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Sample records for acute inhalation toxicity

  1. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  2. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... histopathology. 799.9135 Section 799.9135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... histopathology. (a) Scope. This section is intended to meet the testing requirements under section 4 of the Toxic... the gross pathology and histopathology resulting from acute inhalation exposure to a...

  3. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  4. (Toxic hepatitis and acute renal failure after inhalation of chloride solvents: report of one case (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixido Planas, J.; Martinez-Castelao, A.; Romero Gonzalez, R.; Grino Boira, J.; Gonzalez Segura, C.; Caralps Riera, A.

    1981-06-25

    Due to a combination of ingested ethanol and inhaled trichloroethylene (Tri) a 28 year old man developed toxic hepatitis and acute oliguric renal failure, both of which had a favorable evolution. Tri has been described as a cause of hepatic disfunction and acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, although some of the cases described are controversial, because Tri was either contaminated by other dissolvents or could not be proven pure, with the exception of one case. In many there was ethanol ingestion. The Tri inhaled by our patient was found to contain less than 1% of carbon tetrachloride (C-Tchl). This would suggest the C-Tchl to be responsible for the clinical picture although the combination Tri/ethanol cannot be discarded as the causal agent, due to the small amount of contaminant present.

  5. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress Due to Methane Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jun Yeon; Kwon, Yong Sik; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Seok; Rho, Byung Hak; Choi, Won-Il

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of toxic gases can lead to pneumonitis. It has been known that methane gas intoxication causes loss of consciousness or asphyxia. There is, however, a paucity of information about acute pulmonary toxicity from methane gas inhalation. A 21-year-old man was presented with respiratory distress after an accidental exposure to methane gas for one minute. He came in with a drowsy mentality and hypoxemia. Mechanical ventilation was applied immediately. The patient's symptoms and chest rad...

  7. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute an...

  8. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Snellings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  9. Acute myocardial involvement after heroin inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Karoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the illicit drugs cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis have been studied and documented well to cause myocardial infarction by different mechanisms but there is very sparse data available on myocardial involvement after heroin abuse. We report a young man who developed acute myocardial injury after heroin inhalation and alcohol binge drinking. Heroin induced cardio toxic effect and vasospasm compounded by alcohol were suspected to be the cause of this.

  10. Acute myocardial involvement after heroin inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Karoli; Fatima, J.; Pushker Singh; Kazmi, Khursheed I.

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the illicit drugs cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis have been studied and documented well to cause myocardial infarction by different mechanisms but there is very sparse data available on myocardial involvement after heroin abuse. We report a young man who developed acute myocardial injury after heroin inhalation and alcohol binge drinking. Heroin induced cardio toxic effect and vasospasm compounded by alcohol were suspected to be the cause of this.

  11. Acute toxicity of polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenol ether in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, E.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM); Halliwell, W.H.; Henderson, T.R.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response studies were conducted with Syrian hamsters exposed to polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) via inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage. Syrian hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of Triton X-100 with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 ..mu..m and a concentration of 3.0 mg/liter. Estimated initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 ranged from 800 to 3100 ..mu..g. Hamsters were lavaged with concentrations of Triton X-100 ranging from 0.01 to 0.10% in isotonic saline resulting in initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 that ranged from 300 to 3200 ..mu..g. The LD50/7 values were 1700 ..mu..g (1300 to 2100 ..mu..g, 95% confidence limits) for the inhalation study and 2100 (1900 to 2700) ..mu..g for the lavage study. The difference between the LD50/7 values for the two methods of exposure was not significant. However, histopathological examination revealed differences in the nature and distribution of pathologic changes observed in animals exposed by the two routes of administration. Animals exposed by inhalation died as a result of ulcerative laryngitis and laryngeal edema with only minimal pulmonary pathologic alterations. Animals exposed by lavage, where the larynx was not exposed to Triton X-100, died from pulmonary edema and acute exudative pneumonia. These results demonstrate the need for careful selection of exposure methods to meet the specific objectives of a toxicology study.

  12. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  13. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  14. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... selection. (ii) Age. Young adult animals shall be used. At the commencement of the study the weight...) Definitions. (1) Subchronic inhalation toxicity is the adverse effects occurring as a result of the repeated... Practice Standards, 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported:...

  15. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik und Neuroradiologie, Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Alfried Krupp Strasse 21, D-45117, Essen (Germany); Moeller, P.; Bade, K. [Neurologische Klinik, Knappschafts-Krankenhaus, D-45657 Recklinghausen (Germany)

    1998-06-02

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  16. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaike, R N

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water.

  17. Inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, B.J.; Allen, M.D.; Rebar, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the acute inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols were undertaken to aid in evaluating the health hazards associated with the proposed use of lithium metal in fusion reactors. Male and female F344/Lov rats, 9-12 wk of age, were exposed once for 4 h to concentrations of 2600, 2300, 1400, or 620 mg/m/sup 3/ of aerosol (MMAD = 0.69 ..mu..m, sigma/sub g/ = 1.45) that was approximately 80% lithium carbonate and 20% lithium hydroxide to determine the acute toxic effects. Fourteen-day LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of 1700 (1300-2000) mg/m/sup 3/ for the male rats and 2000 (1700-2400) mg/m/sup 3/ for the female rate were calculated. Clinical signs of anorexia, dehydration, respiratory difficulty, and perioral and perinasal encrustation were observed. Body weights were decreased the first day after exposure in relation to the exposure concentration. In animals observed for an additional 2 wk, body weights, organ weights, and clinical signs began to return to pre-exposure values. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tracts from the animals revealed ulcerative or necrotic laryngitis, focal to segmental ulcerative rhinitis often accompanied by areas of squamous metaplasia, and, in some cases, a suppurative bronchopneumonia or aspiration pneumonia, probably secondary to the laryngeal lesions. The results of these studies indicate the moderate acute toxicity of lithium carbonate aerosols and will aid in the risk analysis of accidental releases of lithium combustion aerosols.

  18. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury.

  19. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  20. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  1. Methodological approach for the assessment of acute inhalation toxicity of smoke ammunitions by in silico, in vitro and in vivo modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradines, E.; Glacial, F.; Medus, D.; Stiee, E.; Fedou, F.; Hulst, M. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the toxicity of military pyrotechnic products is a growing challenge in the current context of Human and Environment protection. The Allied Ordnance Publication (AOP) 45 and the Standard NATO Agreement (STANAG) 4588 “Guidelines for toxicity testing of smokes, obscurants and pyrotechnics mi

  2. White phosphorus burns and arsenic inhalation: a toxic combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndtson, Allison E; Fagin, Alice; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    White phosphorus is a common industrial and military compound, which can cause severe thermal and chemical burns beyond what would be predicted from body surface area alone. The authors present a rare case of a 45-year-old male patient who suffered white phosphorus burns combined with arsenic inhalation because of an industrial accident. The presented case is used to review the history and the toxicities of these chemicals as well as current methods of treatment. A literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge of white phosphorus burns, as well as arsenic poisoning, and no similar case reports of the two combined were found. The patient ultimately recovered and was discharged, though with significant chronic complications. This case highlights the risk of burns and inhalation injury present in industrial manufacturing jobs, as well as the potential severity of these conditions. The systemic effects of chemicals absorbed across burned skin and via inhalation were the main contributors to our patient's severe illness, and required more intensive treatment than the burns themselves. Arsenic toxicity is rare and could easily have been missed without the appropriate patient history.

  3. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carl W; Martin, James G

    2010-07-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled beta-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  4. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO2 nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO2 nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m3, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO2 nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO2 nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO2 nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  6. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  7. Toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides: an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental approach to evaluation of the toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in laboratory animals is described. These radionuclides are being studied in both relatively soluble (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3 or 137CsCl) and relatively insoluble aerosol forms (90Y, 91Y, 144Ce or 90Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles). Initial lung or whole-body radionuclide burdens were selected to result in early deaths due to severe lesions at the highest exposure levels, and more subtle changes, such as neoplasia, at the lower levels. The organs affected vary depending on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the isotope. For radionuclides inhaled in relatively soluble forms, long-term effects have been seen in the liver, skeleton, respiratory tract and other tissues. In contrast, long-term effects seen in the dogs exposed to relatively insoluble forms have been mainly associated with the lung and contiguous tissues. In all experiments, emphasis is placed on an evaluation of the influence of radiation dose rate and total dose on the resulting dose-response relationship. Over the mid-range of exposure levels, it will be possible to compare the radiation dose and biological response relationships for the several radioactive aerosols with their different radiation dose patterns. These studies with young adult dogs are complemented with comparable studies in other species (mice, rats and Syrian hamsters) and with animals of different ages (immature, aged). This basic approach, with emphasis on factors that alter the resulting radiation dose pattern, offers the maximum likelihood of meeting the continuing, and not always predictable, needs for information on the toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides that may be encountered in nuclear industry operations

  8. Toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides: an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental approach to evaluation of the toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in experimental animals is described. Graded levels of these radionuclides are being studied in both relatively soluble (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3, 137CsCl) and relatively insoluble forms (90Y, 91Y, 144Ce and 90Sr in fused clay particles). Initial lung or whole-body activity burdens were selected to result in early deaths due to severe lesions at the highest levels, deaths at later times with moderate to marked pathologic changes and more subtle changes such as neoplasia at the lower levels. The organs affected vary depending on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the isotope. For radionuclides inhaled in relatively soluble forms, long-term effects have been seen in the liver, skeleton, and other tissues in addition to some pulmonary effects. In contrast, long-term effects seen in the dogs exposed to relatively insoluble forms have been mainly associated with the lung and contiguous tissues. In the latter experiments, emphasis is placed on an evaluation of the influence of radiation dose rate and total dose on the resulting dose-response relationship. Over the mid-range of the relationship between radiation dose and biological response, it will be possible to compare the relationships for the several radioactive aerosols with their different radiation dose patterns. These studies with young adult dogs are complemented with comparable studies in other species (mice, Syrian hamsters) and with animals of different ages (immature, aged). This basic approach, with emphasis on factors that alter the resulting radiation dose pattern, offers the maximum likelihood of meeting the continuing, and not always predictable, needs for information on the toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides that may be encountered in nuclear industry operations. (U.S.)

  9. Acute right heart syndrome: Rescue treatment with inhaled nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute right heart syndrome is a common occurrence in intensive care units and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is lack of understanding of the involved pathophysiology, standard diagnostic protocols and treatment guidelines. Management goals include ensuring adequate right ventricle (RV filling, maximizing RV contraction and reducing RV afterload. We describe a 39-year-old female with acute decompensated right heart failure secondary to multiple causes. She was managed with inhaled nitric oxide. Her condition improved, which was evident by a decrease in her pulmonary artery systolic pressure on serial echocardiography, decreased requirement of vasopressors and successful weaning from the ventilator.

  10. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, John

    2016-01-01

    John Wong, Bruce E Magun, Lisa J Wood School of Nursing, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from...

  11. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  12. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John; Magun, Bruce E; Wood, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from fungal spores pose an occupational risk for respiratory illness and also present a health hazard to those living in damp buildings. Microscopic airborne particulates of asbestos and silica (from building materials) and those of heavy metals (from paint) are additional sources of indoor air pollution that contributes to respiratory illness and is known to cause respiratory illness in experimental animals. Ricin in aerosolized form is a potential bioweapon that is extremely toxic yet relatively easy to produce. Although the aforementioned agents belong to different classes of toxic chemicals, their pathogenicity is similar. They induce the recruitment and activation of macrophages, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition of protein synthesis, and production of interleukin-1 beta. Targeting either macrophages (using nanoparticles) or the production of interleukin-1 beta (using inhibitors against protein kinases, NOD-like receptor protein-3, or P2X7) may potentially be employed to treat these types of lung inflammation without affecting the natural immune response to bacterial infections. PMID:27382275

  13. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John; Magun, Bruce E; Wood, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from fungal spores pose an occupational risk for respiratory illness and also present a health hazard to those living in damp buildings. Microscopic airborne particulates of asbestos and silica (from building materials) and those of heavy metals (from paint) are additional sources of indoor air pollution that contributes to respiratory illness and is known to cause respiratory illness in experimental animals. Ricin in aerosolized form is a potential bioweapon that is extremely toxic yet relatively easy to produce. Although the aforementioned agents belong to different classes of toxic chemicals, their pathogenicity is similar. They induce the recruitment and activation of macrophages, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition of protein synthesis, and production of interleukin-1 beta. Targeting either macrophages (using nanoparticles) or the production of interleukin-1 beta (using inhibitors against protein kinases, NOD-like receptor protein-3, or P2X7) may potentially be employed to treat these types of lung inflammation without affecting the natural immune response to bacterial infections. PMID:27382275

  14. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  16. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of benzene in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C O; Kuna, R A; Snyder, N K; Alsaker, R D; Coate, W B; Craig, P H

    1985-01-01

    A subchronic inhalation toxicity study of benzene was conducted in CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of animals consisting of 150 mice and 50 rats/sex each were exposed to concentrations of 1, 10, 30, and 300 ppm benzene vapor, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. Additional groups of mice and rats, of equal size, were exposed under similar conditions to filtered air and served as control groups. Thirty mice and 10 rats/sex in each group were sacrificed after 7, 14, 28, 56, and 91 days of treatment. Criteria used to evaluate exposure-related effects included behavior, body weights, organ weights, clinical pathology, gross pathology, and histopathology. Fifty animals per sex of each species were exposed concurrently for cytogenetic studies. In addition, blood serum was obtained for immunological assays. The results of these two studies will be reported separately. No consistent exposure-related trends were seen in the clinical observations and body weight data. Exposure-related clinical pathology changes were seen in the high-level (300 ppm) animals of both species. In the mice, these changes included decreases in hematocrit, total hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, platelet count, myeloid/erythroid ratios, and percentage of lymphocytes. Mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, glycerol lysis time, and the incidence and severity of red cell morphologic changes were increased in the mice. In the rats, decreased lymphocyte counts and a relative increase in neutrophil percentages were the only exposure-related clinical pathology alterations. Histopathologic changes were present in the thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, ovaries, and testes of mice exposed to 300 ppm and in most cases the incidence and severity of the lesions were greater in the males. These changes in the testes and ovaries at 300 ppm were also seen at lower concentrations, but they were of doubtful biological significance. In rats, the only exposure-related lesion

  17. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  18. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of total dose and dose rate on the effects of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides is being studied in laboratory animals. The radionuclides are inhaled either in a relatively soluble form (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3 or 137CsCl) or in a relatively insoluble form in fused aluminosilicate particles. The organs affected depend on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radio isotopes. Studies with young adult dogs are complemented with comparable studies in other species (mice, rats and Syrian hamsters), with animals of different ages and with animals repeatedly exposed to 144Ce

  19. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of total dose and dose rate pattern on the effects of inhaled β-emitting radionuclides is being studied in laboratory animals. The inhaled radionuclides were either in a relatively soluble form (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3, or 137CsCl), or in a relatively insoluble form in fused aluminosilicate particles. The organs affected depend on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides. Studies with young adult dogs are complemented by comparable studies in other species (mice, rats, and Syrian hamsters), with animals of different ages and animals repeatedly exposed to 144Ce. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  20. Clinical Expert Panel on Monitoring Potential Lung Toxicity of Inhaled Oligonucleotides: Consensus Points and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Alton, Eric W.; Boushey, Homer A.; Garn, Holger; Green, Francis H.; Hodges, Michael; Richard J. Martin; Murdoch, Robert D.; Renz, Harald; Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Seguin, Rosanne; Johnson, Graham; Parry, Joel D.; Tepper, Jeff; Renzi, Paolo; Cavagnaro, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotides (ONs) are an emerging class of drugs being developed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including the treatment of respiratory diseases by the inhalation route. As a class, their toxicity on human lungs has not been fully characterized, and predictive toxicity biomarkers have not been identified. To that end, identification of sensitive methods and biomarkers that can detect toxicity in humans before any long term and/or irreversible side effects occur would be h...

  1. Clinical expert panel on monitoring potential lung toxicity of inhaled oligonucleotides: consensus points and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W; Boushey, Homer A; Garn, Holger; Green, Francis H; Hodges, Michael; Martin, Richard J; Murdoch, Robert D; Renz, Harald; Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Seguin, Rosanne; Johnson, Graham; Parry, Joel D; Tepper, Jeff; Renzi, Paolo; Cavagnaro, Joy; Ferrari, Nicolay

    2012-08-01

    Oligonucleotides (ONs) are an emerging class of drugs being developed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including the treatment of respiratory diseases by the inhalation route. As a class, their toxicity on human lungs has not been fully characterized, and predictive toxicity biomarkers have not been identified. To that end, identification of sensitive methods and biomarkers that can detect toxicity in humans before any long term and/or irreversible side effects occur would be helpful. In light of the public's greater interests, the Inhalation Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG) held expert panel discussions focusing on the potential toxicity of inhaled ONs and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of different monitoring techniques for use during the clinical evaluation of inhaled ON candidates. This white paper summarizes the key discussions and captures the panelists' perspectives and recommendations which, we propose, could be used as a framework to guide both industry and regulatory scientists in future clinical research to characterize and monitor the short and long term lung response to inhaled ONs.

  2. Toxicity of inhaled Ca-DTPA in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several advantages to the administration of Ca- DTPA by inhalation rather than intravenous drip for the decorporation of certain radionuclides. Among these are the possibility of treating very promptly following an accidental incorporation to achieve maximum treatment effectiveness and convenince for medical management, even to the extent that treatment can be self-administered. The present investigational New Drug permit allows treatment of humans only by the intravenous route and animal studies are required to justify the new route. Earlier work in rats and hamsters showed five successive daily inhalations of Ca-DTPA aerosols (dose 1 to 4 times human i.v. dose) produced a transitory emphysema in 17/40 rats serially sacrificed up to 3 weeks following the last exposure and in 10/20 hamsters up to 1 week after exposure. No emphysema was seen in rats sacrificed after 3 weeks and in hamsters after 1 week following the exposures. Results of tests in dogs administered DTPA by inhalation showed hyperplasia of the gastric submucosal lymphoid follicles observed 1 week following the last exposure may be treatment-related, but other observed changes were considered unrelated. (U.S.)

  3. ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF MULBERRY FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the application of phytomedicine worldwide is substantial increase. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or fruits and vegetables used for medicinal purposes should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for the application as functional food. Despite the widely consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L, Maraceae family fruits both as fruit and as medicine, no systematic evaluation of the toxicity of mulberry fruits is available until now. This study aimed to determine the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of mulberry fruits in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute mulberry fruits extract dose of 2000 mg kg-1 dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 2, 10 and 500 mg kg-1 day-1 were also administered the same way for 90 days. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights and histopathological examinations. In addition, we also examined hematological and clinical chemistry values. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different BUN and glucose were also observed, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that mulberry fruits do not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Therefore mulberry fruits have the potential to be use as functional food. However, a chronic toxicity study should be further carried out to assure the safety for repetitive administration of this fruit before the application of functional food.

  4. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: A comparison of the oral and inhalation route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Muijser, H.; Appel, M.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 d

  5. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Green MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients. The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81. Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma.

  6. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  7. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  8. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  9. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Drug Facts Alcohol Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Drugs Salvia Spice Brain and Addiction Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes HIV/AIDS ...

  10. TIP peptide inhalation in experimental acute lung injury: effect of repetitive dosage and different synthetic variants

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Erik K.; Thomas, Rainer; Liu, Tanghua; Stefaniak, Joanna; Ziebart, Alexander; Duenges, Bastian; Eckle, Daniel; Markstaller, Klaus; David, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhalation of TIP peptides that mimic the lectin-like domain of TNF-α is a novel approach to attenuate pulmonary oedema on the threshold to clinical application. A placebo-controlled porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) demonstrated a reduced thermodilution-derived extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and improved gas exchange through TIP peptide inhalation within three hours. Based on these findings, the present study compares a single versus a repetitive ...

  11. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs), nanomaterial (NM) products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs) with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR), and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture. PMID:27314324

  12. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs), nanomaterial (NM) products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs) with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR), and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture. PMID:27314324

  13. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are in progress to determine dose-response relationships for inhaled 238PuO2. Beagle dogs were given a single, brief, nose-only inhalation exposure to aerosols of monodisperse particles of 238PuO2. Aerosols of two sizes were used, 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) and 3.0 μm AD. Dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens of 0.56, 0.28, 0.14, 0.07, 0.03 or 0.01 μCi 238PuO2/kg body weight. Twelve dogs were exposed at each activity level to each aerosol particle size. The local dose around each 3.0 μm AD particle was 10 times higher than the local dose around 1.5 μm AD particles, but the dose averaged over the whole lung was the same at each activity level for both particle sizes. The lung retention of 238Pu was divided into two phases of clearance. During the first 100 days after exposure, the average retention half-time for 238Pu in the lung was 310 days. When the solubility changed due to particle breakup, the retention half-time decreased to 180 days during the period from 1OO to 1,500 days after exposure. The first biological effects observed were lymphopenia and neutropenia in peripheral blood. To date, 28 Beagle dogs have died at times from 536 to 1683 days after exposure. Initial lung burdens for the dead dogs ranged from 0.18 to 2.2 μCi 238Pu/kg body weight. Nine died with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, 10 died with lung tumors and 19 dogs died with bone tumors. There are 116 exposed and 22 control dogs surviving and under observation. Current patterns of dose versus response are discussed. (author)

  14. An in vitro Method for Predicting Inhalation Toxicity of Impregnation Spray Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid B.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Nørgaard, Asger Wisti;

    2015-01-01

    are reported frequently. The toxicity appears to be driven by a disruption of the pulmonary surfactant film, which coats the inside of the lungs. Due to the complex chemistry of impregnation spray products, it is impossible to predict if inhalation of an aerosolized product is toxic in vivo. The aim...... and in vivo. The true positive rate of the in vitro method was 100%, i.e. the test could correctly identify all products with toxic effects in vivo, the true negative rate was 40%. Investigation of inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant system, e.g. by capillary surfactometry, was found useful for evaluation...

  15. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Juheini Amin; Berna Elya

    2010-01-01

    Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm.) could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 we...

  16. 40 CFR 798.4350 - Inhalation developmental toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... characterized for its sensitivity to developmental toxins. (ii) Age. Young adult animals (nulliparous females... exposure of the mother during pregnancy. (b) Definitions. (1) Developmental toxicity is the property of a... addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the...

  17. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicity of sucralose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, L A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of sucralose has been evaluated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity studies in male and female mice and male rats documented no deaths or treatment-related signs at doses of 16g/kg for mice and 10g/kg for rats. Sucralose was administered to male and female rats for 4 and 8 weeks at dietary concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0%. Achieved dose ranges (mg/kg/day) for the respective dietary levels were 737-1287, 1865-3218 and 2794-6406. There were no toxicologically significant effects observed at the 1.0% or 2.5% dietary levels. However, decreases in food consumption, body weight gain and selected organ weights and ratios as well as splenic and thymic histopathologic changes occurred in rats administered 5.0% for 4 or 8 weeks. A gavage study wherein doses of 0, 750, 1500 or 3000mg/kg/day were administered to male and female rats for 26 weeks investigated further the observations from the dietary study as well as general subchronic toxicity. The gavage study documented no sucralose-related toxicity. These results implicate the reduced palatability and digestibility of diets containing high concentrations of sucralose seen in the diet study as the cause for the decreased food consumption and other accompanying alterations. Dose selection for chronic toxicity studies in rats took into consideration the effect of high concentrations of sucralose on digestion and food consumption and the limitations that would be imposed on subsequent studies. In male and female dogs, no sucralose-related adverse effects were observed following the dietary administration of 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0% for 12 months achieving doses of approximately 90, 300 and 900mg/kg/day respectively. These studies establish that sucralose is non-toxic in rodents following acute oral administration. The rat no-observed-adverse-effect level ranged between 2.5 and 5.0% following subchronic dietary administration. A 3.0% dietary concentration equivalent to a dose of 900mg

  19. Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cobalt sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, J R; Hailey, J R; Roycroft, J R; Haseman, J K; Sills, R C; Grumbein, S L; Mellick, P W; Chou, B J

    1999-05-01

    Cobalt sulfate is a water-soluble cobalt salt with a variety of industrial and agricultural uses. Several cobalt compounds have induced sarcomas at injection sites in animals, and reports have suggested that exposure to cobalt-containing materials may cause lung cancer in humans. The present studies were done because no adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies had been performed with a soluble cobalt salt using a route relevant to occupational exposures. Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to aerosols containing 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 cobalt sulfate hexahydrate, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 104 weeks. Survival and body weights of exposed rats and mice were generally unaffected by the exposures. In rats, proteinosis, alveolar epithelial metaplasia, granulomatous alveolar inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis were observed in the lung in all exposed groups. Nonneoplastic lesions of the nose and larynx were also attributed to exposure to all concentrations of cobalt sulfate. In 3.0 mg/m3 male rats and in female rats exposed to 1.0 or 3.0 mg/m3, the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms were increased over those in the control groups. Lung tumors occurred with significant positive trends in both sexes. The incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma in 1.0 mg/m3 male rats and in 3.0 mg/m3 female rats were increased. Nonneoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract were less severe in mice than in rats. In mice, alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms in 3.0 mg/m3 males and females were greater than those in the controls, and lung tumors occurred with significantly positive trends. Male mice had liver lesions consistent with a Helicobacter hepaticus infection. Incidences of liver hemangiosarcomas were increased in exposed groups of male mice; however, because of the infection, no conclusion could be reached concerning an association between liver hemangiosarcomas and cobalt sulfate. In summary, exposure to cobalt sulfate by inhalation

  20. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  1. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan. They...

  2. PULMONARY AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE INHALATION IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles (ufCP) causes cardiac physiological changes without marked pulmonary injury or inflammation. We hypothesized that acute ufCP exposure of 13 months old Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats will cause differential effects on the lung and hea...

  3. Imbalance of Th17/Tregs in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Mian-yang; Lan, Ya-ting; Wang, Cheng-bin

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26884314

  4. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p99mTc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99mTc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99mTc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  5. Chemical toxicity and radiological health detriment associated with the inhalation of various enrichments of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational risks associated with the chemical toxicity of uranium can be overlooked during the processing, handling and storage of the material, as the radioactivity of the material is often used alone to assess the health consequences of exposure to uranium compounds. This note provides a summary of the current United Kingdom occupational standards for uranium based on radiation dose and/or chemical toxicity with a particular focus on intake via inhalation. A simple model is subsequently presented to allow a comparison to be drawn between the occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity and radiological dose limit. Using these data a set of suggested limits on occupational exposure to airborne uranium is proposed that indicate where the legal annual radiological dose limit for workers or the Health and Safety Executive occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity are at risk of being breached. (note)

  6. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  7. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkade, Parag R; Lim, Teh Aun

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year

  8. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  9. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 792, subpart f. (3) Test procedures—(i) Preparation. Healthy young adult animals are... pathogens at the start of exposure. (B) Age. Young adult rats between 8-12 weeks old at the beginning of...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and the definitions in 40 CFR Part 792—Good...

  10. Efficacy of oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of acute laryngitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of acute laryngitis.Methods:Based on the routine treatment, the patients in the observation group were given oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide, while the patients in the control group were given oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of dexamethasone. The change of SpO2 before treatment and 30 min after treatment, the changes of serum IL-4 and IL-8 before treatment and 3 d after treatment, the clinical symptom disappearing time, hospitalization time, and clinical therapeutic effect after drug administration in the two groups were observed.Results: The improved degree of SpO2 30 min after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. The decreased degree of IL-4 and IL-8 levels 3 d after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. The clinical symptom disappearing time and hospitalization time in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group (94.3%) was significantly superior to that in the control group (74.3%).Conclusions:Oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of acute laryngitis can rapidly alleviate the local inflammatory reaction, improve the clinical symptoms, and enhance the safety of drug administration; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  11. Inhalation toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes in rats exposed for 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Treumann, Silke; Strauss, Volker; Brill, Sandra; Luizi, Frederic; Mertler, Michael; Wiench, Karin; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are of great commercial interest. Theoretically, during processing and handling of CNT and in abrasion processes on composites containing CNT, inhalable CNT particles might be set free. For hazard assessment, we performed a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with a multiwall CNT (MWCNT) material (Nanocyl NC 7000) according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413. Wistar rats were head-nose exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, 13 weeks, total 65 exposures, to MWCNT concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m(3). Highly respirable dust aerosols were produced with a proprietary brush generator which neither damaged the tube structure nor increased reactive oxygen species on the surface. Inhalation exposure to MWCNT produced no systemic toxicity. However, increased lung weights, pronounced multifocal granulomatous inflammation, diffuse histiocytic and neutrophilic inflammation, and intra-alveolar lipoproteinosis were observed in lung and lung-associated lymph nodes at 0.5 and 2.5 mg/m(3). These effects were accompanied by slight blood neutrophilia at 2.5 mg/m(3). Incidence and severity of the effects were concentration related. At 0.1 mg/m(3), there was still minimal granulomatous inflammation in the lung and in lung-associated lymph nodes; a no observed effect concentration was therefore not established in this study. The test substance has low dust-forming potential, as demonstrated by dustiness measurements, but nonetheless strict industrial hygiene measures must be taken during handling and processing. Toxicity and dustiness data such as these can be used to compare different MWCNT materials and to select the material with the lowest risk potential for a given application. PMID:19584127

  12. [Acute toxicity testing (LD50) of Chinese mineral drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, W; Liu, W H; Wang, L F; Fu, S X; Li, Y S; Kong, Z K; Tang, Z X; Chen, Z L

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxicity and LD50 of 62 mineral drugs were determined by ig, ip or iv in mice, in order to provide some guidelines for safety in clinical use, as well as for pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present investigation, the difference in the acute toxicity and LD50 between raw drugs and medicines prepared by roasting is explained. PMID:2506896

  13. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY FOR TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Sadashiv Pingale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to examine acute toxicity studies for decoction of aerial parts (leaves and stem as well as whole plant powder of Tinospora cordifolia in the form of aqueous slurry as per OECD guidelines in Swiss mice weighing 35 to 45gm. The dose of 3, 5, 7 and 9 ml per kg body weight of decoction and 2, 4, 6 and 8 gm/kg body weight of the whole plant powder were administered orally. All the groups of animals were almost continuously observed for mortality and behavioral changes during first 24 hrs and then daily for a fortnight. The observations of behavioral changes and changes in body weight, food and water intake as well as cage side observations were reported. There was no abnormality observed in all groups. The decoction of fresh leaves and stem as well as whole plant powder have no any significant toxic effect in Swiss mice and the plant material was found to be nontoxic.

  14. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  15. Tracheal epithelium in culture: A model for toxicity testing of inhaled molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romet-Haddad, S.; Marano, F.; Blanquart, C.; Baeza-Squiban, A. (Universite Paris (France))

    1992-07-01

    Rabbit trachea primary cultures have been developed as a model to evaluate the toxicity of noxious airborne pollutants. A mucociliary epithelium has been restored in vitro on collagen gel. Several general cytotoxicity assays (viability and growth inhibition) permit a first assessment for the acute toxicity of the tested molecules. More specific criteria such as measurement of the integrity of the epithelial barrier and inhibition of ciliary beat frequency allow to determine a specific impact of xenobiotics on the mucociliary epithelium in culture.

  16. 28-Day inhalation toxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Boo Wook; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kangho; Han, Sung Gu; Bello, Dhimiter; Yu, Il Je

    2016-09-01

    lymph nodes. The results of this 28-day graphene inhalation study suggest low toxicity and a NOAEL of no less than 1.88 mg/m(3). PMID:26691980

  17. 28-Day inhalation toxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Boo Wook; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kangho; Han, Sung Gu; Bello, Dhimiter; Yu, Il Je

    2016-09-01

    lymph nodes. The results of this 28-day graphene inhalation study suggest low toxicity and a NOAEL of no less than 1.88 mg/m(3).

  18. HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

  19. HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested

  20. Comparative efficacy of terbutaline sulphate delivered by Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler or pressurised metered dose inhaler with Nebuhaler spacer in children during an acute asthmatic episode

    OpenAIRE

    Drblik, S; Lapierre, G; Thivierge, R; Turgeon, J; Gaudreault, P; Cummins-McManus, B; Verdy, I; Haddon, J; Lee, J.; Spier, S

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare the efficacy of terbutaline sulphate delivered via Turbuhaler with a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) connected to Nebuhaler spacer in a population of asthmatic children presenting to emergency departments because of an acute episode of asthma.

  1. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S;

    2016-01-01

    in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited...... and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all...... particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused...

  2. Comparison of sarin and cyclosarin toxicity by subcutaneous, intravenous and inhalation exposure in Gottingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Stanley W; Sommerville, Douglas R; Miller, Dennis B; Scotto, Jacqueline A; Muse, William T; Burnett, David C

    2014-02-01

    Sexually mature male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of GB and GF vapor via whole-body inhalation exposures or to liquid GB or GF via intravenous or subcutaneous injections. Vapor inhalation exposures were for 10, 60 or 180 min. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate the median effect levels for severe effects (ECT50 and ED50) and lethality (LCT50 and LD50). Ordinal regression was used to model the concentration × time profile of the agent toxicity. Contrary to that predicted by Haber's rule, LCT50 values increased as the duration of the exposures increased for both nerve agents. The toxic load exponents (n) were calculated to be 1.38 and 1.28 for GB and GF vapor exposures, respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in male minipigs were 73, 106 and 182 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60 - and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in female minipigs were 87, 127 and 174 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GF in male minipigs were 218, 287 and 403 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures in female minipigs were 183, 282 and 365 mg min/m(3), respectively. For GB vapor exposures, there was a tenuous gender difference which did not exist for vapor GF exposures. Surprisingly, GF was 2-3 times less potent than GB via the inhalation route of exposure regardless of exposure duration. Additionally GF was found to be less potent than GB by intravenous and subcutaneous routes.

  3. Improved dispersion method of multi-wall carbon nanotube for inhalation toxicity studies of experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquahashi, Yuhji; Ogawa, Yukio; Takagi, Atsuya; Tsuji, Masaki; Morita, Koichi; Kanno, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) product Mitsui MWNT-7 is a mixture of dispersed single fibers and their agglomerates/aggregates. In rodents, installation of such mixture induces inflammatory lesions triggered predominantly by the aggregates/agglomerates at the level of terminal bronchiole of the lungs. In human, however, pulmonary toxicity induced by dispersed single fibers that reached the lung alveoli is most important to assess. Therefore, a method to generate aerosol predominantly consisting of dispersed single fibers without changing their length and width is needed for inhalation studies. Here, we report a method (designated as Taquann method) to effectively remove the aggregate/agglomerates and enrich the well-dispersed singler fibers in dry state without dispersant and without changing the length and width distribution of the single fibers. This method is base on two major concept; liquid-phase fine filtration and critical point drying to avoid re-aggregation by surface tension. MWNT-7 was suspended in Tert-butyl alcohol, freeze-and-thawed, filtered by a vibrating 25 µm mesh Metallic Sieve, snap-frozen by liquid nitrogen, and vacuum-sublimated (an alternative method to carbon dioxide critical point drying). A newly designed direct injection system generated well-dispersed aerosol in an inhalation chamber. The lung of mice exposed to the aerosol contained single fibers with a length distribution similar to the original and the Taquann-treated sample. Taquann method utilizes inexpensive materials and equipments mostly found in common biological laboratories, and prepares dry powder ready to make well-dispersed aerosol. This method and the chamber with direct injection system would facilitate the inhalation toxicity studies more relevant to human exposure. PMID:23824017

  4. [Effect of inhaled terbutaline sulphate (dry powder, Turbuhaler and nebulizer solution) in children with acute asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, D; Rizzo, M C; Pimentel, A F; Sano, F; Barreto, B A; Wandalsen, N F; Naspitz, C K

    1995-01-01

    Forty seven children (6-14 years), with an acute mild or moderate attack of asthma (clinical score 3 or FEV1 > 50% of the predicted), were treated with terbutaline sulphate, by inhalation route with a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler - 0,5 mg - group T; N=27, or by a nebulizer 1% solution-in saline-compressed air (6 l/min.) group S; N=20. The children were evaluated at 5, 15, 25 and 30 minutes after the initial treatment. In both groups a significant fall of the clinical score (starting at 15 minutes) (p 0.05). At the end of the first treatment, the number of patients with a FEV(1) < 80% was similar in both groups (T = 13/27 and S = 10/20). The same treatment was repeated, and all the children showed a marked improvement, except for one boy of the group T was hospitalized. In conclusion, children with mild or moderate acute attacks of asthma can be treated up to a week with an inhalation of dry powder, resulting in adequate bronchodilatation without important side effects. PMID:14689023

  5. Bioaccessibility, bioavailability and toxicity of commercially relevant iron- and chromium-based particles: in vitro studies with an inhalation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedberg Yolanda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of ferrochromium alloys (FeCr, master alloys for stainless steel manufacture, involves casting and crushing processes where particles inevitably become airborne and potentially inhaled. The aim of this study was to assess potential health hazards induced by inhalation of different well-characterized iron- and chromium-based particles, i.e. ferrochromium (FeCr, ferrosiliconchromium (FeSiCr, stainless steel (316L, iron (Fe, chromium (Cr, and chromium(IIIoxide (Cr2O3, in different size fractions using in vitro methods. This was done by assessing the extent and speciation of released metals in synthetic biological medium and by analyzing particle reactivity and toxicity towards cultured human lung cells (A549. Results The amount of released metals normalized to the particle surface area increased with decreasing particle size for all alloy particles, whereas the opposite situation was valid for particles of the pure metals. These effects were evident in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF of pH 4.5 containing complexing agents, but not in neutral or weakly alkaline biological media. Chromium, iron and nickel were released to very low extent from all alloy particles, and from particles of Cr due to the presence of a Cr(III-rich protective surface oxide. Released elements were neither proportional to the bulk nor to the surface composition after the investigated 168 hours of exposure. Due to a surface oxide with less protective properties, significantly more iron was released from pure iron particles compared with the alloys. Cr was predominantly released as Cr(III from all particles investigated and was strongly complexed by organic species of ALF. Cr2O3 particles showed hemolytic activity, but none of the alloy particles did. Fine-sized particles of stainless steel caused however DNA damage, measured with the comet assay after 4 h exposure. None of the particles revealed any significant cytotoxicity in terms of cell death

  6. Lack of selective developmental toxicity of three butanol isomers administered by inhalation to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B K; Brightwell, W S; Khan, A; Burg, J R; Goad, P T

    1989-04-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the developmental toxicology of industrial alcohols, this report presents the results of the teratology assessments of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and t-butanol administered by inhalation to rats. Groups of approximately 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed at 8000, 6000, 3500, or 0 ppm 1-butanol, 7000, 5000, 3500, or 0 ppm 2-butanol, or 5000, 3500, 2000, or 0 ppm t-butanol for 7 hr/day on Gestation Days 1-19 (sperm = 0). In each case, the highest concentration was selected to produce maternal toxicity. Dams were sacrificed on Gestation Day 20, and fetuses were individually weighed, tagged, and examined for external malformations. One-half of the fetuses were stained and examined for skeletal abnormalities, and the other half were examined for visceral defects using the Wilson technique. For each butanol isomer examined, the highest concentration (and the intermediate in some cases) was maternally toxic, as manifest by reduced weight gain and feed intake. Even at a maternally toxic dose, and in spite of a dose-dependent reduction in fetal weights for each isomer, the only teratogenicity observed was a slight increase in skeletal malformations (primarily rudimentary cervical ribs), seen with the highest concentration of 1-butanol. Thus, although teratogenicity was observed at 8000 ppm 1-butanol, and developmental toxicity was observed with each of the butyl alcohol isomers studied, concentrations 50 times the current permissible exposure limits for these three butanol isomers do not produce teratogenicity in rats.

  7. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  8. Effects of acute inhalation of albuterol on submaximal and maximal VO2 and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, S J; Lucia, A; Storms, W W; Wallach, J M; Vint, P F; Zimmerman, S D

    1993-07-01

    The acute effects of inhaled albuterol, a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, on measures of endurance cycling performance and pulmonary function were assessed in 21 competitive road cyclists. A 5 step methacholine challenge revealed all cyclists to be non-asthmatic. Albuterol (A) total dose 360 micrograms or a saline placebo (P) was administered by inhaler, in 4 metered doses of 90 micrograms each, 15 minutes before cycle ergometry exercise. Heart rate, whole blood lactate, perceived exertion and VO2 were determined at the submaximal workloads of 150, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300 watts and at max. Pulmonary function tests determining forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration, forced mid-expiratory flow and maximal voluntary ventilation were performed prior to and 10 minutes after inhalation; and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after termination of the exercise protocol. Heart rate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 200 (150.8 +/- 2.5 vs 146.7 +/- 2.8 beats per minute), 225 (159.7 +/- 2.4 vs 154.6 +/- 2.7 beats per minute) and 250 watts (166.9 +/- 2.4 vs 164.4 +/- 2.6 beats per minute). Whole blood lactate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 275 watts (4.7 +/- 0.3 vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 mmol.l-1). No other significant differences were found between the 2 treatments at any time point. These data indicate that the acute effect of albuterol inhalation at twice the recommended dosage has no positive effect on endurance performance measures or pulmonary function in athletes who are not asthmatic.

  9. Acute Impact of Inhaled Short Acting B-Agonists on 5 Km Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dickinson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of the acute inhalation of 1600 µg, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA daily upper limit, on endurance running performance. To investigate the ergogenic effect of an acute inhalation of short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 µg on 5 km time trial performance and resultant urine concentration. Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 4.3 years; height 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass 76.6 ± 8.6 kg provided written informed consent. Participants completed six 5 km time-trials on separate days (three at 18 °C and three at 30 °C. Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled: placebo (PLA, 800 µg salbutamol (SAL800 or 1600 µg salbutamol (SAL1600. During each 5 km time-trial HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, RPE and blood lactate were measured. Urine samples (90 ml were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time-trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7 ± 186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3 ± 179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6 ± 190.7 s. Post 5 km time-trial salbutamol urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96 ± 69.22 ug·ml-1 and SAL1600 (574.06 ± 448.17 ug·ml-1 were not significantly different. There was no improvement in 5 km time-trial performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 µg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic athletes. This would suggest that the current WADA guidelines, which allow athletes to inhale up to 1600 µg per day, is sufficient to avoid pharmaceutical induced performance enhancement.

  10. Toxic effect in the lungs of rats after inhalation exposure to benzalkonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC toxic to microorganisms. Inhalation is one of the major possible routes of human exposure to BAC. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on female Wistar rats. The rats were exposed to aerosol of BAC water solution at the target concentration of 0 (control group and 35 mg/m3 for 5 days (6 h/day and, after a 2-week interval, the animals were challenged (day 21 with BAC aerosol at the target concentration of 0 (control group and 35 mg/m3 for 6 h. Results: Compared to the controls, the animals exposed to BAC aerosol were characterized by lower food intake and their body weight was significantly smaller. As regards BAC-exposed group, a significant increase was noted in relative lung mass, total protein concentration, and MIP-2 in BALF both directly after the termination of the exposure and 18 h afterwards. Significantly higher IL-6 and IgE concentrations in BALF and a decrease in the CC16 concentration in BALF were found in the exposed group immediately after the exposure. The leukocyte count in BALF was significantly higher in the animals exposed to BAC aerosol compared to the controls. In the lungs of rats exposed to BAC the following effects were observed: minimal perivascular, interstitial edema, focal aggregates of alveolar macrophages, interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrations, thickened alveolar septa and marginal lipoproteinosis. Conclusion: Inhalation of BAC induced a strong inflammatory response and a damage to the blood-air barrier. Reduced concentrations of CC16, which is an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory protein, in combination with increased IgE concentrations in BALF may be indicative of the immuno-inflammatory response in the animals exposed to BAC aerosol by inhalation. Histopathological examinations of tissue samples from the BAC-exposed rats revealed a number of pathological changes found only in the lungs.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  12. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239PuO2. To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239PuO2. Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  13. A New Method for Determining Acute Toxicity in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Fidelis Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intake of pharmacological substances by man has solely increased and this may be in the form of food, medicines and beverages, other industrial and household products. These substances are capable of eliciting chronic and acute toxicity, which may be mild or severe, depending upon their nature. Acute toxicity is defined as the unwanted effect(s) that occurs either immediately or at a short time interval after a single or multiple administration of such substance within 24 hour...

  14. ACRO: a computer program for calculating organ doses from acute or chronic inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ACRO was developed as a computer program to calculate internal exposure doses resulting from acute or chronic inhalation and oral ingestion of radionuclides. The ICRP Task Force Lung Model (TGLM) was used as the inhalation model in ACRO, and a simple one-compartment model was used as the ingestion model. The program is written in FORTRAN IV, and it requires about 260 KB memory capacity

  15. Detection of experimentally produced acute pulmonary arterial occlusion by methyl iodide-131 inhalation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl iodide-131 (CH3I-131) is described as an agent for detection of acute experimentally produced pulmonary arterial occlusion in dogs. When gaseous CH3I-131 is inhaled, radioactivity passes instantaneously from the alveoli to the lung capillary bed. Where pulmonary blood flow exists, activity is washed out into the systemic circulation, but in areas of blood stasis, a transient pulmonary hot spot remains. CH3I-131 is easily produced and inexpensive, but administration is awkward and strict radiation safety precautions are mandatory

  16. EURL ECVAM Recommendation on the Zebrafish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test Method (ZFET) for Acute Aquatic Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    HALDER MARIA ELISABETH; GRIESINGER Claudius; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; ZUANG Valerie; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Acute fish toxicity testing is an important component of the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals. Since many years, (zebra-)fish embryo-based methods have been proposed as alternatives to the acute fish toxicity test carried out with juvenile or adult fish. On behalf of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) coordinated during 2008-2012 the validation of the zebrafish em...

  17. Bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol and budesonide/salbutamol in acute asthma: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Jenish J; Lodha Rakesh; Kabra Sushil K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no published studies that have compared bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol combination with budesonide/salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler with a spacer in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. We, therefore, compared the bronchodilatory effects of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (dose: 200 μg and 12 μg respectively) combination with budesonide (200 μg)/salbutamol (200 μg) administered by metered dose inhaler and spacer in children...

  18. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LCLO, LC10 and LC50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...... on mortality at 28 days: 202/587 deaths (34.4%) in the INO group compared with 166/518 deaths (32.0%) in the control group (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.27; I² statistic = 0%; moderate quality of evidence). In children, there was no statistically significant effects of INO on mortality: 25/89 deaths (28...... = 0%; five trials, 368 participants; moderate quality of evidence). For ventilator-free days, the difference was not statistically significant (MD -0.57, 95% CI -1.82 to 0.69; I² statistic = 0%; five trials, 804 participants; high quality of evidence). There was a statistically significant increase...

  20. Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arikan-Ayyildiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO₂ and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I, saline (Group II and budesonide (Group III, respectively. SaO₂was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO₂was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO₂had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043. Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05. Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO₂and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma.

  1. [Nitric oxide inhalation as an effective therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to near-drowning: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Y; Hirosako, S; Yamaguchi, T; Saita, N; Suga, M; Kukita, I; Okamoto, K; Ando, M

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old boy with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to near-drowning was admitted to our hospital. ARDS was treated with low-level nitric oxide (NO) inhalation (ranging from 4 ppm to 1 ppm) for 24 days. Oxygenation was improved and pulmonary hypertension was reduced after NO inhalation, but systemic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output were not affected. PaO2 improved from 153 Torr to 354 Torr under identical ventilating conditions (F1O2 1.0), and mean pulmonary arterial pressure fell from 40 mm Hg to 27 mmHg. It has been reported that NO inhalation alleviates ventilation-flow mismatch and pulmonary hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether this therapy improves the prognosis for ARDS. In our patient, NO inhalation was effective in alleviating the oxygenation impairment and pulmonary hypertension associated with ARDS.

  2. Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1990-06-01

    The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

  3. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  4. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  5. Toxicity of divinylbenzene-55 for B6C3F1 mice in a two-week inhalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Mahler, J F; Wilson, R E; Moorman, M P; Price, H C; O'connor, R W

    1997-10-01

    Divinylbenzene (DVB) is a crosslinking monomer used primarily for copolymerization with styrene to produce ion-exchange resins. The toxicity of inhaled DVB was investigated because of the potential for worker exposure and the structural similarity of DVB to styrene, a potential carcinogen. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, or 75 ppm DVB for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 2 weeks. Six mice/sex/dose group were killed after 3, 5, and 10 exposures and six mice/sex in the 75 ppm group were killed 7 days after 10 exposures. The most severe effects occurred in the nasal cavity and liver, with less severe effects occurring in the kidneys. In the nasal cavity olfactory epithelium acute necrosis and inflammation were present at early time points followed by regeneration, architectural reorganization, and focal respiratory metaplasia by 7 days after the last exposure. Olfactory epithelial changes were concentration-dependent with extensive involvement at 75 ppm and peripheral sparing at 25 ppm. There was also necrosis and regeneration of olfactory-associated Bowman's glands as well as the lateral nasal (Steno's) glands. Hepatocellular centrilobular (CL) necrosis was observed only in the 75 ppm dose group and was similar to that caused by styrene. A time-dependent progression was observed, characterized by CL degeneration after 1 exposure, necrosis after 3 and 5 exposures, and chronic inflammation with CL karyomegaly after 10 exposures and 7 days after the 10th exposure. Hepatic GSH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In the kidneys, transient tubular damage was observed in some male mice exposed to 75 ppm, and appeared to be a response to DVB-induced tubular epithelial injury.

  6. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji; Somkuwar Arju Parnu

    2011-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant) on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/...

  7. ECVAM's ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Bulgheroni, Anna; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-12-01

    The 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (2003/15/EC) set up timelines for banning animal testing and marketing of cosmetic products and their ingredients tested on animals. For most of the human health effects, including acute toxicity, the deadline for these bans was in March 2009. Moreover, the new Regulation EC 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) provided a strong impetus towards the application of alternative approaches to reduce the number of animals used for toxicological testing. Therefore, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is currently putting considerable effort into developing and validating alternative methods in the field of acute toxicity. The main activities in this area include: (1) the Integrated Project ACuteTox, funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme in 2005 with the aim to develop and pre-validate a testing strategy to fully replace acute oral toxicity testing in vivo; (2) a follow-up validation study to assess the predictive capacity of the validated BALB/3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay to discriminate between toxic/hazardous (LD(50)2,000 mg/kg); (3) an approach to identify compounds with LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg using information from 28-days repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:19591916

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  9. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Bagri; Vinod Kumar; Anil Kumar Sikka; Joginder Singh Punia

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes ...

  10. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. PMID:25020274

  11. Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifovski Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although radical radiotherapy has proved to be a successful method in prostate cancer treatment, the conventional (box technique can result in significant adverse events. Objective. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods. In a clinical retrospective study, we included 283 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. All our patients received radical, conventional radiotherapy using the four-field technique. The study was performed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between January 1991 and December 2005. During regular follow-up, we analyzed the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity. Results. Two thirds (71% of our patients had acute toxicity of at least one organ within the radiation field. Most frequent complication was radiation dermatitis (10.5%, and enteritis (9%, cystitis (6% and proctitis (2.5%. Acute adverse events were mostly low grade (I and II, 28-61%. Late complications were registered in 20.5% of patients. Skin fibrosis was most frequent (12%. Chronic proctitis was detected in 4% and urethral stricture in 4.5% of our patients. All late complications were low grade. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance of radical radiotherapy is relatively good. Although most patients develop acute toxicity, it is commonly low grade and requires the interruption of radiotherapy treatment in 20% of patients only. Late toxicity is rarer than acute and, in most cases, it does not affect the quality of life.

  12. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  13. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... justification and reasoning for its selection. (B) Age. Young adult rats between 8- and 12-weeks-old at the... Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i) Preparations. Healthy young adult...) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section. Acute oral toxicity is the adverse...

  15. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/ kg. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of M. pruriens and thus the findings of this study provide scientific validation on the use of the M. pruriens as a medicine for treating various ailments.

  16. Lovelace ITRI studies on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews 19 studies conducted by the Lovelace ITRI on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs. These studies provide information to estimate potential health effects in accidentally exposed people. Specific radionuclides (90Sr, 90Y, 91Y, 137Cs, 144Ce, 238Pu, and 239Pu), chemical forms, and particle sizes were selected for study because they are abundant in nuclear operations and deliver a wide range of radiation dose patterns. Depending upon the aerosol, one or more of the following organs or tissues received the significant irradiation: lung, nasal cavity, lung-associated lymph nodes, whole body, liver, or skeleton, with the radiation dose delivered over durations of time ranging from a few days to several years. In eight studies monodisperse particles of either 238PuO2 or 239PuO2 were used to evaluate the influence of particle number and total dose on lung cancer induction. Most studies involved single, brief exposures of young adult dogs, but two studies used immature dogs, two used aged dogs, and two studies involved repeated brief exposures. For each aerosol two types of studies were conducted. One was used to evaluate the time course of retention of radioactivity in various tissues of the body for calculating radiation doses. The second was used to determine health effects in animals exposed to achieve different initial lung burdens and observed for the remainder of their life spans. Initial lung burdens were selected to produce early morbidity and mortality at the highest levels and an excess of late-occurring diseases such as cancer at the lowest levels. The latter dogs have had an excess incidence of cancer, especially of the lung, lung-associated lymph nodes, nasal cavity, skeleton, and liver. Relationships between radiation doses to various tissues and effects have been evaluated for individual studies

  17. Is there a place for inhaled nitric oxide in the therapy of acute pulmonary embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Theodorakis, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious complication resulting from the migration of emboli to the lungs. Although deep venous thrombi are the most common source of emboli to the lungs, other important sources include air, amniotic fluid, fat and bone marrow. Regardless of the specific source of the emboli, very little progress has been made in the pharmacological management of this high mortality condition. Because the prognosis is linked to the degree of elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, any therapeutic intervention to improve the hemodynamics would probably increase the low survival rate of this critical condition. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been widely tested and used in cases of pulmonary hypertension of different causes. In the last few years some authors have described beneficial effects of iNO in animal models of acute PE and in anecdotal cases of massive PE. The primary cause of death in massive PE that is caused by deep venous thrombi, gas or amniotic fluid, is acute right heart failure and circulatory shock. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance following acute PE is the cumulative result of mechanical obstruction of pulmonary vessels and pulmonary arteriolar constriction (attributable to a neurogenic reflex and to the release of vasoconstrictors). As such, the vasodilator effects of iNO could actively oppose the pulmonary hypertension following PE. This hypothesis is consistently supported by experimental studies in different animal models of PE, which demonstrated that iNO decreased (by 10 to 20%) the pulmonary artery pressure without improving pulmonary gas exchange. Although maximal vasodilatory effects are probably achieved by less than 5 parts per million iNO, which is a relatively low concentration, no dose-response study has been published so far. In addition to the animal studies, a few anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that iNO may improve the hemodynamics during acute PE. However, no prospective, controlled

  18. Carbon capture and sequestration: an exploratory inhalation toxicity assessment of amine-trapping solvents and their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Kracko, Dean; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Garner, C Edwin; Wegerski, Chris; Senft, Al; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Rohr, Annette

    2014-09-16

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption with aqueous amine solvents is a method of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from flue gases. One concern is the possible release of amine solvents and degradation products into the atmosphere, warranting evaluation of potential pulmonary effects from inhalation. The CCS amines monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP) underwent oxidative and CO2-mediated degradation for 75 days. C57bl/6N mice were exposed for 7 days by inhalation of 25 ppm neat amine or equivalant concentration in the degraded mixture. The aqueous solutions were nebulized to create the inhalation atmospheres. Pulmonary response was measured by changes in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine expression in lung tissue. Ames mutagenicity and CHO-K1 micronucleus assays were applied to assess genotoxicity. Chemical analysis of the test atmosphere and liquid revealed complex mixtures, including acids, aldehydes, and other compounds. Exposure to oxidatively degraded MEA increased (p < 0.05) total cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes compared to control mice and caused inflammatory cytokine expression (statistical increase at p < 0.05). MEA and CO2-degraded MEA were the only atmospheres to show statistical (p < 0.05) increase in oxidative stress. CO2 degradation resulted in a different composition, less degradation, and lower observed toxicity (less magnitude and number of effects) with no genotoxicity. Overall, oxidative degradation of the amines studied resulted in enhanced toxicity (increased magnitude and number of effects) compared to the neat chemicals.

  19. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  20. ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY STUDIES OF TROISTM IN NEWZEALAND WHITE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  1. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the 18F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of 18F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  2. ACUTE AND SUB ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SIDDHA DRUG VELVANGA PARPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Samraj*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiya Rajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH is a common progressive disease among men, with an incidence that is high among elderly. Velvanga parpam (VP has been employed as traditional remedy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of VP in rats and mice following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies, different doses of VP were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Sub-acute toxicity studies were carried in four different groups in which VP was administrated orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses ranging from 2.5, 5, 10 Mg/kg for mice respectively. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. The VP was well tolerated and no toxic manifestations were seen in any animal. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. Mortality observed in highdose. The VP was found to be safe in animals. No toxic effect was observed up to 5mg/kg of Velvanga parpam in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  3. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  4. Influence of agglomeration and specific lung lining lipid/protein interaction on short-term inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlleben, Wendel; Driessen, Marc D; Raesch, Simon; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Schulze, Christine; Vacano, Bernhard von; Vennemann, Antje; Wiemann, Martin; Ruge, Christian A; Platsch, Herbert; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Tomm, Janina M; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Luch, Andreas; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Haase, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Lung lining fluid is the first biological barrier nanoparticles (NPs) encounter during inhalation. As previous inhalation studies revealed considerable differences between surface functionalized NPs with respect to deposition and toxicity, our aim was to investigate the influence of lipid and/or protein binding on these processes. Thus, we analyzed a set of surface functionalized NPs including different SiO2 and ZrO2 in pure phospholipids, CuroSurf(TM) and purified native porcine pulmonary surfactant (nS). Lipid binding was surprisingly low for pure phospholipids and only few NPs attracted a minimal lipid corona. Additional presence of hydrophobic surfactant protein (SP) B in CuroSurf(TM) promoted lipid binding to NPs functionalized with Amino or PEG residues. The presence of the hydrophilic SP A in nS facilitated lipid binding to all NPs. In line with this the degree of lipid and protein affinities for different surface functionalized SiO2 NPs in nS followed the same order (SiO2 Phosphate ∼ unmodified SiO2 < SiO2 PEG < SiO2 Amino NPs). Agglomeration and biomolecule interaction of NPs in nS was mainly influenced by surface charge and hydrophobicity. Toxicological differences as observed in short-term inhalation studies (STIS) were mainly influenced by the core composition and/or surface reactivity of NPs. However, agglomeration in lipid media and lipid/protein affinity appeared to play a modulatory role on short-term inhalation toxicity. For instance, lipophilic NPs like ZrO2, which are interacting with nS to a higher extent, exhibited a far higher lung burden than their hydrophilic counterparts, which deserves further attention to predict or model effects of respirable NPs. PMID:26984182

  5. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  6. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF6 and UO2F2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF6, UO2F2, and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Assessing acute systemic effects of an inhaled drug with serial echocardiography: a placebo-controlled comparison of inhaled and intravenous dihydroergotamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noveck RJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Noveck,1 Pamela S Douglas,2 Shein-Chung Chow,3 Barry Mangum,4 Shashidhar Kori,5 Donald J Kellerman51Duke Clinical Research Unit, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 2Imaging Program, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Durham, NC, USA; 4Clinical Pharmacology, Duke Clinical Research Unit, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 5MAP Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Mountain View, CA, USAObjective: MAP0004 is an investigational product which delivers dihydroergotamine (DHE through the lung via a breath-synchronized metered dose inhaler. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of orally inhaled and intravenous (IV DHE to placebo on maximum change and area under the curve for pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP.Research design and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover study of 24 health adults. Trial registration NCT01089062. Study assessments included pharmacokinetics, electrocardiograms (ECG, and validated echocardiographic (Doppler-derived measures of PASP by echocardiogram. The primary endpoint was the absolute change in calculated PASP using area under the curve, 0 to 2 hours (AUC0–2h.Results: The change in PASP with IV DHE was significantly different than MAP0004 and placebo (AUC0–2h2857, 2624, and 2453 mmHg*min, respectively. After a second dose of MAP0004, AUC0–4h remained lower with MAP0004 than with a single dose of IV DHE. Adverse events were more common with IV DHE than with MAP0004 or placebo. None of the treatments produced clinically significant changes in PASP or other cardiac parameters. Changes in PASP were significantly smaller with MAP0004 compared with IV DHE.Conclusion: These results indicate the effects 1 mg of orally inhaled DHE on the cardiovascular system are less than with 1 mg of IV DHE, and

  8. Acute respiratory distress following the inhalation of an aerosol upholstery cleaner: the importance of reporting from the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Dipak; Meredith, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols are commonplace in the home and in industry as they provide a quick and controlled way of distributing chemicals or perfumes. It is well known that deliberating concentrating and inhaling vapours may result in dizziness, euphoria, blackouts, respiratory distress, cardiac and renal failure. However, in the most part, warnings and guidance on use are sparse. Here, a proven case of acute respiratory distress is presented and a reporting mechanism via the UK National Poisons Information ...

  9. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC) in mice and rats respectively. Methods: In acute toxicity study, mice were assessed to any alteration of general behavior and mortality rate within 24 h. Further, in sub-acute toxicity study, rats were used for assessment of mortality, body weight, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Results: Single oral administrations of the HAE-AC 2500-10000 mg/kg induced increase in general behavioral abnormalities in mice. The mortality rate also increased with increasing dosage (median lethal dose; LD50 = 5 070.59 mg/kg). Daily single oral doses of HAE-AC 200, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were observed to be well tolerated behaviorally after 28 days of dosing and induced no significant changes in body and organs weights of rats. Further, a mild rise in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and histopatholological changes in liver tissue was noted at 1000 mg/kg dose of HAE-AC. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study indicate that, HAE-AC is non-toxic and has at high dose, a mild but acceptable toxicity potential.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Wuen Yew Teoh; Kae Shin Sim; Jaime Stella Moses Richardson; Norhanom Abdul Wahab; See Ziau Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarci...

  11. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOMATO POMACE EXTRACT IN RODENT

    OpenAIRE

    Wathita Phachonpai; Supaporn Muchimapura; Terdthai Tong-Un; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Wipawee Thukhammee; Chonlathip Thipkaew; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Panakaporn Wannanon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and tomato products are considered to be healthy food for the human diet. Although tomatoes have been widely studied for their phenolic content, less emphasize has been laid on toxicological effect of this plant. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity effect of Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato, was administered orally in the form of dried tomato pomace extract in vivo. Adult male rats were orally administrated single dose of 1000 a...

  12. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae) has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control g...

  13. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro; Fernanda S. B. Barroqueiro; Mayara T. Pinheiro; Márcia C. G. Maciel; Priscila S. Barcellos; Silva, Lucilene A.; Adelson de S. Lopes; Flávia R.F. Nascimento; Rosane N. M. Guerra

    2011-01-01

    The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae), which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME) was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group) in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including gluco...

  14. A chronic inhalation toxicity/oncogenicity study of methylethylketoxime in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, P E; Wooding, W L; Bolte, H F; Derelanko, M J; Hardisty, J F; Rinehart, W E

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the oncogenic potential of methylethylketoxime (MEKO), CD-1 mice (50/sex/group) and F-344 rats (50/sex/group) were coexposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 18 mo (mice) or 26 mo (rats) via whole-body inhalation exposures to target vapor concentrations of 0, 15, 75, and 375 ppm (actual concentrations of 0, 15 +/- 1, 75 +/- 2, or 374 +/- 10 ppm). Satellite groups of rats and mice (10/sex/group/interval) were exposed for 12 mo (mice) and 3, 12, or 18 mo (rats) to evaluate chronic toxicity. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), a possible hydrolysis product of MEKO, was present at less than 1%. Treatment-related effects included increased body weight (male rats only), methemoglobin formation, hematology and clinical chemistry changes, increased liver weight, and increased spleen and testes weights (rats only). A high incidence of cataracts and corneal dystrophy occurred in both control and MEKO-exposed rats, with an earlier appearance and slightly higher incidence for these ocular lesions in MEKO-exposed animals compared to controls. Degenerative and reparative changes of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal turbinates, primarily limited to the dorsal meatus, occurred in both rats (75 and 374 ppm) and mice (15, 75, and 374 ppm). In addition, in the mice, liver changes included increased incidences of pigment in reticuloendothelial cells, centilobular hypertrophy, granulomatous inflammation, and a slightly increased incidence of necrosis (75 and 374 ppm). An increase in hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in male mice at 374 ppm. Additional MEKO-related findings in the rat included congestion of the spleen with pigment in reticuloendothelial cells and extramedullary hematopoiesis and a decreased incidence of lymphoreticular mononuclear cell leukemia. Effects observed in the liver of the rats included decreases in the incidence of both peribiliary fibrosis and hyperplasia/proliferation of the biliary duct, an increase of spongiosis hepatis in males, and an increase in the

  15. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  16. 急性中毒性脑病的MRI诊断%MRI Features of Acute Toxic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏根基; 郭莉莉; 陶维静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse MRI features of acute toxic encephalopathy. Materials and Methods Manifestations of 11 patients with acute toxic encephalopathy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients included 6 cases of drug poisoning,3 cases of CO inhalation and 2 cases of alcoholism. Results Lesions of acute toxic encephalopathy appeared as symmetrical long T1 and long T2 signal intensity on MRI and hyperintensity on DWI. Three cases of drug poisoning showed extensive signal changes in the areas of gray matter, white matter and basal nuclei, another 3 cases of drug poisoning revealed abnormal changes only in basal nuclei. Three cases of toxic encephalopathy caused by CO inhalation appeared as signal changes in bilateral candate nuclei and putamen symmetrically. Two cases of alcoholism showed signal changes only in the areas of white matter, not in gray matter and basal nuclei. Conclusion MRI is helpful for the diagnosis of acute toxic cncephalopathy. There are some typical MR features of acute toxic encephalopathy.%目的 探讨各种急性中毒性脑病的MRI表现.资料与方法 分析11例急性中毒性脑病患者的MRI表现,其中药物中毒6例,一氧化碳(CO)中毒3例,酒精中毒2例.结果 所有急性中毒性脑病患者脑部MRI表现均为对称性信号异常,呈长T1、长T2改变.扩散加权成像(DWI)为明显高信号.3例药物中毒者MRI表现为皮质区、白质区和基底节区广泛性对称性受累,另3例药物中毒者表现为单纯尾状核和壳核对称性受累;3例CO中毒者表现为尾状核和壳核对称性受累;2例酒精中毒者病变仅累及白质区域(半卵圆中心和胼胝体),而不累及皮层区和基底节神经核团.结论 MRI有助于急性中毒性脑病的诊断,不同原因的急性中毒性脑病MRI表现有一定的特征.

  17. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  18. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  19. Effects of smoking cessation, acute re-exposure and nicotine replacement in smokers on AIR® inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Alan X; de la Peña, Amparo; Yeo, Kwee P; Chan, Clark; Loh, Mei T; Wise, Stephen D; Silverman, Bernard L; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    Aims To explore the effects of smoking cessation and acute smoking re-exposure on the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic (GD) profiles of AIR® inhaled insulin (AIR Insulin) with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Methods Nondiabetic smokers (n = 24) with normal pulmonary function completed a two-phase (four-period), open-label, randomized euglycaemic clamp study. During the initial study phase, subjects underwent glucose clamps following AIR Insulin dosing, shortly after smoking, 8–12 h after smoking, or following subcutaneous insulin lispro shortly after smoking. AIR Insulin PK and GD were again assessed during and after a 4-week smoking-cessation period with or without NRT. In the last study period, subjects smoked one cigarette shortly before final AIR Insulin dosing and glucose clamp, to study the effect of acute smoking re-exposure on inhaled insulin PK and GD. Results Compared with the preceding active smoking phase, the administration of AIR Insulin in nondiabetic subjects undergoing a 4-week period of smoking abstinence resulted in a decrease in PK and GD of approximately 25% (P = 0.008 for both), an effect which was greater in subjects using NRT. Following rechallenge with a single cigarette (without NRT), GD response to AIR Insulin increased significantly (P = 0.006) towards precessation levels, relative to smoking abstinence. In subjects using NRT, however, the increase in GD was less pronounced. Conclusion Smoking, smoking cessation and acute re-exposure with a single cigarette are associated with clinically significant alterations in AIR Insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics. AIR Insulin should not be used by smokers or those at risk for recidivism. What is already known about this subject Only one other study (Becker et al.) has reported on the influence of smoking cessation and smoking resumption on inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics, concluding that the rapid changes associated with smoking resumption carry the

  20. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: danielle_2705@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaossoj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: apaulasp2008@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  1. Combined effects of radon inhalation and antioxidant vitamin administration on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in liver and has an antioxidative effect against hepatopathy similar to that of the antioxidative effects of ascorbic acid (VC) or α-tocopherol (VE). In this study, we examined the combined effects of radon inhalation and antioxidant vitamin administration on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. ICR mice were subjected to intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of alcohol after pretreating with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of approximately 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 hours and i.p. administration of VC (300 mg/kg body weight) or VE (300 mg/kg body weight). In mice injected with alcohol, the combined radon and antioxidant vitamins treatment significantly decreased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in serum compared to not only the alcohol-administered group (sham group), but also the radon inhalation with alcohol administration group or the vitamin and alcohol administration group. In addition, radon inhalation significantly increased the antioxidant level, in such as the catalase activity and the total glutathione content in liver compared to the sham group. These results suggested that the combined radon and antioxidant vitamin treatment could effectively inhibit alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice without any antagonizing action. (author)

  2. Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on β-chloroprene in rats and hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trochimowicz, H.J.; Löser, E.; Feron, V.J.; Clary, J.J.; Valentine, R.

    1998-01-01

    Three groups of 100 Wistar rats and Syrian golden hamsters of each sex were exposed by inhalation to 0, 10, or 50 ppm (v/v) β-chloroprene for 6 h/day, 5 days a week for up to 24 and 18 too, respectively. To maintain the chemical integrity of this highly reactive material in the exposure chambers, β-

  3. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  4. Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Acute Lung Injury in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann;

    2011-01-01

    data demonstrated a statistically insignificant effect of iNO on duration of ventilation, ventilator-free days, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. We found a statistically significant but transient improvement in oxygenation in the first 24 hours, expressed as the ratio of Po2......BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, defined as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, are critical conditions associated with frequent mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used to improve oxygenation, but its role remains...... be recommended for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. iNO results in a transient improvement in oxygenation but does not reduce mortality and may be harmful....

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  7. Acute toxicities of six manufactured nanomaterial suspensions to Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Xiaoshan; Zhu Lin [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Nankai University), Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering (China); Chen Yongsheng, E-mail: yschen@asu.ed [Arizona State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Tian Shengyan [Tianjin University of Science and Technology, College of Marine Science and Technology (China)

    2009-01-15

    The rapid growth of nanotechnology is stimulating research on the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). This paper summarizes a comprehensive study on the 48-h acute toxicity of water suspensions of six MNMs (i.e., ZnO, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, C{sub 60}, SWCNTs, and MWCNTs) to Daphnia magna, using immobilization and mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results show that the acute toxicities of all MNMs tested are dose dependent. The EC{sub 50} values for immobilization ranged from 0.622 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 114.357 mg/L (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs), while the LC{sub 50} values for mortality ranged from 1.511 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 162.392 mg/L (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs). In these tests, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and carbon-based nanomaterials were more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, D. magna were found to ingest nanomaterials from the test solutions through feeding behaviors, which indicates that the potential ecotoxicities and environmental health effects of these MNMs cannot be neglected.

  8. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  9. Mapping acute systemic effects of inhaled particulate matter and ozone: multiorgan gene expression and glucocorticoid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m(3) EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced.

  10. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  11. Hyperresponsiveness to inhaled but not intravenous methacholine during acute respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasurdo Giuseppe N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterise the acute physiological and inflammatory changes induced by low-dose RSV infection in mice. Methods BALB/c mice were infected as adults (8 wk or weanlings (3 wk with 1 × 105 pfu of RSV A2 or vehicle (intranasal, 30 μl. Inflammation, cytokines and inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and airway and tissue responses to inhaled methacholine (MCh; 0.001 – 30 mg/ml were measured 5, 7, 10 and 21 days post infection. Responsiveness to iv MCh (6 – 96 μg/min/kg in vivo and to electrical field stimulation (EFS and MCh in vitro were measured at 7 d. Epithelial permeability was measured by Evans Blue dye leakage into BALF at 7 d. Respiratory mechanics were measured using low frequency forced oscillation in tracheostomised and ventilated (450 bpm, flexiVent mice. Low frequency impedance spectra were calculated (0.5 – 20 Hz and a model, consisting of an airway compartment [airway resistance (Raw and inertance (Iaw] and a constant-phase tissue compartment [coefficients of tissue damping (G and elastance (H] was fitted to the data. Results Inflammation in adult mouse BALF peaked at 7 d (RSV 15.6 (4.7 SE vs. control 3.7 (0.7 × 104 cells/ml; p 200 Raw adults: RSV 0.02 (0.005 vs. control 1.1 (0.41 mg/ml; p = 0.003 (PC200 Raw weanlings: RSV 0.19 (0.12 vs. control 10.2 (6.0 mg/ml MCh; p = 0.001. Increased responsiveness to aerosolised MCh was matched by elevated levels of cysLT at 5 d and elevated VEGF and PGE2 at 7 d in BALF from both adult and weanling mice. Responsiveness was not increased in response to iv MCh in vivo or EFS or MCh challenge in vitro. Increased epithelial permeability was not detected at 7 d. Conclusion Infection with 1 × 105 pfu RSV induced extreme hyperresponsiveness to aerosolised MCh during the acute phase of infection in adult and weanling mice. The route-specificity of hyperresponsiveness suggests that epithelial mechanisms were important in determining the physiological

  12. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  13. Acute hemodynamic effects of inhaled sodium nitrite in pulmonary hypertension associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marc A.; Vanderpool, Rebecca R.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Bachman, Timothy N.; White, Pamela M.; Sugahara, Masataka; Gorcsan, John; Parsley, Ed L.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes, yet specific treatments only exist for a small subset of patients. The most common form of PH is that associated with left heart disease (Group 2), for which there is no approved therapy. Nitrite has shown efficacy in preclinical animal models of Group 1 and 2 PH, as well as in patients with left heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a potentially novel inhaled formulation of nitrite in PH-HFpEF patients as compared with Group 1 and 3 PH. METHODS. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics were recorded after acute administration of inhaled nitrite at 2 doses, 45 and 90 mg. Safety endpoints included change in systemic blood pressure and methemoglobin levels. Responses were also compared with those administered inhaled nitric oxide. RESULTS. Thirty-six patients were enrolled (10 PH-HFpEF, 20 Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension patients on background PH-specific therapy, and 6 Group 3 PH). Drug administration was well tolerated. Nitrite inhalation significantly lowered pulmonary, right atrial, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, most pronounced in patients with PH-HFpEF. There was a modest decrease in cardiac output and systemic blood pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased only in Group 3 PH patients. There was substantial increase in pulmonary artery compliance, most pronounced in patients with PH-HFpEF. CONCLUSIONS. Inhaled nitrite is safe in PH patients and may be efficacious in PH-HFpEF and Group 3 PH primarily via improvements in left and right ventricular filling pressures and pulmonary artery compliance. The lack of change in pulmonary vascular resistance likely may limit efficacy for Group 1 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01431313 FUNDING. This work was supported in part by the NIH grants P01HL103455 (to MAS and MTG), R01HL098032 (to MTG), and R01HL096973 (to MTG), and Mast Therapeutics, Inc.

  14. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration. PMID:9805821

  15. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  16. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 5: mechanistic investigations, inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Van Overveld, F J; Berges, A; Pype, J; Weiler, H; Vanscheeuwijck, P; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The biological effects of mainstream smoke (MS) from Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without added cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil were assessed in a 90-day inhalation study in rats. A separate 35-day inhalation study in rats was performed with MS from American-blended cigarettes with 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% added eugenol. Effects commonly seen in inhalation studies with MS were observed. These included histopathological changes indicative of irritation in the entire respiratory tract and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adding cloves to American- or Indonesian-blended cigarettes reduced the inflammatory response in the lung but with no difference between the two blend types. When the clove oil was extracted (∼ 75% reduction of eugenol achieved) from cloves, the inflammatory response in the lung was still reduced similarly to whole cloves but the severity of histopathological changes in the upper respiratory tract was less reduced. Add back of clove oil or pure eugenol reduced this response to a level similar to what was seen with whole cloves. When eugenol was added to American-blended cigarettes, similar findings of reduced lung inflammation and severity of histopathological changes in respiratory the tract was confirmed. These studies demonstrate a clear effect of cloves, and in particular eugenol, in explaining these findings.

  17. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 5: mechanistic investigations, inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Van Overveld, F J; Berges, A; Pype, J; Weiler, H; Vanscheeuwijck, P; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The biological effects of mainstream smoke (MS) from Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without added cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil were assessed in a 90-day inhalation study in rats. A separate 35-day inhalation study in rats was performed with MS from American-blended cigarettes with 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% added eugenol. Effects commonly seen in inhalation studies with MS were observed. These included histopathological changes indicative of irritation in the entire respiratory tract and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adding cloves to American- or Indonesian-blended cigarettes reduced the inflammatory response in the lung but with no difference between the two blend types. When the clove oil was extracted (∼ 75% reduction of eugenol achieved) from cloves, the inflammatory response in the lung was still reduced similarly to whole cloves but the severity of histopathological changes in the upper respiratory tract was less reduced. Add back of clove oil or pure eugenol reduced this response to a level similar to what was seen with whole cloves. When eugenol was added to American-blended cigarettes, similar findings of reduced lung inflammation and severity of histopathological changes in respiratory the tract was confirmed. These studies demonstrate a clear effect of cloves, and in particular eugenol, in explaining these findings. PMID:25455231

  18. The design, construction, and operation of a whole-body inhalation chamber for use in avian toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Smits, Judit E G

    2008-01-01

    Environmental risk assessments are broadening to include evaluations of avian species exposed to gaseous and particulate materials (Mineau, 2002b; Irvine, 2004; Carmalt, 2005). Since the avian respiratory tract is fundamentally different from the respiratory tract of rodents, the effects of gaseous materials on birds cannot validly be extrapolated from data derived from rodent exposure studies (Briant & Driver, 1992; Brown et al., 1997). To address the lack of avian-specific lowest observable effect levels used to calculate reference concentrations for airborne pollutants, a system was designed to facilitate research on inhalation toxicology in small birds. Birds have long been used as early indicators of poor air quality (Brown et al., 1997), and various chambers have been designed for head only exposures of larger birds (Briant & Driver, 1992). Smaller birds with short tracheal lengths and hooked beaks however require less restrictive exposure apparatus, thus warranting the proposed design. The chamber described in this article was designed to accommodate a small falcon, the American kestrel, a species frequently used in toxicological risk assessments (Wiemeyer & Lincer, 1987a; Smits & Bortolotti, 2001; Bortolotti et al., 2003; Fisher et al., 2006). To accomplish this, a 41-L closed inhalation system capable of exposing 12 adult American kestrels was constructed primarily of galvanized steel, polyvinyl chloride, and copper tubing. Humidified air was passed over the birds and subsequently decontaminated by an activated carbon filter and released to a HEPA filtration system. The proposed inhalation chamber was successfully used in 2005 and 2006 to expose a total of 55 male American kestrels to benzene and toluene. Measurements of various biochemical endpoints associated with benzene and toluene toxicity allowed us to study the effects of airborne pollutants on small nondomesticated birds in a controlled laboratory setting.

  19. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  20. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOMATO POMACE EXTRACT IN RODENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathita Phachonpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato and tomato products are considered to be healthy food for the human diet. Although tomatoes have been widely studied for their phenolic content, less emphasize has been laid on toxicological effect of this plant. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity effect of Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato, was administered orally in the form of dried tomato pomace extract in vivo. Adult male rats were orally administrated single dose of 1000 and 5000 mg kg-1 dried tomato pomace extract. There were 10 rats in each group. All animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment. Seven parameters were tested: cage side observation, body weight gain measurement, food and water consumption, absolute organ weight, hematology, biochemical analysis and histopathology, to look for evidence of acute toxicity. No mortality was observed when varying doses of the extracts were administered per day for a period of 2 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight, behavior, food consumption, absolute organ weights between controls and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. In the biochemistry parameter measurement, no significant change occurred. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. These finding suggest that none of the organs appeared to be target and the data could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch clinical trial on standardized formulation of tomato pomace extracts to be the dietary supplement.

  1. [Duration of bronchodilator effect of inhaled Salmeterol (dry powder x metered dose inhaler) in children with acute asthma attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, D; Rizzo, M C; Porto, I M; Gomez, I D; Sano, F; Figueiredo, M A; Naspitz, C K

    1996-01-01

    Patients during a mild to moderate acute attack of asthma (FEV1: 50 - 80% of predicted) were treated with Salmeterol MDI - 50mcg or Rotadisk - 50mcg or Salbutamol (MDI -200mcg). The children were followed by Spirometry, measuring FEV1 (basal) and after treatment: at 30 minutes, 60 minutes and thereafter every 60 minutes until 780 minutes, if the patients maintained the FEV1 above 80% of the predicted value and/or an increment of 20% in the VEF1 basal value. The Salmeterol group showed a significant bronchodilation at 60 minutes which was maintained in half of the patients up to 9 hours. This was not observed in the Salbutamol group: the peak bronchodilatation was observed at 30 minutes and the bronchodilation effect was observed in half of the patients up to 6 hours. There were no significant differences between both presentations of Salmeterol. This drug allowed a prolonged bronchodilator effect and is, according to the several consensus on management of asthma, an adequate option in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma. PMID:14688969

  2. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit;

    2016-01-01

    toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall......Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis...

  3. Bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol and budesonide/salbutamol in acute asthma: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jenish J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies that have compared bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol combination with budesonide/salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler with a spacer in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. We, therefore, compared the bronchodilatory effects of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (dose: 200 μg and 12 μg respectively combination with budesonide (200 μg/salbutamol (200 μg administered by metered dose inhaler and spacer in children of 5-15 years with mild acute exacerbation of asthma [Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS between 6-8] in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was FEV1 (% predicted in the two groups at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60 min after administration of the study drug. Results We did not observe any significant differences in the % predicted FEV1 and MPIS between formoterol and salbutamol at various time points from 1 min to 60 min post drug administration. There was significant improvement in FEV1 (% predicted from baseline in both the groups as early as 1 min after drug administration. Conclusions Salbutamol or formoterol delivered along with inhaled corticosteroid by metered dose inhaler with spacer in children between 5-15 years of age with mild acute exacerbation of asthma had similar bronchodilatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00900874

  4. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute...... phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) - or carbon black (CB)-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. RESULTS: Mice were exposed to filtered air......, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and...

  5. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods...... at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in...... broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Results Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and...

  6. Chlorine Gas Inhalation: Human Clinical Evidence of Toxicity and Experience in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    White, Carl W; James G Martin

    2010-01-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, a...

  7. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary test...

  8. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  9. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Iacopo; Tacconi, Danilo; Grotti, Simone; Brandini, Rossella; Salvadori, Claudia; Caremani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2011-05-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug. Its long-term use may, however, lead to several adverse effects, with pulmonary toxicity being the most serious. The article presents the case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgery, who after 2 years of amiodarone therapy for prophylactic treatment of atrial fibrillation developed amiodarone pneumonitis mimicking an acute pulmonary edema. The patient failed to respond to diuretic therapy and several courses of anti-infective therapy. Differential diagnosis of different causes of pulmonary infiltrates did not demonstrate any other abnormality. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of amiodarone pneumonitis. Given the widespread use of amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic agent, pneumologists and cardiologists should consider this important adverse effect as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary distress refractory to therapy in all patients treated with amiodarone who present with respiratory symptoms and pneumonia-like illness. PMID:19924000

  11. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  12. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  13. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  14. Acute toxicity profile of radiotherapy in 690 children and adolescents: RiSK data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The 'Registry for the evaluation of side effects after radiation in childhood and adolescence' (risk) was introduced to characterize adverse effects of radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence prospectively. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the pattern of acute side effects. Materials and methods: Since 2001, patients receiving radiotherapy in one of the German pediatric therapy trials have been registered in RiSK with detailed information regarding radiation doses to organs at risk and characterization of acute toxicities. Results: From 2001 to May 2009, 690 patients have been characterized for acute toxicity in primary therapy. Acute toxicity ≥ grade 1 was observed in 506 patients. In patients irradiated in their lung and liver, patients with grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities showed higher organ volumes exposed to radiation doses <20 Gray (Gy) compared to patients without toxicities. For the salivary glands, there was a positive correlation between the acute toxicity grade and the maximum radiation dose to the organ; the lower GI tract showed a similar trend. The impact of different chemotherapy regimens on these acute side effects remains unclear. Age did not have any impact on side effects. Conclusion: This analysis gives a comprehensive overview of the acute toxicities of radiotherapy in children and adolescents. With prolongation of follow-up, detailed analyses regarding late toxicities will be possible with the characterization of dose-volume-effect relationships.

  15. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  16. Feasibility and acute toxicities of radioimmunoguided prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present a technique that fuses pelvic CT scans and ProstaScint images to localize areas of disease within the prostate gland to customize prostate implants. Additionally, the acute toxicity results from the first 43 patients treated with this technique are reviewed. Methods and Materials: Between 2/97 and 8/98, 43 patients with clinical stage II prostate adenocarcinoma received ultrasound-guided transperineal implantation of I-125 or Pd-103 seeds. The median patient age was 70 years (range 49-79). Prior to treatment, the median Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were 6 (range 3-8) and 7.5 (range 1.8-16.6 ng/mL), respectively. The median follow-up was 10 months (range 2.9-20.4 months). Results: The median PSA value at 10 months is 0.7 ng/mL. Significant acute complications within the first month following implantation included 13 Grade I urinary symptoms, 24 Grade II urinary symptoms, 6 Grade III symptoms, and no Grade IV complications. Beyond 4 months, complications included 12 Grade I urinary symptoms, 17 Grade II urinary symptoms, 1 Grade III, and 1 Grade IV complications. Conclusions: The image fusion of the pelvic CT scan and ProstaScint scans helped identify regions within the prostate at high risk of local failure, which were targeted with additional seeds during implantation

  17. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  18. Acute toxicity and laxative activity of Aloe ferox resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. L. Celestino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aloe ferox Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, resin is the solid residue obtained by evaporating the latex that drains from the leaves transversally cut. Aloe ferox has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, laxative and to heal wounds and burns. The effects of the oral administration of A. ferox resin (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were evaluated on intestinal transit in mice and its acute toxicity (5.0 g/kg in Wistar rats. The hydroxyanthracene derivatives present in the resin were expressed as aloin, identified by thin layer chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. The aloin (Rf 0.35 was identified and the percentage of hydroxyanthracene derivates expressed as aloin was 33.5%. A. ferox resin extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the gastrointestinal motility at a 30 min interval at 93.5, 91.8 and 93.8%, respectively, when compared to control group (46.5%. A single oral dose of the A. ferox resin extract did not induce signs of toxicity or death. Thus, the results demonstrate that A. ferox has laxative activity and that it is nontoxic, since LD50 could not be estimated and it is possibly higher than 5.0 g/kg.

  19. Acute toxicity study of stone-breaker (Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.

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    Tássia Campos de Lima e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. is a herbaceous plant native to Brazil and appears frequently in humid environments. This plant is used to treat urolithiasis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and hepatitis B. The acute toxicity and LD50 of an aqueous extract of P. tenellus were determined in laboratory mice and their behavior was analyzed. The intraperitoneal LD50 was calculated by the Karber & Behrens (1964 method, for which a 96% alcoholic extract was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Male albino mice (Mus musculus were divided into three batches of six animals and observed for 24 hours after administration of the extract, diluted in 0.9% saline, at doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg / kg. Short-term studies have demonstrated this plant to be non-toxic; however, we found that this species induced agitation in animals, with stereotyped movements, spasms and increased respiratory frequency, as well as signs of depression, such as sleepiness, prostration, dyspnea and a reduction in respiratory frequency.

  20. A method for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present models for predicting the pulmonary toxicity of O3 in humans from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of O3 mass balance and species comparisons of mechanisms that protect tissue against O3. The goal of the study described was to identify a method to directly compare O3 dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid markers. The feasibility of estimating O3 dose to alveoli of animals and humans was demonstrated through assay of reaction products of 18O-labeled O3 in lung surfactant and macrophage pellets of rabbits. The feasibility of using lung lavage fluid protein measurements to quantify the O3 toxic response in humans was demonstrated by the finding of significantly increased lung lavage protein in 10 subjects exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 for 2 h with intermittent periods of heavy exercise. The validity of using the lavage protein marker to quantify the response in animals has already been established. The positive results obtained in both the 18O3 and the lavage protein studies reported here suggest that it should be possible to obtain a direct comparison of both alveolar dose and toxic effect of O3 to alveoli of animals or humans

  1. Evaluation of the acute and sub acute toxicity ofAnnona senegalensis root bark extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theophine C Okoye; Peter A Akah; Adaobi C Ezike; Maureen O Okoye; Collins A Onyeto; Frankline Ndukwu; Ejike Ohaegbulam; Lovelyn Ikele

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the safety profile ofAnnona senegalensis (A. senegalensis).Methods:Dried powdered root-bark of A. senegalensis was prepared by Sohxlet extraction using methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) solution and concentrated to obtain the methanol-methylene chloride extract (MME).MME was fractionated to obtain then-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. Acute toxicity (LD50) test was performed withMME, HF, EF andMF in mice by oral route. The sub acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after14 days ofMME administration while haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored.Results:Medium lethal (LD50) values of1 296, 3 808, 1 265 and 2 154mg/kg were obtained for theMME, MF, HF andEF, respectively. The sub-acute toxicity studies indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight of both the treated rats and the control. The haematological tests indicated no change in the packed cell volume values but a significant (P<0.05) increase in the totalWBC count at100and 400 mg/kg doses. The differential analysis showed a decrease in the nutrophils and a non-significant increase in the lymphocyte counts. The liver transaminase enzymes, alanin transaminase and aspartate transaminase showed no significant increase compared to the control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections also indicted no obvious signs of hepatotoxicity except with the400 mg/kg dose that showed degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes.Conclusions:These results indicated that the root bark extracts ofA. Senegalensis are safe at the lower doses tested, and calls for caution in use at higher doses in treatment.

  2. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akamatsu Akinori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine dioxide (CD gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human.

  3. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  4. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sean Peach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials.

  5. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP – or carbon black (CB-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. Results Mice were exposed to filtered air, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation., Arch. Toxicol. 79 (2005 177–182. As a positive control for the induction of an acute phase response, mice were exposed to 12.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS intraperitoneally. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to examine the hepatic mRNA expression of acute phase proteins, serum amyloid P (Sap (the murine homologue of Crp and Saa1 and Saa3. While significant increases in the hepatic expression of Sap, Saa1 and Saa3 were observed in response to LPS, their levels did not change in response to DEP or CB. In a comprehensive search for markers of an acute phase response, we analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E and transmembrane emp24 domain containing 3 responded to both exposures. However, these changes were very subtle and were not confirmed by real time RT

  6. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control group which received distilled water (vehicle while second and third group were orally treated with single daily dose of 0.9 g/kg and 1.8 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans, respectively. All the animals were closely observed for 14 days. Body weight for each mouse was recorded at day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. Relative organ weights for liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart were also determined. All the results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using Dunnett’s Test after ANOVA test. From the results obtained, no mortality was observed in both treatment groups either post 24 hours or 14 days of oral administration of C. nutans. Body weight for each mouse and relative organ weight showed insignificant difference when compared to the control group. In conclusion, acute exposure of 1.8 g/kg of C. nutans was safe in male mice without causing any adverse effects or mortality. The oral LD50 of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans was suggested to be greater than 1.8 g/kg bw in male mice.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity.

  8. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  9. Chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning%急性吸入性汞中毒胸部X线及CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning. Methods 23 cases with high concentration of mercury vapour inhaled acutely were included in this study. Among them, 81 cases underwent chest radio-graphics (61 times) and 11 cases underwent CT scanning(17 times). Radiographic and CT features were analysed. Results Chest radiographs showed pneumonia in 10 cases, the lesions appeared as multiple and scattered patchy high density in bilateral lung field with obscure border, and 3 cases combined with emphysema. There were 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia, radiographs showed lung markings increased and disorder, patchy, strip and gridding high dense shadows. 6 cases had toxic bubble pulmonary edema, which presented as large patchy dense shadows, and 4 cases of interstitial pulmonary edema, K's A,B lines were seen. On CT images, pneumonia appeared as multiple and scattered patchy shadows in bilateral lung field with bullous emphysemas which were low dense thin-wall bubbly shadows. Interstitial pneumonia appeared as lung weight lung markings in creased and blurred, resulted in massive, stripe net-like dense shadows with exudative changes around the lesions. Bullous pulmonary edema appeared as large patchy or butterfly wing-like dense shadow with undefinitive borders. Conclusion The chest X-ray and CT manifestations arc of certain characteristics in acute inhalation of mercury-induced pneumonia, combined with the clinical history and laboratory examination the diagnosis may be done.%目的 分析急性吸入性汞中毒性肺炎胸部X线及CT表现.方法 23例急性吸入性汞中毒患者,拍摄胸部平片61次,其中11例行胸部CT扫描17次,分析其X线及CT表现.结果 23例入院时X线片示汞毒性实质性肺炎10例,表现为双肺野多发片状密度增高影,边缘模糊,散在分布,3例伴有泡性肺气肿.汞毒性肺间质性炎症7例,表现为肺纹理增重模糊及紊乱,呈

  10. Hydrogen sulphide inhalational toxicity at a petroleum refinery in Sri Lanka: a case series of seven survivors following an industrial accident and a brief review of medical literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Perera, Harshani; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Karunanayake, Panduka; Chang, Thashi; Ruwanpathirana, Sujatha; Jayasinghe, Nilwala; De Silva, Yamini; Jayaweerabandara, Dinushka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This case series details clinical observations in 7 survivors of accidental hydrogen sulphide inhalation toxicity at a petroleum refinery in Sri Lanka. One survivor developed status epilepticus and severe neurotoxicity whilst another survivor developed delayed respiratory failure; both patients required intensive care management. One victim manifested mild bronchospasms in the immediate post-exposure period and another developed mild perioral numbness 2 days following the exposure. A...

  11. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METHOMYL ON POECILIA LATIPINNA (LESUEUR 1821 (POECILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a chemical compound acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that acts by contact system and is one of the most widely used chemicals such as insecticide-acaricide for control of a wide range of agricultural pests. The following study aims to assess the acute toxicity of methomyl on introduced fish Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821 (Poecilidae at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Bioassays were carried out with 5 levels and 4 treatments, temperature was 21.8 ° C ± 1, pH 7.34 ± 0.31, conductivity 0.54 mS ± 0.03, and average dissolved solutes in the middle 267.39 mg.L-1. The data obtained during tests were evaluated using the statistical method analytic Probit ver. 1.5. The results of the median Lethal Concentration (LC of methomyl on P. latipinna were: 2 h = 13.95 mg IA.L-1, 4 h 50 =10.39 mg IA.L-1, 6 h = 8.12 mg IA.L-1, 8 h = 5.81 mg IA.L-1, 24 h 3.99 mg IA.L-1, 48 h = 2.61 mg IA.L-1, 72 h = 2.24 mg IA.L-1 and finally 96 h = 2.08 IA.L mg-1. At the highest concentration was observed a change of skin color intensity of silver to black.

  12. Medical image of the week: acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazursky K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 71 year old man with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease with post-operative status coronary artery bypass grafting, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (25% and atrial fibrillation/flutter underwent an elective ablation of the tachyarrhythmia at another facility and was prescribed amiodarone post procedure. He started complaining of cough and dyspnea one day post procedure and was empirically treated with 2 weeks of broad spectrum antibiotics. He subsequently was transferred to our facility due to worsening symptoms. He also complained of nausea, anorexia with resultant weight loss since starting amiodarone, which was stopped 5 days prior to transfer. Infectious work up was negative. On arrival to our facility, he was diagnosed with small sub-segmental pulmonary emboli, pulmonary edema and possible acute amiodarone toxicity. His was profoundly hypoxic requiring high flow nasal cannula or 100% non-rebreather mask at all times. His symptoms persisted despite ...

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  14. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  15. Inhalation of mercury vapor can cause the toxic effects on rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Nilgün; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Ünal, Deniz; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam has been used in dentistry as a filling material. The filler comprises mercury (Hg). It is considered one of the most important and widespread environmental pollutants, which poses a serious potential threat for the humans and animals. However, mercury deposition affects the nervous, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and especially renal systems. In most animals' species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites of deposition of mercury and target organ for its toxicity. In this study, the effects of mercury intake on kidney in rats were searched. For the this purpose; we used 24 adult female Wistar albino rats (200 g in weight) obtained from Experimental Research and Application Center of Atatürk University with ethical approval. Besides, they were placed into a specially designed glass cage. Along this experiment for 45 days, subjects were exposed to (1 mg/m(3)/day) mercury vapor. However, no application was used for the control subjects. At the end of the experiment, kidney samples were obtained from all subjects and processed for routine light microscopic level and stereological aspect were assessed. Finally, according to our results, mercury affects the histological features of the kidney. That means, the severe effects of mercury has been shown using stereological approach, which is one of the ideal quantitative methods in the current literature. In this study, it was detected that chronic exposure to mercury vapor may lead to renal damage and diseases in an experimental rat model. PMID:26888214

  16. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled 239PuO2 in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of 239PuO2, prepared at 10000C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to 239PuO2 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author)

  17. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  18. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  19. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  20. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  1. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this report is to summarize the development and status of the fish acute toxicity syndrome (FATS) research effort. hus far, FATS associated with nonpolar narcotics, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, respiratory membrane irritants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhi...

  2. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving vin

  3. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  4. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  5. Understanding how data triangulation identifies acute toxicity of novel psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs"). There is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. Gold standard evidence, such as animal studies or human clinical trials, is rarely available to users or healthcare professionals. However, it is possible to use triangulation of data on the acute toxicity from multiple sources to describe the overall pattern of toxicity associated with a novel psychoactive substance. In this review, we will describe these potential data sources, which include self-reported toxicity on internet discussion fora, data from sub-population user surveys, data from regional and national poisons information services and published case reports and case series. We will then describe how pattern of acute toxicity associated with the use of the cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was established using triangulation of these different data sources.

  6. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis is effective against acute murine inhalational melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kay B; Steward, Jackie; Thwaite, Joanne E; Lever, M Stephen; Davies, Carwyn H; Armstrong, Stuart J; Laws, Thomas R; Roughley, Neil; Harding, Sarah V; Atkins, Timothy P; Simpson, Andrew J H; Atkins, Helen S

    2013-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the disease melioidosis, which is prevalent in tropical countries and is intractable to a number of antibiotics. In this study, the antibiotic co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) was assessed for the post-exposure prophylaxis of experimental infection in mice with B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relative Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders. Co-trimoxazole was effective against an inhalational infection with B. pseudomallei or B. mallei. However, oral co-trimoxazole delivered twice daily did not eradicate infection when administered from 6h post exposure for 14 days or 21 days, since infected and antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to infection following relapse or immunosuppression. These data highlight the utility of co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis both of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and the need for new approaches for the treatment of persistent bacterial infection.

  7. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille;

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...

  8. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  9. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  10. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  11. Acute relief of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by inhaled formoterol in children with persistent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mette Northman; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Buchvald, Frederik;

    2006-01-01

    -controlled, crossover study of the immediate effect of formoterol, 9 microg, vs terbutaline, 0.5 mg, and placebo administered as dry powder at different study days. Exercise challenge test was used as a model of acute bronchoconstriction. PATIENTS: Twenty-four 7- to 15-year-old children with persistent asthma......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute bronchodilatory effect of the long-acting beta2-agonist formoterol against the short-acting beta2-agonist (SABA) terbutaline during exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in children with asthma. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo...... dose. RESULTS: Formoterol and terbutaline offered a significant acute bronchodilatory effect from 3 min after dose compared with placebo (p

  12. Reassessment of inhaled nitric oxide in acute lung injury%重新评价吸入一氧化氮在急性肺损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frostell CG

    2003-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has now been used clinically since 1991, or twelve years. The acute aims of therapy have mainly been improvement of oxygenation and reduction of lung vasoconstriction. This is true also for the use in ALl (acute lung injury) of various degrees of severity including ARDS (acute respiratorydistress syndrome).

  13. INHALATION OF OZONE AND DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) INDUCES ACUTE AND REVERSIBLE CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that episodic but not acute exposure to ozone or DEP induces vascular effects that are associated with the loss of cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acids (DEP 2.0 mg/m3 > ozone, 0.4 ppm). In this study we determined ozone and DEP-induced cardiac gen...

  14. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  15. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats*

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Masran; Omar, Baharuddin; Taib, Izatus Shima; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4 000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecu...

  16. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  17. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity

  18. Acute effects of nitric oxide inhalation in ARDS: A dose finding study at steady state kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhaled Nitric oxide (INO decreases pulmonary artery pressures and improves oxygenation in patients with ARDS. Aim: To evaluate the dose response to 1-20 parts per million (ppm INO in ARDS, by noting changes in oxygenation, pulmonary artery systolic pressures (PASP and to determine optimum dose. Methodology and Design: Prospective study. Setting: 10 bed general intensive care unit. Patients: 13 consecutive patients with ARDS. Interventions: INO was given between 1-20 ppm with 15 minutes at each concentration via an insufflator from a high pressure source, to the inspiratory limb of the ventilator. Study had ascending and descending phase. Results and Conclusions: The optimum dose of INO to improve oxygenation was between 3 and 10 ppm. PaO2 improvement was independent of pulmonary haemodynamic changes. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes needed higher INO initially. Once stabilized, INO could be brought down to concentrations at which maximum improvement in PaO2 occurred. The ′responders′ had lesser duration of pre INO ventilation and lower PaO2/FiO2.

  19. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  20. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239Pu to the skeleton

  1. Acute inhalation of ozone stimulates bronchial C-fibers and rapidly adapting receptors in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleridge, J.C.G.; Coleridge, H.M.; Schelegle, E.S.; Green, J.F. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1993-05-01

    To identify the afferents responsible for initiating the vagally mediated respiratory changes evoked by acute exposure to ozone, the authors recorded vagal impulses in anesthetized, open-chest, artificially ventilated dogs and examined the pulmonary afferent response to ozone (2--3 ppM in air) delivered to the lower trachea for 20--60 min. Bronchial C-fibers (BrCs) were the lung afferents most susceptible to ozone, the activity of 10 of 11 BrCs increasing from 0.2 [+-] 0.2 to 4.6 [+-] 1.3 impulses/s within 1--7 min of ozone exposure. Ten of 15 rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) were stimulated by ozone, their activity increasing from 1.5 [+-] 0.4 to 4.7 [+-] 0.7 impulses/s. Stimulation of RARs (but not of BrCs) appeared secondary to the ozone-induced reduction of lung compliance because it was abolished by hyperinflation of the lungs. Ozone had little effect on pulmonary C-fibers or slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. The authors' results suggest that both BrCs and RARs contribute to the tachypnea and bronchoconstriction evoked by acute exposure to ozone when vagal conduction is intact and that BrCs alone are responsible for the vagally mediated tachypnea that survives vagal cooling to 7[degrees]C. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of iron oxide (magnetite, Fe(3) O(4) ) in rats: pulmonary toxicity is determined by the particle kinetics typical of poorly soluble particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    Wistar rats were nose-only exposed to pigment-sized iron oxide dust (Fe(3) O(4) , magnetite) in a subchronic 13-week inhalation study according to the OECD testing guidelines TG#413 and GD#39. A 4 week pilot study with a 6 month post exposure period served as basis for validating the kinetic modeling approaches utilized to design the subchronic study. Kinetic analyses made during this post exposure period demonstrated that a diminution in particle clearance and lung inflammation occurred at cumulative exposure levels exceeding the lung overload threshold. Animals were exposed 6 h per day, five days per week for 13 consecutive weeks at actual concentrations of 0, 4.7, 16.6 and 52.1 mg m(-3) (mass median aerodynamic diameter ≈1.3 μm, geometric standard deviation = 2). The exposure to iron oxide dust was tolerated without mortality, consistent changes in body weights, food and water consumption or systemic toxicity. While general clinical pathology and urinalysis were unobtrusive, hematology revealed changes of unclear toxicological significance (minimally increased differential neutrophil counts in peripheral blood). Elevations of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) appeared to be the most sensitive endpoint of study. Histopathology demonstrated responses to particle deposition in the upper respiratory tract (goblet cell hyper- and/or metaplasia, intraepithelial eosinophilic globules in the nasal passages) and the lower respiratory tract (inflammatory changes in the bronchiolo-alveolar region). Consistent changes suggestive of pulmonary inflammation were evidenced by BAL, histopathology, increased lung and lung-associated-lymph node (LALN) weights at 16.6 and 52.1 mg m(-3) . Increased septal collagenous fibers were observed at 52.1 mg m(-3) . Particle translocation into LALN occurred at exposure levels causing pulmonary inflammation. In summary, the retention kinetics iron oxide reflected that of poorly soluble particles. The empirical

  3. Acute toxicity tests on raw leachate from a Malaysian dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujá, Fatihah; Yusof, Arij; Osman, Md Anuar

    2010-01-01

    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.

  4. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  5. The beneficial effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iraq war has vividly brought the problem of traumatic brain injury to the foreground. The costs of death and morbidity in lost wages, lost taxes, and rehabilitative costs, let alone the emotional costs, are enormous. Military personnel with traumatic brain injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome may represent a substantial problem. Each of these entities, in and of itself, may cause a massive inflammatory response. Both presenting in one patient can precipitate an overwhelming physiological scenario. Inhaled nitric oxide has recently been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects beyond the pulmonary system, in addition to its ability to improve arterial oxygenation. Furthermore, it is virtually without side effects, and can easily be applied to combat casualties or to civilian casualties. Presentation of hypothesis Use of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome will show a benefit through improved physiological parameters, a decrease in biochemical markers of inflammation and brain injury, thus leading to better outcomes. Testing of hypothesis A prospective, randomized, non-blinded clinical trial may be performed in which patients meeting the case definition could be entered into the study. The hypothesis may be confirmed by: (1 demonstrating an improvement in physiologic parameters, intracranial pressure, and brain oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide use in severely head injured patients, and (2 demonstrating a decrease in biochemical serum markers in such patients; specifically, glial fibrillary acidic protein, inflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and (3 documentation of outcomes. Implications of hypothesis Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in traumatic brain injury patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome could result in increased numbers of lives saved, decreased patient morbidity

  6. Acute toxicity of commonly used forestry herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Vickie L; Borton, Dennis L; Streblow, William R; Louch, Jeffrey; Shepard, James P

    2012-12-01

    Because many herbicides selectively control specific species or types of vegetation, they are often applied as mixtures to achieve better control over undesirable vegetation. When herbicides are applied in forest ecosystems, streams, ponds, and other bodies of water are typically protected by buffer zones in which no herbicide is applied. However, in some landscapes, small wetlands and streams are difficult to see and avoid, thus the potential acute toxicity of herbicide mixtures to aquatic organisms is of interest, yet it has not been well-studied. We examined the acute toxicity of 23 different herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at environmentally relevant concentrations, and, where possible, characterized mixture interactions using Marking's Additive Index. Maximum exposure concentrations were equivalent to applying the maximum allowable rate for each component directly to the surface of a 6-in. deep pond with no dissipation following application. Under the conditions of this study, herbicide formulations containing Accord Concentrate (glyphosate), Arsenal AC (imazapyr), Chopper (imazapyr), Escort (metsulfuron methyl), Oust XP (sulfometuron methyl), and Velpar L (hexazinone) were not associated with appreciable acute toxicity to fathead minnows or C. dubia when used alone or in mixtures with each other and various surfactants and adjuvants. Herbicide mixtures for which Additive Indexes could be calculated exhibited primarily antagonistic or simple additive toxicity. In the few cases where synergistic toxicity was observed, the degree of synergism was slight, never exceeding approximately twice the effect estimated based on additive toxicity. Based on the results of this study, neither acute toxicity nor enhanced acute aquatic toxicity due to synergistic mixture effects appears to be a significant concern for applications of the herbicide mixtures most commonly used in forestry.

  7. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Vermilionum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok Kwon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Methods : In order to measure the acute and subacute toxicity of Vermilionum and it's anti-cancer effects, Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cells were injected intravenously. The following results were obtained after measuring the survival rate, toxicity of the NK cells, and IL-2 productivity. Results : 1. It was impossible to measure LD50 value in the acute toxicity test and no toxic effects were witnessed in the clinical observation. 2. No significant differences were shown in the weight changes between the experiment groups and the control group in the acute toxicity test. 3. No peculiar toxic effects were shown in the subacute toxicity test and the weight changes were insignificant between the experiment groups and the control group. 4. In measuring the survival rate after inducing abdominal cancer by Sarcoma-180, the experiment groups showed increased of 9,52% compared to the control group. 5. In measuring the activity of NK cells, no significant changes were shown between the experiment groups and the control group. 6. In measuring the productivity of IL-2, significant reduction was shown in the experiment groups compared to the normal group, but no significance was witnessed compared to the control group.

  8. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  9. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  10. Characterisation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress posed by textile effluent on zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan Zhang; Wei Liu; Jing Zhang; Huimin Zhao; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yihe Jin

    2012-01-01

    Textile industries are important sources of toxic discharges and contribute enormously to water deterioration,while little attention has been paid to the toxicity of textile effluents in discharge regulation.Bioassays with zebrafish were employed to evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples collected from different stages at a textile factory and sewage treatment plants (STPs).Physico-chemical parameters,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed.The wastewater samples from bleaching,rinsing and soaping of the textile factory exhibited high acute toxicity and genotoxicity.The coexisting components of dye compounds,as assistants and oxidants,seemed to cause some effect on the toxic response.After treatment employing the anoxic-oxic (A/O) process in STPs,the color and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reduced by 40% and 84%,respectively,falling within the criteria of the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard.In contrast,increases in acute toxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the anaerobic tank,indicating the formation of toxic intermediates.The genotoxicity of the effluent of the STP was not significantly different from that of the influent,suggesting the wastewater treatment processes were not effective in removing the genotoxicity of the dye wastewater.Results indicated that the effluent contains pro-oxidants since the activities of glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) were all elevated.In addition,decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities observed can be interpreted as a cytotoxicity sign due to an over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).The results of the present study suggest that the STPs were not capable of reducing the toxicity of wastewater sufficiently.Further treatment is needed to remove the potential risks posed by textile effluent to ecosystems and human health,and employing a toxicity index is necessary for

  11. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  12. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  13. Analysis of Air Toxics From NOAA WP-3 Aircraft Measurements During the TexAQS 2006 Campaign: Comparison With Emission Inventories and Additive Inhalation Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Negro, L. A.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Hendershot, R.; Washenfelder, R.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.

    2007-12-01

    Benzene and nine other air toxics classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were measured from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the TexAQS 2006 campaign. In-situ measurements of benzene, measured with a PTR-MS instrument, are used to estimate emission fluxes for comparison with point source emission inventories developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Mean and median mixing ratios for benzene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromoethane, dichloromethane, and vinyl chloride, encountered over the city of Houston during the campaign, are combined with inhalation unit risk factor values developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to estimate the additive inhalation risk factor. This additive risk factor represents the risk associated with lifetime (70 year) exposure at the levels measured and should not be used as an absolute indicator of risk to individuals. However, the results are useful for assessments of changing relative risk over time, and for identifying dominant contributions to the overall air toxic risk.

  14. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Basak Ozlem Perk; Sinem Ilgin; Ozlem Atli; Hale Gamze Duymus; Basar Sirmagul

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According t...

  15. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  16. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  17. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...

  18. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  19. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  20. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Yeng Chen; Lai Ngit Shin; Yee Ling Lau; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Yuet Ping Kwan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi

    2010-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal be...

  1. Inhaled hyaluronic acid as ancillary treatment in children with bacterial acute rhinopharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, A; Capasso, M; Avvisati, F; Varricchio, A M; De Lucia, A; Brunese, F P; Ciprandi, G

    2014-01-01

    Acute rhinopharyngitis (ARP) is the most common upper respiratory infection in children and represents a social problem for both the pharmaco-economic impact and a burden for the family. Topical antibiotic therapy is usually effective in bacterial ARP, but ancillary treatment might improve its efficacy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising molecule that has been recently proposed in upper respiratory disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ancillary HA treatment in children with bacterial ARP. Globally, 51 children (27 males, mean age 5.9 ± 2.1 years) with bacterial ARP were enrolled in the study. At baseline, children were randomly assigned to the treatment with: 125 mg of thiamphenicol diluted in 4 mL of saline isotonic solution twice daily (group A) or with 125 mg of thiamphenicol plus 4 ml of sodium hyaluronate 0.2% plus xylitol 5% (Aluneb, Sakura Italia) twice daily (group B) administered by the nasal device Rinowash (Airliquide Medical System, Italy) and connected to an aerosol nebulizer with pneumatic compressor (1.5 bar per 5 L/min) Nebula (Airliquide Medical System, Italy), for 10 days. sVAS, nasopharyngeal spotting, neutrophils and bacteria were assessed at baseline and after the treatment. Both treatments induced significant reduction of symptom perception, spotting, neutrophil and bacteria count. However, thiamphenicol plus HA was able to significantly induce a greater effect on sVAS (p=0.006), neutrophil count (p=0.01), and bacteria count (p=0.0003) than thiamphenicol alone. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that intranasal HA, as ancillary treatment, may be able to improve topical antibiotic efficacy in children with bacterial ARP. PMID:25316142

  2. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SPERMATOGENIC SIDDHA DRUG ‘ISAPPUKOL CHOORANAM’ (IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thillaivanan*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiyarajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been broadly used in developed countries hence they are natural and comparatively safe. They contain plant materials as their pharmacologically active components. Infertility is one of the most extremely tragic all over the world. Despite recent advances in the treatment of male infertility, the problem has not been satisfactorily tackled. The male infertility is mainly due to an inadequate number of spermatozoa in the semen, the failure of the spermatozoa to move with sufficient vigor towards their goal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the spermatogenic siddha drug Isappukol Chooranam (IC (siddha drug.For acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Forsub-acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses at 50,100,200 mg/kg of body weight. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and Histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. No impairment in hepatic, renal, haemopoietic functions were observed throughout the study. No mortality was observed up to 200 mg/kg of body weight in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  3. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  4. Successful use of inhaled nitric oxide to decrease intracranial pressure in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome: a role for an anti-inflammatory mechanism?

    OpenAIRE

    Medhkour Azedine; Papadimos Thomas J; Yermal Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Use of inhaled nitric oxide in humans with traumatic brain injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome has twice previously been reported to be beneficial. Here we report a third case. We propose that INO may decrease the inflammatory response in patients with increased intracranial pressure caused by traumatic brain injury accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome thereby contributing to improved outcomes.

  5. Acute pulmonary Oxygen toxicity in rats : findings and lung density changes in high resolution computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Dae Sik; Kang, Kil Hyen; Chung, Haingsup R.; Lee, Bung Wok; Mim, Young Ki; Lee, Tae Keun; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Jung, Seung Mun; Park, Man Soo [Kangnung Hospital, Asan Foundation, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kun Sang [School of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate imaging findings and lung density changes after 95% oxygen inhalation in rat. A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups on the basis of inhalation time: group I (n=3D6) inhaled 95% oxygen for 24 hours, and group II (n=3D6) for 48 hours, group III (n=3D6) for 60 hours. A control group (n=3D6) inhaled room air (21% oxygen). Chest radiograph and high resolution computed tomography were performed, and pathologic and imaging findings were compared. Chest radiograph showed abnormality only in group III. High resolution CT, however, revealed abnormal findings in all three groups : diffuse ground glass opacity in groups I, II and III, additional focal patchy consolidation at the peripheral portion in group II, and diffuse consolidation in group III; Lung density was significantly higher in group I than in controls (p less than 0.05), while density in group II was not significantly different from that in group I (p greater than 0.05). In group III, density was significantly higher than in group II, The lung density changes seen in all groups showed a bilateral diffuse increased pattern. But, in group III, changes were more severe in the central, peripheral and posterior portion of the lower lung. Ground glass opacity and focal patchy consolidation seen on HRCT were found on pathologic examination to be due to alveolar cell hyperplasia and septal thickening. Consolidation was caused by alveolar edema and hemorrhage. Pathologic lesions were randomly distributed in both lungs. One HRCT images, rat exposed to hyperoxia showed ground glass opacity, patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation. Depending on exposure time, the pathologic findings also indicated increased lung density and a bilateral, diffuse distribution pattern, as well as alveolar cell hyperplasia and septal thickening, alveolar edema and hemorrhage. HRCT may be more helpful than simple X-rays for the early detection of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. (author)

  6. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  7. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  8. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  9. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  10. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause. PMID:27364782

  11. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  12. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  13. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  14. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  15. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  16. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A se

  17. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in acute reversible toxic leukoencephalopathy: A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy may be caused by endogenous or exogenous toxins. It may reverse clinically if the offending agent is withdrawn or the underlying condition is treated. However, demonstration of reversibility on imaging, especially with diffusion-weighted MRI, has been reported only very recently. We report two such cases

  18. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  19. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  20. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L-1, 2.34 mg.L-1, 2.35 mg.L-1 and 1.80 mg.L-1, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  1. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  2. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  3. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrensmeier Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and organ tracking. Methods From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU was 29 months. Results Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU morbidity (PGUM was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025, absence of HT (P = .016 and higher PGUM (P Discussion GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.

  4. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  5. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  6. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, van den, R.B.A.; Smeden, Van, J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, de, B.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to C. dipterum and 5 other invertebrate species. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam showed equal acute and chronic toxicity to a winter generation of C. dipterum, whereas thiacloprid was approximately twice ...

  8. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  10. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL. We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77% and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74% to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  11. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  12. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  13. Acute benzodiazepine toxicity exacerbated by concomitant oral olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marc S; Overman, Michael J; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in antiemetic therapy constitute a major advance in oncology. A recent poll of the oncology community by the American Society of Clinical Oncology ranked it as one of the top 5 advances in cancer in the last 50 years. Emetogenicity of chemotherapy is defined by risk of emesis in the patient given no antiemetics; high-risk regimens cause nausea and vomiting in >90% of patients, moderate risk in 30%-90%, and low risk in <30%. This risk profile serves as the basis for empiric antiemetic prophylaxis and offers alternatives to refractory patients. Modern antiemetic prophylaxis is extremely effective for high-risk chemotherapy, reducing the risk for breakthrough nausea and vomiting to 0%-13% in the acute setting (<24 hours from receipt of chemotherapy) and to 25%-30% in the delayed setting (24-72 hours from receipt of chemotherapy). PMID:27152518

  14. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saneim@yahoo.com; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  15. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  16. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  17. A critical role of acute bronchoconstriction in the mortality associated with high-dose sarin inhalation: Effects of epinephrine and oxygen therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin is an organophosphate nerve agent that is among the most lethal chemical toxins known to mankind. Because of its vaporization properties and ease and low cost of production, sarin is the nerve agent with a strong potential for use by terrorists and rouge nations. The primary route of sarin exposure is through inhalation and, depending on the dose, sarin leads to acute respiratory failure and death. The mechanism(s) of sarin-induced respiratory failure is poorly understood. Sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholine esterase, leading to excessive synaptic levels of acetylcholine and, we have previously shown that sarin causes marked ventilatory changes including weakened response to hypoxia. We now show that LD50 sarin inhalation causes severe bronchoconstriction in rats, leading to airway resistance, increased hypoxia-induced factor-1α, and severe lung epithelium injury. Transferring animals into 60% oxygen chambers after sarin exposure improved the survival from about 50% to 75% at 24 h; however, many animals died within hours after removal from the oxygen chambers. On the other hand, if LD50 sarin-exposed animals were administered the bronchodilator epinephrine, > 90% of the animals survived. Moreover, while both epinephrine and oxygen treatments moderated cardiorespiratory parameters, the proinflammatory cytokine surge, and elevated expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, only epinephrine consistently reduced the sarin-induced bronchoconstriction. These data suggest that severe bronchoconstriction is a critical factor in the mortality induced by LD50 sarin inhalation, and epinephrine may limit the ventilatory, inflammatory, and lethal effects of sarin. - Highlights: • Inhalation exposure of rats to LD50 sarin causes death through respiratory failure. • Severe bronchoconstriction is the major cause of sarin-induced respiratory failure. • Transfer of sarin exposed rats to 60% oxygen improves the mortality temporarily. • Epinephrine improves

  18. A critical role of acute bronchoconstriction in the mortality associated with high-dose sarin inhalation: Effects of epinephrine and oxygen therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Zhuang, Jianguo; Barrett, Edward G.; Xu, Fadi; Russell, Robert G.; Sopori, Mohan L., E-mail: msopori@lrri.org

    2014-01-15

    Sarin is an organophosphate nerve agent that is among the most lethal chemical toxins known to mankind. Because of its vaporization properties and ease and low cost of production, sarin is the nerve agent with a strong potential for use by terrorists and rouge nations. The primary route of sarin exposure is through inhalation and, depending on the dose, sarin leads to acute respiratory failure and death. The mechanism(s) of sarin-induced respiratory failure is poorly understood. Sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholine esterase, leading to excessive synaptic levels of acetylcholine and, we have previously shown that sarin causes marked ventilatory changes including weakened response to hypoxia. We now show that LD{sub 50} sarin inhalation causes severe bronchoconstriction in rats, leading to airway resistance, increased hypoxia-induced factor-1α, and severe lung epithelium injury. Transferring animals into 60% oxygen chambers after sarin exposure improved the survival from about 50% to 75% at 24 h; however, many animals died within hours after removal from the oxygen chambers. On the other hand, if LD{sub 50} sarin-exposed animals were administered the bronchodilator epinephrine, > 90% of the animals survived. Moreover, while both epinephrine and oxygen treatments moderated cardiorespiratory parameters, the proinflammatory cytokine surge, and elevated expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, only epinephrine consistently reduced the sarin-induced bronchoconstriction. These data suggest that severe bronchoconstriction is a critical factor in the mortality induced by LD{sub 50} sarin inhalation, and epinephrine may limit the ventilatory, inflammatory, and lethal effects of sarin. - Highlights: • Inhalation exposure of rats to LD{sub 50} sarin causes death through respiratory failure. • Severe bronchoconstriction is the major cause of sarin-induced respiratory failure. • Transfer of sarin exposed rats to 60% oxygen improves the mortality temporarily.

  19. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  20. In vivo assessments of pulmonary toxicity following exposure to inhaled fibers: Utilization of bronchoalvelolar lavage (BAL) and fixed lung tissue to assess fiber deposition patterns and early cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a great need for the development of a rapid and reliable short-term bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of inhaled particles and fibers. We have hypothesized that the pulmonary toxicity of particulates can be assessed by exposing animals to aerosols for short duration (1-5 days) and measuring a variety of biochemical, cellular and histopathologic endpoints at several time point postexposure. In this presentation, we have attempted to test the efficacy of our shortterm inhalation bioassay, by exposing rats to various doses of either α-quartz silica or crocidolite asbestos, known fibrogenic materials, as well as wollastonite fibers or carbonyl iron particles. Following exposures, fluids and cells from sham and dust exposed rats were recovered by lavage (BAL) and measured for enzymes, protein, cellular differentials an cytochemical analysis. Pulmonary macrophages were cultured and studied for morphology, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The lungs of additional animals were fixed for light microscopic histopathology and autoradiography, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where particle/fiber deposition and translocation were assessed. The results from biochemical and cellular studies support the conclusion that silica and crocidolite are substantially more toxic to the lungs than wollastonite or carbonyl iron, and serves to lend support to the establishment of this method as a reliable shortterm bioassay for evaluating the lung toxicity following inhalation of a variety of inhaled materials

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  2. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  3. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsana, R; Chandrasehar, G; Deepa, V; Gowthami, Y; Chitrikha, T; Ayyappan, S; Goparaju, A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95% confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L(-1), respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L(-1). Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea. PMID:26350898

  4. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  5. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION OF TALISADYA CHURNA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARAG JAIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Talisadya churna includes several herbal drugs which have been traditionally by ethnic groups for treating vomiting, flatulence with gurgling sound, cough, asthma, fever, anorexia, indigestion, diarrhoea, cachexia, splenic disease, malabsorption syndrome and anaemia. Object: The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Talisadya churna, a polyherbal formulation, in experimental animal models. Material and methods: In an acute toxicity study, Talisadya churna was administered orally at groups of animals of a single sex are dosed in a stepwise procedure using the fixed doses of 5, 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg a period of at least 24 hours were allowed between the dosing of each animal and then were observed for 14 days. Result: The results indicated there were no toxic symptoms up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg p.o. In a subacute toxicity study, Talisadya churna was tested at different dose level of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 28 days. There were no adverse effects on general condition, growth, feed and water consumption, clinical chemistry values and hematological parameters. The vital organs of animals treated with Talisadya churna for 28 days did not show any histopathological evidence of pathological lesions. Conclusion: The result obtained in this study allowed us to conclude that the Talisadya

  6. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Silva, J H; Lima, C R; Silva, E J R; Araújo, A V; Fraga, M C C A; Ribeiro E Ribeiro, A; Arruda, A C; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2008-03-28

    Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as Andiroba in Brazil, has been used by Amazon Rainforest indigenous communities for treatment of coughs, convulsions, skin diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, ear infections, to heal wounds and bruises and as an insect repellent. Carapa guianensis seed oil (SO) was evaluated for its acute and subacute toxicity (30 days) by the oral route in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity test, SO (0.625-5.0g/kg, n=5/sex) did not produce any hazardous symptoms or deaths. The subacute treatment with SO (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5g/kg, n=10/group) failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Hematological analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. However, in the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum level (29%) in the group SO 1.5g/kg. In addition, absolute and relative liver weights were increased at the doses of 0.75g/kg (23.4 and 19.1%) and 1.5g/kg (18.7 and 33.1%). In conclusion, acute and subacute administration of Carapa guianensis seed oil did not produce toxic effects in male Wistar rats. However, the increase in the ALT serum level and in both absolute and relative liver weights may indicate a possible hepatic toxicity. PMID:18281172

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  8. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  9. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  10. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  11. Acute toxicity modeling of rainbow trout and silver sea bream exposed to waterborne metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Lin, M C

    2001-01-01

    Of three proposed acute toxicity models, the uptake-depuration (UD) model, the time-integrated concentration (TIC) model, and the concentration-time (CT) model are derived and verified with acute toxicity data to estimate the internal residues of waterborne metals in fish as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the depuration rate constant (k2). The UD model is based on the concept of residue levels at the cell membrane well correlating with the whole-body concentrations, whereas the TIC and the CT models are based on the idea of irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) governing the metal acute toxicity in that metals in the entire fish or in the aqueous phase can be described by the critical area under the time-concentration curve that is associated with a critical TIC of toxicant in the target tissue. A highly significant correlation (r2 > 0.9) was found between predictions and LC50(t) data for both the TIC and the CT models, indicating successfully describe 4- to 18-d LC50(t) data of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and Co/Cu mixture in rainbow trout (Oncorhyuchus mykiss) and of Cu in fingerlings and subadults of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba). The time-dependent lethal internal concentration at the site of action that causes 50% mortality is also predicted for a given compound and species. It concludes that the TIC and the CT models can be applied to regulate the acute toxicity and to estimate incipient LC50 values and internal residues of waterborne metals in fish. PMID:11501285

  12. INVESTIGATION ON THE ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY OFALHAGI GRAECORUM IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Gargum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the acute and subacute toxicity of Alhagi Graecorum (Camel Thorn in mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the acute toxicity (LD50 and sub acute toxicity of camel thorn in mice. For determination of LD50, mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into nine groups each of 6 animals and received 130, 330, 660, 1300, 2600, 4200, 5000, 5900 and 6900 mg/kg orally of camel thorn water extract respectively. The sign and symptoms of toxicity and the number of died animals in each group were registered and the LD50 was calculated.Another group of Male albino mice weighed 25-30 g were divided into control and different treated group each of 6 mice and placed in the metabolism cages that allowed daily measurement of food and water consumption. The control received normal saline whereas the other groups received 130, 660, 1300 mg/kg (i.p, daily of camel thorn extract (CTErespectively, for two weeks.. The animals were weighed daily for any sign of reduction or gain of body weight. The food and water consumption were daily calculated. At the end of this experiment, the mice were killed and blood was collected and used for the determination of glucose and the serum creatinine,urea, aspartate, aminotransferase, (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.The liver of the animals were removed,fixed in 10%formaline for histopathological investigation. The LD50 was equal to 5400mg/kg.Results of sub acute toxicity studies revealed that no significant weight reduction were observed in treated groups as compared to control, however the food consumption was significantly increased in the mice received 660mg/kg of CTE . Also the water consumption was significantly decreased in the animal receiving 1300mg/kg of CTE.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  14. Kinetics, intermediates and acute toxicity of arsanilic acid photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Cun; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Arsanilic acid (4-amino phenyl arsenic acid, ASA) is widely used in poultry production as feed additives, while most of ASA in the feed is excreted in the animal manure and released into the environment. However, the environmental behaviors of ASA were not well understood. In the present study, the photolysis behaviors of ASA and the toxicity of its metabolites to luminescent bacterium were studied. The results showed that ASA could be photodegraded and this process was strongly affected by solution pH, humic acid and dissolved oxygen. Upon UV irradiation for 360 min, ASA could be completely eliminated, but the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was not significant. In addition, NH4(+) ions and inorganic arsenic including arsenite and arsenate were identified as the predominant end-products. The conversion of ASA included both direct and indirect photolysis involving radicals, and its possible photolysis pathways were proposed on the basis of the identified intermediates. Unfortunately, higher adverse effects of the conversion products of ASA on bacteria were observed during the photolysis reaction. The results of present study might be helpful for assessing the environmental persistence and risks of ASA. PMID:24405966

  15. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES ON SHODHANA PROCESSED GUGGUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Taru, Mukta Abhyankar*, Vaishali Undale and Ashok Bhosale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda– The science of life is known to the mankind since time immemorial. It prolongs life span, maintains positive health and cures diseases. Due to its high effectiveness, popularity and the socio-economic status it was recognized as an independent branch of learning and has been known as “Rasa Shastra” and “Rasa chikitsa” in the field of Ayurveda. After the development of rasa Shastra it was made possible for the minerals and metals, precious and semiprecious stones to pass through various pharmaceutical processes like shodhana, Marana etc. for several times so as to convert these in to a form or compound which may suit to the human body and could be observed and assimilated easily into the system without exhibiting any toxic symptom. There are two objectives to purify a natural herb. There are two objectives of purification. First is to remove the external and internal impurities. The second reason is to increase the medicinal value. The shodhana processes of guggul can be done by general purification and specific purification. Present work involves study of hematological, biochemical, Histopathological changes in mice treated with Guggul before and after shodhana process.

  16. High-dose inhaled salbutamol has no acute effects on aerobic capacity or oxygen uptake kinetics in healthy trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Jansen, T;

    2012-01-01

    enrolled nine healthy well-trained men in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were randomized to inhalation of 40 puffs of 0.2 mg salbutamol or two placebo tablets and performed an incremental test to exhaustion and three submaximal tests at 75% of peak power to determine...... oxygen uptake kinetics. During the incremental test, there were no effects of inhaled salbutamol on VO(2max) in absolute or relative terms, and no effect on peak power and lactate threshold. During the submaximal test, we found no effects on the time constant, time delay, the mean response time or O(2...

  17. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  18. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  19. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  20. Isolation and characterization of the acutely toxic compounds in oil sands process water from Syncrude and Suncor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. A study was carried out to assess the acute toxicity of wastewater from tailings ponds and to identify the acutely toxic fraction of the wastewater. The Microtox bacterial bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox effective concentration (EC50; analogous to the LC50, lethal concentration at which 50% mortality occurs) of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 265 and 460 ml of sample water per liter of test solution. Daphnia LC50 varied between 760-980 ml/l and rainbow trout LC50 was 125 ml/l. All, or part of the acute toxicity of the process water can be accounted for by the following classes of compounds. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, removed by solid phase extraction with C18 sorbent account for 100% of acute toxicity of all samples. Organic acids, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also account for 100% of acute toxicity except from pond 1A at Suncor. In this pond organic acids account for 55-60% of acute toxicity and non-polar organic volatile compounds account for 20-35% with the balance being composed of non-polar organic compounds that are neither volatile nor organic acids that precipitate at pH 2.5. 22 refs., 17 figs

  1. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  2. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (pneon shrimp.

  3. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaotham, Chatchai; Chivapat, Songpol; Chaikitwattana, Anan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE) was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD₅₀ = 10.25 g/kg). The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11-1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550-1,100 mg/kg/day). These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans. PMID:24286075

  4. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Chaotham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD50=10.25 g/kg. The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans.

  5. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender. PMID:24369482

  6. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  7. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2011-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  8. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  9. Acute Toxicity Prediction in Multiple Species by Leveraging Mechanistic ToxCast Mitochondrial Inhibition Data and Simulation of Oral Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Bartels, Michael J; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Price, Paul S; Carney, Edward W

    2015-10-01

    There is great interest in assessing the in vivo toxicity of chemicals using nonanimal alternatives. However, acute mammalian toxicity is not adequately predicted by current in silico or in vitro approaches. Mechanisms of acute toxicity are likely conserved across invertebrate, aquatic, and mammalian species, suggesting that dose-response concordance would be high and in vitro mechanistic data could predict responses in multiple species under conditions of similar bioavailability. We tested this hypothesis by comparing acute toxicity between rat, daphnia, and fish and by comparing their respective acute data to inhibition of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast in vitro high-throughput screening data. Logarithmic scatter plots of acute toxicity data showed a clear relationship between fish, daphnia, and intravenous rat but not oral rat data. Similar plots versus MMP showed a well-delineated upper boundary for fish, daphnia, and intravenous data but were scattered without an upper boundary for rat oral data. Adjustments of acute oral rat toxicity values by simulating fractional absorption and CYP-based metabolism as well as removing compounds with hydrolyzable linkages or flagged as substrates for glucuronidation delineated an upper boundary for rat oral toxicity versus MMP. Mitochondrial inhibition at low concentrations predicted highly acutely toxic chemicals for fish and daphnia but not the rat where toxicity was often attenuated. This use of a single high-throughput screening assay to predict acute toxicity in multiple species represents a milestone and highlights the promise of such approaches but also the need for refined tools to address systemic bioavailability and the impact of limited absorption and first pass metabolism.

  10. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  11. Acute Copper and Cupric Ion Toxicity in an Estuarine Microbial Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Copper was acutely toxic to the estuarine microbial community of Middle Marshes, N.C. Under ambient water quality conditions, 10 μg of added total copper [Cu(II)] liter−1 reduced the CFU bacterial abundance by up to 60% and inhibited the amino acid turnover rate (AATR) by as much as 30%. Copper toxicity, however, was a quantitative function of free cupric ion (Cu2+) activity that was not directly related to Cu(II) or ligand-bound copper. By using a nitrilotriacetic acid-cupric ion buffer to c...

  12. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  13. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBT

  14. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  15. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  17. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  18. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were d...

  19. Acute toxicity of whole-pelvis IMRT in 87 patients with localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Bicquart, Celine; Little, Michael; Chen, George; Berilgen, Jason (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (US)); Endres, Eugene J.; Parker, Brent C. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (US))

    2008-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the acute toxicity profile of whole pelvis IMRT (WP-IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. Materials. Eighty seven patients treated with definitive WP-IMRT at UTMB from May 2002 to November 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment consisted of two sequential phases, WP-IMRT to 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the pelvic nodes and seminal vesicles and 60 Gy at 2 Gy to the prostate, and a separate external beam boost, 3DCRT or IMRT, to bring the dose to the prostate to 76 Gy. Acute toxicity was prospectively scored weekly during treatment and at 3 month follow-up according to CTC v2.0 for 10 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) domains. The proportion of patients experiencing a given level of peak acute toxicity at a given point is reported. Results. Treatment was feasible with delivered doses to PTVs not significantly lower than planned ones and with only two patients experiencing treatment gaps longer than 5 days. About 2/3 and 1/10 of the patients experienced peak grade 2 and grade 3 reactions at least once during RT, respectively. Frequency/urgency (Grade 2+: 37.9%) and diarrhea (36.7%) were the most prevalent symptoms followed by proctitis (21.8%) and dysuria (16.1%). GI reactions were generally shorter lasting compared to GU ones which accumulated progressively during treatment. At 3 months, almost half of the patients were asymptomatic and most of observed reactions (89.2%) were mild, with GI ones more likely to be fully resolved (92.5%) than GU ones (68.7%, 2, p=0.001). Conclusion. Our approach is dosimetrically and clinically feasible with intense, but transient, acute toxicity

  20. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Fan Zhang; Kang Xiao; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Ying Xu; Ke Pan; Wen-Xiong Wang; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2011-01-01

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD's guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l(-1), which was among one of the h...

  1. Substance use - inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... consumered.org/learn/inhalant-abuse National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/inhalants SMART ...

  2. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.;

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates:  (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific ......On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates:  (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass......-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...

  3. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  4. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P>0.05 in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  6. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  7. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+, zinc (Zn2+, potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  8. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  9. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  10. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188). Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174). Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271). The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179) and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027), ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033) and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088) in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment compared to patients treated with non-IGRT. Onset of these

  11. ACUTE AND SUB-CHORONIC ORAL TOXICITY OF ASIATICOSIDE TO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarajan Sampath

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The components in Centellaasiatica (gotukala, vallarai was reported to possess different biological activities in various in vitro and in vivo test models including gastric ulcer healing, wound healing, memory enhancing, immunomodulating effects along with cytotoxic, neuroprotective, antioxidant potential. Asiaticoside is one of the major triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centellaasiatica. Currently, there is no evidence for safety details of asiaticoside in experimental mice. The purpose of this study is to explore the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicities of asiaticoside. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted by giving 300-5000 mgkg-1 bodyweight of asiaticoside and the animals were observed after 1 h administration of the drug and also examined after 14 days of administration for mortality and morbidity.The lethal dose (LD50 was found to greater than 2000 mgkg⁻¹ bodyweight. In sub-chronic oral toxicity studies, the selected oral doses were 200, 500, 1000 mgkg⁻¹and the evaluation was carried out after 90 days of oral administration of asiaticoside. Biochemical, histopathological and hematological changes along with body and relative organ weights of the mice were analysed and significant changes were observed in the mice treated with 1000 mgkg-1 of asiaticoside.. The observed results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA which suggested that Asiaticoside does not possess any toxic effect up to 500mg/kg bodyweight and it is best suited for any kind of future application related to its efficacy.

  12. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  13. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  14. Comparison of acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemo-radiotherapy has become the standard of care for loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancers. Platinum based regimens are the most effective. Although benefits are proven with chemo-radiation, acute toxicities are markedly increased. The dose and delivery schedules of Cisplatin have ranged from intermittent higher dose [100 mg/m2] every 3 weeks to low dose [6 mg/m2] daily administration. At present there is no data indicating which regimen is superior. Purpose: To compare acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 head and neck cancer patients treated with two schedules of concurrent chemo RT were analyzed, retrospectively, for treatment toxicity. In group A [51 patients], chemotherapy [CT] was administered on week 1, 4 and 7 [cisplatin 100 mg/m2] over a period of 2-3 days. In group B [32 patients], CT was delivered weekly [cisplatin 40 mg/m2]. Radiotherapy dose was 7000 cGy in 35 fractions for definitive concurrent chemo-radiation and 6600 cGy in 33 fractions for adjuvant treatment. Results: Group B patients had increased grade III skin and hematological toxicity, where as patients in group A had more pharyngeal toxicity. Treatment interruptions and percentage of weight loss were higher in group B. Weekly CT schedule had higher rate of severe mucositis, which was statistically significant on both univariate [ P =0.005] and multivariate [ P =0.007] analysis. Conclusions: Three weekly CT is less toxic than weekly. Weekly CT can be made more acceptable by reducing the dose and using feeding tubes for nutrition.

  15. Plant-derived compounds: acute toxicity, synergism, and effects on insect enzyme activity and flight motor responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Waliwitiya, Ranil

    2011-01-01

    Botanical extracts may contain compounds that have insecticidal properties that may be developed as inexpensive insecticides. In this thesis, I used a series of techniques to identify the acute toxicities and modes of action of plant-derived compounds against the Yellow Fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and the blowfly Phaenicia sericata. Initially I evaluated the acute toxicity of 16 phytochemicals on aquatic and terrestrial insects alone or with the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to quantify...

  16. NMR-based metabolomics to determine acute inhalation effects of nano- and fine-sized ZnO particles in the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Han; Wang, Ting-Yi; Hong, Jia-Huei; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles induce acute occupational inhalation illness in humans and rats. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of ZnO particles on the respiratory system remain unclear. In this study, metabolic responses of the respiratory system of rats inhaled ZnO particles were investigated by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approach. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a series of doses of nano-sized (35 nm) or fine-sized (250 nm) ZnO particles. The corresponding control groups inhaled filtered air. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected, extracted and prepared for (1)H and J-resolved NMR analysis, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PCA and PLSDA models from analysis of BALF and hydrophilic lung NMR spectra demonstrated that dose response trends were restricted to the 250 nm ZnO particle exposure group and were not observed in the 35 nm ZnO particle exposure group. Increased isoleucine and valine, as well as decreased acetate, trimethylamine n-oxide, taurine, glycine, formate, ascorbate and glycerophosphocholine, were recorded in the BALF of rats treated with moderate and high dose 250 nm ZnO exposures. Decreases in taurine and glucose, as well as an increase of phosphorylcholine-containing lipids and fatty acyl chains, were detected in the lung tissues from 250 nm ZnO-treated rats. These metabolic changes may be associated with cell anti-oxidation, energy metabolism, DNA damage and membrane stability. We also concluded that a metabolic approach provides more complete measurements and suggests potential molecular mechanisms of adverse effects. PMID:27245357

  17. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  18. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah; Mohd. Shahimi Mustafa; Pinaki Senguptha; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Arindam Das; Sreemoy Kanti Das

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety dose range of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Pericampylus glaucus(Lam.) Merr. by acute and sub-acute oral toxicity study on animal model. Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicity study was carried out as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423 and 407. In acute toxicity study, the oral dose (300, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg) of tested plant extract was administered to three groups in single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 h and compared to normal group. In sub-acute study, the tested crude plant extract was administered orally at doses of 600 and 1 000 mg/kg for 28 days to the two animals groups and their body weight, hematological, serum hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared to normal group by sacrificing all group animals. Results: In acute toxicity, all treated groups’ revealed neither mortality nor any significant alteration in behavior only drowsiness, sedation and lethargy were observed in two group, i.e. 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg of the tested plant extract. In sub-acute toxicity study no change in hematological, biochemical parameter and organ body weight were observed during study compared to the normal group. The kidney function parameters [serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate transaminase), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine transaminase)] were significantly increased following administration of tested crude plant extract (600, 1 000 mg/kg). Conclusions:The result indicates that the oral administration ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  19. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  20. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  1. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  2. Acute toxicity after a diverting stoma and spacer prior to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). For grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea there is a relationship between dose and irradiated small bowel volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined placement of a diverting stoma and sigmoid spacer (DSSS) led to reduced irradiated small bowel volume and less grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea in the treatment of LARC. Materials/methods: Between 2003 and 2010, 54 of 189 LARC patients treated with CRT in two institutions had a DSSS prior to CRT. Data on patient and treatment characteristics and outcomes were collected retrospectively. Delineation of small bowel was performed with planning CT-scans. CTCAE version 4.0 was used for acute toxicity. Results: Patients with a DSSS had significantly less small bowel volume irradiated up to doses of 20 Gy. This difference was not observed for the higher dose levels. CRT induced grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea was not different between the two groups (8.3% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.41). Conclusion: DSSS is not clearly beneficial to reduce grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea, and it must be considered whether placement of a DSSS is justified for this purpose

  3. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  4. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension: acute vasoresponsiveness to inhaled nitric oxide and the relation to long-term effect of sildenafil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Iversen, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Severe pulmonary sarcoidosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms. Objectives: To assess the acute vasoresponsiveness in patients with sarcoidosis and PH and the relation to the therapeutic effect of sildenafil....... Methods: A retrospective chart review of 25 patients with recalcitrant pulmonary sarcoidosis being evaluated for lung transplantation at our centre. Haemodynamics were evaluated by right heart catheterisation in 24 patients of whom 19 had PH. Eight of the 19 patients received vasodilator challenge...... with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Results: The study group of eight patients (seven men) had a median age of 51 years (range 38 years-58 years). During iNO we observed a reduction in all patients' mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) of median 9 mmHg (range 1 mmHg-20 mmHg) (P = 0.01) and in all patients...

  5. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  6. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy

  7. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  8. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  10. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  11. Potentiated interaction between ineffective doses of budesonide and formoterol to control the inhaled cadmium-induced up-regulation of metalloproteinases and acute pulmonary inflammation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids are well known but their protective effects exerted with a low potency against heavy metals-induced pulmonary inflammation remain unclear. In this study, a model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by a single inhalation of cadmium in male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate whether formoterol can improve the anti-inflammatory effects of budesonide. The cadmium-related inflammatory responses, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity, were evaluated. Compared to the values obtained in rats exposed to cadmium, pretreatment of inhaled budesonide (0.5 mg/15 ml elicited a significant decrease in total cell and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF associated with a significant reduction of MMP-9 activity which was highly correlated with the number of inflammatory cells in BALF. Additionally, cadmium-induced lung injuries characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration within alveoli and the interstitium were attenuated by the pre-treatment of budesonide. Though the low concentration of budesonide (0.25 mg/15 ml exerted a very limited inhibitory effects in the present rat model, its combination with an inefficient concentration of formoterol (0.5 mg/30 ml showed an enhanced inhibitory effect on neutrophil and total cell counts as well as on the histological lung injuries associated with a potentiation of inhibition on the MMP-9 activity. In conclusion, high concentration of budesonide alone could partially protect the lungs against cadmium exposure induced-acute neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation via the inhibition of MMP-9 activity. The combination with formoterol could enhance the protective effects of both drugs, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heavy metals-induced lung diseases.

  12. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer - Longer duration of acute genitourinary toxicity in patients with prior history of invasive urological procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odrazka, Karel; Vanasek, Jaroslav; Vaculikova, Miloslava; Petera, Jiri; Zouhar, Milan; Zoul, Zdenk; Stejskal, Jan; Skrabkova, Zuzana; Kadeka, David [Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    2001-11-01

    The incidence and predictors of acute toxicity were evaluated in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. Between December 1997 and November 1999, 116 patients with T1-T3 prostatic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. Ninety patients were treated with 70 Gy and 26 patients with T3 tumors received 74 Gy. Of the 116 patients 42 (36.2%) had a prior history of invasive urological procedure (IUP) (transurethral resection of the prostate or transvesical prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia). Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) symptoms were graded according to the EORTC/RTOG scoring system. Toxicity duration after the completion of 3D-CRT was recorded. The majority of patients experienced only mild or no (Grade 1) acute toxicities. Medications for GI and GU symptoms (Grade 2) were required by 28.4% and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Only one case of Grade 3 GI toxicity (0.9%) was observed. Seven patients (6.1%) experienced severe GU toxicity (Grade 3 or 4). No correlation was found between acute toxicity and age, stage, dose (70 Gy vs. 74 Gy), IUP and pelvic lymphadenectomy. A significant relationship was observed between the duration of acute GU toxicity and prior IUP. Symptoms persisted for more than 4 weeks in 51.9% and 26.0% of patients with and without a prior history of IUP, respectively (p = 0.02). The incidence of acute complications, associated with 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, was acceptable in our cohort of patients. A prior history of IUP resulted in a significantly longer duration of acute GU toxicity.

  13. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  14. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. PMID:27243931

  15. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.

  16. 氟氯氰菊酯亚急性吸入毒性实验研究%Inhalation toxicity of cyfluthrin for 28-day repeated dose in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦珩; 乔善磊; 顾军; 钟义红; 杨洪宝; 王玉邦; 施爱民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the inhalation toxicity and find the non -observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of cyfluthrin for a 28-day repeated dose in rats. Methods Clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 5 females and 5 males in each. The animals inhaled DMSO or cyfluthrin at the concentration of 0, 7. 81 , 9. 05 and 18. 98 mg/m for 4 weeks (6 h/d, 5 d/w). At the end of inhalation , all the animals were kindly sacrificed. Their organs were collected for histopathological examination . Blood samples were collected for analysis of complete blood count , biochemistry and coagulation. Results The animals in 18. 98 mg/m3 group were found scratching repeatedly around the mouth, listless, fidgeting, trembling, discharging blood around the mouth and nose . However, symptoms in females were less serious than in males. Furthermore , the body mass , feed efficiency , weight of kidney of animals in this dose male group were found decreased compared with the control group . Biochemistry detection revealed that serum AST was elevated markedly in both genders of 18. 98 mg/m3 group and in males of 9. 05 mg/m3 group. No obvious abnormity was found in 7.81 mg/m3 group or control group. Conclusion Based on the results above, the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of cyfluthrin in SD rats is 7. 81 mg/m3 for 28 d repeated inhalation in this study.%目的 观察氟氯氰菊酯染毒大鼠亚急性吸入毒性.方法 7周龄清洁级SD大鼠随机分成5组,每组雌雄各5只,分别吸入氟氯氰菊酯0,7.81,9.05,18.98 mg/m3及溶剂二甲亚砜,每天6 h,每周5 d,共28 d.实验结束时取血液做常规生化指标、血细胞指标、血凝学指标检测.取心、肝、脾等8种主要脏器称重并做病理组织学检查.结果 18.98 mg/m3组动物在染毒中呈现反复抓挠口周、烦躁不安、鼻有血性分泌物、颤抖,染毒结束后呈现萎靡、蜂腰、四肢无力的体征.雌性动物的毒性表现较雄性低.与溶剂对照组相

  17. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  18. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy) and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years). Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67%) treatment courses, of which 2 (13%) were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%). Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58%) evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23%) were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42%) courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy

  19. Acute Oral Toxicity Study of GAL-57 (Bentazon + Dicamba Herbicide in Rats

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    Dragica Brkić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute oral toxicity study of the herbicide GAL-57 (Avalon, a mixture of bentazon and dicamba as active ingredients, was conducted to assess its acute oral toxicity to rats, using a new method that has been used in the past several years (2001. Clinical observations were performed for all animals after different time intervals, and gross necropsy was performed at termination of examination. Clinical symptoms (decreased activity, prone position, abnormal limb position, decreased righting reflex, decreased grip and limb tone, decreased body and abdominal tone and dyspnoea from mild to marked degree were noted after administration of 2000 mg/kg. Animals were found dead 30 minutes to one hour after the treatment. GAL-57 did not cause any clinical sings at single 300 mg/kg bw dose. The physical condition and behaviour of animals were normal during the 14-day observation period. The acute oral LD-50 value of the GAL-57 proved to be between 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight in rats and was ranked into Poison group III according to Serbian criteria, category 4 of the Global Harmonized Classification System and Category III of the EPA classification.

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  1. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  2. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  3. Hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of chromium methionine complexes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hai-yan; Xiao, Qing-gui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of chromium methionine (CrMet) in alloxan-induced diabetic (AID) mice was investigated and compared with those of chromium trichloride hexahydrate (CrCl3·6H2O) and chromium nicotinate (CrNic) through a 15-day feeding experiment. The acute oral toxicity of CrMet was also investigated in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice by a single oral gavage. The anti-diabetic activity of CrMet was explored in detail from the aspects of body weight (BW), blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, liver glycogen levels, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. The obtained results showed that CrMet had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and might possess hepatoprotective efficacy for diabetes. Daily treatment with 500 and 1000μg Cr/kg BW of CrMet in AID mice for 15 days indicated that this low-molecular-weight organic chromium complex had better bioavailability and more beneficial effects on diabetics than CrCl3·6H2O. CrMet also had advantage over CrNic in the control of AST and ALT activities. Acute toxicity studies revealed that CrMet had low toxicity potential and relatively high safety margins in mice with the LD50 value higher than 10.0g/kg BW. These findings suggest that CrMet might be of potential value in the therapy and protection of diabetes.

  4. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  5. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  6. Comparação do corticoide inalatório e oral no tratamento da disfonia aguda Use of inhaled versus oral steroids for acute dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Moreira Veiga de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A disfonia aguda é um quadro comum na prática clínica. Seu tratamento, principalmente em adultos, não é bem definido na literatura. O corticoide é o tratamento medicamentoso mais recomendado. Os estudos existentes, entretanto, não são suficientes para a determinação da superioridade entre diferentes corticoides e a melhor forma de administração. OBJETIVO: Este estudo clínico prospectivo teve como objetivo comparar o efeito do corticoide inalatório na forma de pó seco com o efeito do corticoide oral, no tratamento da disfonia aguda. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 32 pacientes adultos, divididos em dois grupos de 16 pacientes para cada um dos tratamentos, antes e após sete dias do uso da medicação. Os pacientes foram submetidos à videolaringosocpia e avaliação perceptiva e acústica da voz. RESULTADOS: O tratamento inalatório e oral reduziram significativamente a hiperemia, o edema e melhorou o movimento muco-ondulatório; entretanto, a redução do edema foi estatisticamente mais significativa (p = 0,012 nos pacientes tratados com a forma inalatória. A comparação dos valores da análise perceptiva auditiva e das medidas acústicas após tratamento entre os grupos, entretanto, não apresentou significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Houve melhora significativa da laringite aguda nas avaliações realizadas, em todos os pacientes estudados, com os dois tratamentos. O tratamento com corticoide inalatório foi significativamente mais efetivo na redução do edema.Acute dysphonia is a frequent condition in clinical practice. Its treatment, especially in adults, is not well established in the literature. Steroids are the most recommended drug treatment. However, the existing studies are not enough to establish superiority among the different steroids and the best route of administration. OBJECTIVE: This prospective clinical study aimed at comparing the effect of inhaling steroids as a dry powder with the effect of oral steroids to

  7. Treatment-related toxicities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia predisposition syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) do not harbor germline mutations that strongly predispose them to development of this malignancy, large syndrome registries and detailed mapping of exomes or whole genomes of familial leukaemia kindreds have revealed that 3-5% of all...... anticancer agents, while others are not. This review summarises our current knowledge on the risk of acute toxicities for these ALL patients and provides guidance for treatment adjustments....... patients is important in order to adjust therapy and offer genetic counseling and cancer surveillance to mutation carriers in the family. In the coming years large genomic screening projects are expected to reveal further hitherto unrecognised familial ALL syndromes. The treatment of ALL cases harboring...

  8. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity after Drug Holiday: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is reported to cause a wide continuum of serious clinical effects. It is often challenging to detect Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT. Typically, the diagnosis is made based on the clinical settings and may be supported by histopathology results, if available. We describe a 57-year-old patient who developed severe rapidly progressive respiratory failure secondary to AIPT with acute bilateral infiltrates and nodular opacities on chest imaging. Interestingly, Amiodarone was discontinued 3 weeks prior to his presentation. He had normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated acute lung injury induced by Amiodarone, three weeks after therapy cessation, with adequate clinical improvement after supportive management and high dose steroid therapy.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time. PMID:22940740

  10. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  11. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n=60. Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P<0.05 at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P<0.05 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P<0.05 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  12. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  13. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn;

    2015-01-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore......, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120 h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear...... was not attributed to impaired swim bladder inflation, but rather to baseline toxicity. We conclude that silicone O-rings (1) produce a linear dilution series of phenanthrene in the 120 hpf FET test, (2) generate and maintain aqueous concentrations for reliable determination of effect concentrations, and allow...

  14. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  15. Acute Toxicity of Formalin to the Red-tide Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Schiller (Protozoa, Mastigophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; SONG Weibo; ZHU Mingzhuang; QIU Yantao; MA Honggang

    2005-01-01

    The acute toxic levels of formalin to a marine red-tide dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Schiller(Mastigophora,Dinoflagellida) were determined by linear regression analysis. The data obtained revealed that there is a close regression relationship between logarithmic concentrations of formalin and mortality probit scales of the organism whenexposure times are1, 2, 6, 12, 24 h. The median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) obtained from correlation analysis for these exposure times (with 95% confidence intervals), were 11.83, 6.76, 4.37, 4.27 and 3.98mgL-1, respectively. A toxicity curve was obtained to connect the exposure time and LC50 value from the correlation between them. The results indicated that P. minimum could be killed or fixed by formalin in the concentration range of 4-12 mgL-1 within 1-24 h.

  16. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6–79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of ≥2 were considered “sensitive” (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered “nonsensitive” (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70–82%) of the “nonsensitive” patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43–62%) of the “sensitive” patients (log–rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; “nonsensitive” 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74–86%) vs. “sensitive” BFFR was 68% (CI 58–76%; log–rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop ≥Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further study and, if validated

  17. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  18. Evaluation of acute toxicity of copper cyanide to freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosetti BASALING

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of copper cyanide to the juveniles of Indian major carp Catla catla (2±0.5 cm was evaluated under static renewal conditions. The concentrations of copper cyanide that killed 50% of the carp fingerlings within 96-h (96-h LC50 was found to be 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L. Fishes exhibited abnormal swimming activity, followed by frequent gill flapping, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, hyperactivity, convolutions. The respiratory rate of the fish got severely affected (-63.41%± 0.002 when exposed to copper cyanide.

  19. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  20. ACUTE TOXICITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL TO GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Manrique, W.; Machado-Neto, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    The fipronil is an insecticide that has broad-spectrum of action to insect's control. Due the great volume applied in agriculture, it has the possibility of the fipronil to be leached, to suffer to runoff or drift, being able to reach the aquatic way and to provide danger for the aquatic population. To determine the acute toxicity and fipronil environmental risk on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) 105 adult fishes were exposed at seven concentrations: 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.1...

  1. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  2. Assessing delayed and acute toxicity of five formulated fungicides to Osmia lignaria Say and Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Ladurner, Edith; Bosch, Jordi; P. Kemp, William; Maini, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    International audience The delayed and acute toxicity of benomyl (Benlate®), captan (Captan 50WP), iprodione (Rovral®), propiconazole (OrbitTM), and neem oil (Trilogy®) to two crop pollinators, A. mellifera and O. lignaria, was evaluated. Survival after contact and oral single exposure to high doses of the pesticides was compared to survival of controls with the dosing vehicle. LD50 values at 24, 48 and 72 h from exposure were determined. Contact and oral exposure to benomyl and iprodione ...

  3. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesprini, Danny [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jacks, Lindsay; Lockwood, Gina [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network), Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Nichol, Alan; Skala, Marketa; Warde, Padraig [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bristow, Robert G., E-mail: robert.bristow@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6-79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of {>=}2 were considered 'sensitive' (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered 'nonsensitive' (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70-82%) of the 'nonsensitive' patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43-62%) of the 'sensitive' patients (log-rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; 'nonsensitive' 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74-86%) vs. 'sensitive' BFFR was 68% (CI 58-76%; log-rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop {>=}Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further

  4. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Tassanee Eamkamon; Sirawut Klinbunga; Kumthorn Thirakhupt; Piamsak Menasveta; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L) and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L) concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in sh...

  5. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  6. QSARS for Acute Toxicity of Halogenated Benzenes to Bacteria in Natural Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN-GHUA LU; CHAO WANG; YU-MEI LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To measure the acute toxicity of halogenated benzenes to bacteria in natural waters and to study quantitative relationships between the structure and activity of chemicals. Methods The concentration values causing 50% inhibition of bacteria growth (24h-IC50) were determined according to the bacterial growth inhibition test method. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the net charge of carbon atom of 20 halogenated benzenes were calculated by the quantum chemical MOPAC program. Results The log1/IC50 values ranged from 4.79 for 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to 3.65 for chlorobenzene. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was derived from the toxicity and structural parameters: log1/IC50 =-0.531(ELUMO)+1.693(Qc)+0.163(logP)+3.375. This equation was found to fit well (r2=0.860, s=0.106), and the average percentage error was only 1.98%. Conclusion Halogenated benzenes and alkyl halogenated benzenes are non-polar narcotics, and have hydrophobicity-dependent toxicity. The halogenated phenols and anilines exhibit a higher toxic potency than their hydrophobicity, whereas 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is electrophile with the halogen acting as the leaving group.

  7. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  8. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  9. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  10. Acute Toxicity of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Three Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungile P. Lukhele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxicity of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs to three aquatic organisms, namely, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia pulex, and Poecilia reticulata under the influence of exposure media properties specifically the ionic strength and organic matter represented by humic acid. Results indicated that ionic strength enhanced DWCNTs agglomeration whilst humic acid stabilized the CNTs and in turn inhibited the formation of aggregates. LC50s for D. pulex were higher at 2.81 and 4.45 mg/L for pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively; however, P. reticulata had lower values of 113.64 mg/L and 214.0 mg/L for the same CNTs correspondingly. P. subcapitata had EC50s of 17.95 mg/L and 10.93 mg/L for the pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from toxic effects of DWCNTs. Overall, our findings suggest that the toxicity of DWCNTs in the aquatic systems (i will be dependent on media properties and (ii is likely to proceed at different rates to organisms at different trophic levels.

  11. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  12. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  14. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  15. The epidemiology and patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with recreational ketamine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjeet S. Kalsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine was originally synthesised for use as a dissociative anaesthetic, and it remains widely used legitimately for this indication. However, there is increasing evidence of non-medical recreational use of ketamine, particularly in individuals who frequent the night-time economy. The population-level and sub-population (clubbers prevalence of recreational use of ketamine is not known but is likely to be similar, or slightly lower than, that of other recreational drugs such as cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine.The predominant features of acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of ketamine are neuro-behavioural abnormalities such as agitation, hallucinations, anxiety, and psychosis. Secondary to these, individuals put themselves at greater risk of physical harm/trauma. Cardiovascular features (hypertension and tachycardia occur less frequently and the risk of death from recreational use is low and is predominately due to the physical harm/trauma.Long-term recreational use of ketamine can be associated with the development of psychological dependence and tolerance. There are reports of gastro-intestinal toxicity, particularly abdominal pain and abnormal liver function tests, and of neuropsychiatric disorders, typically a schizophrenia-like syndrome, in long-term users. Finally, there are increasing reports of urological disorders, particularly haemorrhagic cystitis, associated with long-term use. The management of these problems associated with the long-term use of ketamine is largely supportive and abstinence from ongoing exposure to ketamine.In this review we will collate the available information on the epidemiology of recreational use of ketamine and describe the patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with its recreational use and the management of this toxicity.

  16. Hypofractionated radiotherapy after conservative surgery for breast cancer: analysis of acute and late toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunesi Sara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules has been proposed after breast conserving surgery in the attempt to shorten the overall treatment time. The aim of the present study is to assess acute and late toxicity of using daily fractionation of 2.25 Gy to a total dose of 45 Gy to the whole breast in a mono-institutional series. Methods Eighty-five women with early breast cancer were assigned to receive 45 Gy followed by a boost to the tumour bed. Early and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. For comparison, a group of 70 patients with similar characteristics and treated with conventional fractionation of 2 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a boost, was retrospectively selected. Results Overall median treatment duration was 29 days for hypofractionated radiotherapy and 37 days for conventional radiotherapy. Early reactions were observed in 72/85 (85% patients treated with hypofractionation and in 67/70 (96% patients treated with conventional fractionation (p = 0.01. Late toxicity was observed in 8 patients (10% in the hypofractionation group and in 10 patients (15% in the conventional fractionation group, respectively (p = 0.4. Conclusions The hypofractionated schedule delivering 45 Gy in 20 fractions shortened the overall treatment time by 1 week with a reduction of skin acute toxicity and no increase of late effects compared to the conventional fractionation. Our results support the implementation of hypofractionated schedules in clinical practice.

  17. Protective effect of berberine on doxorubicin‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyan; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Zhongning; Liu, Huanlong; Guo, Huicai; Xiong, Chen; Xie, Kerang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Su, Suwen

    2016-05-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent broad‑spectrum chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of several types of cancer, is largely limited due to its serious side effects on non‑target organs. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline alkaloid, could reduce DOX‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: i) Control group, ii) DOX group, iii) DOX+Ber (5 mg kg) group; iv) DOX+Ber (10 mg kg), and v) DOX+Ber (20 mg kg) group. In the tests, body weight, organ index, general condition and mortality were observed. In addition, the serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TCHO) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined to evaluate hepatorenal function. Hepatorenal toxicity was further assessed using hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Furthermore, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat serum or tissue homogenate were also assessed to determine the mechanisms of action. Results suggested that pretreatment with Ber ameliorated the DOX‑induced liver and kidney injury by lowering the serum ALT, AST, TCHO and BUN levels, and the damage observed histologically, such as hemorrhage and focal necrosis of liver and kidney tissues induced by DOX were also attenuated by Ber. Furthermore, Ber also exerted certain antioxidative properties through reversing the changes in the levels of MDA, SOD, GSH and MDA induced by DOX. These findings indicate that Ber has protective effects against DOX‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats. Combination of Ber with DOX is a novel strategy that has the potential for protecting against DOX‑induced hepatorenal toxicity in clinical practice. PMID:27035423

  18. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  19. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06–2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22–2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25–2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41–11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12–1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical

  20. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

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    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  1. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  2. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  3. Acute toxicity of silver and carbon nanoaerosols to normal and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannet, Natalie; Fierz, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Künzi, Lisa; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Burtscher, Heinz; Geiser, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) poses a still unknown risk. Individuals with chronic lung diseases are expected to be more vulnerable to adverse effects of NP than normal subjects, due to altered respiratory structures and functions. Realistic and dose-controlled aerosol exposures were performed using the deposition chamber NACIVT. Well-differentiated normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) human bronchial epithelia (HBE) with established air-liquid interface and the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were exposed to spark-generated silver and carbon nanoaerosols (20 nm diameter) at three different doses. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death, pro-inflammatory response, epithelial function and morphology were assessed within 24 h after aerosol exposure. NP exposure resulted in significantly higher necrosis in CF than normal HBE and BEAS-2B cells. Before and after NP treatment, CF HBE had higher caspase-3 activity and secreted more IL-6 and MCP-1 than normal HBE. Differentiated HBE had higher baseline secretion of IL-8 and less caspase-3 activity and MCP-1 secretion compared to BEAS-2B cells. These biomarkers increased moderately in response to NP exposure, except for MCP-1, which was reduced in HBE after AgNP treatment. No functional and structural alterations of the epithelia were observed in response to NP exposure. Significant differences between cell models suggest that more than one and fully differentiated HBE should be used in future toxicity studies of NP in vitro. Our findings support epidemiologic evidence that subjects with chronic airway diseases are more vulnerable to adverse effects of particulate air pollution. Thus, this sub-population needs to be included in nano-toxicity studies.

  4. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF PHENYL QUINOLINE ON WATER FLEA DAPHNIA MAGNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrando Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic ecotoxicological determination of phytonematicide products using the zooplanktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna is important for environmental risk assessment. Evaluations were made of the acute median lethal concentration (LC50 of phenyl quinoline on D. magna, that was 4.12 ug i.a. L-1 at 48 h of exposure. The chronic effects of phenyl quinoline in the mortality rate of the cladoceran D. magna at 17 d of exposure, with 0.18 ug ai L-1 of LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration and 0.072 ug ai L-1 of NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration were determined. Evaluations of the chronic effect of phenyl quinoline on three parameters of growth of D. magna (total length, antenna length and caudal length to 17 d of exposure, only showed significant differences in length of the antenna between the control and 0.072 ug ai L-1 been this the value of LOEC and thus the lower concentration 0.0288 ug ai L-1, the NOEC value for phenyl quinoline. The ratio between acute and chronic toxicity (RAC for the relationship showed acute 48 h exposure on mortality NOEC 17 d a value of 57.22, and for the ratio of acute NOEC on of the length of the antenna to 17 d was a value of 143. The environmental risk assessment (ERA shows that the PEC (Probable Effect Concentration / PNEC (Predicted No-Effect Concentration for acute assay was 582 524 and for the PEC / PNEC for chronic test was 83 333 333. These results demonstrate that phenyl quinoline has a high impact on aquatic biota represented by the trophic level that belongs to D. magna, and therefore shows that the substance is a candidate for a comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment.

  5. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots ofP. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  6. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Aluminium to the Fish (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamda Azmat*, Muhammad Javed and Ghazala Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity tests (96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of aluminium (Al were conducted with three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala of 60, 120 and 240 days age groups at constant water temperature (30oC, pH (7.50 and total hardness (300 mg.L-1 in the wet laboratory. At termination of each trial, the fish were dissected and their organs viz. bones, gills, gut, intestine, kidney, liver, scales, skin, muscles and fats isolated for the determination of Al concentrations. At 60 days, all the three fish species showed significantly (P<0.05 higher sensitivity to Al while 240 days fish were significantly least sensitive. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitivity to Al with the mean 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of 81.68±28.54 and 129.81±30.95 mg.L-1, respectively. Fish organs showed significantly variable ability to concentrate metal during acute exposure of Al. However, liver and kidneys exhibited significantly higher potentials for metals accumulation. From the study it was concluded that all the three fish species responded differently towards Al toxicity.

  8. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties.

  9. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties. PMID:27208746

  10. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02 using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT, chromosome aberration (CA, and micronucleus (MN tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin. The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9. In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight.

  11. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

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    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  12. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

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    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  13. Antibacterial, antioxidant and acute toxicity tests on flavonoids extracted from some medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akroum Souâd

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are well-known for their many therapeutic and pharmaceutical effects. In this study, we tested the antibacterial activity of 11 flavonoids extracted from some medicinal plants by the agar diffusion method. Then, we measured their antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and we also tested their acute toxicity effect on mice. The results showed that apigenin-7-O-glucoside was more active against the Gram-positive bacteria and quercetin was more active against the Gram-negative ones. Also, quercetin and diosmin showed the best antioxidant activity. Quercetin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-3′-O-glucuronide gave the best acute toxicity values. It can be concluded that quercetin was the most interesting compound for all the tested activities. Also, we observed that the presence or the absence of substitutions in flavonoids influenced significantly the results obtained, whereas the substitution type had a low impact.

  14. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  15. ACEPHATE, ALDICARB, CARBOPHENOTHION, DEF, EPN, ETHOPROP, METHYL PARATHION, AND PHORATE; THEIR ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY, BIOCONCENTRATION POTENTIAL, AND PERSISTENCE AS RELATED TO MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of the pesticides acephate, aldicarb, carbophenothion, DEF, EPN, ethoprop, methyl parathion, and phorate were determined for estuarine environments. Static acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the 96-h EC50 values for al...

  16. Heliox as a driving gas to atomize inhaled drugs on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yongjiu; Su Longxiang; Han Bingchao; Zhang Xin; Xie Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common condition,which affects not only the quality of life of patients but also their prognosis.The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of an inhaled salbutamol sulfate solution and an inhalation suspension of the glucocorticoid budesonide that were atomized with heliox to treat patients with AECOPD.Methods Twenty-three patients with AECOPD were divided into a treatment group (He/O2=70%/30%) and a control group (N2/O2=70%/30%).The salbutamol sulfate and budesonide were administered by inhalation twice a day for 7 days.Vital signs,arterial blood gas levels,pulmonary function and the levels of serum myostatin (sMSTN) were measured and lung vibration imaging was performed.Results We found that the PaO2 and PaCO2 values were not significantly different between the two groups at the various time points (P >0.05).There were also no significant differences in any of the parameters of pulmonary function between the two groups.However,after baseline correction,the increase rate of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1),the forced vital capacity (FVC),and the maximum minute ventilation (MW) appeared to be significantly increased at some time points compared with the baseline (before treatment) in both groups (P <0.05).Although the values of quantitative lung distribution (QLD) for different regions and the levels of sMSTN were slightly different between the two groups,the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there were no significant differences between the two groups or within any group (P >0.05).Conclusion Although the use of heliox as a driving gas can improve symptoms and benefit patients with AECOPD,the heliox treatment group did not have significant differences in arterial blood gases,lung function,lung vibration response imaging or the levels of sMSTN compared with the control group.(Chinese Clinical Trial Register Center

  17. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Radiation Toxins (SRD-1)had been isolated from Central Lymph of irradiated animals (cows, sheep, pigs). Experiments to study toxicity of Radiation Neurotoxins had been performed. Intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of RT SRD-1 to radiation naive animals had induced acute toxicity which referred to the harmful effects generated by high doses of radiation. In-jection of toxic doses of RT SRD-1 (Toxic doses: 0,1 mg/kg, 0,5mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10mg/kg,30 mg/kg, 50mg/kg,70 mg/kg,100 mg/kg, 110mg/kg)were compared to the similar effects caused by high doses of radiation. Results: Injection of SRD-1 ( Neurotoxin Cv ARS)of all ten tested toxic doses had caused a death of radiation naive animals within the first hours after admin-istration of toxins. For all animals in all experiments, a short period of extreme agitation was replaced by deep coma, and suppression of blood circulation and breathing. The results of postmortem section had showed characteristics of intra-cortical hemorrhage. Conclusions: Acute radiation injury induces a disorder of blood supply of the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, administration of SRD-1 Radiation Toxins to radiation naive animals produces crit-ically important inflammatory reactions with hemorrhagic stroke development. Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity are two stages of the pathological processes resulted in damaging and killing nerve cells thorough apoptotic necrosis. Excitotoxicity is well known as a pathological process that occurs when important excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate, serotonin) over-activate the receptors -NMDA, AMPA, 5HT1, 5HT2, 5H3. Radiation Neurotoxins possibly act on the same receptors and activate the cell death mechanisms through direct or indirect excessive activation of same receptors.

  18. Comparison of efficacy combination of inhaled phormoterol / budesonide turbuhaler vs. combination of nebulized salbutamol / ipratropium bromide on moderate asthma acute exacerbation in Persahabatan Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Barasila

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare efficacy combination of phormoterol/budesonide turbuhaler vs. salbutamol/ipratropium bromide nebulization. Main therapy for acute asthma is inhaled short acting β2-agonist. Asthma patients are using two drugs, controller and reliever. Recently there is device-containing combination of long-acting β2-agonist with rapid onset and corticosteroid. This combination can act as reliever and controller. An opened randomized clinical trial of 76 patients between the ages of 12 and 60 years presenting to Persahabatan Hospital with asthma score between 8-12 participated in this study. After initial evaluation, patients were divided into two groups. Thirty-eight patients were administered combination of formoterol/budesonide 4.5/160 µg via turbuhaler (T-group every 20 minutes, total of three doses, and another 38 of salbutamol/ipratropium bromide 2.5/0.25 mg via nebulizer (N-group also with the same manner. There were no statistical difference in sex, mean age, high, weight, initial PEFR, and asthma score between two groups. The significant increased of PEFR and decreased of asthma score were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant difference of PEFR and asthma score between the two groups within every time-interval. Adverse events were mild including hoarseness, tremor and palpitation. Of T-group, 1 subject was suffered from 3 adverse events simultaneously (hoarseness, tremor and palpitation, 5 subjects were only tremor. Of N-group, all 6 subjects were only suffered from tremor. A combination of formoterol/budesonide turbuhaler and a combination of nebulized salbutamol/ipratropium bromide are clinically equivalent for treatment moderate acute asthma. However, nebulized salbutamol/ipratropium bromide had less adverse effects. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:34-42Keywords: phormoterol, budesonide, salbutamol, ipratropium bromide, acute asthma

  19. In vitro studies of acute toxicity mechanisms and structure-activity relationships of nonionic surfactants in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodishbauah, D.F. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In fish, gills are believed to be a primary target for a number of toxicants. Gills perform the essential systemic functions of gas exchange, waste elimination, and ion/pH balance, and are exposed to ambient environmental toxicant levels. Qualitative gill morphology changes are easily observed, but quantitative measures of impaired function are difficult. This in vitro technique utilizes the opercular epithelium of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as a surrogate for gill epithelium in mechanistic toxicity and structure-activity studies. This model has long been used by electrophysiologists studying osmoregulation in marine fish. Effects on trans-epithelial potential (TEP) and/or short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) across the opercular epithelium can be made for any pollutant of interest, using an epithelial voltage clamp and Ussing chamber. The nonionic synthetic surfactant class, alkylphenol ethoxylates, were chosen as a model toxicant class to test this experimental model. Synthetic surfactants are ubiquitous waterborne pollutants, with annual North American usage approaching eight billion pounds. Surfactants are recognized as potent, acute gill toxicants in fish. The exact mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated. These compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of both TEP and I{sub sc} in vitro, at dose levels comparable to those causing lethality, suggesting that impaired osmoregulation plays a role in their acute toxicity. Similar structure-activity relationships were found for the endpoints of acute lethality to F. heteroclitus and impaired in vitro epithelial transport.

  20. Transformation pathways and acute toxicity variation of 4-hydroxyl benzophenone in chlorination disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Qi; Du, Yuguo

    2016-07-01

    Benzophenones compounds (BPs) are widely used as UV filters, and have been frequently found in multiple environmental matrices. The residual of BPs in water would cause potential threats on ecological safety and human health. Chlorination disinfection is necessary in water treatment process, in which many chemicals remained in water would react with disinfectant chlorine and form toxic by-products. By using ultra performance liquid phase chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the transformation of 4-hydroxyl benezophenone (4HB) with free available chlorine (FAC) was characterized. Eight major products were detected and seven of them were identified. Transformation pathways of 4HB under acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions were proposed respectively. The transformation mechanisms involved electrophilic chlorine substitution of 4HB, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, hydrolysis of esters and oxidative breakage of benzene ring. The orthogonal experiments of pH and dosages of disinfectant chlorine were conducted. The results suggested that pH conditions determined the occurrence of reaction types, and the dosages of disinfectant chlorine affected the extent of reactions. Photobacterium assay demonstrated that acute toxicity had significant increase after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. It was proved that 3,5-dichloro-4HB, one of the major transformation products, was responsible for the increasing acute toxicity after chlorination. It is notable that, 4HB at low level in real ambient water matrices could be transformed during simulated chlorination disinfection practice. Especially, two major products 3-chloro-4HB and 3,5-dichloro-4HB were detected out, implying the potential ecological risk after chlorination disinfection of 4HB.

  1. Transformation pathways and acute toxicity variation of 4-hydroxyl benzophenone in chlorination disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Qi; Du, Yuguo

    2016-07-01

    Benzophenones compounds (BPs) are widely used as UV filters, and have been frequently found in multiple environmental matrices. The residual of BPs in water would cause potential threats on ecological safety and human health. Chlorination disinfection is necessary in water treatment process, in which many chemicals remained in water would react with disinfectant chlorine and form toxic by-products. By using ultra performance liquid phase chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the transformation of 4-hydroxyl benezophenone (4HB) with free available chlorine (FAC) was characterized. Eight major products were detected and seven of them were identified. Transformation pathways of 4HB under acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions were proposed respectively. The transformation mechanisms involved electrophilic chlorine substitution of 4HB, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, hydrolysis of esters and oxidative breakage of benzene ring. The orthogonal experiments of pH and dosages of disinfectant chlorine were conducted. The results suggested that pH conditions determined the occurrence of reaction types, and the dosages of disinfectant chlorine affected the extent of reactions. Photobacterium assay demonstrated that acute toxicity had significant increase after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. It was proved that 3,5-dichloro-4HB, one of the major transformation products, was responsible for the increasing acute toxicity after chlorination. It is notable that, 4HB at low level in real ambient water matrices could be transformed during simulated chlorination disinfection practice. Especially, two major products 3-chloro-4HB and 3,5-dichloro-4HB were detected out, implying the potential ecological risk after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. PMID:27085063

  2. Acute toxicity and metabolomics analysis of hypocholesterolemic effect of Mentha piperita aqueous extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zaini Johari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oral acute toxicity of the aqueous peppermint extract (APE was assessed and the bio and/or chemo markers for hypocholesterolemic activity of APE were identified through metabolomics approach. No mortality resulted from the present oral acute toxicity study in which the histological changes observed in the selected organs and the biochemical deviation of blood compared to the normal range level were minimal. This study also explored the effect of 290 mg-1 kg body weight of APE against 5% cholesterol-enriched diet within 14 days treatment. Whereby after the treatment, there were reductions exhibited in plasma total cholesterol (44.32%, LDL-cholesterol (69.19% and total triglycerides (55.77%. 1H NMR-metabolomics approach was, employed for better sensitivity and accuracy in evaluating the  potential plasma biomarkers of hyper-and hypo-cholesterolemic properties. β-Hydroxybutarate and α-D-glucose have been identified as the possible hypercholesterolemic markers, whereas taurine, betaine, alanine, glycine and L-leucine were suggested to be the hypocholesterolemic markers of APE.  Industrial relevance. Due to various reports on the side effects of conventional drug-lowering cholesterol available in the market, aqueous peppermint extract at its recommended consumption dosage has been investigated over its toxicity of oral consumption and its efficacy against elevation of cholesterol level in blood. The evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity of aqueous peppermint extract (APE, from which the potential biomarkers could be established, might be useful in the  development of new anti-cholesterol drug and also for quality control of peppermint-based products. Keywords. Mentha piperita; peppermint; hypercholesterolemia; metabolomics; 1H NMR; multivariate data analysis

  3. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter II. Acute toxicity study in asthmatic mice following 3-day exposure to fine ammonium ferrosulfate, a model compound for secondary aerosol of PM10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee FR; Dormans JAMA; Loveren H van; Bree L van; Rombout PJA; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    In this second report on acute inhalation studies with model compounds for secondary particulate matter, results are presented of a study with fine ammonium ferrosulfate aerosol in asthmatic animals. We hypothesised that an aerosol with a transitional metal could produce enhanced symptoms of asthma.

  6. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  7. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Pariyani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS Benth (Lamiaceae leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  8. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  9. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  10. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  11. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  12. Acute inhalation of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane alters visual evoked potentials and signal detection behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volatile organic compound 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP, “isooctane”) is a primary constituent of gasoline for which the current health effects data are insufficient to permit EPA to conduct a risk assessment. We evaluated potential neurological impairment from acute inhalati...

  13. Acute toxicity and risk assessment of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to larval butterflies via ingestion of contaminated foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2015-02-01

    Three Florida native larval butterflies (Junonia coenia, Anartia jatrophae, Eumaeus atala) were used in the present study to determine the acute toxicity, hazard, and risk of a 24h ingestion of leaves contaminated with the adult mosquito control insecticides permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to late 4th and early 5th in-star caterpillars. Based on 24-h LD50s for ingestion, naled was more acutely toxic than permethrin and dichlorvos to caterpillars. Hazard quotients using the ratio of the highest doses and the 90th percentile doses from field measurements in host plant foliage following actual mosquito control applications to the toxicological benchmarks from laboratory toxicity tests indicate potential high acute hazard for naled compared to permethrin and dichlorvos. Based on probabilistic ecological risk methods, naled exposure doses in the environment also presented a higher acute risk to caterpillars than permethrin and dichlorvos. The acute toxicity laboratory results and ecological risk assessment are based only on dietary ingestion and single chemical doses. It does not include other typical exposure scenarios that may occur in the environment. It is thus plausible to state that the ecological risk assessment presented here underestimates the potential risks in the field to caterpillars. However, one assumption that is scientifically feasible and certainly real from the results - if the environmental exposure doses of mosquito control operations are similar or higher to those presented here in leaves from the field, after applications, there will likely be significant mortalities and other adverse effects on caterpillar populations. PMID:25462317

  14. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Andrew; Møller Peter; Boisen Anne; Bornholdt Jette; Folkmann Janne K; Halappanavar Sabina; Saber Anne T; Yauk Carole; Vogel Ulla; Loft Steffen; Wallin Håkan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) – or carbon black (CB)-induc...

  15. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  16. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  17. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCs This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kodavanti , P., J. Royland ,...

  20. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A®) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Hong Kan; Kristine Krajnak; Thompson, Janet A.; Allison Kenyon; Goldsmith, William T; Walter McKinney; Frazer, David G.; Mark Jackson; Jeffrey S. Fedan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to ...

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-03-01

    During the period from February 1984 through June 1985, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method has been performed for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during the first 48 hours of onset of cerebral infarction (n=71) and transient ischemic attack (n=21). X-ray CT (CT) and carotid arteriography were concurrently performed in all the patients. In repeated studies performed for 15 normal volunteers, rCBF measurement by SPECT was found reproducible. Mean values of rCBF for the right and left cerebral hemispheres were 60.3{plus minus}6.52 and 61.8{plus minus}6.91 ml/100 g/min, respectively. For cerebral infarction, ischemic foci corresponding to clinical symptoms were detected more frequently on SPECT than on CT (93% vs 63%). In all of the evaluable 35 patients with cerebral infarction, rCBF within the first 8 hours of onset was decreased: 31.0 ml/100 g/min for the internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and 36.0 ml/100 g/min for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 50% (9/18) for ICA occlusion and 37% (14/38) for MCA occlusion. For transient ischemic attack, there was no significant difference in the detection of ischemic foci between SPECT and CT (38% vs 43%). In detecting small foci especially in the deep regions such as the basal ganglia, SPECT was inferior to CT. Mean rCBF for transient ischemic attack tended to be lower than the normal rCBF (50.7 ml/100 g/min for the right cerebral hemisphere and 50.6 ml/100 g/min for the left cerebral hemisphere). SPECT may aid in predicting prognosis and chosing treatment strategy, as well as in determining cerebral hemodynamics. (N.K.).

  2. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage with ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Iino, Katsuro; Kojima, Hisashi; Saito, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Watanabe, Kazuo; Kato, Toshiro

    1987-05-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method was undertaken within 48 hr after the onset in 68 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The results for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were compared with concurrently available computed tomography (CT) scans. In patients with cerebral infarction, SPECT detected ischemic lesions earlier than CT, with the detectability being 92 %. The area with a decreased blood flow, as seen on SPECT, was more extensive than the low density area on CT, with a concomitant decrease in blood flow in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was associated with stenosis of the internal carotid artery in 50 % (7/14), and with stenosis of the middle cerebral artery in 35 % (9/26). Abnormal SPECT findings were seen in 47 % (8/17) of the patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Five TIA patients had a decreased rCBF on SPECT, which was not provided by CT scans. On the contrary, small infarct lesions in the cerebral basal ganglia, as observed in 4 patients, was not detected by SPECT, but detected by CT. This may imply the limitations of SPECT in the detection of deep-seated lesions of the cerebrum. The results led to the conclusion that SPECT can be performed safely even in acute, seriously ill patients to know changes in rCBF because it is noninvasive and is capable of being repeated in a short time. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  5. Antihyperglycaemic effect and acute toxicity of Securigera Securidaca L. seed extracts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, H; Ramezani, M; Danaei, A R

    2002-12-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of a Securigera securidaca aqueous infusion and an ethanol maceration extract of seeds was studied in normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract was more than that of the aqueous one. The phytochemical analysis showed that the seed extracts were rich in flavonoids. The intraperitoneal and oral administration of the aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly reduced blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, the blood glucose levels were not significantly different from the control. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycaemic mice. The results indicate that S. securidaca seed extracts significantly reduce blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. PMID:12458478

  6. Acute and Long-Term Toxicity of Mango Leaves Extract in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of mango leaves extract (MLE at the maximal dose (18.4 g/kg was studied in ICR mice and no abnormalities were detected during the experiment. The long-term studies at various doses of MLE (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg in SD rats for 3 consecutive months revealed that, compared with the control group, rats in MLE treated groups showed slight body weight increase and higher fat weight; the serum TG and CHOL levels and the epididymis weight of male rats were a little higher; the serum K+ level of female rats was on the low side but the weights of liver, kidney, and adrenal gland were on the high side. In addition to this, no other obvious abnormalities were detected.

  7. Acute toxicity investigation of polysaccharide extracts of Lentinus polychrous in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catheleeya Mekjaruskul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus polychrous (LP is an edible mushroom that has been increasingly used as a food or a nutritional supplement. The present study investigated acute toxicity of LP in rats. Male and female rats (n = 10/group were administered a single-dose of 50, 500, and 2,500 mg/kg of polysaccharide extract from either LP fruiting body (PSF or LP mycelium (PSM. Two control groups, untreated and vehicle (distilled water administered were included. Body weight, food and water intake, general signs, and mortality were observed for 14 days. Blood samples and organ weights were evaluated at day 14. All treatments caused no effects on food and water consumption, body weight, general signs, gross pathology of organs, organ weight, hematological parameters, or changes in biochemical parameters. We conclude that the NOAEL (no observedadverse-effect level dose is greater than 2,500 mg/kg.

  8. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz.) Swingle in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjana Jaijoy; Nadthaganya Suwanlikhid; Anongnad Ngamjariyawat; Amornnat Thuppia; Nirush Lertprasertsuke; Umarat Srisawat; Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female) did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 ma...

  9. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of an aqueous stem bark extract of Sclerocarya birrea using a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Tariro Mawoza; Dexter Tagwireyi; Charles Nhachi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sclerocarya birrea, a plant that is commonly available in many communities, is used as a source of food and for ethnomedicinal and cultural practices. Stem-bark toxicity studies for the plant are however lacking. This study was therefore conducted in an effort to determine its toxic effects using a rat model. Methods: Acute toxicity was performed using a single oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea to determine the lethal dose. ...

  10. Preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz; Ahmad; Nahida; Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis(P.officinalis)L.Methods:Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures.Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines.The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P.officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)induced hepatic damage in rats.Aqueous extract of P.officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals.Liver injury was induced chemically,by CCl4 administration(1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum alkaline phosphatase(SALP),total bilirubin and total protein(TP)along with histopathological studies.Result:Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P.officinalis contain alkaloids,tannins,saponins,glycosides,carbohydrates,flavonoids,terpenes,steroids and proteins.The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg.In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg,the substantially elevated AST,ALT,SALP,total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered,respectively,in a dose dependent manner,along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups.Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal.Conclusions:The aqueous extract of P.officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  11. Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Aaron P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Groot, John F. de; Puduvalli, Vinay K. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Mark R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI. Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p-CSI patients had >5% weight loss compared with x-CSI (16% vs 64%; P=.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared with x-CSI (26% vs 71%; P=.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, P<.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with x-CSI (white blood cells 46% vs 55%, P=.04; hemoglobin 88% vs 97%, P=.009; platelets 48% vs 65%, P=.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. Conclusions: This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including fewer acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities.

  12. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  13. Acute toxicity bioassays using Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Daphniidae maintained in a modified culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Núñez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a test organism used in ecotoxicological assays of freshwater; however, traditional culture systems for this organism could result expensive, for that the aim of this research was to developed a new economic culture medium. With this purpose, 10 strains of D. magna were isolated, their population development was evaluated by total count of organisms and pregnant females using 3 different culture media: (A alfalfa juice, (B solved yeast and (C a mixture of alfalfa juice plus solved yeast. Successful development of 4 strains was observed in the A medium, but the same strains failed to survive in the B and the C media. The 24h and 48h EC50 average values in acute ecotoxicological assays with potassium dicromate were 0,4045 mg/L ± 0,0389 and 0,1857 mg/L ± 0,0072 respectively. Also, acute ecotoxicological assays with these 4 strains were performed using potassium cyanide, which is a toxic reactive frequently used in mining operations. In this case 24h EC50 value was 1,5388 mg/L ± 0,1146 and 48h EC50 values were 0,6359 mg/L ± 0,0516. 48h EC50 values were lower than the cyanide permissible effluent values established by the Energy and Mining Authority.

  14. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  15. Metabolomic Characterizations of Liver Injury Caused by Acute Arsenic Toxicity in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Li

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most common metalloid contaminants in groundwater and it has both acute and chronic toxicity affecting multiple organs. Details of the mechanism of arsenic toxicity are still lacking and profile studies at metabolic level are very limited. Using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS, we first generated metabolomic profiles from the livers of arsenic-treated zebrafish and identified 34 significantly altered metabolite peaks as potential markers, including four prominent ones: cholic acid, glycylglycine, glycine and hypotaurine. Combined results from GC/MS, histological examination and pathway analyses suggested a series of alterations, including apoptosis, glycogenolysis, changes in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid composition, accumulation of bile acids and fats, and disturbance in glycolysis related energy metabolism. The alterations in glycolysis partially resemble Warburg effect commonly observed in many cancer cells. However, cellular damages were not reflected in two conventional liver function tests performed, Bilirubin assay and alanine aminotransferase (ALT assay, probably because the short arsenate exposure was insufficient to induce detectable damage. This study demonstrated that metabolic changes could reflect mild liver impairments induced by arsenic exposure, which underscored their potential in reporting early liver injury.

  16. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  17. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  18. Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius) exposed to formalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rudã F B; Dias, Henrique M; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius). A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40%) (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg.L(-1)) with four replicates and five fish per container (3L) in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (%) were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC(50-96h (I))) estimated was 50.76 mg.L(-1) with regression of y = 0.51x, and r(2) = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects.

  19. Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

    2007-03-21

    The present work was undertaken to determine safety parameters of selected Mexican medicinal plants chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance. The medicinal herbs included Amphipteryngium adstringens, Hintonia standleyana, Hintonia latiflora, Piper sanctum, Haemathoxylon brasiletto, Iostephane heterophylla, Valeriana procera, Arracacia tolucensis, Brickellia veronicaefolia, Scaphyglottis livida, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri, Poliomintha longiflora and Gnaphalium sp. In the acute toxicity studies in mice performed according to the Lorke procedure, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri and Poliomintha longiflora were the most toxic with LD(50) values between 1085 and 2mg/kg. The Ames test revealed that Gnaphalium sp. and Valeriana procera extracts induced mutations of S. typhimurium TA98 with or without the S9 microsomal fraction, and TA100 in the presence of the enzymatic fraction, respectively. The tincture of Valeriana procera, however, was non-mutagenic. Finally, in the Artemia salina lethality test Brickellia veronicaefolia, Arracacia tolucensis, Poliomintha longiflora and Piper sanctum caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC(50) in the range of 37-227 microg/mL. PMID:17101253

  20. Eosinophilic Fasciitis and Acute Encephalopathy Toxicity from Pembrolizumab Treatment of a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Leila; Maurice, Catherine; Chappell, MaryAnne; MacMillan, Leslie; Al-Habeeb, Ayman S; Al-Faraidy, Nada; Butler, Marcus O; Rogalla, Patrik; Mason, Warren; Joshua, Anthony M; Hogg, David

    2016-03-01

    Anti-PD-1 inhibitors have significant activity in metastatic melanoma. Responses often occur early and may be sustained. The optimal duration of treatment with these agents is unknown. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old woman treated with pembrolizumab, as part of the Keynote-001 trial, as first-line treatment for metastatic disease. She experienced a complete response after 13.8 months of treatment with no adverse events. One month after the last drug infusion and 18 months from starting treatment, the patient presented with eosinophilic fasciitis. She then developed acute confusion and weakness, thought to be due to intracranial vasculitis. High-dose steroids were initiated with resolution of the fasciitis. Aspirin was commenced for presumed vasculitis with resolution of the neurologic symptoms. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of eosinophilic fasciitis or cerebral vasculitis due to anti-PD-1 agents. This case demonstrates that toxicity may occur in association with pembrolizumab treatment after a prolonged period of treatment without toxicity. Future trials should explore the optimal duration of treatment with pembrolizumab.

  1. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2011-08-29

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD\\'s guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l^(−1), which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound.

  2. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima Methanol Extract on Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity of E. pulcherrima methanol extract. Mean lethal dose (LD50 and subchronic toxicity were determined using Lorke’s method to assess the effect of the extract on kidney and liver functions along histopathology assessment of the liver and kidney, respectively. The LD50 determined was 3807.89 mg/kg both orally and intraperitoneally. The kidney function parameters indicated elevation of the serum urea above the normal value in both control and the group treated with 10 mg/kg of the extract with mean values of 7.92 ± 1.19 and 7.86 ± 1.14 mMol/L, respectively. The creatinine and electrolytes were within the normal values. The results of ALAT, ASAT, ALP, T protein albumin, and bilirubin in all cases were within the normal values. Kidney, liver function parameters, and relative organ weight were statistically insignificant across all groups. This shows that various concentrations of E. pulcherrima extract did not influence negatively the liver and kidney function parameters. Further studies are required to rule out the observed mild hepatic histological changes among a few members of the groups treated with 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day and any possible hepatoprotective and nephron-protective potential the extract may possess.

  3. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  4. Acute toxicity of Nigerian crude oil (Bonny Light to Desmocaris trispinosa (Crustacea, Palaemonidaec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Emeka Ndimele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effects of a Nigerian crude oil (Bonny Light to freshwater shrimp, DesmocarisTrispinosa were studied in toxicity bioassay. The test organisms were exposed to crude oil in a staticrenewal bioassay for 96 hrs. There was an initial range-finding test to determine the concentrations ofcrude oil to be administered on the test organisms in the definitive test. Five concentrations of the crudeoil were prepared in the definitive test as 40, 80, 160, 240 and 320 mgL-1 and a control experiment (0mgL-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 at 24-hr, 48-hr, 72-hr and 96-hr was 0, 0, 281.84 and120.23 mgL-1 respectively. The median lethal time (LT50 at crude oil concentrations of 160 mgL-1, 240mgL-1 and 320 mgL-1 were 89.5hrs, 80.7hrs and 53.3hrs respectively while the LT50 at concentrations of40 mgL-1 and 80 mgL-1 was 0hr. Mortality increased with increase in crude oil concentration and thedifference was significant (pD. trispinosa and may adversely affect other aquatic organisms.

  5. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  6. Acute toxicity evaluation of aminomethylnaphthoquinone (AMNQ 1 in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first preclinical tests showing that aminomethylnaphthoquinone - 3-[N-(n-butyl amino-2,4-diclorobenzyl]-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (AMNQ 1 has low cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro in Vero cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of AMNQ 1 in BALB/c mice. We used BALB/c female mice to evaluate the median lethal dose (LD50 of AMNQ 1 with 2000 mg/kg body weight and other three concentrations using 550, 175 and 55 mg/kg. We compared this to acyclovir (ACV-50 mg/kg and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (10% DMSO over a 14-day period. The BALB/c mice received a single oral dose by gavage. There were no deaths in either group and no change in the murine clinical signs. The hematological and biochemical analyses showed some changes that returned to reference levels without impairment of hemostasis. The AMNQ 1 treatment did not induce untoward changes in organs as shown by histological studies. The in vivo results showed that AMNQ 1 has low toxicity. In conclusion, AMNQ 1 is safe and can be potentially used as an anti-HSV-1 agent in future studies.

  7. Eosinophilic Fasciitis and Acute Encephalopathy Toxicity from Pembrolizumab Treatment of a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Leila; Maurice, Catherine; Chappell, MaryAnne; MacMillan, Leslie; Al-Habeeb, Ayman S; Al-Faraidy, Nada; Butler, Marcus O; Rogalla, Patrik; Mason, Warren; Joshua, Anthony M; Hogg, David

    2016-03-01

    Anti-PD-1 inhibitors have significant activity in metastatic melanoma. Responses often occur early and may be sustained. The optimal duration of treatment with these agents is unknown. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old woman treated with pembrolizumab, as part of the Keynote-001 trial, as first-line treatment for metastatic disease. She experienced a complete response after 13.8 months of treatment with no adverse events. One month after the last drug infusion and 18 months from starting treatment, the patient presented with eosinophilic fasciitis. She then developed acute confusion and weakness, thought to be due to intracranial vasculitis. High-dose steroids were initiated with resolution of the fasciitis. Aspirin was commenced for presumed vasculitis with resolution of the neurologic symptoms. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of eosinophilic fasciitis or cerebral vasculitis due to anti-PD-1 agents. This case demonstrates that toxicity may occur in association with pembrolizumab treatment after a prolonged period of treatment without toxicity. Future trials should explore the optimal duration of treatment with pembrolizumab. PMID:26822024

  8. Acute liver failure following cleft palate repair: a case of therapeutic acetaminophen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Matthew L; Cheerharan, Meera; Kaufman, Stuart S; Reece-Stremtan, Sarah; Boyajian, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Background : Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent in the pediatric population. While the hepatotoxic effects of the drug have been well recognized in cases of acute overdose and chronic supratherapeutic doses, the toxic effects of acetaminophen are rarely documented in cases where therapeutic guidelines are followed. Case : An 8-month-old boy underwent cleft palate repair and placement of bilateral myringotomy tubes. His anesthetic course was uneventful, consisting of maintenance with desflurane and fentanyl. He received acetaminophen for routine postoperative pain management and was tolerating liquids and discharged home on postoperative day 1. On day 3, the child was profoundly lethargic with multiple episodes of emesis and was taken to the emergency department. He suffered a 45-second tonic-clonic seizure in transport to the regional children's medical center, and initial laboratory results demonstrated acute hepatitis with AST 24,424 U/L, ALT 12,885 U/L, total bilirubin 3.1 mg/dL, and a serum acetaminophen level of 83 μg/mL. Aggressive supportive measures including blood products and periprocedural fresh frozen plasma, piperacillin/tazobactam, and intravenous infusions of N-acetylcysteine, sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate, carnitine, and citrulline were administered. His metabolic acidosis and acute hepatitis began to correct by day 4, and he was discharged home without further surgical intervention on day 15. Conclusion : Although acetaminophen is an effective and commonly used analgesic in pediatric practice, hepatotoxicity is a potentially devastating complication. This report challenges the appropriateness of existing guidelines for acetaminophen administration and emphasizes the importance of close follow-up and hydration after even relatively minor surgery.

  9. Polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and effect on outcome and toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers, J; Gréen, H; Christensen, I J;

    2015-01-01

    The membrane transporter P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, influences the pharmacokinetics of anti-cancer drugs. We hypothesized that variants of ABCB1 affect outcome and toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We studied 522 Danish children with ALL, 93% of all those e...

  10. Acute and long-term toxicity following radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, JH; Pras, E; Willemse, PHB; de Vries, EGE

    2003-01-01

    Randomised studies in locally advanced cervical cancer patients showed that cisplatin should be given concurrently with radiotherapy, because of a better long-term survival compared to radiotherapy alone. This increases the relevance of treatment related toxicity. This review summarises the acute an

  11. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  12. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  13. A European pharmaceutical company initiative challenging the regulatory requirement for acute toxicity studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Donald, Elizabeth; Dreher, David; Festag, Matthias; Kervyn, Sophie; Lampo, Ann; Nahas, Kamil; Nogues, Vicente; Ockert, Deborah; Quinn, Kirsty; Old, Sally; Pickersgill, Nigel; Somers, Kev; Stark, Claudia; Stei, Peter; Waterson, Lynne; Chapman, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines indicate acute toxicity studies in animals are considered necessary for pharmaceuticals intended for human use. This is the only study type where lethality is mentioned as an endpoint. The studies are carried out, usually in rodents, to support marketing of new drugs and to identify the minimum lethal dose. A European initiative including 18 companies has undertaken an evidence-based review of acute toxicity studies and assessed the value of the data generated. Preclinical and clinical information was shared on 74 compounds. The analysis indicated acute toxicity data was not used to (i) terminate drugs from development (ii) support dose selection for repeat dose studies in animals or (iii) to set doses in the first clinical trials in humans. The conclusion of the working group is that acute toxicity studies are not needed prior to first clinical trials in humans. Instead, information can be obtained from other studies, which are performed at more relevant doses for humans and are already an integral part of drug development. The conclusions have been discussed and agreed with representatives of regulatory bodies from the US, Japan and Europe.

  14. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of diaveridine in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Su, Shijia; Ihsan, Awais; Huang, Qin; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Guyue; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    Diaveridine, a developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, has been widely used as anticoccidial drug and antibacterial synergist. However, few studies have been performed to investigate its toxicity. To provide detailed toxicity with a wide spectrum of doses for diaveridine, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted. Calculated LD50 was 2330 mg/kg b.w. in females and 3100 mg/kg b.w. in males, and chromodacryorrhea was noted in some females before their death. In the sub-chronic study, diaveridine was fed to Wistar rats during 90 days at dietary levels of 0, 23, 230, 1150 and 2000 mg/kg, which were about 0, 2.0-2.3, 21.0-23.5, 115.2-126.9 and 212.4-217.9 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Significant decrease in body weights in both genders at 1150 and 2000 mg/kg groups and significant increases in relative weights of brain in both genders, liver in females, kidneys and testis in males, alkaline phosphatase and potassium in both genders at 2000 mg/kg diet were noted. Significant decrease in absolute weights of several organs, hemoglobin and red blood cell count in both genders, albumin and total protein in females were observed at 2000 mg/kg diet. Fibroblasts in the kidneys, cell swelling of the glomerular zone in the adrenals and inflammation in the liver were found at 2000 mg/kg group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of diaveridine was 230 mg/kg diet (21.0-23.5 mg/kg b.w./day). PMID:26209270

  15. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log Kow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  16. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  17. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  18. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D

    2016-05-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  19. Role of glutamine versus placebo in prevention of acute gastrointestinal toxicity in pelvic radiotherapy: A randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Sazzad Manir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, ano-proctitis are common acute gastrointestinal (GI toxicities during pelvic radiotherapy (RT, having important impact on treatment outcome. Glutamine has a major role in mucosal growth and function. This phase III study is conducted to evaluate the role of prophylactic glutamine supplementation in prevention of acute GI toxicities during pelvic RT. Materials and Methods: Eighty five nonmetastatic patients with pelvic malignancy needing pelvic RT are included in this double blind randomized control trial. During RT 42 patients (Arm A received 10 g glutamine oral supplementation 1 h before every RT fraction. Forty three patients received glycine as placebo (Arm B in same schedule. Patients were assessed weekly for common acute RT induced GI toxicities. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. Results: Two arms were well balanced with all baseline parameters. Median age was 57. 56.47% (n = 48 patients had cervical cancer. There was no significant difference between two arms in grade wise incidence of any of the GI toxicities. Trends of diarrhoea during weekly assessments also similar in both arms. Conclusion: There is no significant beneficial effect of glutamine during pelvic RT. As per our study data and our dose schedule glutamine should not be indicated in pelvic RT.

  20. Evaluation of the Acute and Subchronic Toxicities of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Ilodigwe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The acute and subchronic toxicities of the ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata, a popular Nigerian traditional anti-convulsant remedy was investigated. For the acute toxicity study, 1000-5000 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract were administered to rats and obvious toxic symptoms and mortality 24 hours post-adminstration of the extract were determined. The median lethal dose (LD50 of the extract was determined. In the subchronic study, 750-3000 mg/kg of the extract were administered daily for 90 days. The food and water consumption, body weight changes, as well as heamatological and biochemical parameters were determined periodically. The phytotochemical constituents of the extract were also investigated. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, anthraquinone glycosides, and flavonoids.. The estimated LD50 of the extract was 4466.84 mg/kg. There was no mortality during the period of study but the animals showed signs of anorexia, weakness, sluggishness and significant (p<0.05 reduction in food and water intake and body weight. The effects on haemoglobin concentration, PCV, RBC and WBC counts were non significant (P>0.05. The extract caused significant (p<0.05 increases in serum liver enzymes, AST, ALP and ALT. These changes showed recovery after 28 days post-treatment. These results suggest that the leaf extract of S. campanulata is safe in the treatment of epilepsy. Industrial relevance: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that requires life-long management. The available anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs are not only limited by adverse effects, but are not readily accessible in resource poor communities where this disease appears more prevalent. The use of medicinal plants especially Spathodea campanulata in the treatment of epilepsy is very popular in Nigeria. Compared to AEDs, it is very cheap, readily available and relatively free from adverse effects. The results of the present study will enable the industry

  1. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document from the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute includes annual reports in the following general areas: (I) Aerosol Technology and Characterization of Airborne Materials; (II) Deposition, transport, and clearance of inhaled Toxicants; (III) Metabolism and Markers of Inhaled Toxicants; (IV) Carcinogenic Responses to Toxicants; (V) Mechanisms of carcinogenic response to Toxicants; (VI) Non carcinogenic responses to inhaled toxicants; (VII) Mechanisms of noncarcinogenic Responses to Inhaled Toxicants; (VIII) The application of Mathematical Modeling to Risk Estimates. 9 appendices are also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  2. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S. A.; Hoover, M. D.; Bradley, P. L. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    This document from the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute includes annual reports in the following general areas: (I) Aerosol Technology and Characterization of Airborne Materials; (II) Deposition, transport, and clearance of inhaled Toxicants; (III) Metabolism and Markers of Inhaled Toxicants; (IV) Carcinogenic Responses to Toxicants; (V) Mechanisms of carcinogenic response to Toxicants; (VI) Non carcinogenic responses to inhaled toxicants; (VII) Mechanisms of noncarcinogenic Responses to Inhaled Toxicants; (VIII) The application of Mathematical Modeling to Risk Estimates. 9 appendices are also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Acute and Subacute Toxicity study of the Acetone Leaf extract of Centella asiatica in Experimental Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PK Chauhan; V Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of the acetone extract of Centella asiatica (Brahmi). Methods: Toxicity of Centella asiatica was evaluated in Swiss mice after ingestion of the extract during one day (acute model) and during 15 days (subacute model). The Biochemical parameters evaluated included creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assessed using commercial kits. Results: The results of the present investigation revealed that the LD50 of the extract is higher than 4000mg/kg and subacute treatment did not shows any change in corporal weight and hematological parameters. However, a change in liver weight but not in hepatic enzymes was observed. This suggested that the liver function is not altered by Centella asiatica. Some changes in the creatinine content were observed but could not be relative with the extract dose.Conclusions:The results suggest that the plant seems to be destitute of toxic effects in mice.

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  5. Subchronic and acute preclinical toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Petiveria alliacea, leaves were tested on acute and sub-chronic toxicity, hematocrit and blood glucose level and intestinal motility of male albino NGP mice, of 20 to 25 g mean weight. Treatments were in all cases doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg animal weight and a control treatment with 0.5 ml distilled water, using 10 animals per treatment and administered orally every day (5 days per week). Experimental periods were 18 and 70 days for acute and sub chronic toxicity, respectively. No mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed in both tests. A slight but significant increase in the glucose levels during the first three weeks was observed with the 1000 mg/kg dose but not for the higher 2000 mg/kg doses. After administering the dose once after a starving period of six hours, no significant differences in intestinal motility could be found. (author)

  6. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the methanolic extract from leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purobi Nath

    2015-03-01

    Background: The leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae are used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea, to promote draining of abscesses and as analgesic agent in the traditional medicine of Cook Islands, Haiti, Japan and Mexico. Aim: The present study investigated the oral acute and subacute toxicity of methanol leaf extract of H. rosa-sinensis in mice. Methods: In the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract was given to five mice at 48 h intervals. Animals were observed individually for any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, mice were treated with 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses of extract for 14 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney of animals were studied at the end of experiment. Results: For acute treatment, the extract did not revealed any signs of toxicity or mortality in any animal, during the 14-days observation period. The LD50 of extract was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute toxicity study, administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses of extract to mice for two weeks did not revealed any marked adverse effects on haematological, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in the 400 mg/kg group. But, hepato-renal toxicity as evidenced by elevations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotranferase (AST, total and indirect bilirubin, urea and creatinine was seen in the animals that received 800 mg/kg doe of extract for 14 days. In addition, in the same group of animals, the histological assessments of liver and kidney also showed various adverse effects viz. dilated sinusoids, apoptotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltrate inside sinusoidal capillaries in the liver, and marked disorganization of tubules and glomeruli, and enlarged interstitial spaces in the kidney. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that for traditional medicine purpose only a low dose

  7. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  8. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests.

  9. Reduction of acute toxicity of landfill leachate in co-treatement with domestic sewage by integrated fixed-film activated sludge reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Campos; Roque Passos Piveli

    2016-01-01

    This study used acute toxicity tests on the marine bacteria Allivibrio fischeri and on microcrustaceans Daphnia similis to evaluate the reduction of acute toxicity in effluent generated by the IFAS (Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge) hybrid process, treating landfill leachate with domestic sewage. In order to evaluate the treatment’s ability to lessen the toxicity of the effluent, three experimental stages were developed with leachate contributions of 5, 10 and 20% of the total load of B...

  10. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from the fruits of Piper chaba Hunter in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaijoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The water extract from the fruits of Piper chaba Hunter was evaluated for acute and subchronic toxicity in both male and female rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight was administered in rats (five females, five males. The results showed no signs of toxicity such as general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs. Subchronic toxicity was studied by daily oral doses (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for consecutive 90 days. The satellite group was treated with the extract at the dose of 1,200 mg/kg/day for 90 days and kept for other 28 days after treatment. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that P. chaba extract does not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are popular and extensively used in the developing world. In many places, they offer a more wide available and more affordable alternative to pharmaceutical drugs and natural food supplements. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or preparations derived from them should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for use in the development of pharmaceutical.

  11. Acute toxicity and efficacy of postoperative combined modality therapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To examine the acute toxicity and outcome in patients (pts) treated with combined modality therapy following resection of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2/88 to 2/96, 34 pts (M:20, F:14) received postoperative combined modality therapy following a pancreatic resection. Tumor location included; head only: 28, head and ampulla: 1, ampulla only: 1, body and tail: 2, and tail only: 2. Postoperative stages included: stage I: 7 (21%) and stage III: 27 (79%). Pts were referred for combined modality therapy based on surgeon preference. In general, pts were treated who had one or more adverse prognostic factors. These included positive local/regional lymph nodes (79%), positive margins (50%) or disease invasive into adjacent structures (85 %). Radiation fields included the original primary tumor bed (based on preoperative CT scans) and peri-pancreatic and para-aortic lymph nodes adjacent to vertebral bodies T10 through L3. No attempt was made to include the entire pancreas in the radiation field. Patients received 5040 cGy at 180 cGy/day using a 3 or 4 field technique and CT-based treatment planning. Concurrent bolus 5-FU (375-500 mg/m2) was delivered on the first three and last three days of radiation. Post-radiation maintenance bolus 5-FU was given to 7 patients for a median of 6 cycles. A toxicity assessment using the NCI toxicity criteria was performed at each weekly visit and 4 weeks following the completion of combined modality therapy. The median follow-up was 13 months (range: 2-36 months). Patterns of failure as a component of failure were assessed by radiographic criteria and, in 2 pts, by intraoperative evaluation for symptomatic progression of disease. Local/regional failure was defined as recurrence within the radiation field. Distant failure included liver, peritoneal seeding, and extra-abdominal sites. Actuarial survival was calculated from the time of surgery using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The only grade 3

  12. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  13. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  14. Assessment of locomotion behavioral defects induced by acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dayong; XING Xiaojuan

    2008-01-01

    Locomotion behaviors are susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals and environmental stresses. However, no systematic testing of locomotion behavior defects induced by metal exposure has been conducted in the model organism of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, the acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure on the locomotion behaviors was analyzed in nematodes. Endpoints of head thrash, body bend, forward turn, backward turn, and Omega/U turn were chosen to evaluate the locomotion behavioral defects. Our data suggest that the endpoints of head thrash, body bend, and forward turn will be useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity in nematodes. The endpoint of head thrash could detect the toxicity from Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb exposures at a low concentration (2.5 μmol/L). The endpoint of body bend could be explored to evaluate the toxicity from all assayed heavy metal exposures at different concentrations, whereas the endpoint of forward turn will be more useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity at high concentrations. Thus, endpoints of these locomotion behaviors establish a fast and economic way to assess the presence of acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode C. elegans.

  15. Study progress on mechanisms of seawater inhalation induced acute respiratory distress syndrome%海水吸入型急性呼吸窘迫综合征发病机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞璇; 马李杰; 金发光

    2016-01-01

    Drowning is the third accidental death cause in the world,more importantly,it is also the second leading cause of accidental death for children.Seawater inhalation would result in seawater inhalation induced acute respiratory distress syndrome(SW-ARDS)with a high mortality if the condition was not treated reasonably.Continuous evidences have indicated that pulmonary edema,inflammation in lung,metabolic disorder of lung tissue cells,cell apoptosis and autophagy participate in the occurrence and development of SW-ARDS.The article reviews the mechanisms of SW-ARDS.%淹溺在全球意外伤害中排名第三,且是儿童意外死亡的第二大原因。海水吸入后,若未能合理救治可发展为海水吸入型急性呼吸窘迫综合征(seawater inhalation induced acute respiratory distress syndrome,SW-ARDS),病死率极高。大量研究表明,肺组织水肿、肺部炎症反应、肺组织细胞代谢紊乱、细胞凋亡及自噬等参与 SW-ARDS 的发生和发展,现将有关发病机制作一综述。

  16. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates. The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies. Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a). The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity

  17. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome after smoke inhalation and cell stress%烟雾吸人性急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征与细胞应激

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜毅; 韩志海; 段蕴铀

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome after smoke inhalation is the major cause of death in the fire victims.The mechanisms are still not so clear.Recent studies show that this severe lung injury syndrome is related to cell stress.When smoke is inhaled,stresses such as heat shock begin earlier and make different kinds of heat shock proteins,oxidative stress induces the expression of various enzymes and reactive oxygen species,while hypoxia stress induces hypoxia-inducible factors.The biological significance of such stress proteins is the increased resistance against further perturbations of cell homeostasis,and thus,enhanced survival.However,when stress is persistent or cellular functions are severely impaired,apoptotic pathways are activated to protect the organism by eliminating the damaged cells.%烟雾吸人性急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征是火灾后患者的最主要死亡原因,其发病机制仍未完全清楚,近年来的研究发现其同细胞应激反应关系密切.其中热应激最早发生,产生各种热休克蛋白;氧化应激可诱导各种酶类及氧自由基的产生及释放;缺氧性应激可产生缺氧诱导因子.这些应激蛋白的产生可以提高细胞抗应激能力,维持细胞的稳态以利细胞在应激条件下生存,但若应激过强过久则诱导损伤细胞的凋亡来保护机体.本文就近年来烟雾吸人性急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征的研究