sty-gene chimerism of bone marrow of the receiptors, the distribution of MSCs in the receiptors, the occurrence time of cGVHD, pathologic variety of medulla were observed. Results: MSCs improved the survival of mice after 8 TBI, but 1.5 x 108/kg of MSCs increased the mortality of irradiated mice. In comparison with the control group, leukocytes and plastocytes recovered rapidly in MSCs group. Megacaryocytes in sternum marrows grew lastly in MSC group. The percent of CD3 and CD4 positive cells in the MSCs group were higher than those in control post-transplantation. The sty-gene chimerism of bone marrow of the receiptors was higher in the MSCs group than that in the control at 30 d. The MSCs were distributed in intestine, thymus, bone marrow, liver, heart of the receiptors at 30 d. The cGVHD occurrence was 30 d later in MSCs group than that of the control. Conclusions: MSCs could improve stem cell engraftment, enhance T-lymphocyte and plastocytes recovery, delay occurrence of cGVHD, repair injured organs and increase survivals. It is indicated that MSCs can enhance the treatment effects of haploid hematopoietic stem cells transplant for ARS. (authors)

  16. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  17. Problems concerning the parenteral nutrition within the complex therapy of radiation injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloventantor, V.Yu.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bardychev, M.S.; Khmelevskii, Ya.M. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1982-01-01

    The treatment results of 52 patients with radiation enterocolitis and rectosygmoiditis are reported. The complex therapy included a partial or a complete parenteral nutrition according to the indication. The treatment caused an improvement in 86.7% of the cases, no changes in 5.7% and a deterioration of the condition in 7.6%. The additional nutritive therapy rendered it possible to hold the cell mass of the body constant and to decrease the protein losses of the gastrointestinal tract significantly.

  18. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting in IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victor H.F., E-mail: vhflee@hku.hk [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Ng, Sherry C.Y.; Leung, T.W.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Kwong, Dora L.W. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Methods and Materials: Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs

  19. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  20. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L-1, 2.34 mg.L-1, 2.35 mg.L-1 and 1.80 mg.L-1, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  1. Colon-derived uremic biomarkers induced by the acute toxicity of Kansui radix: A metabolomics study of rat plasma and intestinal contents by UPLC-QTOF-MS(E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Hou, Jin-Jun; Qi, Peng; Yang, Min; Yan, Bing-Peng; Bi, Qi-Rui; Feng, Rui-Hong; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2016-07-15

    Kansui radix (KR) is a poisonous Chinese herbal medicine recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the acute toxicity obstructs its clinical applications. To explore its acute toxicity mechanism to enhance clinical safety, a metabolomics study based on UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS(E) was performed. Wistar rats were exposed for 4h to the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts prepared from KR at a high dose (25g/kg). The contents of six different sections of rat intestine, including the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected as samples for the first time, as well as the rat plasma. The interesting results showed that only those rats exposed to the ethyl acetate extract showed a watery diarrhea, similar to the observed acute human toxicity. The identified biomarkers found in the plasma, such as phenol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate were significantly perturbed in the rats. These biomarkers are known as colon-derived uremic compounds, which were first reported with respect to KR. The three essential amino acids which produced these biomarkers were only found in the contents of colon and rectum. A hypothesis was proposed that only the colon-derived uremic compounds induced by KR might be responsible for the acute toxicity. Three traditional process methods to reduce the toxicity of KR were compared based on these biomarkers, and different levels of toxicity modulation were observed. These results may be helpful to further understand the mechanism of acute toxicity, and the relevance of the traditional process methods to ameliorate the adverse effects of KR. PMID:26433353

  2. Acute pancreatitis secondary to duodeno-duodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal membrane, in a patient with intestinal malrotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Oehlenschläger; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Kjærulf Pless, Torsten;

    2015-01-01

    Duodeno-duodenal intussusception is often caused by an intraluminal tumour. The condition is rare owing to the retroperitoneal fixation of the duodenum, which is sometime absent in cases of intestinal malrotation. We describe the case of a 19-year old man admitted to hospital with abdominal pain ...

  3. Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Fantuzzi, Giamila, E-mail: giamila@uic.edu [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-08-07

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at days 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4{sup +}, CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

  4. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose

  5. Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Song, Myoung-Sub; Seo, Heung-Sik; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Shin, Taekyun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significantly attenuated the recognition memory defect in ARS, and markedly blocked the apoptotic death and decrease of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in ARS. Therefore, amifostine may attenuate recognition memory defect in a relatively low-dose exposure of ARS in adult mice, possibly by inhibiting a detrimental effect of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:20195069

  6. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD90/45

  7. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  8. Postirradiational changes in hematologic parameters and in intestinal microflora in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in the defense capacity of the body combined with penetration of intestinal microorganisms through the intestinal wall causes severe, often lethal complications of the acute radiation disease. We followed the clinical symptoms, the changes of hematological parameters and the changes of the composition of intestinal microflora in laboratory rats irradiated by a single, whole-body dose of 15 Gy gamma-rays. An increase of the common microflora in duodenum, liver and in oral cave and leucopenia in peripheral blood have been observe in all time intervals followed. The changes in red blood cells were characterized by anemia, manifesting clinically in hemorrhages and bloody diarrhea. (authors)

  9. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pani

    Full Text Available During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays or during chronic (Californium-252 exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight.

  10. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Giuseppe; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight. PMID:27203085

  11. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ji Jeong

    Full Text Available Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA, an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  12. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  13. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats, respectively. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/30 value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death

  14. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Endoh, D; Kon, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, F; Kasai, N; Namioka, S

    1993-02-01

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats, respectively. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/30 value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death.

  15. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Endoh, Daiji; Kon, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Tadashi; Sato, Fumiaki; Kasai, Noriyuki; Namioka, Shigeo (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD[sub 50/30] value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death. (author).

  16. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  17. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/30 value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death. (author)

  18. Protection of radiation-induced damage to the hematopoietic system, small intestine and salivary glands in rats by JNJ7777120 compound, a histamine H4 ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Martinel Lamas

    Full Text Available Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 5 Gy on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed 3 or 30 days after irradiation. Tissues were removed, fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin or PAS staining and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Submandibular gland (SMG function was evaluated by methacholine-induced salivation. Results indicate that JNJ7777120 treatment diminished mucosal atrophy and preserved villi and the number of crypts after radiation exposure (240±8 vs. 165±10, P<0.01. This effect was associated to a reduced apoptosis and DNA damage in intestinal crypts. JNJ7777120 reduced radiation-induced aplasia, preserving medullar components and reducing formation of micronucleus and also it accelerated bone marrow repopulation. Furthermore, it reduced micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood (27±8 vs. 149±22, in 1,000 erythrocytes, P<0.01. JNJ7777120 completely reversed radiation-induced reduced salivation, conserving glandular mass with normal histological appearance and reducing apoptosis and atrophy of SMG. JNJ7777120 exhibits radioprotective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in small intestine, SMG and hematopoietic tissues and, thus, could be of clinical value for patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  19. Lithium Carbonate in Treating Patients With Acute Intestinal Graft-Versus-Host-Disease After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Gastrointestinal Complications; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Poor Prognosis Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent

  20. Comparison of the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and intestinal crypt of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study compared the dose-response curves for the frequency of apoptosis in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and intestinal crypt using whole-body gamma irradiation. The incidence of gamma-ray-induced apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labelling (TUNEL) method. TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the DG and intestinal crypt were increased in a dose-dependent pattern (0-2 Gy). The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, with a significant relationship between the appearance of apoptosis and irradiation dose. The slopes of the dose-response curves in the DG were much steeper (∼5-6-fold) than those in the intestinal crypt within the range of 0-1 Gy exposure. Hippocampal DG might be a more effective and sensitive evaluation structure than the intestinal crypt to estimate the degree of radiation exposure in damaged organs of adult mice exposed to low irradiation dose. copy; The Author 2011. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All rights reserved. (authors)

  1. Intestinal Malrotation: A Rare Cause of Small Intestinal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation is established by the age of 1 year in most cases, and the condition is seldom seen in adults. In this paper, a patient with small intestinal malrotation-type intraperitoneal hernia who underwent surgery at an older age because of intestinal obstruction is presented. Case. A 73-year-old patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction underwent surgery as treatment. Distended jejunum and ileum loops surrounded by a peritoneal sac and located between the stomach and transverse colon were determined. The terminal ileum had entered into the transverse mesocolon from the right lower part, resulting in kinking and subsequent segmentary obstruction. The obstruction was relieved, and the small intestines were placed into their normal position in the abdominal cavity. Conclusion. Small intestinal malrotations are rare causes of intestinal obstructions in adults. The appropriate treatment in these patients is placement of the intestines in their normal positions.

  2. Countermeasure development : Specific Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy of Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes (CARS) are extremely severe injuries. Combination of Radiation and Thermal factors induce development of the acute pathologi-cal processes in irradiated mammals: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMOD), toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). Also, high doses of Radiation and Thermal injury induce for-mation of following Toxin groups: A. Specific Radiation Toxins; B. Specific Thermal Toxins; C. Nonspecific Histiogenic Pro-inflammatory and Inflammatory Toxins (NHIT). Specific Radi-ation Toxins (SRT) include four major group of Toxins: Cerebrovascular Radiation Toxins (Cv RT), Cardiovascular Radiation Toxins (Cr RT), Gastrointestinal Radiation Toxins (Gi RT), and Hematopoietic Radiation Toxins (Hp RT). CvRT, Cr RT, Gi RT groups of toxins are defined as Neurotoxins and Hp RT group is defined as Hematotoxins. Specific Thermal Toxins (STT) were isolated from the burned skin (Voul S., Colker I. 1972). The group of Nonspecific Histio-genic Inflammatory Toxins (NHIT) includes high amount of tissue toxins which are peptides with medium molecular weight. This group of polypeptides can be a significant factor as a part of developing of the general inflammation reaction. However, NHIT toxins can't induce many reactions and changes which are specific for radiation. Specific Radiation Toxins (SRT) can induce specific processes and reactions such as clonogenic cell death -programmed apoptotic necrosis. Although besides high doses of radiation, other forms of cell death such as Pyroptosis or Oncosis should be considered. We postulate that NHIT toxins are similar for high doses of radiation and thermal injury. Specific Radiation Toxins (SRT) are induced by high doses of radiation. Specific Thermal Toxins (STT) toxins which formation is induced by a Thermal Factor are different from SRT. Administration of STT toxins or NHIT toxins (IV or IM) to

  3. Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of acute intestinal obstruction caused by abdominal hernia after surgery%术后腹内疝致急性肠梗阻的诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜冰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨术后腹内疝致急性肠梗阻的诊断以及治疗方法.方法:收治术后腹内疝致急性肠梗阻患者 48例,回顾性分析其临床资料.进行胃空肠吻合术的患者在手术后横结肠系膜与小肠疝入输入段的空肠形成裂隙导致内疝致急性肠梗阻6例,腹会阴联合直肠癌根治术后患者侧腹壁与降结肠形成间隙导致内疝2例,腹会阴联合直肠癌根治术后盆底筋膜出现裂开导致内疝6例,因各种手术导致腹腔粘连,肠壁、腹腔脏器、腹膜以及肠与肠之间的孔隙导致术后腹内疝致急性肠梗阻34例,所有患者均实行裂孔修补、粘连松解、疝入肠复位,其中16例患者出现肠坏死,实行肠切除吻合手术.结果:经尽早确诊及手术治疗 46 例患者均治愈出院,2 例患者在术后因中毒性休克死亡.结论:腹部手术后腹内疝致急性肠梗阻,病情危险,需及早诊治和手术避免肠坏死及手术并发症的发生,而且CT在术后诊治腹内疝致急性肠梗阻诊治中具有重要意义.%Objective:To explore the diagnosis and treatment of acute intestinal obstruction caused by abdominal hernia after surgery.Methods:48 patients with acute intestinal obstruction caused by abdominal hernia after surgery were selected,and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.In the gastrojejunostomy patients,after operation,6 cases of acute intestinal obstruction were due to internal hernia of transverse mesocolon and hernia of the small intestine into the input segment for the jejunum formation;in patients after combined abdominal perineal rectal cancer radical resection,lateral abdominal wall and descending colon for gap formation leaded to internal hernia in 2 cases;after radical resection of abdominal perineal rectal cancer,basin fascia dehiscence leaded to internal hernia in 6 cases;because of all kinds of operation lead to peritoneal adhesions,intestinal wall, abdominal peritoneum and bowel,and intestinal pore

  4. Protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute renal injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rb1 (RB1, the most clinically effective constituent of ginseng, possesses a variety of biological activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the protective effects of RB1 and its underlying mechanism on renal injury induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR in mice. RB1 was administered prior to inducing IIR achieved by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 45 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA was used as an inhibitor of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 signaling. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups: (1 sham group, (2 IIR group, (3 RB1 group, (4 sham + ATRA group, (5 IIR + ATRA group, and (6 RB1 + ATRA group. Intestinal histology and pathological injury score were observed. Intestinal mucosal injury was also evaluated by measuring serum diamine oxidase (DAO. Renal injury induced by IIR was characterized by increased levels of histological severity score, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (Scr and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, which was accompanied with elevated renal TUNEL-positive cells and the Bcl-2/Bax expression ratio. RB1 significantly reduced renal injury and apoptosis as compared with IIR group, which was reversed by ATRA treatment. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis demonstrated that RB1 significantly upregulated the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and Nrf2, which were attenuated by ATRA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of RB1 pretreatment against renal injury induced by IIR are associated with activation of the Nrf2/ anti-oxidant response element (ARE pathway.

  5. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  6. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrenc e should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die radiogene Oesophagitis ist eine haeufige akute Nebenwirkung bei kurativen wie palliativen Bestrahlungen thorakaler und zervikaler Tumoren. Spaete Gewebereaktionen sind selten, koennen aber schwerwiegend sein. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogen verursachten Oesophagitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Therapeutisch stehen die Sicherung der Ernaehrung und die

  7. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  8. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  9. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  10. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  11. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), filgrastim) and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim) for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family) in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy) whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets) was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products) in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication. PMID:27153057

  12. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  13. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  14. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  15. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  16. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  17. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  18. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  19. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  20. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... intestines. Can my child die from acute pancreatitis? Death from acute pancreatitis is quite rare in children– ...

  1. Histopathological comparison of topical therapy modalities for acute radiation proctitis in an experimental rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cagatay Korkut; Oktar Asoglu; Murat Aksoy; Yersu Kapran; Hatice Bilge; Nese Kiremit-Korkut; Mesut Parlak

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalent topical therapeutic modalities available for the treatment of acute radiation proctitis compared to formalin. METHODS: A total of 120 rats were used. Four groups (n = 30) were analyzed with one group for each of the following applied therapy modalities: control, mesalazine, formalin, betamethasone, and misoprostol. A single fraction of 17.5 Gy was delivered to each rat. The rats in control group rats were given saline, and the rats in the other three groups received appropriate enemas twice a day beginning on the first day after the irradiation until the day of euthanasia. On d 5, 10, and 15, ten rats from each group were euthanized and a pathologist who was unaware of treatment assignment examined the rectums using a scoring system. RESULTS: The histopathologic scores for surface epithelium, glands (crypts) and lamina propria stroma of the rectums reached their maximum level on d 10. The control and formalin groups had the highest and mesalazine had the lowest, respectively on d 10. On the 15th d, mesalazine, betamethasone, and misoprostol had the lowest scores of betamethasone. CONCLUSION: Mesalazine, betamethasone, and misoprostol are the best topical agents for radiation proctitis and formalin has an inflammatory effect and should not be used.

  2. Differentiation and functional maturation of bone marrow-derived intestinal epithelial T cells expressing membrane T cell receptor in athymic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thymus dependency of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was studied in an athymic F1----parent radiation chimera model. IEL, although not splenic or lymph node lymphocytes, from athymic chimeras displayed normal levels of cells bearing the class-specific T cell Ag, CD4 and CD8; the TCR-associated molecule, CD3; and the Thy-1 Ag. Moreover, two-color flow cytometric analyses of IEL from athymic mice demonstrated regulated expression of T cell Ag characteristic of IEL subset populations from thymus-bearing mice. In immunoprecipitation experiments, surface TCR-alpha beta or TCR-gamma delta were expressed on IEL, although not on splenic lymphocytes, from athymic chimeras. That IEL from athymic chimeras constituted a population of functionally mature effector cells activated in situ, similar to IEL from thymus-bearing mice, was demonstrated by the presence of CD3-mediated lytic activity of athymic lethally irradiated bone marrow reconstituted IEL. These data provide compelling evidence that intestinal T cells do not require thymic influence for maturation and development, and demonstrate that the microenvironment of the intestinal epithelium is uniquely adapted to regulate IEL differentiation

  3. The role of natural growth stimulators in regulation of regeneration processes in small intestinal epithelium after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, basing on recently published data, the influence of growth factors on small intestine epithelium regeneration after irradiation is presented. Our knowledge of growth control in the small intestine mucosa may become an accepted mode of radio-, chemotherapy and the treatment of acute radiation sickness in the future. Results of recent studies suggest that there are different factors which can modulate the process of epithelium regeneration. Some of them such as gastrin, enteroglucagon, CCK, EGF, FGF, TGF and IL-11 are able to enhance this process. In addition, other factor-PGE-2 is responsible for not only stimulation of small intestine epithelium growth but radioprotection as well. (author)

  4. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  5. Acute effects of continuous infusions of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and the combination (GLP-1+GLP-2) on intestinal absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. A placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K B; Askov-Hansen, C; Naimi, R M;

    2013-01-01

    The ileocolonic brake is impaired in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with distal bowel resections. An attenuated meal-stimulated hormone secretion may cause gastric hypersecretion, rapid gastric and intestinal transit and a poor adaptation. Attempting to restore this ileocolonic brake, this s...... study evaluated the acute effects of continuous intravenous administration of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and 2, alone or in combination, on gastrointestinal function in SBS patients....

  6. Health consequences in the Chernobyl emergency workers surviving after confirmed acute radiation sickness. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 the accident at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) took place during the planned test of one of the safety systems. According to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES of the IAEA) the Chernobyl accident is classified as the only event by today at the 7th (most severe) level. The accident caused the deaths within a few days or weeks of 30 ChNPP employees and firemen (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure), brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The highest doses were received by the approximately 600 emergency workers who were on the site of the Chernobyl power plant during the night of the accident. The most important exposures were due to external irradiation, as the intake of radionuclides through inhalation was relatively small in most cases. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) was confirmed for 134 of those emergency workers. Forty-one of these patients received whole-body doses from external irradiation of less than 2.1 Gy. Ninety-three patients received higher doses and had more severe ARS: 50 persons with doses between 2.2 and 4.1 Gy, 22 between 4.2 and 6.4 Gy, and 21 between 6.5 and 16 Gy. In 1986-1987 237 emergency workers were diagnosed with ARS. Later, this disease was confirmed in 134 patients, of which 108 were treated in Russia and 26 in Ukraine. Of these confirmed 134 patients, 28 died in the acute period (first 3 months) after the accident due to extremely severe radiation induced bone marrow and skin damages. Between 1987 and 2001, a further 14 ARS patients and 7 NOARS patients died. The main causes of their death were sudden coronary death (7 cases), oncohaematological pathology (3 cases), liver cirrhosis (2 cases) and infectious lung diseases (2 cases). In Ukraine stochastic health effects (malignant neoplasms) have been

  7. Sarcocystid organisms found in bile from a dog with acute hepatitis: a case report and review of intestinal and hepatobiliary Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2016-03-01

    Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. PMID:26870918

  8. 急性脑出血大鼠肠屏障功能的变化%Changes of Intestinal Barrier Function of Rats with Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继龙; 武国艳; 汪连珍; 李立为; 王智超

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究急性脑出血对肠粘膜屏障功能的影响。方法:成年雄性Wistar大鼠60只,随机分为脑出血组和对照组各30只。脑出血组采用立体定向技术将大鼠自体尾动脉不抗凝动脉血液50μL缓慢注入尾状核制备脑出血模型,对照组注射等量生理盐水。2组分别于造模前和造模后0.5、3、6、12、24 h检测血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)活性和D-乳酸(D-Lac)浓度,于造模前和造模后12、24 h检测血浆内毒素(LPS)浓度;造模后24 h取空肠l cm,光镜下观察肠粘膜。结果:与对照组比较,脑出血组造模后12、24 h DAO活性和造模后6、12、24 h D-Lac浓度及造模后12、24 h LPS浓度明显增高,差异有统计学意义(<0.05或<0.01)。光镜下观察,脑出血组小肠存在病理性损伤,对照组小肠结构正常。结论:急性脑出血早期即发生肠屏障功能障碍。%ObjectiveTo observe the changes of intestinal barrier function of rats with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods:Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into cerebral hemorrhage group and control group with 30 rats in each group. The cerebral hemorrhage model was established by stereotactic infusing 50 μL autologous caudate artery blood. The control group were only infused with equal normal saline. The concentra-tion of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) and activity of D-lactate (D-lac) in plasma were measured before operation and 0.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 h after operation. The concentration of plasma Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured before operation and 12, 24 h after operation. The jejunums (1 cm) of the both groups were taken at 24 h after operation, and light microscopic examination was performed for morphological measurement of intestinal epithelial cells. Results:Compared with those in the control group, the DAO and LPS concentrations at 12, 24 h and the D-lac levels at 6,12, 24 h after operation were significantly increased in the cerebral

  9. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  10. Intestinal Coccidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This

  11. Acute gastro-intestinal illness and its association with hydroclimatic factors in British Columbia, Canada: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rising global temperatures and expected shifts in regional hydroclimatology in a changing climate are likely to influence the risk of infectious waterborne illness. This study examines the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of waterborne gastro-intestinal illness and contributes to our currently limited understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health. Using time-series regression analysis, we examine the associations between three hydroclimatic factors (monthly temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and the monthly occurrence of AGI illness in two communities in the province of British Columbia, Canada. The two communities were selected as study sites to represent the dominant hydroclimatic regimes that characterize the province of BC: the rainfall-dominated hydroclimatic regime and snowmelt-dominated hydroclimatic regime Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatic factors play a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI illness in this setting. Further, this study has highlighted that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic factors on waterborne illness vary across different hydroclimatic settings. We conclude that the watershed may be an appropriate context within which we can and should enhance our understanding of water-related climate change impacts on health. Examining the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of infectious disease is key to understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health and developing appropriate adaptation responses.

  12. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation. PMID:20041793

  13. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  14. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  15. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06–2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22–2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25–2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41–11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12–1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical

  16. 慢性放射性肠损伤的外科治疗%Outcomes of chronic radiation intestinal injury treated with surgical interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼生; 李宁; 李元新; 任建安; 朱维铭; 赵允召; 王剑; 郑磊; 黎介寿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the surgical approaches and clinical outcomes of chronic radiation intestinal injury ( CRII ).Methods From January 1,2001 to December 31,2010,at Department of Surgery,Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command a consecutive series of 206 CRII patients undergoing surgical interventions was reviewed retrospectively.There were 64 males and 142 females with an age range of (50 ± 11 ) years old.The indications,surgical approaches,surgical complications and mortality were analyzed.Results 206 CRII patients received 229 surgical treatment,31 patients underwent two or more operations.The course of surgical interventions included intestinal obstruction ( n =142 ),intestinal fistula (n=56),proctitis (n =12),bleeding (n =6) and others (n =13).They underwent 229 laparotomies including intestinal resection and primary anastomosis (n =142),intestinal resection and enterostomy (n =57),exclusion of radiation-related gastrointestinal diseases ( n =14 ) and other procedures ( n =16).The occurrence rate of postoperative intestinal complications was 25.7% ( 53/206 ).Five patients ( 2.4% ) died within the postoperative 28 days.Conclusion Surgery is often required for patients with chronic radiationinduced intestinal obstruction,fistula,hemorrhage and perforation,etc.Resection and primary anastomosis with undamaged segments may be performed safely in selected patients.And a judicious use of stoma can reduce the rates of major surgical mortality and morbidity.%目的 探讨慢性放射性肠损伤( CRII)外科治疗的方法及临床效果.方法 回顾性总结2001年1月至2010年12月南京军区南京总医院外科连续治疗的206例CRII患者资料.其中男64例,女142例,年龄(50±11)岁.总结手术原因、手术方式、手术并发症及病死率.结果 206例CRII患者手术治疗229次,其中手术≥2次者31例.手术原因为肠梗阻142例次、肠瘘56例次、直肠炎12例次、出血6例次及其他手术13例次.229例次手术包括:

  17. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  18. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M [Harbor Biosciences, 9171 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 180, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  19. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwint, Margriet [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van den [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose, E-mail: j.belderbos@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  20. [A rare etiology of acute occlusion of the small intestine: anisakiasis. Review of the literature apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlier, D; Thiebault, S; Dalcher, G; Zeyer, B; Muller, J; Bader, R

    1989-05-01

    The authors report a case of acute small bowel occlusion related to anisakis. This parasitis is due to ingestion by man, an unusual host, of a nematode of "anisakis" type at larva stage, a parasite to be found in numerous species of raw or home-processed fish. The parasite whose symptomatology is aspecific, can be located on the whole digestive tube. Diagnosis suggested by medical inquiry along with eosinophily, can be confirmed by serology and discovery of the parasite after anatomo-pathologic analysis. Medical treatment consisting in associating anti-parasite medicines with corticoids in certain cases, is recommended in diffuse forms and allergic signs of disease. Surgical complications make the laparotomy necessary for appropriate diagnosis and curing of the patient. Increasing frequency of this pathology shows the importance of prophylactic measures such as: abstaining from raw or home-processed fish, cooking fish at a temperature of 60 degrees C, deep-freezing fish at a temperature of -20 degrees C for 24 h at least, before eating it raw. PMID:2673000

  1. Space radiation exposure persistently increased leptin and IGF1 in serum and activated leptin-IGF1 signaling axis in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Travel into outer space is fraught with risk of exposure to energetic heavy ion radiation such as (56)Fe ions, which due to its high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics deposits higher energy per unit volume of tissue traversed and thus more damaging to cells relative to low-LET radiation such as γ rays. However, estimates of human health risk from energetic heavy ion exposure are hampered due to lack of tissue specific in vivo molecular data. We investigated long-term effects of (56)Fe radiation on adipokines and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling axis in mouse intestine and colon. Six- to eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1.6 Gy of (56)Fe ions. Serum and tissues were collected up to twelve months post-irradiation. Serum was analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, IGF1, and IGF binding protein 3. Receptor expressions and downstream signaling pathway alterations were studied in tissues. Irradiation increased leptin and IGF1 levels in serum, and IGF1R and leptin receptor expression in tissues. When considered along with upregulated Jak2/Stat3 pathways and cell proliferation, our data supports the notion that space radiation exposure is a risk to endocrine alterations with implications for chronic pathophysiologic changes in gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27558773

  2. Space radiation exposure persistently increased leptin and IGF1 in serum and activated leptin-IGF1 signaling axis in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Travel into outer space is fraught with risk of exposure to energetic heavy ion radiation such as (56)Fe ions, which due to its high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics deposits higher energy per unit volume of tissue traversed and thus more damaging to cells relative to low-LET radiation such as γ rays. However, estimates of human health risk from energetic heavy ion exposure are hampered due to lack of tissue specific in vivo molecular data. We investigated long-term effects of (56)Fe radiation on adipokines and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling axis in mouse intestine and colon. Six- to eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1.6 Gy of (56)Fe ions. Serum and tissues were collected up to twelve months post-irradiation. Serum was analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, IGF1, and IGF binding protein 3. Receptor expressions and downstream signaling pathway alterations were studied in tissues. Irradiation increased leptin and IGF1 levels in serum, and IGF1R and leptin receptor expression in tissues. When considered along with upregulated Jak2/Stat3 pathways and cell proliferation, our data supports the notion that space radiation exposure is a risk to endocrine alterations with implications for chronic pathophysiologic changes in gastrointestinal tract.

  3. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome:Innovative medical approaches in military medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erik B.Eaton Jr.; Timothy R.Varney

    2014-01-01

    After a radiological or nuclear event, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) will present complex medical challenges that could involve the treatment of hundreds to thousands of patients. Current medical doctrine is based on limited clinical data and remains inadequate. Efforts to develop medical innovations that address ARS complications are unlikely to be generated by the industry because of market uncertainties specific to this type of injury. A prospective strategy could be the integration of cellular therapy to meet the medical demands of ARS. The most clinically advanced cellular therapy to date is the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results of currently published investigations describing MSC safety and efficacy in a variety of injury and disease models demonstrate the unique qualities of this reparative cell population in adapting to the specific requirements of the damaged tissue in which the cells integrate. This report puts forward a rationale for the further evaluation of MSC therapy to address the current unmet medical needs of ARS. We propose that the exploration of this novel therapy for the treatment of the multivariate complications of ARS could be of invaluable benefit to military medicine.

  5. Intestinal microflora in patients with cancer of the pancreas and duodenal papilla in the combined treatment using intensive gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes were examined in the microbiocenosis of the intestine of 26 patients with cancer of the pancreas and duodenal papilla, in 19 of them at stages of combined treatment. The frequency of dybacteriosis during admission to the clinic was 92.3%. The characteristic feature of postirradiation dysbacterioses was an increase of escherichiae, appearance of hemolysin-producing forms of bacteriae and ''variegated'' composition of microbes

  6. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  7. Alteration of cholinergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters in rat ileum induced by acute stress following transient intestinal infection is mast cell dependent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Yu-xin; WEI Yan-yu; CHEN Hong; ZHOU Shu-pei; YANG Yan-lin; DUAN Li-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Mast cells are implicated in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is associated with the activation of the "neural-immune" system. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mast cells in the remodeling of cholinergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters induced by acute cold restriction stress (ACRS) post infection (PI) using mast cell deficient rats (Ws/Ws) and their wild-type controls (+/+).Methods Transient intestinal infection was initiated by giving 1500 Trichinella spiralis (T.S.) larvae by gavage. ACRS was induced for 2 hours at day 100 PI. Samples of terminal ilea were prepared for H&E staining, mast cell counting and activation and assessment of IL-1β and IL-10.Results When infected, both strains of rats experienced an acute infectious stage followed by a recovery. Histological scores were significantly higher in infected rats compared with those of the non-infected controls at day 10 PI (10 day-PI vs. control: +/+: 2.75±0.17 vs. 0.42±0.09; Ws/Ws: 2.67±0.67 vs. 0.50±0.34; P0.05), accompanied by hyperplasia and activation of mast cells (PI+ACRS vs. control: 58.8±19.2 vs. 28.0±7.6; P <0.01). The balance between acetylcholine (ACh) and substance P (SP) was also disturbed (ACh: PI+ACRS vs. control: (743.94±238.72) vs. (1065.68±256.46) pg/g, P<0.05; SP: PI+ACRS vs. control: (892.60±231.12) vs. (696.61 ±148.61) pg/g, P<0.05). Nevertheless, similar changes of IL-1β/IL-10 and ACh/SP were not detected in Ws/Ws rats. Conclusion The imbalance of ACh/SP, together with the activation of mucosal immunity induced by post-infection ACRS were lacking in mast cell deficient rats, which supports the premise that mast cells play an important role in cholinergic and peptidergic remodeling in the ileum of rats.

  8. Enhanced Intestinal Tumor Multiplicity and Grade in vivo after HZE Exposure: Mouse Models for Space Radiation Risk Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Trani, Daniela; Datta, Kamal; Doiron, Kathryn; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Fornace, Albert J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenesis induced by space radiation is considered a major risk factor in manned interplanetary and other extended missions. The models presently used to estimate the risk for cancer induction following deep space radiation exposure are based on data from A-bomb survivor cohorts and do not account for important biological differences existing between high-linear energy transfer (LET) and low-LET-induced DNA damage. High-energy and charge (HZE) radiation, the main component of galactic co...

  9. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrensmeier Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and organ tracking. Methods From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU was 29 months. Results Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU morbidity (PGUM was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025, absence of HT (P = .016 and higher PGUM (P Discussion GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.

  10. Intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the major causes of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. Causes of paralytic ileus may include: Bacteria or viruses that cause intestinal infections ( gastroenteritis ) Chemical, electrolyte, or mineral imbalances (such as decreased ...

  11. 肠脂肪酸结合蛋白在急腹症患者中鉴别急性肠缺血的价值%The value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein measurement in discriminating intestinal ischemia in patients with acute abdomen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卉; 吴本俨; 刘文徽; 苏斌斌; 李婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估肠脂肪酸结合蛋白( I-FABP)在急腹症患者中鉴别急性肠缺血的价值.方法 2009年11月至2011年8月解放军总医院151例住院急腹症患者及17例健康对照者纳入本研究,测定其血清I-FABP水平,根据ROC曲线计算I-FABP诊断急性肠缺血的临界值、敏感性、特异性、阳性似然比、阴性似然比、阳性预测值、阴性预测值,评估其诊断及鉴别诊断价值.结果 151例急腹症患者中急性肠缺血24例,非肠缺血127例.肠缺血组的I-FABP水平[(109.67 ±48.82)μg/L]明显高于非肠缺血组[(36.78±11.25) μg/L]和健康对照组[(8.33±6.25) μg/L],P值均<0.01.I-FABP的诊断临界值为87.52 μg/L,I-FABP诊断急性肠缺血的敏感度为0.762,阴性预测值为0.963,阳性似然比3.05,阴性似然比0.24.结论 血清I-FABP用于鉴别急腹症中急性肠缺血患者具有临床诊断价值.%Objective To assess the differential diagnostic value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) in distinguishing intestinal ischemia patients from acute abdomen patients.Methods A total of 151 patients with acute abdomen and 17 healthy controls from the PLA General Hospital were enrolled from November,2009 to August,2011. Serum I-FABP levels were measured by ELISA.According to the ROC curve,the cut-off value,sensitivity,specificity,positive likelihood ratio (PLR),negative likelihood ratio ( NLR),positive predietive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Of the 151 acute abdomen patients,there were 24 intestinal ischemia patients and 127 without intestinal ischemia.Serum I-FABP level in intestinal ischemia group [( 109.67 ±48.82) μg/L]was significantly higher than those in patients without intestinal ischemia [(36.78 ± 11.25) μg/L]and healthy controls[(8.33 ±6.25) μg/L]( all P values <0.01 ).The serum I-FABP cut-off value for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia was 87.52 μg/L.Serum I-FABP was efficient in terms of

  12. Therapeutic Response of Black Tea Extract on Maintenance Pancreas and Intestine of Gamma-irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To protect animals health from hazards caused by acute exposure to environmental hazardous viz., ionising-radiation (γ-rays), it is recommended that antioxidants could be taken regularly in nutrition. Black tea (Camellia sinensis) has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants. Possible ameliorative actions of black tea extracts (BTE) were examined at the pancreas and intestinal levels, which are sensitive targets for radiation damage following whole body γ-irradiation. Plasma antioxidant status measured as ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), intestine marker enzyme activity: Xanthine oxidase system (XO), serum and pancreatic damage markers viz., lipase and amylase, oxidative stress marker in pancreas and intestine viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pancreatic and intestinal total glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT). All above parameters were measured in four different groups of rats, namely control, tea-rats, irradiated-rats, irradiated-tea rats. Results of irradiated rats showed that, plasma level of FRAP was decreased significantly but, serum lipase and amylase activities were increased. Pancreatic lipase, amylase, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased significantly. However, TBARS was increased. Intestinal XO and TBARS levels were significantly increased but GSH and antioxidant enzymes levels were decreased. Drinking BTE prevents largely the changes occurred in all measured parameters investigated in plasma, serum, pancreas and intestine. These findings suggest that BTE modulate pancreatitis and intestine damages caused by acute 7 Gy γ- rays toxicity presumably by enhancing antioxidant status and inhibiting oxidative stress. Conclusion: BTE could normalise γ-rays-induced suppression of activities of pancreatic and intestinal tissues

  13. Clinical study on intestinal fatty acid binding protein and the endotoxin in early diagnosis of intestinal barrier dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令尚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen the high specific and sensitivemonitoring indications in the diagnosis of intestinal barrier dysfunction.Methods A total of 70 critical patients with intestinal barrier dysfunction and acute physiology

  14. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, markers of inflammation, abundance of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), and the expression of genes that control intestinal growth was evaluated in weanling pigs. Pigs (n = 120; 5.2 kg and 24 d of age) wer...

  15. 慢性放射性肠损伤的营养支持治疗%Nutrition support trerapy in chronic intestinal radiation damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 龚剑峰

    2014-01-01

    慢性放射性肠损伤是放疗后常见的胃肠道并发症,其外科治疗是对外科医生手术技能和围手术期处理水平的挑战。合理的手术前期营养支持治疗能够降低围手术期并发症发生率和造口率,而术后的营养支持治疗可避免肠衰竭的发生。应尽可能以肠内营养(EN)作为慢性放射性肠损伤围手术期支持治疗的主要途径。针对肠道共生菌群及其代谢产物的特殊药理营养素在放射性肠损伤的营养支持治疗中可能起到一定作用。%Chronic radiation enteritis (CRE) is a common complication after pelvic radiotherapy, which severely affects patients′ quality of life. Surgical treatment of CRE is challenging both for surgical skills and perioperative treatment strategy. Proper preoperative nutrition support therapy can reduce the morbidity of postoperative complication and the use of stoma, while postoperative nutrition support therapy can avoid the intestinal failure. Enteral nutrition should be the primary route of perioperative nutrition support therapy in CRE as possible. Pharmaconutrients aiming at intestinal commensal microbiota and its metabolites may play a role in the management of radiation enteritis.

  16. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  17. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    C.I. González; M. Cires; F. J. Jiménez; Rubio, T.

    2008-01-01

    La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada). En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuen...

  18. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  19. Intestinal invagination Invaginación intestinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamnelys Aguilar Atanay

    Full Text Available Intestinal intussusceptions are the most frequent cause of acute surgical occlusive syndrome in infants; it is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases. Their treatment can be conservative, with reduction by means of imaging and hydrostatic procedures, or surgical. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intestinal intussusceptions, approved by consensus in the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 – 26, 2004.
    La invaginación intestinal es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de abdomen agudo quirúrgico oclusivo en lactantes y es idiopática en más del 90 % de los casos. Su tratamiento puede ser conservador, con reducción mediante procedimientos hidrostáticos combinados con vigilancia imaginológica, o quirúrgico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para invaginación intestinal, aprobada por consenso en el 3er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Camagüey, 23 al 26 de febrero de 2004.

  20. Radiation-induced acute brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine-salvia miltiorrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To understand the expression of acute brain injury induced by radiation and the protective effect of traditional Chinese Medicine in BALB/C mouse. Methods: The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated to a dose of 25 Gy using a 6 MV X linear accelerator. Ten hours later, the brain tissue and blood sample were taken. Thiobarbituric acid reaction was used to detect the malonaldehyde substitute for the lipid peroxide. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of ICAM-1 on D1, 2, 3, and 10 after having received radiation. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in the values of LPO in the brain tissue and plasma between the groups. The difference of expression of ICAM-1 between the groups was compared by χ2 method. Results: Two hundred and twelve female BALB/C mice were divided into five groups: Control group, Radiation alone group (R), R + dexamethasone group, R + 654-2 group and R + Salvia Miltiorrhiza group. The contents of LPO in the mouse brain tissue 10 hours after 25 Gy of whole brain irradiation were as follows (mean ± standard error): Control group (1975.5±94.2) nmol/g, Radiation alone group (R) (3417.3±109.7) nmol/g, R + dexamethasone group (3113.6±178.1) nmol/g, R + 654-2 group (3406.4±159.1) nmol/g, R + Salvia Miltiorrhiza group (2981.5±140.1) nmol/g. Salvia Miltiorrhiza significantly reduced the LPO increase induced by irradiation (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the other groups in the change of LPO in the plasma 10 hours after whole brain irradiation. The expression of ICAM-1 after whole brain irradiation was time-dependent . There was an increase of expression of ICAM-1 24 hours after irradiation, reaching the peak at 48 hours. Salvia Miltiorrhiza and dexamethasone strongly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 when compared with radiation only, with the difference significant (P<0.01). Conclusions: The change of LPO content in the BALB/C mouse brain tissue and the increase in

  1. Tissue toxicity induced by ionizing radiation to the normal intestine: Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms to improve the medical management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MC Vozenin-Brotons

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the present time, more than one-half of all cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy. Despite a good therapeutic index, radiotherapy can disable normal tissue injury to normal tissues in long-term cancer survivors.

  2. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (rs = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (rs = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (rs = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, rs = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, rs = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, rs = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  3. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  4. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  5. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 108/kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  6. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Begeman, L.; St. Leger, J.; Blyde, D.; Jauniaux, Thierry; Lair, S; Lovewell, G.; Raverty, S; Seibel, H.; Siebert, U; Staggs, S.; Martelli, P.; Keesler, R.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findi...

  7. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, low-dose-ra

  8. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in acute radiation-induced liver injury: An animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jun; Chen, Shu-Bo; WU, SHU-JUN; Sun, Ping; XIN, TIAN-YOU; CHEN, YING-ZHEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and assess contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the early diagnosis of acute radiation-induced liver injury in a rat model. Sixty female rats were used, with 50 rats being utilized to produce an animal model of liver injury with a single dose of stereotactic X-ray irradiation of 20 Gy. Ten rats from the injury group and 2 rats from the control group were randomly selected on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histo...

  9. 重视重度急性胰腺炎肠功能障碍的防治%Pay Emphasis to Prevention and Treatment of Intestinal Dysfunction in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾皓; 吕农华

    2015-01-01

    重度急性胰腺炎(SAP)是临床常见的急危重症,尤其是在继发胰腺坏死组织感染时,其病死率可高达40%。肠黏膜屏障功能障碍和肠源性细菌易位是引起胰腺坏死组织和胰周积液感染、促使全身性炎症反应综合征(SIRS)和多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS)发生的主要原因。由于肠道功能多样,难以归纳总结,且目前缺乏特异的、客观的评价指标,故肠功能障碍并未被纳入“2012版急性胰腺炎分类———亚特兰大国际共识分类和定义修订”的改良 Marshall 器官衰竭评估体系中。临床工作中重视 SAP 肠功能障碍的防治,是减少胰腺坏死组织感染,防止MODS 发生、发展,降低 SAP 病死率的关键。本文对 SAP 肠功能障碍的发生机制及其防治作一阐述。%Severe acute pancreatitis( SAP),especially with secondary infection of pancreatic necrotic tissue,is clinically a very severe and critical condition. The mortality rate can be as high as 40% . Intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of enteric bacteria contribute to the infection of pancreatic necrotic tissue and peripancreatic accumulated fluid,promote systemic inflammatory response syndrome( SIRS)and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome( MODS). Because there is no specific and objective assessment criteria for intestinal function and the function is diversity,intestinal dysfunction is not included in the modified Marshall organ dysfunction scoring system in 2012 revision of the Atlanta International Consensus on Classification and Definitions of Acute Pancreatitis. Paying emphasis to prevention and treatment of intestinal dysfunction may reduce the infection of pancreatic necrotic tissue,preventing the progress of MODS and reducing the mortality rate of SAP. This article reviewed the pathogenic mechanism as well as prevention and treatment of intestinal dysfunction in SAP.

  10. 肥大细胞在急性应激性肠黏膜屏障损伤中的作用机制%Mechanism of Mast Cells in Acute Stress Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 马洪升

    2013-01-01

    背景:应激所致肠黏膜屏障损伤的机制以及肥大细胞(MC)在其中的作用尚未明确.目的:探讨肠黏膜MC(IMMC)在急性应激性肠黏膜屏障损伤中的作用机制.方法:Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠随机分为正常对照组(N组)、应激组(S组),S组给予急性冷束缚应激建立模型,按照应激结束后处死时间进一步分为S2h、S4h、S8h、S16h、S24h组.取回肠末端观察组织病理学改变,以Chiu's评分评估肠黏膜组织损伤程度,以甲苯胺蓝染色计数IMMC,以透射电镜观察肠黏膜组织和IMMC超微结构,以ELISA法检测肠黏膜组织组胺含量.结果:S组的Chiu's评分均显著高于N组(P0.05).IMMC计数与Chiu's评分无相关性(P>0.05).S组肠黏膜超微结构破坏明显,IMMC胞质大量脱颗粒.S2h、S4h、S8h 组的肠黏膜组织组胺含量较N组显著降低(P0.05).肠黏膜组织组胺含量与Chiu's评分呈负相关(P=0.03).结论:急性应激状态下,IMMC脱颗粒释放炎性介质是导致肠黏膜屏障损伤的重要机制.%Background: The mechanism of stress induced intestinal barrier injury and the mechanistic role of mast cells ( MC ) have not yet been clarified. Aims: To investigate the mechanistic role of intestinal mucosal MC ( IMMC ) in acute stress induced intestinal mucosal barrier injury. Methods: Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were randomly divided into normal control group ( N group ) and stress group ( S group ). Rats in S group were given acute cold/restraint stress and were further divided into S2h, S4h, S8h, S16h and S24h subgroups according to the time point of sacrificing after stress. Histological change of terminal ileum tissue was observed and the degree of damage was evaluated by Chiu s scoring system. IMMC number was counted by toluidine blue staining. The ultrastructure of intestinal tissue and IMMC was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The content of histamine in intestinal tissue was determined by ELISA. Results: Chiu s score in S

  11. MR imaging of the gastro-intestinal tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging (MRI) is an established method for the evaluation of particularly inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as for acute abdominal pain in pregnant women. Despite the fact that MRI is ideally suited for the evaluation of children the method is still not established in these patients. The value of MRI in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis as well as intestinal tumors and malformations has been documented in children. There will be more indications in the future depending on the development of new imaging techniques, faster sequences, stronger gradients and increasing availability. Furthermore, the radiologist's attention must be drawn to decrease the radiation burden in children and to replace ionizing techniques especially in chronic disease with the need for repeated follow-up studies and in younger children. This review will discuss some general considerations for the use of MRI in evaluating the paediatric gastro-intestinal tract

  12. MR imaging of the gastro-intestinal tract in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital, Department of General and Paediatric Radiology, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    MR imaging (MRI) is an established method for the evaluation of particularly inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as for acute abdominal pain in pregnant women. Despite the fact that MRI is ideally suited for the evaluation of children the method is still not established in these patients. The value of MRI in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis as well as intestinal tumors and malformations has been documented in children. There will be more indications in the future depending on the development of new imaging techniques, faster sequences, stronger gradients and increasing availability. Furthermore, the radiologist's attention must be drawn to decrease the radiation burden in children and to replace ionizing techniques especially in chronic disease with the need for repeated follow-up studies and in younger children. This review will discuss some general considerations for the use of MRI in evaluating the paediatric gastro-intestinal tract.

  13. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  14. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Ariyoshi, H. (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)); Matsuzawa, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer)

    1981-07-01

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of ..beta..-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters.

  15. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of β-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters. (author)

  16. Mucosa-adhesive water-soluble polymer film for treatment of acute radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the usefulness and safety of a mucosa-adhesive water-soluble polymer film (AD film) containing anesthetics and antibiotics for the treatment of acute radiation-induced oral mucositis. Materials and Methods: To prepare AD films, 600 mg of hydroxy-propyl-cellulose was dissolved in ethyl alcohol, and mixed with a solution containing tetracaine, ofloxacine, miconazole, guaiazulene, and triacetin. The gel obtained was dried to form 30 translucent round sheets (20 mg per sheet) of 7.5 cm in diameter and 0.2 mm in thickness. The AD film showed excellent adhesive and coating properties when placed on wet oral mucosa. From 1993 to 1994, we used the AD film in 25 patients with acute radiation-induced oral mucositis, in an attempt to alleviate their pain and prevent secondary oral infection. All patients had received definitive radiotherapy for oral carcinoma. Intensity and duration of oral pain from mucositis, relief rates at rest and while eating, and presence of bacterial and/or fungal infection were compared with those of 27 patients treated with topical anesthetics (viscous lidocaine, XylocaineTM) and/or general systemic analgesics from 1990 to 1992 (NonAD Group). Results: The intensity of oral pain was the same in the two groups. The mean duration of pain of the AD film Group (10 days) was significantly shortened compared with the NonAD Group (15 days). The rates of complete pain relief at rest and while eating of the AD film Group were statistically higher than those of the NonAD Group: 82% vs. 44%, and 68% vs. 22%, respectively. No secondary bacterial or fungal infections were observed in the AD film Group, whereas 4 cases of documented infections were found in the NonAD Group. No acute or chronic adverse effects of AD film were observed during the 3-year follow-up period. The rates for local control of oral carcinoma and overall survival, at the end of the follow-up period, were 96% and 87% for the AD film Group vs. 92% and 85% for the NonAD Group

  17. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  18. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  19. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with mexidol and low-intensity laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  1. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition with butyrate acutely increases structural aspects of intestinal adaptation after an 80% jejunoileal resection in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholome, Anne L; Albin, David M; Baker, David H;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific...... and decreasing apoptosis within 4 hours postresection. The intestinotrophic mechanism(s) underlying butyrate's effects may involve GLP-2. Ultimately, butyrate administration may enable an infant with short-bowel syndrome to successfully transition to enteral feedings by maximizing their absorptive area....

  2. Therapeutics interventions with anti-inflammatory creams in post radiation acute skin reactions: a systematic review of most important clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Georgios V; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John; Beli, Ivelina K; Kouloulias, Vassilios E

    2010-06-01

    The majority of cancer patients will receive radiation therapy treatment at some stage during their malignancy. An acute skin reaction represents a common post radiation side effect with different grade of severity. In order to investigate the optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy we have conducted a systematic review on this topic. It seems that skin washing, including gentle washing with water alone with or without mild soap, should be permitted in patients receiving radiation therapy, to prevent acute skin reaction. In addition, a low dose (i.e., 1%) corticosteroid cream may be beneficial in the reduction of itching and irritation. We have concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific topical or oral agents for the prevention or management of acute skin reaction. There is a need for further research to review treatments that have produced promising results in the reviewed research studies and to evaluate other commonly recommended topical treatments. The purpose of this patent and literature review is to advocate the current management of acute skin reaction.

  3. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Combined exposure to simulated microgravity and acute or chronic radiation reduces neuronal network integrity and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Rafi

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. This study aimed at assessing the effect of these combined conditions on neuronal network density, cell morphology and survival, using well-connected mouse cortical neuron cultures. To this end, neurons were exposed to acute low and high doses of low LET (X-rays) radiation or to chronic low dose-rate of high LET neutron irradiation (Californium-252), under the simulated microgravity generated by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch space). High content image analysis of cortical neurons positive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin unveiled a reduced neuronal network integrity and connectivity, and an altered cell morphology after exposure to acute/chronic radiation or to simulated microgravity. Additionally, in both conditions, a defect in DNA-repair efficiency was revealed by an increased number of γH2AX-positive foci, as well as an increased number of Annexin V-positive apoptotic neurons. Of interest, when combining both simulated space conditions, we noted a synergistic effect on neuronal network density, neuronal morphology, cell survival and DNA repair. Furthermore, these observations are in agreement with preliminary gene expression data, revealing modulations in cytoskeletal and apoptosis-related genes after exposure to simulated microgravity. In conclusion, the observed in vitro changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by space simulated conditions provide us with mechanistic understanding to evaluate health risks and the development of countermeasures to prevent neurological disorders in astronauts over long-term space travels. Acknowledgements: This work is supported partly by the EU-FP7 projects CEREBRAD (n° 295552)

  6. Intestinal steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucocorticoids as well as a tissue capable of producing and metabolizing sex steroids. This finding is based on the detection of steroidogenic enzyme expression as well as the presence of bioactive steroids in both the rodent and human gut. Within the intestinal mucosa, the intestinal epithelial cell layer is one of the main cellular sources of steroids. Glucocorticoid synthesis regulation in the intestinal epithelial cells is unique in that it does not involve the classical positive regulator steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) but a closely related homolog, namely the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). This local production of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids contributes to intestinal homeostasis and has been linked to pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells also possess the ability to metabolize sex steroids, notably estrogen; this mechanism may impact colorectal cancer development. In this review, we contextualize and discuss what is known about intestinal steroidogenesis and regulation as well as the key role these functions play both in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25560486

  7. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  8. Effects of early enteral nutrition with live combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus capsule of Bacillus on inflammatory factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function in treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Jiang; Li-Lin Jiang; Kai Zhang; Nan-Ping Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of early enteral nutrition combined with triple viable capsule of bacillus on inflammatory factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function in treatment of severe acute pancreatitis.Methods:118 cases of severe acute pancreatitis were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (59 cases) patients were treated with early enteral nutrition therapy, while the observation group (59 cases) was treated with early enteral nutrition combined with triple viable capsule of bacillus. The clinical efficacy of the two groups and the changes of the levels of inflammatory factors and the function of intestinal mucosal barrier were compared.Results:The time of abdominal pain disappearance, the abdominal distension disappeared, and the recovery time of the exhaust function of the observation group were (2.30±0.30) d, (3.39±0.51) d and (2.68±0.78) d, were significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05). IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP of observation group were (33.19±355) g/L, (30.28±3.71) g/L, (36.33±3.53) g/L and (12.19±1.18) mg/L, were significantly lower compared with those before treatment (P<0.05) and was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, D-lactate, DAO, endotoxin and exami of observation group were (544±0.54) mg/L, Dao (4.11±0.34) U/L, (0.65±0.18) EU/L, (0.15±0.07), were decreased significantly compared with those before treatment (P<0.05) and was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Eearly enteral nutrition combined with triple viable capsule of bacillus on inflammatory factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function in treatment of SAP has significant effect, can rapidly improve the symptoms of patients, reduce inflammation, promote the recovery of intestinal mucosal barrier function, it is worth clinical reference and popularization and application.

  9. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Langhe, Sofie, E-mail: Sofie.DeLanghe@UGent.be [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Werbrouck, Joke [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  10. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:23150643

  11. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Caz

    Full Text Available The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors.

  12. Evidence for the Cellular Basis of Intestinal Death in Mice, from an Analysis of Dose-Effect Relationships Modified by Quality of Radiation, Dose Rate, Fractionation and Anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When animals are killed by radiation, as by other toxic agents, the dose-effect relationship may be characterized by the LD50 together with the 'spread' or variance of the observations. It is generally accepted that the type of dose-effect curve (a probability curve) obtained in such experiments is to be ascribed to subtle and uncontrollable biological variations within any group of experimental animals. Conditions of irradiation have been used such that the values of LD50 might be widely different, e.g. for intestinal death (at 4-5 days) the LD50 for animals exposed to fast electrons while breathing oxygen was 1020 rad, while for animals breathing nitrogen it was 2800 rad. In that example, the variances of the two sets of data were in exactly the same ratio as the LD50 values, so that the anoxia operated as a dose-modifying agent. For other methods of modifying the LD50, however, this was not true: for example when the LD50 was increased from 1200 to 1600 rad by fractionation the variance remained constant. A computer programme was set up to perform probit analyses on animal survival curves, and to test whether 'dose modification' or 'parallel slopes' (i.e. variances proportional to LD50 values, or constant variances) provides the better model for the comparison of the results of irradiation in any two sets of conditions. It was found , in general, that conditions which give true dose modification of cell survival curves (e.g. anoxia) are also dose-modifying for the animal survival curves, whereas conditions which act as if to change the shoulder of a cell survival curve, but not its slope (e.g. dose fractionation) act similarly in respect of animal survival curves. Thus the biological variability which expresses itself in the probability curve for animal survival seems to be closely linked with the survival curve for the particular cell population the depletion of which leads to the gastro-intestinal • syndrome. (author)

  13. Intestinal Malrotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to maintain adequate nutrition (a condition known as short bowel syndrome). They may be dependent on intravenous nutrition for a time after surgery (or even permanently if too little intestine remains) ...

  14. The effect of acute dose charge particle radiation on expression of DNA repair genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Akram; Soedipe, Ayodotun; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu; Zhang, Ye; Shishodia, Shishir; Gridley, Daila S; Pourmand, Nader; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2011-03-01

    The space radiation environment consists of trapped particle radiation, solar particle radiation, and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), in which protons are the most abundant particle type. During missions to the moon or to Mars, the constant exposure to GCR and occasional exposure to particles emitted from solar particle events (SPE) are major health concerns for astronauts. Therefore, in order to determine health risks during space missions, an understanding of cellular responses to proton exposure is of primary importance. The expression of DNA repair genes in response to ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma rays) has been studied, but data on DNA repair in response to protons is lacking. Using qPCR analysis, we investigated changes in gene expression induced by positively charged particles (protons) in four categories (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy) in nine different DNA repair genes isolated from the testes of irradiated mice. DNA repair genes were selected on the basis of their known functions. These genes include ERCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), ERCC2/NER (opening DNA around the damage, Nucleotide Excision Repair), XRCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), XRCC3 (DNA break and cross-link repair), XPA (binds damaged DNA in preincision complex), XPC (damage recognition), ATA or ATM (activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks), MLH1 (post-replicative DNA mismatch repair), and PARP1 (base excision repair). Our results demonstrate that ERCC1, PARP1, and XPA genes showed no change at 0.1 Gy radiation, up-regulation at 1.0 Gy radiation (1.09 fold, 7.32 fold, 0.75 fold, respectively), and a remarkable increase in gene expression at 2.0 Gy radiation (4.83 fold, 57.58 fold and 87.58 fold, respectively). Expression of other genes, including ATM and XRCC3, was unchanged at 0.1 and 1.0 Gy radiation but showed up-regulation at 2.0 Gy radiation (2.64 fold and 2.86 fold, respectively). We were unable to detect gene expression for the

  15. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu; Murat Caloglu; Sevgi Eskiocak; Ebru Tastekin; Alaattin Ozen; Nukhet Kurkcu; Fulya Oz-Puyan; Zafer Kocak; Cem Uzal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC) and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7); irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8); amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8); LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8); LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7); and amifostine and sham irradia...

  16. Protective effects of Ligustrazine, Kakonein and Panax Notoginsenoside on the small intestine and immune organs of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Jun Jiang; Qi-Hui Cheng; QianYe; Wei-Juan Li; Hua Zhu; Jun-Ya Shen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severeacutepancreatitis(SAP)ischaracterized by fatal pathogenic conditions and a high mortality. It is important to study SAP complicated with multiple organ injury. In this study we compared the protective effects of three traditional Chinese medicines (Ligustrazine, Kakonein and Panax Notoginsenoside) on the small intestine and immune organs (thymus, spleen and lymph nodes) of rats with SAP and explored their mechanism of action. METHODS: One hundred forty-four rats with SAP were randomly divided into model control, Ligustrazine-treated, Kakonein-treated, and Panax Notoginsenoside-treated groups (n=36 per group). Another 36 normal rats comprised the sham-operated group. According to the different time points after operation, the experimental rats in each group were subdivided into 3-, 6- and 12-hour subgroups (n=12). At various time points after operation, the mortality rate of rats and pathological changes in the small intestine and immune organs were recorded and the serum amylase levels were measured. RESULTS: Compared to the model control groups, the mortality rates in all treated groups declined and the pathological changes in the small intestine and immune tissues were relieved to different degrees. The serum amylase levels in the three treated groups were significantly lower than those in the model control group at 12 hours. The pathological severity scores for the small intestinal mucosa, thymus and spleen (at 3 and 12 hours) in the Ligustrazine-treated group, for the thymus (at 3 and 12 hours) and spleen (at 3 and 6 hours) in the Kakonein-treated group, and for the thymus (at 3 hours) and spleen (at 3 hours) in the Panax Notoginsenoside-treated group were significantly lower than those in the model control group. The pathological severity scores of the small intestinal mucosa (at 6 and 12 hours) and thymus (at 6 hours) in the Ligustrazine-treated group were significantly lower than those in the Kakonein- and Panax Notoginsenoside

  17. Effects of acute low doses of gamma-radiation on erythrocytes membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sherif S; El-Sakhawy, Eman; Abdel-Fatah, Eman S; Kelany, Adel M; Rizk, Rizk M

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that any dose of ionizing radiation may damage cells and that the mutated cells could develop into cancer cells. Additionally, results of research performed over the past century on the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on biological organisms show beneficial health effects, called hormesis. Much less is known about the cellular response to low doses of ionizing radiation, such as those typical for medical diagnostic procedures, normal occupational exposures or cosmic-ray exposures at flight altitudes. Extrapolating from the effects observed at higher doses to predict changes in cells after low-dose exposure is problematic. We examined the biological effects of low doses (0.01-0.3 Gy) of γ-radiation on the membrane characteristics of erythrocytes of albino rats and carried out osmotic fragility tests and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Our results indicate that the lowest three doses in the investigated radiation range, i.e., 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 Gy, resulted in positive effects on the erythrocyte membranes, while a dose of 0.1 Gy appeared to represent the limiting threshold dose of those positive effects. Doses higher than 0.1 Gy were associated with the denaturation of erythrocyte proteins. PMID:20865271

  18. Radiation proctitis. Clinical and pathological manifestations, therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late injurious effects of radiation on the rectal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Often the rectum is the dose-limiting organ in curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies. It reacts with serous, mucoid, or more rarely bloody diarrhea. Methods: A research for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced proctitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: No proven effective prophylactic local or systemic therapies of radiation proctitis exist. Also, no reasonable causal medication is known. In the treatment of late radiation sequelae no clincally tested certain effective therapy exists, too. Antiinflammatory, steroidal or non-steroidal therapeutics as well as sucralfate can be used as topical measures. They will be successful in some patients. Side effects are rare and the therapy is cost-effective. Treatment failures can be treated by hyperbaric oxygen. This will achieve good clinical results in about 50% of the cases. Single or few mucosal telangiectasias with rectal bleeding can be treated sufficienctly by endoscopic cautherization. Conclusion: Besides clinical studies acute proctitis should be treated just symptomatically. Radical surgery should be performed only when all conventional treatments have been uneffective, although no certain effective therapies of radiation-induced late proctitis exist. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Oft ist der Enddarm das dosislimitierende Organ bei der kurativen Radiotherapie boesartiger Tumoren des Beckens. Er reagiert mit seroesen, mukoesen oder sehr selten blutig tingierten Durchfaellen. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogenen Proktitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Es existieren keine gesicherten effektiven prophylaktischen Therapie der radiogen Proktitis, weder lokal noch systemisch. Es sind auch keine sinnvollen kausalen Behandlungen bekannt. Auch in der Behandlung spaeter Strahlenfolgen existieren keine klinisch getesteten, sicher wirksamen

  19. Expression of ICAM-1 and acute inflammatory cell infiltration in the early phase of radiation colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Fukuda, Eiichiro; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Naito, Shinji; Sekine, Ichiro [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Inst.

    2000-09-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is observed at an early stage of radiation-induced colitis. The emigration of inflammatory cells from the circulation requires interactions between cell adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and molecules on the surface of leukocytes. To elucidate this process, the present work analyzes the kinetics of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the accumulation of inflammatory myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells in relation to the appearance of acute radiation colitis prior to an overt radiation-induced ulcer. Colon tissues were obtained from Wistar Kyoto rats at various times after 22.5 Gy irradiation to the rectum. Histologically, crypt depletion and numerous inflammatory cells were observed 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal ulcer 6 days after irradiation. ICAM-1 immunopositivity was present in the endothelial cells of small vessels in the mucosa of both control and irradiated rats. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was detected in normal colon and irradiated colon by reverse transcription-PCR. In Northern blotting, ICAM-1 mRNA levels were found to increase markedly in the irradiated colon compared to the normal colon. In Western blotting, ICAM-1 protein expression also increased with a peak one day after irradiation, and remained elevated up to 6 days thereafter. The number of MPO-positive cells in lamina propria mucosa increased in a time-dependent fashion from 6 h to 6 days after irradiation. These data suggest that up-regulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and accumulation of MPO positive cells play important roles in the development of radiation-induced colonic ulcer. (author)

  20. Acute myelogenous leukemia developed after radioactive iodine therapy and palliative radiation therapy in metastatic papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Tae Young; Kwak, Jae Sik; Oh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Seung Bai; Chung, Byung Sun; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Chong Soon [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    Radioactive iodine treatment has been widely used for nearly 50 years in the treatment of thyroid cancer to ablate residual thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy and to treat metastatic disease. Leukemia is a rare complication associated with the radioactive iodine therapy. The occurrence of leukemia is known to be related to the cumulative dosage of I-131 more than 37 GBq (1 Ci) and also associated with the intervals of less than 12 months between the repeated doses. We report a case of a 52 year-old female patient with papillary cancer of thyroid who developed acute myelogenous leukemia after the total 20.4 GBq (550 mCi) of I-131 therapy over 3.2 years and palliative radiation therapy ( 3000 cGy) due to multiple bone metastasis of papillary cancer.

  1. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  2. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-09-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotton pieces that had been soaked with 0.5 ml amifostine solution or saline were applied gently on the buccal mucosa of each guinea pig for 30 min. The animals in Groups A, B and C were irradiated individually with a single dose of 30 Gy to the bilateral buccal mucosa. Eight days after irradiation, the animals were scored macroscopically; they were then euthanized, and the buccal mucosal tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and ICAM-1 immunohistochemical analysis. In Groups A and B, the mean macroscopic scores were 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 1.1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, when they were separately compared with Group C (4.4 ± 0.7), a noticeable difference was obtained (P amifostine-treated groups were better than in Group C. The results demonstrated that topical administration of amifostine to the oral mucosa is effective treatment of acute radiation-induced mucositis. PMID:24706999

  3. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  4. Lymphotoxin-beta receptor activation on macrophages ameliorates acute DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in a TRIM30α-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Nadin; Huber, Barbara; Wege, Anja K; Barabas, Nicola; Röhrl, Johann; Pfeffer, Klaus; Hehlgans, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Our previous studies indicated that LTβR activation mainly by T cell derived LTα₁β₂ is crucial for the control and down-regulation of intestinal inflammation. In order to dissect the cellular and molecular role of LTβR activation in the experimental model of DSS-induced intestinal inflammation, we have generated cell type-specific LTβR-deficient mice with specific ablation of LTβR expression on macrophages/neutrophils (LTβR((flox/flox))×LysM-Cre). These mice develop an exacerbated intestinal inflammation in our experimental model indicating that LTβR expression on macrophages/neutrophils is responsible for the control and down-regulation of the inflammatory reaction. These results were verified by adoptive transfer experiments of BMDM from wild-type and LTβR-deficient mice. Furthermore, transfer of activated CD4+ T cells derived from wild-type mice, but not from LTβR ligand-deficient mice attenuated the signs of intestinal inflammation. Finally, we demonstrate that LTβR activation on BMDM results in induction of TRIM30α, a negative regulator of NFκB activation. Concordantly, ablation of LTβR signaling results in the inability to induce TRIM30α expression concomitant with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in our experimental model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that LTβR activation on macrophages by CD4+ T cell derived LTαβ controls the pro-inflammatory response by activation of a TRIM30α-dependent signaling pathway, crucial for the down-regulation of the inflammatory response in this experimental model. PMID:22437076

  5. Effects of proton and gamma radiation on lymphocyte populations and acute response to antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajioka, E. H.; Gheorghe, C.; Andres, M. L.; Abell, G. A.; Folz-Holbeck, J.; Slater, J. M.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical use of proton radiation in the management of cancer, as well as benign disorders, is rapidly increasing. The major goal of this study was to compare the effects of proton and gamma (60Co) radiation on cell-mediated and humoral immunological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single dose of 3 Gray (Gy) protons or gamma-rays and intraperitoneally injected 1 day later with sheep red blood cells (sRBC). On 4, 10, 15, and 29 days after exposure, subsets from each group were euthanised; nonirradiated controls (with and without sRBC injection) were included. Body and relative spleen weights, leukocyte counts, spontaneous blastogenesis, lymphocyte populations, and anti-sRBC titers were evaluated. RESULTS: The data showed significant depression (p radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data show that whole-body irradiation with protons or gamma-rays, at the dose employed, results in marked, but transient, immunosuppression. However, at the time points of testing and with the assays used, little or no differences were found between the two forms of radiation.

  6. Recent advances in the management of radiation colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jannis Kountouras; Christos Zavos

    2008-01-01

    Radiation colitis,an insidious,progressive disease of increasing frequency,develops 6 mo to 5 years after regional radiotherapy for malignancy,owing to the deleterious effects of the latter on the colon and the small intestine.When dealing with radiation colitis and its complications,the most conservative modality should be employed because the areas of intestinal injury do not tend to heal.Acute radiation colitis is mostly selflimited,and usually,only supportive management is required.Chronic radiation colitis,a poorly predictable progressive disease,is considered as a precancerous lesion;radiation-associated malignancy has a tendency to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and to bear a dismal prognosis.Therefore,management of chronic radiation colitis remains a major challenge owing to the progressive evolution of the disease,including development of fibrosis,endarteritis,edema,fragility,perforation,partial obstruction,and cancer.Patients are commonly managed conservatively.Surgical intervention is difficult to perform because of the extension of fibrosis and alterations in the gut and mesentery,and should be reserved for intestinal obstruction,perforation,fistulas,and severe bleeding.Owing to the difficulty in managing the complications of acute and chronic radiation colitis,particular attention should be focused onto the prevention strategies.Uncovering the fibrosis mechanisms and the molecular events underlying radiation bowel disease could lead to the introduction of new therapeutic and/or preventive approaches.A variety of novel,mostly experimental,agents have been used mainly as a prophylaxis,and improvements have been made in radiotherapy delivery,including techniques to reduce the amount of exposed intestine in the radiation field,as a critical strategy for prevention.

  7. Thyroid disorders in acute period after radiation therapy on neck region

    OpenAIRE

    E I Bobrova; V V Fadeev; V M Sotnikov; M G Pavlova; Yu P Sych

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of our study was to analyze thyroid status in adult patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma in acute period after radiotherapy on neck region. Material and methods. Thyroid function (TSH, free T 4, anti-TPO) and thyroid ultrasound were evaluated in 22 adults (10 women, 12 men, mean age 30.2 yrs) with a history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) before radiotherapy on neck region, 7-14 days, 6 month, 1 year after treatment. Results. Incidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism was 1...

  8. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  9. Enteral peptide formulas inhibit radiation induced enteritis and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and suppress the expression and function of Alzheimer's and cell division control gene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that patients receiving enteral peptide formulas prior to irradiation have a significantly reduced incidence of enteritis and express a profound increase in intestinal cellularity. Two conceptual approaches were taken to describe this response. First was the evaluation in changes in programmed intestinal cell death and secondly the evaluation of a gene product controlling cell division cycling. This study provided a relationship between the ratio of cell death to cell formulations. The results indicate that in the canine and murine models, irradiation induces expression of the Alzheimer's gene in intestinal crypt cells, while the incidence of apoptosis in apical cells is significantly increased. The use of peptide enteral formulations suppresses the expression of the Alzheimer's gene in crypt cells, while apoptosis is eliminated in the apical cells of the intestine. Concomitantly, enteral peptide formulations suppress the function of the CK-II gene product in the basal and baso-lateral cells of the intestine. These data indicate that although the mitotic index is significantly reduced in enterocytes, this phenomenon alone is not sufficient to account for the peptide-induced radio-resistance of the intestine. The data also indicate a significant reduction of normal apoptosis in the upper lateral and apical cells of the intestinal villi. Thus, the ratio of cell death to cell replacement is significantly decreased resulting in an increase in villus height and hypertrophy of the apical villus cells. Thus, peptide solutions should be considered as an adjunct treatment both in radio- and chemotherapy

  10. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yasuhiro [National Hiroshima Hospital, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  11. Effects of Pseudomonas contamination or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on acute radiation lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of antibiotic decontamination or Psuedomonas contamination of the GI tract prior to whole-body neutron or gamma irradiation was studied. For neutron doses greater than 6.7 Gy and gamma ray doses greater than 14.4 Gy, the median survival time of SPF rats was relatively constant at 4.4 days, indicating death was due to intestinal injury. Within the dose range of 4.9 to 6.7 Gy of neutrons or 9.6 to 14.4 Gy of photons, median survival time was inversely related to dose and varied from 12 to 4.6 days. Decontamination or Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract increased or decreased, respectively, median survival time 1 to 5 days in this survival dose dependent range. The effects of these treatments, however, were negligible in the range of doses in which median survival time was dose independent. These treatments had little effect on the ultimate survival after irradiation as measured by either the LD50/5 day or LD50/30 day endpoints

  12. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  13. Brief note and evaluation of acute-radiation syndrome and treatment of a Tokai-mura criticality accident patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient A who was exposed to a critical dose of radiation developed skin lesions throughout the body surface, gastrointestinal disorder with massive diarrhea and prominent bleeding, which caused severe loss in body fluids. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to the deteriorated intestinal mucosa was considered to be one of the major causes of death, although infection did not develop, possibly because of SDD and aseptic intensive care, until terminal stages. Patient A ultimately developed respiratory and renal failure in addition to skin exudate and gastrointestinal bleeding, and died of multiple organ failure on the 83rd day after exposure. The extreme unevenness of the dose distribution and the neutron versus γ-ray component made the clinical manifestation very complicated. Initially, the mean absorbed dose was calculated as 16-20 GyEq for Patient A, mainly based on neutron-activated 24Na in the blood. However, a very recent calculation showed that the absorbed skin dose was highest at the upper-right abdomen reaching 61.8 Gy (27.0 as neutron plus 34.8 Gy as γ-ray). The dorsal side was calculated to have received one eighth of the value of the abdominal side, and much smaller neutron component. His absorbed-dose distribution throughout the body was very inhomogeneous because of the closeness of the standing point to the mixing tank. Despite prolonged survival because of intensive care with massive fluids and blood transfusion, peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, cultured skin-cell grafts, and the administration of cytokines for marrow, the patient was not saved. Restoration of the bone marrow function, prevention of skin fibrosis, radiation lung damage, and repair of gastrointestinal mucosa, and final recovery of the patient were elusive. Abundant personnel and resources were also a prerequisite to allow for the comprehensive and collective intensive care. A further understanding of the effects of high-dose radiation as well as the basic and clinical

  14. D-xylose test of resorption as a method to determine radiation side effects in small intestine; D-Xylose-Resorptionstest als Methode zur Erfassung der Strahlenreaktion des Darms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koest, S.; Keinert, K.; Glaser, F.H. [Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    1998-09-01

    Background: The D-xylose test is the most important method to determine a disorder of carbohydrates resorption in proximal small intestine. The application is based on an impaired resorption due to pathological change of small intestine surface, leading to a decreased blood level or decreased excretion in urine. Patients and Method: D-xylose test was applied in 91 patients before, shortly after, 1/2 and 1 year after radiotherapy. All patients received an abdominal radiotherapy. We determined the blood level of D-xylose by a capillary blood sample 1 hour after oral D-xylose administration. Results: A significant decrease of the mean blood level of D-xylose to 1.88 mmol/l was determined after radiotherapy in comparison with 2.17 mmol/l before radiotherapy. Half a year after radiotherapy the mean blood level of D-xylose returned to normal. Regarding a threshold value of D-xylose blood level of 1.70 mmol/l 29 patients (32%) showed a pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption after radiotherapy. Twenty out of the 29 patients already showed a normal resorption half a year after the determination of the resorption disorder, 5 patients after 1 year and 4 patients after 1 1/2 years. There was no correlation between the detection of a disorder of D-xylose resorption and of a loss of body weight. The acute clinical side effects seemed to be more marked in connection with a disorder of D-xylose resorption, but this correlation is not significant. Eleven or 14 of the 29 patients, respectively, with pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption only had complaints of lower or upper gastrointestinal tract, respectively, and 10 patients did not have abdominal complaints at all. Conclusions: The D-xylose test is an important and simple method for determination of radiogen induced carbohydrate malabsorption in proximal small intestine. By means of its radiation side effects on small intestine can also be determined in patients who are otherwise free of complaints. (orig.) [Deutsch

  15. Effect of artesunate on acute rejection after small intestine transplantation in rats%青蒿琥酯对大鼠小肠移植急性排斥反应的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小迪; 王为忠; 焦婕英; 郑建勇; 赵正维

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:As the potent, specific immunosuppressants emerge, the survival rate after intestinal transplantation is improved to some extent. However, the adverse effects of immunosuppressants and expensive treatment costs are not tolerable for many patients. Therefore, it is clinical y meaningful to choose traditional Chinese medicine which presents immunosuppressive effects. Artesunate has immune suppression effect, reduces acute rejection fol owing smal intestine transplantation, and improves the success rate of smal intestine transplantation. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect and action mechanism of artesunate in acute rejection after smal intestine transplantation in rats. METHODS:Al ogeneic smal intestine transplantation models were established in the closed group of Sprague-Dawley rats and Wistar rats, and then were randomly divided into three groups, syngenic transplantation group (SD→SD), al ogeneic transplantation group (Wistar→SD), and artesunate treatment group (Wistar→SD+artesunate 60 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal injection). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Rats in syngenic transplantation group survived for more than 10 days and they were al kil ed on day 10. The average survival of rats in al ogeneic transplantation group and artesunate treatment group was respectively (6.73±0.58) days and (8.50±0.74) days, with significant differences between the two groups (P0.05), serum interferon-gamma expression level in treatment group was higher than syngenic transplantation group (P  目的:观察青蒿琥酯在大鼠小肠移植急性排斥反应中的作用及其机制。  方法:选用封闭群SD大鼠和Wistar大鼠建立同种异基因小肠移植模型,随机分为3组:①同基因移植组(SD→SD)。②异基因移植组(Wistar→SD)。③异基因移植+青蒿琥酯治疗组(Wistar→SD+青蒿琥酯60 mg/(kg•d),腹腔注射)。  结果与结论:同基因移植组大鼠存活均超过10 d,并于第10天全部处死。异基

  16. Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in a Murine Model of the H-ARS: Multiple-Organ Injury Consequent to Total Body Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J; Quickery, Ariel K; Ferguson, Ethan L; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P; Plett, P Artur; Sandusky, George E; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

    2015-11-01

    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a Cs radiation source and studied 1-21 mo later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ∼22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69 ± 6.0 mg dL, p irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29 ± 1.8% vs. 64 ± 9.7% of total glomeruli, p irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peribronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ∼9-21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart, and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model, which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs.

  17. 急性肠梗阻的病因学和病死率:705例回顾分析%Etiological factors and mortality of acute intestinal obstruction: a review of 705 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈心足; 魏涛; 姜坤; 杨昆; 张渡; 陈志新; 陈佳平; 胡建昆

    2008-01-01

    目的:总结急性肠梗阻的病因学类型和总体病死率,探索手术治疗前合理的保守治疗时间.方法:回顾性分析了华西医院1995年至2002年的住院病人病历,分类统计各类病因,并分析病死率与手术前保守治疗间期的相关性.结果:共纳入705例急性肠梗阻病例,其中71.1%病变部位在小肠,82.6%为单纯性肠梗阻.最常见病因为粘连(62.0%),肿瘤次之(23.7%).56.7%的病例接受外科治疗.总体病死率为1.6%,其中保守治疗组为1.3%,外科治疗组为1.7%.肠坏死发生率随保守治疗间期延长而增高,当绞窄发生超过24 h即可能死亡.结论:与西方相似,在中国同样有病因向粘连性转移的流行病学趋势.基于四川大学华西医院经验,近半数的单纯性肠梗阻病例可经保守治疗缓解.保守治疗延长且无缓解趋势的单纯性肠梗阻,或绞窄发生第一个24 h内的病例应接受外科治疗.%Objective: To figure out the etiological factors and overall mortality of the patients with acute intestinal obstruction, and to explore the rational period of conservative therapy before operation.Methods: Medical records of all the patients with acute intestinal obstruction admitted to West China Hospital from 1995 to 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology of the obstruction was categorized, and the correlation of mortality and time interval between conservative therapy and operation was analyzed.Results: There were 705 patients with acute intestinal obstruction included. There were 71. 1% of the obstruction lesions located on the small bowel, and 82.6% of the patients experienced simple obstruction. The most frequent cause was adhesions (62.0%), and next was neoplasms (23.7%). There were 57.6% of the patients underwent the surgical treatment. The overall mortality rate was 1.6%, and the mortality rates in conservative therapy and surgical intervention groups were 1.3% and 1. 7% respectively. The intestinal necrosis rate was

  18. Small & Large Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the large intestine produces no digestive enzymes. Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. Functions of the large intestine include the absorption of water and electrolytes and the elimination of ...

  19. Non-linear dose response of a few plant taxa to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronuclei induction serves as an essential biomarker of radiation stress in a living system, and the simplicity of its detection technique has made it a widely used indicator of radiation damage. The present study was conducted to reveal the cytological dose-response of a few plant taxa, viz., Allium cepa var. aggregatum Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, to low LET gamma radiation with special emphasis on the pattern of micronuclei induced across low and high dose regimes. A tri-phasic non-linear dose-response pattern was observed in the four taxa studied, characterized by a low dose linear segment, a plateau and a high dose linear segment. Despite a similar response trend, the critical doses where the phase transitions occurred varied amongst the plant taxa, giving an indication to their relative radiosensitivities. E. crassipes and A. sativum, with their lower critical doses for slope modifications of phase transitions, were concluded as being more radiosensitive as compared to C. comosum and A. cepa, which had relatively higher critical doses. (author)

  20. 高原缺氧环境下重症急性胰腺炎合并肠损伤的实验研究%Severe acute pancreatitis complicated with intestinal injury in plateau hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盼; 张方信; 邓芝云; 陈嘉屿; 单体栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the intestinal mucosal tissue of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in platuau hypoxia , and investigate the mechanism of gut barrier injury of rats with SAP at high altitude ( H - SAP). Methods: Forty - eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups ( n = 24 for each group) , Xi an group ( X) and Maxianshan group (M) according to different altitude. Each group was further divided into four subgroups (n = 6 for each subgroup) , sham - operation group (SO group) , SAP -6 h group, SAP - 12 h group and SAP - 24 h group, 4% sodium taurocholate was injected into the pancreatic duct to induce SAP. Pancreas and intestine tissues were harvested to observe the pathological changes, and the content of TNF - α and IL - 10 in intestine were measured respectively. The ultrastructure of intestine mucosa was observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results;The expression of TNF - α and IL -10 in X - SAP group was significantly different with that in M - SAP group (P < 0.05 ). Under the light microscopy, injury of pancreas and intestine at different time point in M - SAP group was more obvious than that in X - SAP group ( P < 0.05 ). The pathological scores of intestine were positively correlated with that of pancreas in SAP group ( r = 0. 902, P < 0. 01). Injury of intestinal mucosal was more obvious in M - SAP group than that in X - SAP group at each time point under TEM. Conclusion; Injury of intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with SAP can be induced and aggravated in plateau hypoxia. Disturbance of TNF - α and IL - 10 expression play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with H - SAP.%目的:观察高原缺氧环境下重症急性胰腺炎(severe acute pancreatitis,SAP)大鼠肠黏膜组织的变化,初步探讨高原SAP(H - SAP)时肠黏膜屏障损伤的机制.方法:48只Wistar大鼠,根据海拔不同随机分为2个大组,西安

  1. The combined impact of plant-derived dietary ingredients and acute stress on the intestinal arachidonic acid cascade in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Oxley, Anthony; Jolly, Cecile; Eide, Torunn; Jordal, Ann-Elise O.; Svardal, Asbjørn Martin; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of substituting high levels of dietary fish oil (FO) and fishmeal (FM) for vegetable oil (VO) and plant protein (PP) on the intestinal arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the carnivorous fish species Atlantic salmon. Four diets were fed to salmon over a period of 12 months, including a control FMFO diet, with varying replacements of plant-derived ingredients: 80 % PP and 35 % VO; 40 % PP and 70 % VO; 80 % PP and 70 %VO. Subsequently, fish were examined ...

  2. 鱼油对重症急性胰腺炎大鼠肠黏膜屏障的影响%Fish oil protects the intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 刘燕燕; 刘丛丛; 武华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨 -3鱼油脂肪乳剂对重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)大鼠早期肠黏膜功能屏障的影响.方法:♂Wistar大鼠30只随机分为:假手术组(So组,n=10),鱼油治疗组(F组,n=10)和生理盐水治疗组(N组,n=10).通过胰管逆行注射法建成SAP模型,并分别尾静脉注射 -3鱼油脂肪乳剂和生理盐水治疗.检测大鼠血浆D-乳酸和肠脂肪酸结合蛋白(I-FABP)的水平,观察小肠黏膜组织和胰腺组织并进行病理学评分.0.23,均P<0.05或0.01).结论:ω-3鱼油脂肪乳剂能降低D-乳酸和I-FABP的浓度,从而降低肠黏膜的通透性,减轻全身炎症反应,保护大鼠的肠黏膜屏障.%AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of omega-3 fish oil on the intestinal mucosal barrier in serious acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats.METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (n = 10), fish oil group (n = 10), and normal saline group (n = 10).SAP was induced in rats of the fish oil group and normal saline group by retrograde injection of 5% sodium cholate (1 mL/kg) into the pancreatic duct.These two groups were then intravenously given fish oil supplement (2 mL/kg) and normal saline (2mL/kg), respectively.The sham-operated group was subjected to sham operation.After treatment, plasma D-lactate and serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were measured, and the severity of pancreatitis and intestinal changes was evaluated by histopathological scoring.RESULTS: Plasma D-lactate (mmol/L), serum I-FABP (μg/L), and histopathological scores of intestinal changes and pancreatitis in the normal saline group were markedly lower than those in the sham-operated group and fish oil group (0.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.07 ±0.02, 0.26 ± 0.05; 1 510.00 ± 72.72 vs 80.50 ± 5.60, 904.00 + 61.50; 2.60 ± 0.32 vs 0.20 ± 0.10, 1.85 ± 0.34; 8.60 ± 0.31 vs 0.30 ± 0.12, 7.30 ± 0.23; all P < 0.05 or 0.01).CONCLUSION: Omega-3 fish oil supplementation reduces plasma D-lactate and

  3. Estudo das alterações das citocinas inflamatórias na rejeição aguda do transplante intestinal em ratos Cytokine participation in the acute rejection of intestinal transplantation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dong Won Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O transplante de intestino delgado é procedimento cirúrgico em estudo visando sua aplicação no tratamento dos pacientes portadores da síndrome do intestino curto, com vistas à reabilitação oral. Porém a grande barreira se deve à "rejeição" pela grande quantidade de tecido linfóide presente no intestino delgado. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atuação das citocinas, interleucina-6 e interferon-gama em alotransplante heterotópico intestinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se 24 alotransplantes intestinais em ratos da raça Brown-Norway (doador para Lewis (receptor, sendo subdivididos em três subgrupos de oito animais, sacrificados respectivamente no terceiro dia de pós-operatório (Tx(3, no quinto dia de pós-operatório (Tx(5 e no sétimo dia de pós-operatório (Tx(7 para coleta das biopsias dos enxertos intestinais. Enquanto que no grupo isotransplante (C envolveu oito animais da raça Lewis (doador para Lewis (receptor, porém neste grupo realizaram-se biopsias seriadas no mesmo animal, sendo subdivididos em três momentos: biopsia no terceiro dia de pós-operatório (C(3, no quinto dia de pós-operatório (C(5 e sacrificados no sétimo dia de pós-operatório (C(7 para coleta da biopsia. Realizou-se inicialmente análise intragrupo entre os momentos C(3, C(5 e C(7 para todos os parâmetros de rejeição citados anteriormente, como também para os três subgrupos Tx(3, Tx(5 e Tx(7. Posteriormente, realizou-se a análise intergrupo de forma transversal e pareada comparando-se o grupo isotransplante com o grupo alotransplante (C(3 com Tx(3; C(5 com Tx(5 e C(7 com Tx(7. RESULTADOS: No grupo isotransplante não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quanto à imunoexpressão das citocinas estudadas, todavia no grupo alotransplante observou-se que alterações da interleucina-6 e de interferon-gama ocorreram a partir do quinto dia de pós-operatório.BACKGROUND: Intestinal transplantation is a possible treatment for

  4. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  5. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2016-10-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F0 and F1Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F0Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F2 progeny of irradiated F0Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. PMID:27288911

  6. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  7. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  8. Development of the drug for acute treatment of emergent exposure to radiation by nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is a flow of authors' studies on the drug development in the title, aiming to save the life after the emergent exposure to peri-lethal dose. Medicals with radioprotective properties have been essentially those to be given before the exposure. Authors have studied the mechanism of bystander effect of non-exposed cells where they, localizing around the directly radiation-exposed cells, acquire the radioresistance; have found that nitrogen oxide (NO) is one of mediators for the effect; and have thought to apply the NO generating agents for the drug already clinically available, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), isosorbide nitrate (ISDN), nicolandil (NC), nitroglycerin (NG), and nipradilol (NP). ISDN, NC, NG and NP exhibited no in vitro-toxicity in colony formation of human fibroblast AG1522 cells up to 30 micro-M whereas SNP was toxic at the level >3 micro-M due to the formation of cyanide which could be detoxicated in vivo. Actually, the 5 agents were not toxic in vivo. When male jcl/ICR mice were irradiated with lethal dose of 7.5 Gy X-ray and the 5 agents were given to make their level 30 micro-M immediately, 1, 2 and 7 days after the exposure, 3/5 animals given SNP survived. With the half lethal dose of 6.5 Gy X-ray and 50 animals, SNP was further examined in details: survival was found to be 75-85% in mice given SNP in contrast to 30-40% in the control and the life-saving effect was suggested to be due to suppression of intestinal and marrow death with the improved feature of peripheral platelet and leukocyte. Thus SNP, a drug for angina pectoris, is found radioprotective even post exposure. (T.T.)

  9. 一期行肠切除术及无张力疝修补术治疗急性绞窄性腹股沟疝合并肠坏死58例%Emergency one-stage intestinal resection and tension-free hernioplasty for acutely strangulated inguinal hernia complicating intestinal necrosis in 58 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆永; 陈立波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity and surgical outcome of emergency one-stage intestinal resection and tension-free hernioplasty for acutely strangulated inguinal hernia complicated with intestinal necrosis.Methods Clinical data of 58 patients diagnosed strangulated inguinal hernia and intestinal necrosis in our hospital from July 2011 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.Of the 58 patients,33 were males and 25 were females,mean age of (64 ± 18) years (range 52-86).There were 28 strangulated inguinal and 30 femoral hernias undergoing emergency small bowel resection and tension-free mesh hernioplasty.Patients with intestinal perforations,preoperative peritonitis,inflammatory hernia and those who required colon resections were excluded from the study.Results The mean operative time was (92 ± 22) min (range,80-120 min).Average length of hospital stay was (8.6 ± 2.5) d (range,6-21 d).There were three postoperative c omplications (5.2%):one of subcutaneous hematoma,one of superficial surgical site infection and one of scrotal fluid collection,which were all cured by wound dressing,removal of infected prosthetic mesh,vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) and continuous irrigation,intravenous antibiotics and scrotal puncture.During a follow-up period of 6 to 32 months (mean 12 ± 6 months),there was no hernia recurrence.Conclusions Emergency one-stage intestinal resection and tension-free mesh hernioplasty for strangulated inguinal hernia complicated by intestinal necrosis is safe,feasible with a favourable outcome and low rate of postoperative complications.%目的 探讨急诊一期行肠切除术及无张力疝修补术治疗急性绞窄性腹股沟疝合并肠坏死的疗效.方法 回顾性分析华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院2011年7月至2014年4月58例成人急性绞窄性腹股沟疝合并肠坏死患者的临床资料,但除外合并肠穿孔、腹膜炎、炎性疝、嵌顿的内容物为结肠并需要做结肠

  10. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  11. Comparison of Acute and Late Toxicities for Three Modern High-Dose Radiation Treatment Techniques for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry, E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Vicini, Frank; Brabbins, Donald; Gustafson, Gary; Ye Hong; Martinez, Alavaro [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in prostate cancer patients treated with three different high-dose radiation techniques. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,903 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with definitive RT at William Beaumont Hospital from 1992 to 2006: 22% with brachytherapy alone (BT), 55% with image-guided external beam (EB-IGRT), and 23% external beam with high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost (EBRT+HDR). Median dose with BT was 120 Gy for LDR and 38 Gy for HDR (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4). Median dose with EB-IGRT was 75.6 Gy (PTV) to prostate with or without seminal vesicles. For EBRT+HDR, the pelvis was treated to 46 Gy with an additional 19 Gy (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) delivered via HDR. GI and GU toxicity was evaluated utilizing the NCI-CTC criteria (v.3.0). Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Results: The incidences of any acute {>=} Grade 2 GI or GU toxicities were 35%, 49%, and 55% for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR (p < 0.001). Any late GU toxicities {>=} Grade 2 were present in 22%, 21%, and 28% for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR (p = 0.01), respectively. Patients receiving EBRT+HDR had a higher incidence of urethral stricture and retention, whereas dysuria was most common in patients receiving BT. Any Grade {>=}2 late GI toxicities were 2%, 20%, and 9% for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR (p < 0.001). Differences were most pronounced for rectal bleeding, with 3-year rates of 0.9%, 20%, and 6% (p < 0.001) for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR respectively. Conclusions: Each of the three modern high-dose radiation techniques for localized prostate cancer offers a different toxicity profile. These data can help patients and physicians to make informed decisions regarding radiotherapy for prostate andenocarcinoma.

  12. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: jhuang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  13. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V25Gy) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V25Gy <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V25Gy are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V25Gy of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL

  14. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria

  15. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a cause of acute intestinal obstruction/perforation in patients with adenocarcinoma of the sigmoidcolon: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Pandolfi Basso; Adriana Borgonovi Christiano; Letícia Vieira Guerrer; Francisco De Assis Gonçalves-Filho; João Gomes Netinho

    2011-01-01

    Report of a rare case of an 83-year-old patient with lymphoma of the terminal ileum causing obstructive/perforated acute abdomen synchronous with sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma and review of literature data about small bowel malignancies, particularly lymphomas. It seems to correspond to a rare disease (2% of all bowel cancers), more prevalent in elderly and immunocompromised patients, whose symptoms are vague and early diagnosis is difficult, often making it impossible to establish the correct...

  16. Situs inversus abdominus and malrotation in an adult with Ladd's band formation leading to intestinal ischaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail H Mallick; Rizwan Iqbal; Justin B Davies

    2006-01-01

    Situs inversus abdominus with rotational anomaly of the intestines is an extremely rare condition. Although intestinal mairotation has been recognized as a cause of obstruction in infants and children and may be complicated by intestinal ischaemia, it is very rare in adults. When it occurs in the adult patient, it may present acutely as bowel obstruction or intestinal ischaemia or chronically as vague intermittent abdominal pain. Herein, we present an acute presentation of a case of situs inversus abdominus and intestinal malrotation with Ladd's band leading to infarction of the intestine in a 32 year old woman.

  17. Experience in Surgical Treatment of Elderly Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma Complicated with Acute Intestinal Obstruction%老年大肠癌结合急性肠梗阻的临床手术体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段瑞华

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this paper is to study how to choose the right way for the treatment of acute intestinal obstruction in elderly patients. Methods In this paper, we take a variety of ways to the hospital 78 cases of elderly patients with colon cancer patients with acute intestinal obstruction in patients with surgical treatment, surgical treatment method according to the patient's situation to make appropriate adjustments. The surgical methods adopted in this paper include: simple stoma, ileum and colon anastomosis. Results After surgery, the patient had changed. After operation, there were 8 cases of incision infection, 5 cases of patients with pulmonary infection, 2 cases of anastomotic leakage occur ed in the patients with I, and two patients with anastomotic leakage occur ed in the left half colon I. Patients who had not had any complications occurred during the treatment, and did not appear to have died. Conclusion Acute intestinal obstruction in elderly patients with colon cancer should be chosen according to the specific circumstances.%目的:本文的主要目的在于研究在手术的过程中如何选择合适的方式对老年大肠癌急性肠梗阻展开治疗。方法本文采取多种方式对本院的78例次老年结肠癌急性肠梗阻患者患者实施手术治疗,手术治疗的方法根据患者情况作出适当的调整。本文所采取的手术方式主要包括:单纯造口术、回肠-结肠吻合捷径术等。结果经过手术后患者的情况出现了变化。经过手术后患者出现切口感染的存在8例次;患者发生肺部感染的共计5例次;在I期手术实施后患者出现吻合口瘘的占有2例次,其中这两名患者的吻合口瘘都发生在左半结肠I期吻合处。实施以上手术的患者在治疗期间没有出现任何并发症,也没有出现死亡的现象,经过一段时间的治疗均出院。结论老年人结肠癌急性肠梗阻应根据具体情况选择术式。

  18. Effects of the ionising radiations on the structure and the function of the intestinal epithelial cell; Effets des rayonnements ionisants sur la structure et la fonction de la cellule epitheliale intestinale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haton, C

    2005-06-15

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly radio-sensitive tissue and damage may occur following either accidental or therapeutic exposure. the deleterious actions of ionizing radiation are linked to the formation of sometimes overwhelming quantities of reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). Production of R.O.S. is both direct and indirect from the secondary effects of irradiation. A better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of injury will lead to more adapted therapeutic approaches to limit the harmful effects of irradiation. The homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium is regulated by three factors: proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. these three factors were studied using the cell model, HT29, in order to analyze modulations of this balance after irradiation. our results, in agreement with other data, showed the establishment of mitotic delay. This arrest of proliferation was followed by apoptosis to be the major mechanism leading to cell death in this model. thus, for the first time, we have shown that irradiated intestinal epithelial cells preserve their capacity to differentiate. This indicates, although indirectly, that intestinal cells have and preserve an intrinsic capacity restore a functional epithelium. R.O.S. are considered as intermediates between the physical nature of radiations and biological responses. It seems essential to understand anti-oxidant mechanisms used by the cell for defence against the deleterious effects of R.O.S post exposure. This study of several anti-oxidant defence mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, was carried out in vivo in the mouse at different times following abdominal irradiation. We observed an early mitochondrial response in the hours following irradiation revealing this organelle as a particular target. We demonstrated a strong alteration of anti-oxidant capacity as revealed by a decrease in S.O.D.s, catalase and an increase of the G.P.X.s and M.T.s. A part of these modifications appeared to depend on an

  19. Study on the therapeutic effect of cytokine on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Co γ ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To examine the therapeutic effect of combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Coγ ray exposure in beagles. Methods: Sixteen beagles were randomly divided into the control (n=5), symptomatic treatment group (n=5) and cytokine treatment group (n=6). All the beagles in the three groups were exposed to the whole-body irradiation of 60Co γ ray at a dose of 4.5 Gy. The animals in the second group accepted active symptomatic treatment. The animals in the cytokine treatment group were sub-cutaneously administered rhIL -11 and rhG -CSF besides active symptomatic treatment. Hemogram of peripheral blood, pristine apoptosis and necrosis ratio of nucleated cells, the content of IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma and formation of bone marrow were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Results: In the cytokine treatment group, the animal' survival rate 45 days after exposure was increased and hemogram of peripheral blood was improved significantly. The rate of pristine apoptosis and necrosis of nucleated cell declined obviously. Early, the content of both IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma was up significantly, then the content of IL-2 rapidly descended, but that of IFN-γ was relatively stable. Conclusion: The combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF significantly improved the recovery of hematopoietic and immunological function. (authors)

  20. [Intestinal endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rodríguez, C I; Cires, M; Jiménez, F J; Rubio, T

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation). In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment, this will depend on the clinical features and the age of the patient, as well as her wishes with regard to pregnancy. PMID:18953367

  1. Effect of acute nutritional deprivation on immune function in mice. II. Response to sublethal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies from this laboratory indicated that mice starved for 48 or 72 hr were resistant to the intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. In the present experiments, we investigated the possibility that rapidly proliferating monocytes were responsible for the early protective effect observed in these mice. Confirming previous studies, the numbers of L. monocytogenes in livers and spleens of starved mice were 2-3 logs lower than those of fed mice 72 hr after inoculation of bacteria. The early protective effect of starvation could be eliminated completely by nonlethal doses of radiation (200-900 rads). Organ bacterial counts in starved-irradiated mice were similar to those of fed mice. Correlative histopathologic studies were carried out on all three groups of mice. Seventy-two hours after challenge with L. monocytogenes, the livers of fed mice had multiple microabscesses with cental necrosis and a poor mononuclear response. In contrast, livers of starved mice had fewer infectious foci, less necrosis, and a more prominent monocyte/macrophage inflammatory response. Similar to fed mice, the livers of starved-irradiated mice had marked necrosis and few monocytes/macrophages. In addition, the number of peripheral blood monocytes in starved mice was increased 72 hr after inoculation compared to fed and starved-irradiated mice. The data from these experiments suggest that a proliferating population of monocytes is responsible for resistance of starved mice against L. monocytogenes

  2. CFU-S survival and acute radiation lethality in mice irradiated with heavy charged particles (HCP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors described previously RBE-LET relationships for CFU-S killing using HCP beams spread to 4 or 10 cm with spiral ridge filters. Studies have been completed with doses in the plateau portion of the Bragg curve where particle fragmentation and the range of dose-averaged LETs are low compared with spread Bragg peaks. Estimates of RBE at 10% survival are 1.5 (/sup 20/Ne), 1.8 (/sup 28/Si), 1.7 (/sup 40/Ar), 1.5 (/sup 40/Ar), and 1.3 (/sup 56/Fe) respectively, compared with /sup 60/Co γ radiation. Based on LET estimates 25, 50, 100, 140, and 190 keV/μm, respectively, for the HCP specified, the authors conclude the RBE peak occurs in the range of 50-100 keV/μm. A similar conclusion was reached from CFU-S survival data collected previously with spread Bragg curves. In conjunction with potential future radiotherapeutic uses of 670 MeV/n /sup 28/Si ions, CFU-S killing was determined in the plateau and in the distal 4 cm of a Bragg curve spread to 12 cm. RBE in the plateau was significantly higher, 1.8, than in the distal peak, 1.2, where LETs estimated at the two positions are 50 and 160 keV/μm, respectively. Data collected on lethality within 30 days after total body exposure is also presented

  3. Intestinal steroidogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucoc...

  4. Intestinal Transplant Inflammation: the Third Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Alexander; Cosentino, Christopher; Kaiser, Jason; Matsumoto, Cal S; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal transplantation is the most immunologically complex of all abdominal organ transplants. Understanding the role both humoral and innate and adaptive cellular immunity play in intestinal transplantation is critical to improving outcomes and increasing indications for patients suffering from intestinal failure. Recent findings highlighting the impact of donor-specific antibodies on intestinal allografts, the role of NOD2 as a key regulator of intestinal immunity, the protective effects of innate lymphoid cells, and the role of Th17 in acute cellular rejection are reviewed here.

  5. Fetal liver cells transplantation in the treatment of extremely severe acute radiation injuries induced by large dose irradiation in leukemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of extremely severe acute radiation injuries treated with fetal liver cells transplantation (FLT) are reported. Patients received 6-8 Gy whole body irradiation which was followed by an infusion of fetal liver cell suspension. Hematological reconstitution occurred in all patients and temporary chimera developed in 3 patients after FLT. There were no difference between the hematologic reconstitution in patients with or without chimera

  6. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2013-12-01

    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  7. SP-A在急性肠损伤大鼠大肠和肺组织中表达的相关性研究%Correlative Study on Expression of SP-A in Lung And Large Intestine in Acute Intestinal Injury Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继生; 李志军; 沈延飞; 董雷; 李敏静; 丁志山; 蔡宛如

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过动态观测急性肠损伤(Acute intestinal injury,AⅡ)肺和大肠等组织中肺表面活性蛋白A(pulmonary surfactant protein A,SP-A)含量的变化,寻找其表达的规律及各组织的相关性.方法:60只SD大鼠随机分为六组:空白对照组、生理盐水组(normal saline group,NS组)、急性肠损伤12h组(AⅡ12h组)、急性肠损伤24h组(AⅡ24h组)、急性肠损伤36h组(AⅡ36h组)、急性肠损伤48h组(AⅡ48h组).采用结肠内注入醋酸(Acetic acid)法制备AⅡ大鼠模型,NS组注入等量NS,空白对照组不作任何处理.分别于注入醋酸后12、24、36、48 h及注入NS后48 h采集标本,空白对照组亦于48 h后采集标本,采用酶联免疫法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)检测大鼠BALF及各种组织中SP-A的含量.结果:①各组大鼠BALF中SP-A的含量明显高于肺、大肠、皮肤、肝组织,有极显著性差异(P<0.01);肺组织SP-A含量其次,与其他组织比有显著性差异(P<0.05),小肠组织中无SP-A表达.②NS组、空白对照组BALF、肺、大肠、肝中SP-A的含量较AII36h组高,差异有极显著性(P<0.01).③AⅡ时间延长,AⅡ各组BALF、肺组织、大肠组织中SP-A的含量下降,至AⅡ36h时含量降至最低;随后有回升趋势.④大肠组织与BALF、肺、皮肤、肝组织中SP-A含量的相关性比较,相关系数r分别为0.292,0.378,0.137,0.518.结论:①大鼠SP-A的合成与分泌具有一定特异性;②BALF、肺、大肠、肝组织中SP-A含量的变化与AⅡ的严重程度有一定的相关性;③大鼠大肠组织中SP-A表达的变化与肝、肺组织中SP-A表达的变化一致性较好.%Objective:By observing the content change of SP-A in lung,large and etc in ALI rats,so as to find the regularity expression and the correlation of substance.Methods:60 SD rats were randomly divided into six groups:blank group,normal saline group,AⅡ12 h group,AⅡ24 h group AⅡ36 h group AⅡ48 h group.The AⅡ rats

  8. Usefulness of the helical CT in gastro intestinally caused acute abdomen; Utilidad de la TC helicoidal en el abdomen agudo de origen gastrointestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, R. A. de la; Martel, J.; Albillos, J. C.; Oliver, J. M.; Lopez, J.; Trapero, M. A. [Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    At present, there is a vivid debate on the role of the Helical CT (HCT) in the acute abdomen, principally on the usefulness of the non contrast HCT. We aim to present the most common semiological findings and the differential diagnoses, and to give a short description of the indications and protocols, according to the existing literature and to our experience with HCT during the last three years. We believe that the generalization of the use of HCT in emergencies avoid unnecessary surgery and shorten observation times on many occasions, with clear benefits in the clinical management of the patients. (Author) 30 refs.

  9. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil for the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation or chemo-radiation: a single-arm prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Potenza, Ilenia; Moretto, Francesco; Segantin, Mattia; Grosso, Mario; Lombardo, Antonello; Taricco, Daniela; Vallario, Patrizia; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Rampino, Monica; Ricardi, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation dermatitis is common in patients treated with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Its timely and adequate management is of uttermost importance for both oncological outcomes and global quality of life. We prospectively evaluated the role of hypericum perforatum and neem oil (Holoil®; RIMOS srl, Mirandola, Italy) in the treatment of acute skin toxicity for patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Me...

  10. Elective colonic resection after acute diverticulitis improves quality of life, intestinal symptoms and functional outcome: experts' perspectives and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    The decision whether to operate for diverticular disease and the appropriate selection of right candidates for elective colectomy after recovery from an uncomplicated episode of acute diverticulitis remains controversial. Although both the impact of symptomatic disease and occurrence of its complications are extensively studied, there is no consensus about the role of elective colonic resection in the management of symptomatic recurrent diverticulitis. In this study, the database of ERIC, the Web of Science, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were searched for the English-language published articles about the functional outcomes and symptomatic improvement in patients after elective surgery for diverticular disease. A majority of clinical trials showed that elective surgery following a successful conservative treatment of acute diverticulitis resulted in significantly better social and functional well-being. In addition, elective surgery greatly reduces the potential events of disease recurrence, thus decreasing financial burden on the national health services. However, to obtain the best functional outcome surgical intervention must be individualized and tailored to meet every single patient's specific indigenous symptomatology. PMID:27015932

  11. Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  12. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube. PMID:27099450

  13. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  14. The effect of prebiotics on intestinal barrier function in rats with acute pancreatitis%益生元对急性胰腺炎大鼠肠屏障功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婷; 高峻; 李兆申; 邹多武

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of prebiotics supplement on intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier function of the rats with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods The AP model in Wistar rat was established by intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, AP group, GOS group. GOS was given 4g·kg-1·d-1at 7d before ANP induced. Twelve hours after modeling, the AP rats in each group were sacrificed. 2 ml of blood sample was taken from heart for the analysis of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity. Jejunum was taken for histological examination. The transmembrane binding proteins (occludin) were measured with immunohistochemistry. Results The plasma DAO level in AP group was (7.29±0.68) U/L, and significantly higher than (2.01±0.34) U/L of control group (P<0.01). The DAO level in GOS group was (3.44±0.59) U/L, and significantly lower than that of AP group. The occludin protein level in AP group was 95.1±9.2, and significantly lower than 44.7±8.2 of control group and 59.7±7.8 of GOS group (P<0.01). The occludin protein level in COS group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The prebiotics may increase the expression of occludin protein, enhance the intestinal epithelial tight junction, maintain the intestinal permeability, and protect the intestinal barrier function.%目的 研究肠道补充益生元对急性胰腺炎肠上皮细胞紧密连接和屏障功能的影响.方法 Wistar大鼠腹腔注射左精氨酸建立AP模型,按随机数字法分组法分成对照组、AP组、益生元组.益生元组于造模前7 d开始给予益生元4 g·kg-1·d-1.建模后12 h处死大鼠,心脏取血检测血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)活性,观察空肠病理变化、采用免疫组化方法检测紧密结合蛋白Occludin的含量.结果 AP组的血浆DAO活性为(7.29±0.68)U/L,显著高于对照组的(2.01±0.34)U/L(P<0.01)和益生元组的(3.44±0.59)U/L(P<0

  15. A prospective phase II trial of EGCG in treatment of acute radiation-induced esophagitis for stage III lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acute radiation-induced esophagitis (ARIE) is one of main toxicities complicated by thoracic radiotherapy, influencing patients’ quality of life and radiotherapy proceeding seriously. It is difficult to be cured rapidly so far. Our phase I trial preliminarily showed that EGCG may be a promising strategy in the treatment of ARIE. Materials and methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with stage III lung cancer from the Shandong Tumor Hospital & Institute in China from January 2013 to September 2014. All patients received concurrent or sequential chemo-radiotherapy, or radiotherapy only. EGCG was administrated once ARIE appeared. EGCG was given with the concentration of 440 μmol/L during radiotherapy and additionally two weeks after radiotherapy. RTOG score, dysphagia and pain related to esophagitis were recorded every week. Results: Thirty-seven patients with stage IIIA and IIIB lung cancer were enrolled in this trial. In comparison to the original, the RTOG score in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th week after EGCG prescription and the 1st, 2nd week after radiotherapy decreased significantly (P = 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.001, 0.102, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). The pain score of each week was significantly lower than the baseline (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.006, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: This trial confirmed that the oral administration of EGCG is an effective and safe method to deal with ARIE. A phase III randomized controlled trial is expected to further corroborate the consequence of EGCG in ARIE treatment

  16. TLR2-independent induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Boulard, Olivier; Asquith, Mark J.; Powrie, Fiona; Maloy, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between the intestinal microflora and host innate immune receptors play a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. Several studies have shown that TLR2 can modulate inflammatory responses in the gut. TLR2 signals enhance tight junction formation and fortify the epithelial barrier, and may play a crucial role in driving acute inflammatory responses towards intestinal bacterial pathogens. In addition, TLR2 agonists can have direct effects on both Th1 cells and Treg. To define the r...

  17. The role of hypoxia in intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Yatrik M

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of the intestine. IBD is a multifactorial disorder, and IBD-associated genes are critical in innate immune response, inflammatory response, autophagy, and epithelial barrier integrity. Moreover, epithelial oxygen tension plays a critical role in intestinal inflammation and resolution in IBD. The intestines have a dynamic and rapid fluctuation in cellular oxygen tension, which is dysregulated in IBD. Intestinal epithelial cells have a steep oxygen gradient where the tips of the villi are hypoxic and the oxygenation increases at the base of the villi. IBD results in heightened hypoxia throughout the mucosa. Hypoxia signals through a well-conserved family of transcription factors, where hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α are essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In inflamed mucosa, HIF-1α increases barrier protective genes, elicits protective innate immune responses, and activates an antimicrobial response through the increase in β-defensins. HIF-2α is essential in maintaining an epithelial-elicited inflammatory response and the regenerative and proliferative capacity of the intestine following an acute injury. HIF-1α activation in colitis leads to a protective response, whereas chronic activation of HIF-2α increases the pro-inflammatory response, intestinal injury, and cancer. In this mini-review, we detail the role of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in intestinal inflammation and injury and therapeutic implications of targeting HIF signaling in IBD. PMID:26812949

  18. CREATION OF MODEL OF INTESTINAL MUCOSA STRUCTURE DAMAGE INDUCED BY ABDOMINAL RADIATION IN RATS%腹部辐射诱发大鼠肠黏膜损伤模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊; 单信芝; 刘芝军; 王娟娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a stable animal model that consistent with the requirements for research of radiation damage of intestinal mucosal barrier. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into control group (group A, 10 rats) and radiation groups B, C, D (20 in each group). The rats in groups B, C, and D were given single fraction irradiation on abdomen with linear accelerator, the dosage being 8. 5, 9.0, and 9.5 Gy, respectively, the radiation scope was from the xyphoid to anus. No radiation was given to the rats in group A. At day 4 after radiation, a segment of intestine, 10 cm from Treitz's ligament, was taken for making specimen. The length of crypt-villus axis (CVA) was measured light-microscopically, and intestinal mucous membrane structure observed electron-microscopically. Plasma endotoxin levels were detected by using tachypleus amebocyte lysate. Results At day 4 after radiation, death rates of the rats in groups B, C, and D were 10%, 30%, and 60%, respectively. A comparison of the length of CVA among the four groups showed: the difference between groups A and B was not significant (P>0.05) ; the length of CVA was shorter in group C than that in groups A and B; and that in group D was shorter than that in groups A, B, and C, the differences were all significant (F= 100.48,q=4.617-18.560,P<0.05). Plasma endotoxin concentration of group C was higher that that of groups A and B, that of group D was higher than that of groups A, B and C (F=50.468,q=5.380-15.898,P<0.05). Electron microscopically, intestinal epithelial cell shedding, ulcer formation, no normal cellular structure, exposure of basal lamina, and bacteria penetrating the stratum mucosum could be seen. Conclusion A model of radiation-induced damage of intestinal mucosal structure in the rat is created successfully. The model of radiation enterocolitis caused by total abdominal irradiation of a dose of 9. 0 Gy is applicable to research for radiation damage of mucosa barrier of intestine

  19. The role of Chaishao Chengqi decotion on intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in severe acute pancreatitis%柴芍承气汤改善重症胰腺炎肠内微生态的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉镭; 黄家遂; 李艳霞; 左素清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Chaishao Chengqi Decotion on intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosal lesion in severe acute pancreatitis(SAP).Methods 46 Patients with SAP were randomized into two groups.Routine medical management was initiated in two groups.The treatment group received Chaishao Chengqi Decotion for 1 week.The plasma concentrations ofDiamine Oxidase (DAO),D-lactate were detected and changes of microflora were evaluated by bacterial culture.Results The levels of DAO in the treatment group (4.65 ±0.82)U/ml were significantly lower than those in the control group (5.66 ±2.17) U/ml (P < 0.05) 7 days after treatment.The levels of D-lactate in the treatment group (10.65 ± 5.24)mg/L were significantly higher than those in the control group (5.42±2.13)mg/L (P<0.05).Bacterial culture revealed that the amount of bifidobaterium (6.02± 1.42)In/g and lactobacilli (7.21 ± 2.02) In/g were significantly increased when compared to those before treatment (3.74± 1.71)In/g and (4.03 ± 1.79)In/g respectively,while there was imbalance of intestinal microflora to some extent in the control group.Conelusien Chaishao Chengqi Decotion exerted the protective effects on gut barrier function by alleviating the damage of intestinal mucosa and balancing the intestinal microbiota following severe acute pancreatitis.%目的 观察柴芍承气汤调节重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)肠道菌群微生态平衡及对肠黏膜损伤的作用.方法 选择2010年至2011年四川省遂宁市中心医院感染管理科SAP患者46例,采用随机数字表法将患者随机分为两组.对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组加用柴芍承气汤,两组均连续治疗7d后检测患者血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)、D-乳酸水平以及肠道菌群变化.结果 治疗后7d,治疗组血浆DAO水平为(4.65±0.82) U/ml,较对照组(5.66±2.17) U/ml明显下降(P<0.05);乳酸为(l0.65±5.24) mg/L,与同组治疗前(11.51±5.78) mg/L比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),

  20. Intestinal necrosis in young patient due to arterial tumour embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahle, Einar; Gögenur, Ismail; Nørgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A patient in the thirties, currently undergoing chemotherapy for metastatic osteosarcoma diagnosed 3 years earlier, was admitted with in the emergency department with abdominal pain. Laparoscopic surgery revealed severe inflammation and an abscess. 18 cm of small intestine was removed because...... of intestinal necrosis. Histological examination showed several arterial tumour emboli, morphologically similar to the primary sarcoma. The patient died 1 year after successful surgery. Because of the improved survival of patients with osteosarcoma, acute mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in acute...

  1. In vitro radiosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts. Lack of correlation with acute radiation toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: There is a considerable hope among clinicians and radiobiologists to detect genetically radiosensitive patients prior to radiotherapy. A predictive assay would enable adjustment of the total irradiation dose to the individual at a constant risk of normal tissue complications. In this prospective study, the clonogenic survival assay for primary human fibroblasts to determine radiosensitivity in vitro was evaluated and then correlated with clinically observed acute radiation reactions. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-five independent survival experiments with primary fibroblasts derived from 63 biopsies from 55 cancer and non-cancer patients were performed. Results: A wide variation of cell survival between biopsies was detected. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significantly larger interindividual than intraindividual variation of SF2 values. However, a considerable scatter of SF2 values in repeated experiments was observed in individual cases. Age, gender, disease status (cancer patient, non-cancer patient) and origin of fibroblasts (skin, periodontal tissue) were demonstrated not to be statistically significant confounding factors on the intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro. In a prospective study, no correlation of the SF2 and acute reactions in 25 patients with head and neck cancer treated with a primary accelerated radiochemotherapy was detected. Conclusion: Our data show that the clonogenic assay is able to distinguish between intrinsic radiosensitivities of primary human fibroblasts if a statistical approach is used but does not predict acute radiation toxicity

  2. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    van Minnen, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies are challenged by complex pathophysiology of the disease. This thesis addresses some key aspects of acute pancreatitis: surgical management, pathophysiology and probiotic prophylaxis. Outcome in pa...

  3. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a cause of acute intestinal obstruction/perforation in patients with adenocarcinoma of the sigmoidcolon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pandolfi Basso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of a rare case of an 83-year-old patient with lymphoma of the terminal ileum causing obstructive/perforated acute abdomen synchronous with sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma and review of literature data about small bowel malignancies, particularly lymphomas. It seems to correspond to a rare disease (2% of all bowel cancers, more prevalent in elderly and immunocompromised patients, whose symptoms are vague and early diagnosis is difficult, often making it impossible to establish the correct therapy.Relato de caso raro de um paciente de 83 anos, com linfoma de íleo terminal causador de abdome agudo obstrutivo/perfurativo sincrônico à adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide e revisão dos dados disponíveis na literatura acerca das neoplasias de intestino delgado, em especial os linfomas. Constata-se que corresponde a uma afecção rara (2% de todas as neoplasias intestinais, mais predominante em pacientes idosos e imunodeprimidos, cuja sintomatologia é vaga e o diagnóstico precoce difícil, fato que impossibilita muitas vezes a instituição da terapêutica correta.

  4. Adult midgut malrotation presented with acute bowel obstruction and ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akile Zengin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Malrotation should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Surgical intervention should be prompt to limit morbidity and mortality.

  5. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  6. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  7. 急性大面积放射线烧伤及其并发症的救治%Treatment of extensive acute radiation burn and its complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李叶扬; 汪锦伦; 李罡; 林伟华; 梁岷; 黄峻; 孙敬恩

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the treatment of a patient suffered from acute radiation burn covering 41% TBSA,with deep partial-thickness and full-thickness injury,produced by exposure to a large-scale industrial electron accelerator.An open wound began to appear and enlarged gradually 10 weeks after the exposure.Serious wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,pneumonia,respiratory failure,systemic inflammatory response syndrome,nephropathy and hypoproteinemia developed successively since 3 weeks after the wound formation.Skin grafts failed to survive,resulting in enlargement of the wound.After being treated with proper measures,including parenteral nutrition,respiratory support with a ventilator,appropriate antibiotics,steroid administration for nephropathy,deep debridement for wounds followed by skin grafting,the patient was cured and discharged after undergoing 15 operations in 500 days.The clinical condition of an extensive acute radiation burn is complicated.We should pay close attention to the changes in functions of organs,and strengthen the therapeutic strategies to support the function of organs to reduce the incidence of systemic complications.The control of the infection and the timely and effective repair of the wound are stiil the key points of the treatment of an extensive local radiation injury.

  8. Chronic radiation enteritis and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwilym James; Brooke, Rachael; De Silva, Aminda Niroshan

    2013-07-01

    Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered. The diagnostic work-up includes serum markers, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and the exclusion of alternative diagnoses such as recurrent malignancy. Management options of CRE include dietary manipulation, anti-motility agents, electrolyte correction, probiotics, parenteral nutrition, surgical resection and small bowel transplantation. Treatment may also be required for coexisting conditions including vitamin B12 deficiency, bile acid malabsorption and depression.

  9. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  10. 急性胰腺炎的肠内及肠外营养支持%Intra-intestines and parenteral alimentation for treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴鹏

    2004-01-01

    @@ 急性胰腺炎(acute pancreatitis,AP)是一种可伴有全身多器官功能障碍的疾病,由于起病急骤、病情重、并发症多,病死率高.AP以蛋白质分解、糖原异生和脂肪动员增强为特征的超高代谢反应,使患者出现严重营养不良,防御免疫能力降低,感染机率增高[1,2],而使并发症和病死率增高.这种超高代谢反应可能与急性胰腺炎患者分解代谢激素和炎症介质的大量释放有关.因而对于胰腺炎的营养支持应提高到代谢支持水平上,代谢支持的目的是使代谢紊乱控制到一定程度内,减少其对机体的不利一面,调节炎症介质反应和改善免疫功能.代谢支持并不仅是能量或营养的支持,更涉及营养支持途径的选择与具有器官特异性或治疗特异性的营养素摄入等营养药理学的介入.

  11. Intestinal Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis and Management of Colonic Diverticular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconi, Giovanni; Carmagnola, Stefania; Guzowski, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Diverticula of the colon and their symptomatic manifestations, including acute diverticulitis (AD), are frequent complaints and the cause of an increasing burden of ambulatory visits, diagnostic procedures, and hospital admissions. Endoscopic and radiologic diagnostic procedures have a well-known role in the diagnosis and management of the disease, but recently intestinal ultrasonography has been proposed as a complementary tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of diverticular disease. This review shows the main sonographic features of diverticula and discusses the potential role of ultrasound in suggesting the presence of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. Moreover, the sonographic features of AD, diagnostic accuracy, advantages, and limitations of the technique will be discussed. We place special emphasis on the present role of intestinal ultrasonography in patients with suspected AD. Owing to its high sensitivity and high positive predictive value in assessing AD, intestinal ultrasound is currently suggested by some European national consensus guidelines as the first-line examination in this setting. In fact, to minimize false-negative findings and avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in patients with suspected AD, intestinal ultrasound might be used as the first-line examination in a sequential diagnostic strategy, followed by computed tomography only in the case of negative or inconclusive findings. PMID:27622354

  12. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  13. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A₂ in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A₂ (bvPLA₂) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA₂ six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA₂ treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA₂ treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes' mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA₂ on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA₂ are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA₂ in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments. PMID:27144583

  14. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivit