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Sample records for acute infectious diarrhea

  1. [Medication in infectious acute diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, J-P; Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute infectious diarrhea in children remain still a frequent cause of morbidity. 50 % of them are due to rotavirus. Oral rehydration therapy and early realimentation have drastically reduced their mortality and morbidity. Beside oral or eventually IV rehydration therapy no medication has proven its efficacy based on the main HMO criteria (reduction of over 30 % of the stool output) except racecadotril and loperamide which is contre-indicated for the last one in children less than 2 years old. Other medications such as silicates or some probiotics have shown efficacy on diarrhea duration or stool consistency but not on stool output. They have so no formal indication in infectious diarrhea and should be considered as "comfort" treatment. Antibiotics, beside their indication in shigella, cholera and amibiasis could be used in invasive diarrhea in some debilating conditions or infants less than 3 months.

  2. Enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms in pathophysiology of acute infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Nullens, Sara; Nelsen, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    While enterocyte secretion is the predominant mechanism considered responsible for secretory diarrhea in response to acute enteric infections, there are several lines of evidence that support alternative mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte secretion in diarrhea. To review enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms that participate in the development of acute infectious diarrhea. Acute infectious diarrheas due to bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera, E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin, C. difficile) and rotavirus are all associated with secretion of transmitters from enteroendocrine cells (e.g., 5-HT) and activation of afferent neurons that stimulate submucosal secretomotor neurons. The latter secrete acetylcholine (which binds to muscarinic receptors on epithelial cells) and VIP. Involvement of nerves was demonstrated by inhibition of bacterial toxin-induced secretion by hexamethonium (nicotinic), tetrodotoxin (Na(+) channel blocker), and lidocaine (visceral/mucosal afferents). Nicotinic receptors are present on secretomotoneurons and these are activated by release of acetylcholine from enteric interneurons or extrinsic efferent fibers. Specific organisms also modify other mechanisms that may contribute to development of acute diarrhea. Thus, mucin secretion, activation of motor mechanisms, increased mucosal permeability and inhibition of bile acid absorption have been reported in specific types of acute infectious diarrhea. New therapies targeting neural and transmitter mediation including 5-HT, VIP, NPY, as well as toxin receptors and channels activated during acute infectious diarrhea could usher in a novel approach to enhancing glucose-electrolyte solutions used in the treatment of acute diarrhea.

  3. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the...

  4. The Efficacy of Probiotic in Adults with Acute Infectious Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawin Mahen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, acute diarrhea is most commonly caused by infectious pathogens. Regardless of the cause, diarrhea is primarily treated by fluid replacement therapy to decrease the risk of dehydration and death, although it does not affect the duration of diarrhea. Probiotics are able to shorten the duration of diarrhea in children, but its efficacy in adults is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of probiotic in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea in adults as compared to placebo. Systematic search was done using four databases: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Embase, without limit on the year of publication. Randomized clinical trials were selected as the appropriate study design to answer the clinical question and two studies were considered relevant for appraisal. In conclusion, probiotics could improve the recovery of acute infectious diarrhea in adults (level of evidence 1b however more studies should be carried out since only very few strains of probiotics have been investigated. Keywords: probiotics, treatment efficacy, acute diarrhea, adults.     Efektivitas Probiotik pada Orang Dewasa dengan Diare:  Sebuah Laporan Kasus Berbasis Bukti   Abstrak Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan global dengan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Di negara berkembang, diare akut biasanya disebabkan oleh infeksi. Terlepas dari penyebabnya, tata laksana utama diare adalah terapi rehidrasi untuk mengurangi dehidrasi dan kematian walaupun hal tersebut tidak memengaruhi durasi diare. Probiotik dapat memperpendek durasi diare pada anak-anak, namun efektivitasnya pada orang dewasa masih belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efek probiotik dalam mengurangi durasi diare akut pada orang dewasa dibandingkan plasebo. Pencarian sistematik dilakukan pada empat database: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, dan Embase, tanpa membatasi tahun publikasi

  5. The 12 Gastrointestinal Pathogens Spectrum of Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Sentinel Hospital, Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Jinjin; Li, Yinghui; Xie, Sirou; Jiang, Yixiang; Wu, Yanjie; Ye, Yuhui; Yang, Hong; Mo, Haolian; Situ, Chaoman; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detecte...

  6. The nineteen gastrointestinal pathogens spectrum of acute infectious diarrhea in a sentinel hospital, Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Shen; Jinjin Zhang; Yinghui Li; Sirou Xie; Yixiang Jiang; Yanjie Wu; Yuhui Ye; Hong Yang; Haolian Mo; Chaoman Situ; Qinghua Hu

    2016-01-01

    Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detecte...

  7. The nineteen gastrointestinal pathogens spectrum of acute infectious diarrhea in a sentinel hospital, Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus,11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC, enteropathogenic (EPEC, enteroinvasive (EIEC, enterotoxigenic (ETEC; and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum. A potential pathogen and coinfection was found in 41.5% and 7.0% of cases, respectively. The bacterial infection was the dominant cause of diarrhea (32.3%, and the three most frequently identified organisms were Salmonella (12.1%, ETEC (8.0%, and Campylobacter jejuni (4.9%. Salmonella enteritidis was the leading serotype of Salmonella spp.. Norovirus (8.3% and sapovirus (2.2% were the most common viral pathogens, followed by adenovirus (1.5% and rotavirus (1.2%. The single most important causes of diarrhea were Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni, which points toward the need for testing and surveillance for these pathogens in this region.

  8. The 12 Gastrointestinal Pathogens Spectrum of Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Sentinel Hospital, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Jinjin; Li, Yinghui; Xie, Sirou; Jiang, Yixiang; Wu, Yanjie; Ye, Yuhui; Yang, Hong; Mo, Haolian; Situ, Chaoman; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus), 11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC); and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)) and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum). A potential pathogen and coinfection was found in 41.5 and 7.0% of cases, respectively. The bacterial infection was the dominant cause of diarrhea (32.3%), and the three most frequently identified organisms were Salmonella (12.1%), ETEC (8.0%), and Campylobacter jejuni (4.9%). Salmonella enteritidis was the leading serotype of Salmonella sp. Norovirus (8.3%) and sapovirus (2.2%) were the most common viral pathogens, followed by adenovirus (1.5%) and rotavirus (1.2%). No EHEC, L. monocytogenes, V. cholera, Shigella, and parasites were found. The single most important causes of diarrhea were Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni, which points toward the need for testing and surveillance for these pathogens in this region. PMID:27965649

  9. The 12 Gastrointestinal Pathogens Spectrum of Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Sentinel Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Jinjin; Li, Yinghui; Xie, Sirou; Jiang, Yixiang; Wu, Yanjie; Ye, Yuhui; Yang, Hong; Mo, Haolian; Situ, Chaoman; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus), 11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC); and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)) and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum). A potential pathogen and coinfection was found in 41.5 and 7.0% of cases, respectively. The bacterial infection was the dominant cause of diarrhea (32.3%), and the three most frequently identified organisms were Salmonella (12.1%), ETEC (8.0%), and Campylobacter jejuni (4.9%). Salmonella enteritidis was the leading serotype of Salmonella sp. Norovirus (8.3%) and sapovirus (2.2%) were the most common viral pathogens, followed by adenovirus (1.5%) and rotavirus (1.2%). No EHEC, L. monocytogenes, V. cholera, Shigella, and parasites were found. The single most important causes of diarrhea were Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni, which points toward the need for testing and surveillance for these pathogens in this region.

  10. Infectious diarrheas of infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1985-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1985 Acute diarrhea' disease was once attributed to "indigestion." Although shigellosis, cholera, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and amebiasis have long been recognized as distinct clinical entities, it was not too long ago that many medical personnel had difficulty accepting the fact that most diarrheas are of infectious origin. The occurrence of diarrhea with the onset of weaning in many animal speci...

  11. Acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobillo, E T; Schwartz, S M

    1998-10-01

    Diarrhea can result from damage to the intestinal lining caused by viruses or bacteria, malabsorption, inflammatory processes, bile salt and pancreatic enzyme deficiency, abnormal motility, or the presence of osmotically active solutes in the gut. While it is important to elicit information to determine the possible cause of diarrhea, be sure to check circulatory status first. Some patients may need rehydration therapy more urgently than they need a diagnosis. The main goals of treatment are to prevent dehydration and correct electrolyte imbalance, to provide supportive and symptomatic therapy, and to treat underlying disease. In most cases, a specific diagnosis is not necessary to guide initial treatment.

  12. [CHRONIC DIARRHEA OF INFECTIOUS ETIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán F G, Gustavo

    1997-01-01

    Chronic Diarrhea syndrome is due to several causes. In LatinAmericen countries, infectious and parasitic etiology is frequent. Withinthese infections, the following has been determined: parasitic and enterobacterial agents, overpopulation of bacteria syndrome in the upper small bowel (SOBIA, abbreviation for Síndrome de Sobrepoblación Bacteriana del Intestino Delgado Alto), intestinal TBC, and AIDS. In these processes, the precipitating factor may be unique or multifactor; or there could also exist a tendency towards pathologies for these infections. There has been evidence of SOBIA cases without associated factor in Latin American countries. A study made in Peru shows SOBIA cases in 30 percent of chronic diarrhea.In chronic diarrhea cases, and even more, in those diarrheas of infectiousetiology, a complete study should be made, considering the several factorsthat generate diarrhea in a same one case, such as the mechanisms ofimmunodeficiency, neurological, endocrinemetabolic, and others associated with intestinal infections. This approach will be helpful to make a complete diagnosis and apply timely treatment.

  13. The effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and deaths presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea in Brazilian children: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Estêvão; Moscovici, Leonardo; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Alves, Domingos; Laprega, Milton Roberto; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is the main etiologic agent of acute infectious diarrhea in children worldwide. Considering that a rotavirus vaccine (G1P8, strain RIX4414) was added to the Brazilian vaccination schedule in 2006, we aimed to study its effectiveness and safety regarding intestinal intussusception. A quasi-experimental trial was performed in which the primary outcome was the number of hospitalizations that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea per 100,000 children at risk (0-4 years old). The secondary outcomes included mortality due to acute infectious diarrhea and the intestinal intussusception rates in children in the same age range. We analyzed three scenarios: Health Division XIII of the State of São Paulo (DRS XIII) from 2002 to 2008, the State of São Paulo, and Brazil from 2002 to 2012. The averages of the hospitalization rates for 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods were 1,413 and 959, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.67), 312 and 249, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.79), and 718 and 576, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.8). The mortality rate per 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods was 2.0 and 1.3, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.66), 5.5 and 2.5, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.47), and 15.0 and 8.0, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.53). The average annual rates of intussusception for 100,000 children in DRS XIII were 28.0 and 22.0 (RR=0.77) in the pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was demonstrated to be effective in preventing the hospitalizations and deaths of children that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea, without increasing the risk of intestinal intussusception.

  14. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, other infectious diseases, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Klig, J E; Kahn, J S; Shapiro, E D; Baron, M A

    1997-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. Jean Klig reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children. Jeffrey Kahn and Eugene Shapiro discuss literature concerning several infectious diseases commonly seen in office settings and concerning which recent developments are of interest. Michael Baron reviews recent literature about gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

  15. Progress on treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in adults%成人急性感染性腹泻治疗新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙峰; 张文宏

    2013-01-01

    成人急性感染性腹泻与儿童感染性腹泻在发病率、严重程度、预后等方面有所不同,其治疗以补液、止泻为主,必要时使用抗微生物药物。近年来,成人急性感染性腹泻在补液治疗和益生菌、新止泻药物应用等方面更新了一些新的循证医学证据,在进一步确保现有药物安全性的同时促进了腹泻治疗思路与手段的发展。%Acute infectious diarrhea in adults is different from children infectious diarrhea in incidence rate , severity and prognosis . Fluid infusion and antidiarrheal treatment are suggested first and antibiotics are prescribed under the needed conditions . Current medical evidences in fluid infusion , probiotics and new antidiarrheal medicines for acute infectious diarrhea in adults are summarized in this paper .Accumulated evidences demonstrate that these treatments are safe and effective .

  16. [Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea: diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Korinna; Layer, Peter; Andresen, Viola

    2016-09-01

    Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available. Eluxadolin presents a new therapeutic option. It can alleviate abdominal pain and diarrhea by modulation of opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system. Additional approaches in intractable irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) include 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, the antibiotic Rifaximin as well as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants. Specific diets such as the low-FODMAP diet can also relieve symptoms in IBS.

  17. The effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and deaths presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea in Brazilian children: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão Teles

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main etiologic agent of acute infectious diarrhea in children worldwide. Considering that a rotavirus vaccine (G1P8, strain RIX4414 was added to the Brazilian vaccination schedule in 2006, we aimed to study its effectiveness and safety regarding intestinal intussusception. METHODS: A quasi-experimental trial was performed in which the primary outcome was the number of hospitalizations that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea per 100,000 children at risk (0-4 years old. The secondary outcomes included mortality due to acute infectious diarrhea and the intestinal intussusception rates in children in the same age range. We analyzed three scenarios: Health Division XIII of the State of São Paulo (DRS XIII from 2002 to 2008, the State of São Paulo, and Brazil from 2002 to 2012. RESULTS: The averages of the hospitalization rates for 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods were 1,413 and 959, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.67, 312 and 249, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.79, and 718 and 576, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.8. The mortality rate per 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods was 2.0 and 1.3, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.66, 5.5 and 2.5, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.47, and 15.0 and 8.0, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.53. The average annual rates of intussusception for 100,000 children in DRS XIII were 28.0 and 22.0 (RR=0.77 in the pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was demonstrated to be effective in preventing the hospitalizations and deaths of children that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea, without increasing the risk of intestinal intussusception.

  18. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  19. Acute diarrhea in children

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  20. 急性感染性腹泻患儿血清CRP值变化的临床意义%Change of Serum CRP in Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶国华; 张锦光; 黎惠璋; 郭德康; 郭溉宗

    2009-01-01

    [目的]探讨急性感染性腹泻患儿血清C反应蛋白(CRP)的变化及临床意义.[方法]对132例急性感染性腹泻患儿按病原体不同分为病毒性肠炎组82例和细菌性肠炎组50例;按病情程度不同分为重型腹泻组73例和轻型腹泻组59例.应用免疫比浊法测定血清CRP及血生化,同时测定53例健康对照组CRP.[结果]82例病毒性肠炎组及50例细菌性肠炎组CRP均明显高于对照组(P<0.01),病毒性肠炎组与细菌性肠炎组比较CRP差异无显著性(P>0.05),73例重型腹泻组与59例轻型腹泻组比较CRP差异有显著性(P<0.01).[结论]急性感染性腹泻患儿CRP不能作为鉴别病毒或细菌感染的指标,但可作为评价病情严重与否的有用指标.%[Objective] To explore the change of serum C-reaction protein (CRP) level in the acute infectious diarrhea and evaluation its clinical significance. [Methods]A total of 132 cases of acute infectious diarrhea in children were divided into viral enteritis group(n=82) and bacterial enteritis group (n=50) by different pathogens. According to the degree of the disease state, all patients were divided into severe diarrhea group (n=73) and light diarrhea group (n=59). The serum CRP and blood biochemistry were measured by immunoturbidimetry method. Fifty three healthy children were selected as controls. [Results]The serum CRP level in the viral enteritis group and bacterial enteritis group was obviously higher than that in the control group(P0.05). There was significant difference between severe diarrhea group and light diarrhea group (P<0.01). [Conclusion] The serum CRP level in the acute infectious diarrhea can not be the indicator for distinguishing viral and bacterial infections, but it can evaluate the disease severity.

  1. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea

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    MacLean William

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.

  2. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    MacLean William

    1996-01-01

    Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.

  3. Global challenges in acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the low and middle-income countries. The burden of child mortality because of diarrhea has declined, but still a lot is desired not only to reduce diarrhea-specific mortality but reduce the overall incidence, and hence the morbidity associated with childhood diarrhea. A recent Lancet series on diarrhea suggests that amplification of the current interventions can eliminate virtually all preventable diarrhea deaths. A refocused attention and strategy and collective effort from the multilateral entities to promote water sanitation and hygiene, rotavirus vaccination, nutrition, and improved case management can bridge gaps and tackle the existing undue burden of deaths because of diarrhea. Investment toward preventing and controlling childhood diarrhea should be a priority, especially when the existing solution is plausible for implementation at scale and in underprivileged settings.

  4. Clinical Observation on Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Acute Infectious Abdominal Pain and Diarrhea%胃复安治疗急性感染性腹痛腹泻的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of metoclopramide in the treatment of acute infectious abdominal pain and diarrhea. Methods We divided 68 patients into two groups,the control group received routine treatment,and observation group used Metoclopramide on the basis of control group. Results The total effective rate,the improvement time of clinical symptoms of observation group were significantly better than control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion The effect of Metoclopramide in the treatment of acute infective abdominal pain and diarrhea is ideal.%目的:观察胃复安治疗急性感染性腹痛腹泻的效果。方法随机将68例急性感染性腹痛腹泻患者平均分为两组,对照组行常规治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上行胃复安治疗。结果观察组治疗总有效率、临床症状改善时间等均优于对照组(P <0.05)。结论胃复安治疗急性感染性腹痛腹泻效果理想。

  5. 94 cases of Levofloxacin Therapy for Severe acute Bacterial Infectious Diarrhea Curative Effect Analysis%94例左氧氟沙星治疗急性重症细菌性感染性腹泻疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊飞

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨左氧氟沙星治疗急性重症细菌性感染性腹泻的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析94例急性重症细菌性感染性腹泻患者临床资料,随机将患者分为研究组和对照组,每组各47例。两组患者均给予补液、退热、止泻等基础治疗,其中研究组加以左氧氟沙星进行治疗,对照组给予硫酸依替米星注射液治疗。对比两组患者的临床疗效。结果研究组总有效45例(95.74%),对照组总有效38例(80.85%),对比两组总有效率,研究组明显高于对照组(P<0.05),具有统计学差异意义(P<0.05)。采用左氧氟沙星治疗急性重症细菌性感染性腹泻疗效优于依替米星抗感染治疗。结论采用左氧氟沙星治疗急性重症细菌性感染性腹泻安全有效,可明显改善临床症状,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To explore the levofloxacin clinical curative effect for the treatment of severe acute bacterial infectious diarrhea .Methods A retrospective a-nalysis of clinical data of 94 cases of severe acute bacterial infectious diarrhea patients,the patients randomly divided into research group and the control group,each group(n=47).Two groups of patients were given rehydration,antifebrile,antidiarrheal therapy,including levofloxacin in treatment group,control group given sulfate for m star injection treatment.Compare the clinical efficacy of two groups of patients.Results The team total effective 45 cases(95.74%),control group total effective 38 ca-ses(80.85%),compared to two group total effective rate,the team is significantly higher than control group(P<0.05),statistically significance(P<0.05).With levo-floxacin therapy for severe acute bacterial infectious diarrhea curative effect is superior to the for m star anti -infection treatment.Conclusion Levofloxacin in treatment of acute severe bacterial infectious diarrhea is safe and effective,and can obviously improve the clinical

  6. 辨证施护在小儿急性非细菌感染性腹泻中的应用效果%Application effect of dialectical care in children with acute non-bacterial infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析辨证施护在小儿急性非细菌感染性腹泻中的应用效果。方法选取2014年5月~2015年3月本院收治的96例急性非细菌感染性腹泻患儿,按照1:1比例配对法分为对照组和观察组,每组48例。对照组采用基础治疗以及常规护理,观察组采用基础治疗联合辨证施护,对比两组的疗效、症状改善情况以及护理满意度。结果观察组的治疗总有效率、每日大便次数、止泻时间、成形便患儿比例、护理满意度分别为93.7%、(1.69±0.43)次、(4.10±2.40)d、22.9%和97.9%,与对照组[50.0%、(2.50±0.78)次、(4.35±2.20)d、2.1%、83.3%]比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论辨证施护用于治疗小儿急性非细菌性感染性腹泻,可有效改善患儿的症状,提高护理满意度。%Objective To analysis the clinical effect of dialectical care in children with acute non-bacterial infectious diarrhea. Methods 96 children with acute non-bacterial infectious diarrhea in our hospital from May 2014 to March 2015 were selected.They were divided into control group and observation group by proportion of 1:1 matching method, 48 cases in each group.The control group was given basic therapy and common nursing,the observation group was given basic therapy combined with dialectical care.Effect,symptom improvement and nursing satisfaction were compared between two groups. Results The effective rate,times of defecation per day,time of checking diarrhea,children of stool forming and nursing satisfaction rate in observation group were respectively 93.7%, (1.69±0.43) times, (4.10±2.40) d, 22.9% and 97.9%,above these compared with the control group [50.0%, (2.50±0.78) times, (4.35±2.20) d,2.1% and 83.3%],the differences were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Dialectical care in treating for children with acute non-bacterial infectious diarrhea can improve patients’symptoms effectively and improve nursing satisfaction.

  7. [Clinical study of acute diarrhea caused by rotavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Doina; Fîntînaru, Rodica; Iacob, Monica; Simonca, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    To establish the implication of Rotavirus in acute diarrhea of babies and children. Prospective study on 164 patients aged between 1 month and 3 years with acute diarrhea, admitted in the Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 01.01.2005 - 31.03.2005. Rotavirus cause the illness in 30 patients (18.29%). The disease was more prevalent among children with dystrophy or with other comorbidities like: iron-deficiency anemia, intestinal parasitosis, rhinopharyngitis, pneumococcal meningitidis. In seven cases the infectious was considered to be nosocomial. During the illness patients also accused other symptoms, while in order of frequency were: common respiratory infection (13.3%), nausea and vomiting (40%), maculopapular eruption and intestinal pneumonia (16.6%), acute pharyngitis (10%). In this study latex agglutination confirmed the diagnosis. Vomiting and diarrhea led in all cases to moderate or severe dehydration. Appropriate rehydration was necessary but only in 12 cases was made through intravenous access with: Ringer lactate, isotonic sodium chloride solutions. Most children recovered with in 5 days.

  8. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diarrhea: focus on enteric protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P; Sobuz, Shihab U; Petri, William A

    2014-11-01

    Robust detection of enteric protozoa is a critical step toward determining the etiology of diarrhea. Widespread use of conventional microscopy, culturing and antigen detection in both industrial and developing countries is limited by relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Refinements of these conventional approaches that reduce turnaround time and instrumentation have yielded strong alternatives for clinical and research use. However, advances in molecular diagnostics for protozoal, bacterial, viral and helminth infections offer significant advantages in studies seeking to understand pathogenesis, transmission and long-term consequences of infectious diarrhea. Quantitation of enteropathogen burden and highly multiplexed platforms for molecular detection dramatically improve predictive power in emerging models of diarrheal etiology, while eliminating the expense of multiple tests.

  9. Gut Microbial Succession Follows Acute Secretory Diarrhea in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lawrence A.; Weil, Ana; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disability after childhood diarrhea is an important burden on global productivity. Recent studies suggest that gut bacterial communities influence how humans recover from infectious diarrhea, but we still lack extensive data and mechanistic hypotheses for how these bacterial communities respond to diarrheal disease and its treatment. Here, we report that after Vibrio cholerae infection, the human gut microbiota undergoes an orderly and reproducible succession that features transient reversals in relative levels of enteric Bacteroides and Prevotella. Elements of this succession may be a common feature in microbiota recovery from acute secretory diarrhea, as we observed similar successional dynamics after enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Our metagenomic analyses suggest that multiple mechanisms drive microbial succession after cholera, including bacterial dispersal properties, changing enteric oxygen and carbohydrate levels, and phage dynamics. Thus, gut microbiota recovery after cholera may be predictable at the level of community structure but is driven by a complex set of temporally varying ecological processes. Our findings suggest opportunities for diagnostics and therapies targeting the gut microbiota in humans recovering from infectious diarrhea. PMID:25991682

  10. Probiotics, calcium and acute diarrhea : a randomized trial in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    Acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) continue to lead the infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, including Indonesia. Efforts to prevent diarrheal disease by probiotics and milk calcium suppleme

  11. RACECADOTRIL IN ACUTE WATERY DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypersecretory state of gut epithelium induced by toxins secreted by microorganisms is the main mechanism of fluid loss in diarrheal illness. Enkephalins (Endogenous Opioids secreted by gut epithelium have marked pro-absorptive activity and are inactivated by enzyme enkephalinase. Racecadotril, the study drug act by augmenting the levels of enkephalins by inactivating enzyme enkephalinase thus leading to increased intestinal absorption. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of racecadotril in acute watery diarrhea in children. PARTICIPANTS Total of 100 patients who met inclusion criteria in the age group of 6 months to 5 years admitted with acute watery diarrhea and some dehydration were enrolment in the study. Cases were randomly divided into racecadotril and placebo group study outcomes in form of number of stools during first 48 hours of admission, mean daily stool number, total duration of diarrheal illness and recovery time, weight on discharge, volume of oral rehydration solution intake during hospital stay and requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion were observed. RESULTS There was a significant decrease (43.9% in mean number of stools passed per day in racecadotril group when compared to placebo group. Secondary outcome variables, i.e. mean daily stool number, duration of diarrhea and recovery time, total volume of oral rehydration solution during study period, requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion also showed a statically significant difference in two groups. Complications rates were not different in the two groups. CONCLUSION Racecadotril can be used as an adjunctive therapy in acute watery diarrhea

  12. Usefulness of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chien-Chang Chen; Chee-Jen Chang; Tzou-Yien Lin; Ming-Wei Lai; Hsun-Chin Chao; Man-Shan Kong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the value of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea.``METHODS: Patients with acute infectious diarrhea ranging from 3 mo to 10 years in age were enrolled, and one to three stool samples from each subject were collected. Certain parameters, including white blood cells/differential count, C-reactive protein, fecal mucus, fecal pus cells, duration of fever, vomiting, diarrhea and severity (indicated by Clark and Vesikari scores), were recorded and analyzed. Fecal lactoferrin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared in different pathogen and disease activity. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were also used for analysis.``RESULTS: Data included 226 evaluations for 117 individuals across three differenttime points. Fecal lactoferrin was higher in patients with Salmonella (11.17 )j,g/g ± 2.73 μg/g) or Campyhbacter (10.32 μg/g ± 2.94 μig/g) infections and lower in patients with rotavirus (2.82 μg/g ± 1.27 μg/g) or norovirus (3.16 μg/g ± 1.18 |ag/g) infections. Concentrations of fecal lactoferrin were significantly elevated in patients with severe (11.32 μg/g ± 3.29 μag/g) or moderate (3.77 μg/g ± 2.08 μg/g) disease activity compared with subjects with mild (1.51 yig/g ± 1.36 μg/g) disease activity (P < 0.05). GEE analysis suggests that this marker could be used to monitor the severity and course of gastrointestinal infections and may provide information for disease management.``CONCLUSION: Fecal lactoferrin increased during bacterial infection and with greater disease severity and may be a good marker for predicting and monitoring intestinal inflammation in children with infectious diarrhea.

  13. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ratna Dewi; Yati Soenarto; I Putu Gede Karyana

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therap...

  14. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ratna Dewi; Yati Soenarto; I Putu Gede Karyana

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidityand mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due torotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the WorldHealth Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.Thispractice has shown great success in diarrhea management, butconcerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to preventcomplications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea.However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy fortr...

  15. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  16. Acute diarrhea: evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kátia Galeão; Castro Antunes, Margarida Maria de; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da

    2015-01-01

    To describe the current recommendations on the best management of pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar. There has been little progress in the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) in recent decades, despite being widely reported by international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to improve the effectiveness of ORS. Intravenous hydration with isotonic saline solution, quickly infused, should be given in cases of severe dehydration. Nutrition should be ensured after the dehydration resolution, and is essential for intestinal and immune health. Dietary restrictions are usually not beneficial and may be harmful. Symptomatic medications have limited indication and antibiotics are indicated in specific cases, such as cholera and moderate to severe shigellosis. Hydration and nutrition are the interventions with the greatest impact on the course of acute diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy for treating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children. Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrhea treated with synbiotics vs. placebo. Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglah and Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged 6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus was diagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic group received probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, and prebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. The placebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as the synbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days. Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea was involved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, while that of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6 hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than that of the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001. Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbiotic reduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:74-8.].

  18. Bacterial entropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility in children with acute diarrhea in Babol, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad Reza; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Mosaiebnia Gatabi, Zahra; Poornasrollah, Mohammad; Mirzapour, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infectious diarrhea is one of common cause of children diarrhea causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was performed to identify the common bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility in children with diarrhea.

  19. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidityand mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due torotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the WorldHealth Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.Thispractice has shown great success in diarrhea management, butconcerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to preventcomplications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea.However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy fortreating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children.Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrheatreated with synbiotics vs. placebo.Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial,performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglahand Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus wasdiagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic groupreceived probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp.,Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, andprebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. Theplacebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as thesynbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days.Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea wasinvolved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in thesynbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, whilethat of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration ofdiarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than thatof the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001.Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbioticreduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo.

  20. [Probiotics for the treating acute diarrhea and preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Carlos

    2015-02-07

    Probiotics are helpful in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Several systematic reviews show that the use of probiotics shortens the duration of diarrhea in one day and reduces by 59% the risk of diarrhea lasting longer than 4 days. Hospital stay is 24 hours shorter in children treated with probiotics. The benefitial effect of probiotics is species-specific; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the two species with proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea. The use of probiotics reduces by 50% the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. No significant side effects were found in the clinical trials but rare cases of invasive infections have been reported in immunosuppressed children or those with indwelling central venous catheters.

  1. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases.

  2. [Hypokalemia-induced paraplegia secondary to acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño Andériz, F; Cabello Clotet, N; de Diego Gamarra, R; Salaverría Garzón, I; Vázquez Rizaldos, S

    2002-02-01

    Hypokalemia can give a variety of syntomatology but more often courses without it or with inespecific clinical manifestations. In our enviroment the etiology of hypokalemia is wide but one of the most common causes in third world countries are diarrheas. We describe a case of severe hypokalemia due to acute diarrhea which was manifested with severe neurologic symtoms but improves with conventional treatment.

  3. Clinical effect analysis of levofloxacin combined with smecta in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea%左氧氟沙星联合思密达治疗急性感染性腹泻的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析左氧氟沙星联合思密达治疗成人急性感染性腹泻的临床效果。方法:收治成人急性感染性腹泻患者90例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组45例。观察组给予左氧氟沙星联合思密达治疗。对照组给予左氧氟沙星治疗。对比两组患者的临床治疗效果。结果:观察组临床疗效显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组平均临床止泻时间显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:左氧氟沙星联合思密达治疗成人急性感染性腹泻具有显著的临床效果,且思密达不会影响抗生素的吸收,安全有效。%Objective:To analyze the clinical effect of levofloxacin combined with smecta in the treatment of adult acute infectious diarrhea.Methods:90 patients with adult acute infectious diarrhea were selected.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 45 cases in each.The observation group was given levofloxacin combined with smecta treatment. The control group was given levofloxacin treatment.The clinical treatment effects of two groups were compared.Results:The clinical curative effect of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group(P<0.05).The average clinical antidiarrheal time of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Levofloxacin combined with smecta in the treatment of adult acute infectious diarrhea has a significant clinical effect.And smecta will not affect the absorption of antibiotics,it is safe and effective.

  4. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

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    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  5. Acute diarrhea during army field exercise in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bai; Ying-Chun Dai; Jian-Dong Li; Jun Nie; Qing Chen; Hong Wang; Yong-Yu Rui; Ya-Li Zhang; Shou-Yi Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: During emergency period, infectious diseases can bea major threat to military forces. During field training insouthern China, diarrhea is the main cause of nonbattleinjury. To evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrheain emergency period, we collected clinical and epidemiologicaldata from the People′s Liberation Army (PLA) during fieldtraining in southern China.METHODS: From September 25 to October 2 1997, 2636military personnel were investigated. Fecal sample cultures for lapactic pathogens were obtained from 103 military personnel with diarrhea. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 103 cases and 206 controls to evaluate the association between illness and potential risk factors. At the same time,another questionnaire of 1:4 case-case control was administered to 22 severe cases (each severe case paired 4 mild cases).RESULTS: The training troop′s diarrhea incidence rate was significantly higher than that of garrison. The diarrhea incidence rate of officers was significantly lower than that of soldiers. A lapactic pathogen was identified in 63.1% (65/103) of the troops with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli(35.0%) and plesiomona shigelloides (16.5%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin and ceftazidine. However, almost all of them were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,oxytetracycline, doxycycline, furazolidone, ampicillin and cloromycetin to a different degree. Risk factors associated with diarrhea includediidrinking raw water, eating outside,contacting diarrhea patients, lacking sanitation, depression,lacking sleep, which were established by multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. In addition, the unit incidence rate was associated with the density of flies and the average daily boiled water available by regression and discriminate analysis.CONCLUSION: A series of risk factors are associated with the incidence rate of diarrhea. Our

  6. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Hao Chung; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R; Thwaites, Guy E; Rabaa, Maia A; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2017-08-02

    Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  7. Acute diarrhea | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ermina)Versus ORT Alone, Administered for 5 Days With the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children A.3.1Title...on or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute...tigation E.1.2Version 17.1 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10000706 E.1.2Term Acute

  8. Quantitative analysis of burden of infectious diarrhea associated with floods in northwest of anhui province, china: a mixed method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Lu; Ma, Wei; Li, Xiujun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2013-01-01

    Persistent and heavy rainfall in the upper and middle Huaihe River of China brought about severe floods during the end of June and July 2007. However, there has been no assessment on the association between the floods and infectious diarrhea. This study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods in 2007 on the burden of disease due to infectious diarrhea in northwest of Anhui Province. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was firstly conducted to examine the relationship between daily cases of infectious diarrhea and the 2007 floods in Fuyang and Bozhou of Anhui Province. Odds ratios (ORs) of the flood risk were quantified by conditional logistic regression. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of infectious diarrhea attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework of the calculating potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. A total of 197 infectious diarrheas were notified during the exposure and control periods in the two study areas. The strongest effect was shown with a 2-day lag in Fuyang and a 5-day lag in Bozhou. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number cases of infectious diarrhea (OR = 3.175, 95%CI: 1.126-8.954 in Fuyang; OR = 6.754, 95%CI: 1.954-23.344 in Bozhou). Attributable YLD per 1000 of infectious diarrhea resulting from the floods was 0.0081 in Fuyang and 0.0209 in Bozhou. Our findings confirm that floods have significantly increased the risks of infectious diarrhea in the study areas. In addition, prolonged moderate flood may cause more burdens of infectious diarrheas than severe flood with a shorter duration. More attention should be paid to particular vulnerable groups, including younger children and elderly, in developing public health preparation and intervention programs. Findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods.

  9. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ruihua; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011. Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12) and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI) of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76), 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58) and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69), respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48), 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37) and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81), respectively. All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  10. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Kang

    Full Text Available Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011.Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs and the 95% confidence intervals (CI.There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12 and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76, 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58 and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69, respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48, 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44, 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37 and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81, respectively.All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  11. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Dotters-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

  12. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

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    Sh Gheibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of diarrhea.   Materials and Methods: We conduct a systematic review through January 2014, for randomized controlled trials relevant to effect of zinc on diarrhea in children. We searched the MeSH terms zinc, acute gastroenteritis and children from various databases of Cochrane Library and PubMed, then clinical trials done in South-West Asia, selected for making written. Results: In recent years, several studies have reported the therapeutic effect of zinc supplementation on diarrheal diseases that was beneficial on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration. In some countries in West Asia such as Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in clinical trials showed a faster improvement in acute gastroenteritis in children less than five years. But in some countries, such as Turkey, this effect was not significant.   Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies. Global attempts should is increased to support recommended regimen of therapeutic zinc by WHO in all areas. Keywords: Acute Gastroenteritis, Children, Zinc, South-West Asia.  

  13. FilmArray™ GI panel performance for the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis or hemorragic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralla, Antonio; Lunghi, Giovanna; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Girello, Alessia; Premoli, Marta; Bava, Erika; Arghittu, Milena; Colombo, Maria Rosaria; Cognetto, Alessandra; Bono, Patrizia; Campanini, Giulia; Marone, Piero; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-05-12

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea. The clinical performance of the FilmArray™ gastrointestinal (GI) panel was assessed in 168 stool samples collected from patients with either acute gastroenteritis or hemorragic diarrhea. Samples showing discordant results between FilmArray and routine methods were further analyzed with an additional assay. Overall, the FilmArray™ GI panel detected at least one potential pathogen in 92/168 (54.8%) specimens. In 66/92 (71.8%) samples, only one pathogen was detected, while in 26/92 (28.2%) multiple pathogens were detected. The most frequent pathogens were rotavirus 13.9% (22/168), Campylobacter 10.7% (18/168), Clostridium difficile 9.5% (16/168), and norovirus 8.9% (15/168). Clostridium difficile was identified only in patients with acute gastroenteritis (p GI panel has proved to be a valuable new diagnostic tool for improving the diagnostic efficiency of GI pathogens.

  14. DEHYDRATION IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the main issues of the regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism in children, possible variants of its disorder in acute diarrhoeal diseases. The clinical features of dehydration depending on the severity and qualitative component of losses are described, recommendations on laboratory diagnosis and treatment are provided. 

  15. [Preliminary application of Back-Propagation artificial neural network model on the prediction of infectious diarrhea incidence in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Gu, Jun-zhong; Mao, Sheng-hua; Xiao, Wen-jia; Jin, Hui-ming; Zheng, Ya-xu; Wang, Yong-ming; Hu, Jia-yu

    2013-12-01

    To establish BP artificial neural network predicting model regarding the daily cases of infectious diarrhea in Shanghai. Data regarding both the incidence of infectious diarrhea from 2005 to 2008 in Shanghai and meteorological factors including temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, duration of sunshine and wind speed within the same periods were collected and analyzed with the MatLab R2012b software. Meteorological factors that were correlated with infectious diarrhea were screened by Spearman correlation analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to remove the multi-colinearities between meteorological factors. Back-Propagation (BP) neural network was employed to establish related prediction models regarding the daily infectious diarrhea incidence, using artificial neural networks toolbox. The established models were evaluated through the fitting, predicting and forecasting processes. Data from Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the incidence of infectious diarrhea had a highly positive correlation with factors as daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, minimum relative humidity and average relative humidity in the previous two days (P neural network model were established under the input of 4 meteorological principal components, extracted by PCA and used for training and prediction. Then appeared to be 4.7811, 6.8921,0.7918,0.8418 and 5.8163, 7.8062,0.7202,0.8180, respectively. The rate on mean error regarding the predictive value to actual incidence in 2008 was 5.30% and the forecasting precision reached 95.63% . Temperature and air pressure showed important impact on the incidence of infectious diarrhea. The BP neural network model had the advantages of low simulation forecasting errors and high forecasting hit rate that could ideally predict and forecast the effects on the incidence of infectious diarrhea.

  16. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

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    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  17. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

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    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  18. Etiological analysis of acute infectious diarrhea in adults of west district sentinel hospital of Shanghai in 2011-2013%2011-2013年上海西区哨点医院成人急性腹泻细菌感染的病原学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈思兰; 李颖; 史慧晶; 刘岩红; 张万菊; 何静; 朱绍琴; 胡芸文; 钱方兴

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution of pathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea in adults of west district sentinel hospital of Shanghai and analyze the change trend so as to put forward targeted prevention and control measures of the acute diarrhea .METHODS A total of 2 091 patients with acute diarrhea who were not treated with antibiotics in diarrhea outpatient department of west district sentinel hospital of Shanghai from Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 were enrolled in the study ,then the stool specimens were collected to culture and isolate the common species of intestinal tract pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus ,Escherichia coli ,Salmonella , Campylobacter jejuni ,and Shigella) ,and the isolated positive strains were identified and preserved by center for disease control and prevention of Changning district .RESULTS The stool specimens were cultured positive in 671 patients ,with the positive rate 32 .1% .Totally 671 strains of pathogens were isolated;the V .parahaemolyticus , E .coli ,Salmonella ,and Shigella were dominant among the pathogens ,accounting for 33 .8% ,22 .1% ,21 .5% , and 10 .3% ,respectively ;the enterotoxigenic E .coli was dominant among the E .coli strains ,accounting for 74 . 3% (110/148);the Salmonella Enteritidis was the most common species of Salmonella ,accounting for 44 .4%(64/144);the Shigellasonnei was dominant among the Shigellaspp ,accounting for 84 .1% (58/69) .The isola‐tion rate of pathogens was highest (29 .5% ) in the patients aged from 21 to 30 years old (198/671);68 .70%(461/671) of the pathogens were isolated in July‐September .CONCLUSION The adults with acute diarrhea in the western district of Shanghai show remarkable seasonal character ,and the young patients are dominant .The inci‐dence of E .coli infection shows an upward trend .It is necessary to actively conduct the targeted prevention and control of the diarrhea in the key population .%目的:了解上海市西区哨点医院成人急性腹泻病

  19. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

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    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  20. 感染性腹泻研究最新进展%Recent progress in the research of infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂青和

    2011-01-01

    感染性腹泻病已成为当今全球性重要的公共卫生问题之一,笔者从微生物学实验诊断技术、感染性腹泻发病机制、耐药菌谱及其耐药机制、新型治疗方法 及预防策略方面对感染性腹泻研究的最新进展进行探讨.%Infectious diarrhea has become one of the major global public health concerns. The author focuses on the recent progress in the research of infectious diarrhea, including microbiological laboratory diagnosis techniques, pathogenesis of infectious diarrhea, drug-resistant bacteria and the pathogenesis of antimicrobial resistance, novel treatment options and prevention strategies.

  1. Acute Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Children: Clinical Picture, Diagnosis, Treatment

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    S.L. Niankovskyi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea in children. There are presented the basic thesis of ESPGHAN consensus (2014 about acute diarrheas. There was analyzed the effectiveness of probiotic Subalin producing interferon for the treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea. It was demonstrated its effectiveness according to the literature review and own data.

  2. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heber Silva-Díaz; Olinda Bustamante-Canelo; Franklin-Rómulo Aguilar-Gamboa; Katya Mera-Villasis; Jhonatan Ipanaque-Chozo; Eberth Seclen-Bernabe; Martha Vergara-Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL) - Peru...

  3. [Feeding infants and young children with acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, J-P; Michard-Lenoir, A-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common and often severe illness among infants and children throughout the world. The management of a child with acute diarrhea includes rehydration and maintenance fluids with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), combined with continued age-appropriate nutrition. However, although substantial data support the role of continued nutrition in improving gastrointestinal function and anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical outcomes, the practice of continued feeding during diarrheal episodes has been difficult to establish as accepted standard of care. Recommendations for maintenance dietary therapy depend on the age and diet history of the patient. It has been clear for many years that, when affected by gastroenteritis, breastfed infants should be continued on breast milk without any need for interruption and, by that way, will get faster recovery and improved nutrition. Moreover, many well-conducted studies have provided evidence that in formula-fed children not severely dehydrated, a rapid return to full feeding is well tolerated. Lactose intolerance and/or secondary cow's milk allergy are not a clinical concern for the vast majority of patients. In fact early refeeding i.e resumption of normal diet, in amounts sufficient to satisfy energy and nutrient requirements, should be the rule. However, in children younger than 6 months of age, the lack of suitable studies must lead to caution and use of specific lactose-free or extensively hydrolysate formulae, especially in case of severe and/or prolonged diarrhea. Several studies support the use of zinc supplementation or probiotics for acute diarrhea but some doubts persist in infant in developed countries.

  4. Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lactose intolerance. Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn's disease Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, ...

  5. Predictors of plasma zinc concentrations in children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Chandyo, Ram K; Sharma, Pushpa R; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-03-01

    Plasma and serum zinc concentrations are the most widely used markers of zinc status in individual persons and populations. The objective was to identify factors that influence plasma zinc concentrations during acute childhood diarrhea. This was a cross-sectional study of 1757 cases of acute diarrhea in 6-35-mo-old Nepalese children. The association between plasma zinc concentration and several clinical, anthropometric, socioeconomic, and biochemical variables was estimated in simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We observed a reduction in the mean plasma zinc concentration of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.74) micro mol/L per degree ( degrees C) increase in axillary temperature. Having dysentery and an elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentration was also independently associated with lower plasma zinc. Children with clinical features of dehydration had higher plasma zinc concentrations than did those who were not dehydrated. Furthermore, a decrease in plasma albumin of 1 g/L was associated with a decrease in plasma zinc of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.29) micro mol/L. The plasma albumin concentration confounded the associations between some clinical variables and plasma zinc, but the association between axillary temperature and dehydration on one hand and plasma zinc on the other was not substantially influenced by the albumin concentration. Moreover, the plasma zinc concentration increased with an increase in observed hemolysis. Dehydration, clinical and biochemical indicators of inflammation and hemolysis, and, when possible, plasma albumin concentrations should be taken into account when the plasma zinc concentration is used to estimate zinc status during episodes of diarrhea in childhood.

  6. Epidemiological survey of Campylobacter infection associated with acute bacterial infectious children diarrhea in Shanghai%上海地区急性细菌感染性腹泻儿童弯曲菌感染流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊燕; 王传清; 王爱敏; 薛健昌; 宋建明; 付盼; 许学斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of Campylobacter in the children with acute bacterial diarrhea in Shanghai.Methods Epidemiological survey.Totally 6 641 children with acute bacterial infectious diarrhea from outpatients and inpatients in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University were submitted to the investigation during January 2011 to December 2012.The Campylobacter was isolated from stool samples collected from subjects in micro aerobic environment and identified by both multi-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS ) .Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were assayed by disk-diffusion method according to EUCAST standard.The isolates molecular typing was done by PFGE.SPSS16.0 was used to analyze the results.Results A total number of 6 641 subjects were enrolled, among them, 305 patients were infected with Campylobacter.The prevalence rate was 4.6%(305/6 641).Among the infected patients, 240 patients were infected with Campylobacter jejuni and 65 patients were infected with Campylobacter coli, the infectious rates of these two pathogenic bacteria were 3.6%and 1.0%, respectively.The peak infectious rate in patients older than 1 year of age was 6.2%(209/3 385) which was higher than that in children under 1 year of age (2.9%, 96/3 256),χ2 =35.98,P<0.001.The infectious rate in winter and spring (6.8%, 138/2 040) was higher than that in the other seasons ( 3.6%, 167/4 601 ) ,χ2 =28.59, P <0.001.Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that 91.5%( 279/305 ) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 11.8%( 36/305 ) isolates were resistant to erythromycin.A total of 9 genotypes of Campylobacter were found by PFGE cluster analysis.The similarity were ranged from 65.1%-100.0%for type A, 67.6%-100.0%for type B, 61.7%-100.0%for type C, 59.0%-100.0%for type D, 71.4%for type F, 80.0%for type H, 54.4%-90.9%for type I, and only one strain was classified as type E and G.Conclusions Campylobacter is a major

  7. Impacts of tropical cyclones and accompanying precipitation on infectious diarrhea in cyclone landing areas of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-22

    Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005-2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81-2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98-4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41-4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69-3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45-7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20-4.23), respectively. Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  8. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23), respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones. PMID:25622139

  9. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93 and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25, respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33 and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56, respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27 and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23, respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  10. Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

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    Mamtani Manju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea causes an estimated 2.5 million child deaths in developing countries each year, 35% of which are due to acute diarrhea. Zinc and copper stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhea. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children with acute watery or bloody diarrhea. Methods We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in the Department of Pediatrics at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College Nagpur, India. Eight hundred and eight children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were individually randomized to placebo (Pl, zinc (Zn only, and zinc and copper (Zn+Cu together with standard treatment for acute diarrhea. Results The mean duration of diarrhea from enrolment and the mean stool weight during hospital stay were 63.7 hours and 940 grams, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the adjusted means across treatment groups. Similarly, the adjusted means of the amount of oral rehydration solution or intravenous fluids used, the proportion of participants with diarrhea more than 7 days from onset, and the severity of diarrhea indicated by more than three episodes of some dehydration or any episode of severe dehydration after enrolment, did not differ across the three groups. Conclusion The expected beneficial effects of zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea were not observed. Therapeutic Zn or Zn and Cu supplementation may not have a universal beneficial impact on the duration of acute diarrhea in children. Trial registration The study was registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN85071383.

  11. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  12. 布拉氏酵母菌联合左氧氟沙星治疗成人急性感染性腹泻临床疗效观察%The clinical observation on the effectiveness of saccharomyces boulardii plus levofloxacin in adult with acute infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪扬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii plus levofloxacin in adult with acute infection di arrhea. Methods 120 cases adults suffering from acute diarrhea were divided into 2 groups, Saccharomyces boulardii plus levo floxacin 60 cases, levofloxacin 60 cases. Results The total effective rate in the above groups were 96. 67% and 81. 67% respec tively, comparison between the two groups showed significance (^ =9. 22, P 0.05 ) , comparison between the two groups showed nonsignificance. Conclusion Saccharo myces boulardii plus levofloxacin was effective for the treatment of acute infection diarrhea in adult, and it can decrease the dura tion of diarrhea, improve the acute diarrhea symptoms and reduced the risk of prolonged diarrhea.%目的 观察布拉氏酵母菌联合左氧氟沙星治疗成人急性感染性腹泻的临床疗效.方法 120例成人急性腹泻者随机分为两组,治疗组采用布拉氏酵母菌联合左氧氟沙星治疗,共60例,对照组采用左氧氟沙星治疗,共60例.结果治疗组总有效率为96.67%,对照组为78.33%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=9.22,P<0.05).腹泻平均持续时间治疗组为(1.68±0.30)d,对照组为(2.13±0.35)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);服药第3天,治疗组日平均大便次数为(1.48±0.14)次,对照组为(1.51±0.11)次(P>0.05),两组比较差异均无统计学意义.结论 布拉氏酵母菌联合左氧氟沙星是成人急性腹泻的有效治疗手段,可以缩短成人急性腹泻的持续时间,改善腹泻症状.

  13. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guard, Blake C; Barr, James W; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states.

  14. The spray-drying process is sufficient to inactivate infectious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-11-07

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is considered an emergent pathogen associated with high economic losses in many pig rearing areas. Recently it has been suggested that PEDV could be transmitted to naïve pig populations through inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) into the nursery diet which led to a ban of SDPP in several areas in North America and Europe. To determine the effect of spray-drying on PEDV infectivity, 3-week-old pigs were intragastrically inoculated with (1) raw porcine plasma spiked with PEDV (RAW-PEDV-CONTROL), (2) porcine plasma spiked with PEDV and then spray dried (SD-PEDV-CONTROL), (3) raw plasma from PEDV infected pigs (RAW-SICK), (4) spray-dried plasma from PEDV infected pigs (SD-SICK), or (5) spray-dried plasma from PEDV negative pigs (SD-NEG-CONTROL). For the spray-drying process, a tabletop spray-dryer with industry-like settings for inlet and outlet temperatures was used. In the RAW-PEDV-CONTROL group, PEDV RNA was present in feces at day post infection (dpi) 3 and the pigs seroconverted by dpi 14. In contrast, PEDV RNA in feces was not detected in any of the pigs in the other groups including the SD-PEDV-CONTROL group and none of the pigs had seroconverted by termination of the project at dpi 28. This work provides direct evidence that the experimental spray-drying process used in this study was effective in inactivating infectious PEDV in the plasma. Additionally, plasma collected from PEDV infected pigs at peak disease did not contain infectious PEDV. These findings suggest that the risk for PEDV transmission through commercially produced SDPP is minimal.

  15. Forecasting non-stationary diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and malaria time-series in Niono, Mali.

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    Daniel C Medina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, exhibits high levels of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and malaria. With the increasing awareness that the aforementioned infectious diseases impose an enormous burden on developing countries, public health programs therein could benefit from parsimonious general-purpose forecasting methods to enhance infectious disease intervention. Unfortunately, these disease time-series often i suffer from non-stationarity; ii exhibit large inter-annual plus seasonal fluctuations; and, iii require disease-specific tailoring of forecasting methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this longitudinal retrospective (01/1996-06/2004 investigation, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection of the lower tract, and malaria consultation time-series are fitted with a general-purpose econometric method, namely the multiplicative Holt-Winters, to produce contemporaneous on-line forecasts for the district of Niono, Mali. This method accommodates seasonal, as well as inter-annual, fluctuations and produces reasonably accurate median 2- and 3-month horizon forecasts for these non-stationary time-series, i.e., 92% of the 24 time-series forecasts generated (2 forecast horizons, 3 diseases, and 4 age categories = 24 time-series forecasts have mean absolute percentage errors circa 25%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The multiplicative Holt-Winters forecasting method: i performs well across diseases with dramatically distinct transmission modes and hence it is a strong general-purpose forecasting method candidate for non-stationary epidemiological time-series; ii obliquely captures prior non-linear interactions between climate and the aforementioned disease dynamics thus, obviating the need for more complex disease-specific climate-based parametric forecasting methods in the district of Niono; furthermore, iii readily decomposes time-series into seasonal

  16. Analysis of Epidemic Situation of Infectious Diarrhea and Nursing Manage-ment Strategies%感染性腹泻流行现状分析及护理管理对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 王文婷; 宁岩

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea is a kind of acute intestinal infectious disease, which can be divided into different types in clinic. Infectious diarrhea is caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa pathogens infection and in inflam-matory and non inflammatory diarrhea has not yet been established effective detection index and laboratory examinations of stool examination, blood routine, urine routine method is usually adopted. How to adopt scientific management methods for the treatment of infectious diarrhea, so that patients with infectious diarrhea in the active treatment, can get a better health awareness, improve the quality of life, become a very important issue. In this paper, we first analyze the mechanism and clinical symptoms of infectious diarrhea, and analyze the nursing management of infectious diarrhea.%感染性腹泻作为一种急性肠道传染病,在临床上可以划分为不同类型。感染性腹泻是由病毒、细菌、真菌以及原虫等多种病原体感染引起,针对于炎症性与非炎症性腹泻尚未建立有效的检测指标,通常采用粪便检查、血常规、尿常规等实验室方法检查。如何针对感染性腹泻采取科学的护理管理方式,使感染性腹泻患者在得到积极治疗的同时,能够获得更好的保健意识,提升生活质量,成为十分重要的课题。该文首先对感染性腹泻的发病机理、临床症状等基础理论展开分析,对感染性腹泻的护理管理对策进行分析与探讨。

  17. [Acute cerebellitis in infectious mononucleosis. One case (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandelot, J B; Samson, M; Augustin, P; Mihout, B; Parain, D

    1979-02-10

    A nineteen year old man present an original clinical case of acute cerebellitis in infectious mononucleosis. Eighteen months after the acute phase of the illness, there persisted a large deficit in the circulating B lymphocytes. A short review of pertinent litterature is presented and current physiopathological hypothesis are discussed. Briefly, delayed immunity and personal predisposition appear to play important etiological roles.

  18. Can Giardia lamblia infection lower the risk of acute diarrhea among preschool children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Dani; Levine, Myron M

    2014-04-01

    There are inconsistent findings concerning the role of Giardia lamblia in pediatric diarrhea. A prospective cohort study of the incidence of acute diarrhea among Israeli Arab preschool children offered the opportunity to examine the association between G. lamblia infection (at baseline) and subsequent diarrhea. Following baseline screening by light microscopy for the presence of Giardia in their stools, a cohort was assembled of 142 children who were followed between October 2003 and August 2004 for the incidence of diarrhea. Surveillance was performed through maternal interviews. At baseline, 21 children tested Giardia-positive. During the prospective surveillance, acute diarrhea occurred less often among Giardia-positive children (9.5%) than among children who were not infected with Giardia (26.5%). G. lamblia infection was associated with lower risk of acute diarrhea; adjusted odds ratio of 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.93) (p = 0.041). This prospective study provides additional evidence that Giardia may lower the risk of subsequent acute diarrhea among preschool children.

  19. Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea: A Randomized Control Trial from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatro, Samarendra; Mahilary, Nijwm; Satapathy, Amit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years) with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12–47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr) for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea. Duration of diarrhea was the primary outcome measure. Results. The median duration (hrs) of diarrhea (54 versus 80; 95% CI: –26 [–13.2 to –38.8]) and hospitalization (68 versus 90; 95% CI: –22 [–12.98 to –31.02]) was significantly shorter in the nitazoxanide group. No significant difference was seen in the median duration (hrs) of fever or vomiting or the proportion of children requiring parenteral rehydration. There was no report of any adverse events. Conclusions. Oral nitazoxanide is effective and safe in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children (CTRI REF/2016/10/012507). PMID:28331496

  20. Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea: A Randomized Control Trial from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarendra Mahapatro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12–47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea. Duration of diarrhea was the primary outcome measure. Results. The median duration (hrs of diarrhea (54 versus 80; 95% CI: –26 [–13.2 to –38.8] and hospitalization (68 versus 90; 95% CI: –22 [–12.98 to –31.02] was significantly shorter in the nitazoxanide group. No significant difference was seen in the median duration (hrs of fever or vomiting or the proportion of children requiring parenteral rehydration. There was no report of any adverse events. Conclusions. Oral nitazoxanide is effective and safe in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children (CTRI REF/2016/10/012507.

  1. In Vitro Synergistic Effect of Curcumin in Combination with Third Generation Cephalosporins against Bacteria Associated with Infectious Diarrhea

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    Nishanth Kumar Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in humans in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, increased resistance to antibiotics has resulted in serious challenges in the treatment of this infectious disease worldwide. Therefore, there exists a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic effect of curcumin-1 in combination with three antibiotics against five diarrhea causing bacteria. The antibacterial activity of curcumin-1 and antibiotics was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill assay. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin-1 was observed against all tested strains. The MICs of curcumin-1 against test bacteria ranged from 125 to 1000 μg/mL. In the checkerboard test, curcumin-1 markedly reduced the MICs of the antibiotics cefaclor, cefodizime, and cefotaxime. Significant synergistic effect was recorded by curcumin-1 in combination with cefotaxime. The toxicity of curcumin-1 with and without antibiotics was tested against foreskin (FS normal fibroblast and no significant cytotoxicity was observed. From our result it is evident that curcumin-1 enhances the antibiotic potentials against diarrhea causing bacteria in in vitro condition. This study suggested that curcumin-1 in combination with antibiotics could lead to the development of new combination of antibiotics against diarrhea causing bacteria.

  2. In vitro synergistic effect of curcumin in combination with third generation cephalosporins against bacteria associated with infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Nishanth Kumar; Sreekala, Sreerag Ravikumar; Jacob, Jubi; Nambisan, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in humans in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, increased resistance to antibiotics has resulted in serious challenges in the treatment of this infectious disease worldwide. Therefore, there exists a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic effect of curcumin-1 in combination with three antibiotics against five diarrhea causing bacteria. The antibacterial activity of curcumin-1 and antibiotics was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill assay. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin-1 was observed against all tested strains. The MICs of curcumin-1 against test bacteria ranged from 125 to 1000 μ g/mL. In the checkerboard test, curcumin-1 markedly reduced the MICs of the antibiotics cefaclor, cefodizime, and cefotaxime. Significant synergistic effect was recorded by curcumin-1 in combination with cefotaxime. The toxicity of curcumin-1 with and without antibiotics was tested against foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast and no significant cytotoxicity was observed. From our result it is evident that curcumin-1 enhances the antibiotic potentials against diarrhea causing bacteria in in vitro condition. This study suggested that curcumin-1 in combination with antibiotics could lead to the development of new combination of antibiotics against diarrhea causing bacteria.

  3. Correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in young children with acute diarrhea

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    Yanever Angela Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In cases of acute diarrhea, it is difficult to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial causes. Increased fecal calprotectin (f-CP level is a marker of neutrophil migration in the intestinal lumen and is associated with intestinal inflammation. Previous studies reported an increase in f-CP levels in children with acute diarrhea, which is caused by bacteria, but only few have studied the relationship between intestinal pathogens with f-CP levels in acute diarrhea. Objective To assess for a correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in children with acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study between July to November 2012 on children aged 1-5 years with acute diarrhea, and underwent routine blood tests, stool microscopy, f-CP tests, and stool cultures. We used a simple linear regression and correlation analysis with a significance level of P<0.05. Results Forty-two children enrolled in this study. The mean age of subjects was 2.27 (SD 1.34 years. Their mean f-CP level was 93.88 (SD 14.68 μg/g. On microscopic stool examination, 26 patients (61.9% had positive leukocytes, 1 had Ancylostoma duodenale, 1 had Ascaris lumbricoides, and 2 had Blastocystis hominis. Positive stool cultures were found in 14 children (33.3% with acute diarrhea. There was a significant positive correlation between gut pathogens and f-CP levels (r=0.605; P<0.0001. Conclusion In young children with acute diarrhea, the average f-CP levels are higher in those with positive intestinal pathogens. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:193-7.].

  4. Lactobacillus acidophilus Mixture in Treatment of Children Hospitalized With Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jamie M; Petrova, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Despite unproven effectiveness, Lactobacillus acidophilus is a widely used probiotic in the treatment of pediatric diarrhea. In this report, we evaluated the association between length of stay (LOS) for 290 young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea and adjuvant therapy with a probiotic mixture containing 80% L acidophilus that was included in treatment for 22.4% of them. Overall, no association between LOS and use of L acidophilus was recorded after controlling for age, length of diarrhea symptoms, duration of intravenous fluids, and prior exposure to antibiotic. However, LOS was directly associated with use of L acidophilus in children with negative stool studies, and no such association was recorded in children with positive stool for rotavirus or other infections. We concluded that adjuvant therapy with L acidophilus mixture is not beneficial for young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea.

  5. [Rotavirus in the feces of children with acute diarrhea in Cochabamba, Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Barrera, F; Saavedra, J; Cona, E; Aguilera, G

    1989-01-01

    Eighty patients with acute diarrheal disease from Cochabamba, Bolivia, were investigated for rotavirus infection by rotapheresis. Rotavirus ARN was detected in 18 (22.5%) of the cases, thus suggesting that this agent is also a frequent cause of acute diarrhea in the studied population as reported from other places of the world.

  6. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  7. Risk Factors for Extended Duration of Acute Diarrhea in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tor A. Strand; Sharma, Pushpa R.; Håkon K Gjessing; Manjeswori Ulak; Chandyo, Ram K; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Halvor Sommerfelt

    2012-01-01

    Objective and Background: We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. Methods: We followed 6-35 month old Nepalese children enrolled in the placebo-arm of a randomized controlled trial with 391 episodes of acute diarrhea from the day they were diagnosed until cessation of the episode. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified independent risk ...

  8. Etiology of acute diarrhea in the elderly in China: A six-year observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qibin; Yang, Wanqi; Chen, Yu; Wu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi; Yang, Weizhong; Li, Zhongjie

    2017-01-01

    Acute diarrhea leads to a substantial disease burden among the elderly worldwide. However, in the context of increasingly aging trend in China, the prevalence of etiological agents among elderly diarrheal patients was undetermined. This study aimed to explore the major enteropathogens of acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years in China, and also the epidemiological features of the pathogens. Demographic and clinical data for acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years were collected from 213 participating hospitals from 2009 to 2014. Stool specimens were collected and tested for 13 enteric viruses and bacteria. The proportion of outpatients positive for targeted pathogens was analyzed by residential areas and seasonal patterns. Among the 7,725 patients enrolled, 1,617 (20.9%)were positive for any one of the 13 study pathogens. The predominant pathogen was norovirus (9.0%), followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (5.5%), rotavirus (3.9%), non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) (2.9%), and Shigella spp. (2.5%). The prevalence of Shigella spp. among rural patients (6.9%) was higher than that among urban patients (1.6%) (p spp. in summer. A wide variety of enteropathogens were detected among the elderly with acute diarrhea in China, with norovirus and DEC being the most commonly isolated pathogens. A strong seasonal pattern was observed for major pathogens of acute diarrhea among the elderly. PMID:28323855

  9. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

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    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  10. Epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children and inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hu; Yan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate of epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children, and to discuss the inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms, in order to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods: Five hundred and sixty-two cases of children with acute diarrhea treated in our center were selected as the research subjects, whose epidemiological data were analyzed. The fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and identification, and the distribution characteristics of pathogenic bacteria were collected, then their relative characteristics were analyzed.Results:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old,and the incidence of time was more concentrated in June-August. There were four hundred and eighty-nine strains in the five hundred and sixty-two cases of children, among which the rate of viruses was the most, and the human rotavirus accounted for 30.67%, and the Shigella bacterium accounted for 20.65% in the total microorganisms, which was the highest detection rate of pathogenic bacterium. Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Winter, but the bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer.Conclusions:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old , and the rate of viruses in the detection of microorganisms is the highest, so targeted treatment should be taken according to the type of infection.

  11. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhea among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 1. Abstract. Background: Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the .... Pennap et al. from Zaria, northern Nigeria, a case‑controlled.

  12. Risk factors for extended duration of acute diarrhea in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Sharma, Pushpa R; Gjessing, Håkon K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2012-01-01

    We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. We followed 6-35 month old Nepalese children enrolled in the placebo-arm of a randomized controlled trial with 391 episodes of acute diarrhea from the day they were diagnosed until cessation of the episode. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified independent risk factors for having diarrhea for more than 7 days after diagnosis. Infants had a 17 (95% CI 3.5, 83)-fold and toddlers (12 to 23 month olds) a 9.9 (95% CI 2.1, 47)-fold higher odds of having such illness duration compared to the older children. Not being breastfed was associated with a 9.3 (95% CI 2.4, 35.7)-fold increase in the odds for this outcome. The odds also increased with increasing stool frequency. Furthermore, having diarrhea in the monsoon season also increased the risk of prolonged illness. We found that high stool frequency, not being breastfed, young age and acquiring diarrhea in the rainy season were risk factors for prolonged diarrhea. In populations such as ours, breastfeeding may be the most important modifiable risk factor for extended duration of diarrhea.

  13. Risk factors for extended duration of acute diarrhea in young children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A Strand

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. METHODS: We followed 6-35 month old Nepalese children enrolled in the placebo-arm of a randomized controlled trial with 391 episodes of acute diarrhea from the day they were diagnosed until cessation of the episode. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified independent risk factors for having diarrhea for more than 7 days after diagnosis. RESULTS: Infants had a 17 (95% CI 3.5, 83-fold and toddlers (12 to 23 month olds a 9.9 (95% CI 2.1, 47-fold higher odds of having such illness duration compared to the older children. Not being breastfed was associated with a 9.3 (95% CI 2.4, 35.7-fold increase in the odds for this outcome. The odds also increased with increasing stool frequency. Furthermore, having diarrhea in the monsoon season also increased the risk of prolonged illness. CONCLUSION: We found that high stool frequency, not being breastfed, young age and acquiring diarrhea in the rainy season were risk factors for prolonged diarrhea. In populations such as ours, breastfeeding may be the most important modifiable risk factor for extended duration of diarrhea.

  14. Effect of vitamin A on severity of acute diarrhea in children

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    Marlisye Marpaung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk or be a cause of diarrhea. Many studies have been conducted on the efficacy of vitamin A in the management of acute diarrhea, but the outcomes remain inconclusive. Objective To determine the effectiveness of vitamin A in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea in children. Methods We performed a single-blind-randomized controlled trial in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North of Sumatera, from August 2009 to January 2010 in children aged 6 months to 5 years, who had diarrheas. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a single dose of vitamin A (100,000 IU for subjects aged 6 to 11 month old or with body weights ≤ 10 kg, or 200,000 IU for subjects aged ≥ 12 month old or with body weights > 10 kg. Group 2 received a single dose of placebo. The establishment of severity was based on changes in diarrheal frequency, stool consistency, volume and duration of diarrhea after treatment. We performed independent T-test and Chi square tests for statistical analyses. The study was an intention-to-treat analysis. Results We enrolled 120 children who were randomized into two groups of 60 subjects each. Group 1, received vitamin A and group 2 received a placebo. The results showed significant differences between the two groups in stool volume starting on the first day (95%CI 192.30 to 3237.51; P=0.001, as well as diarrheal frequency (P=0.001 and stool consistency (P=0.001 on the second day observation and duration of diarrhea following treatment (95%CI - 40.60 to - 25.79; P=0.001;. Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation is effective in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea in children under five years of age. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:125-31.

  15. Effect of vitamin A on severity of acute diarrhea in children

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    Atan Baas Sinuhaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk or be a cause of diarrhea. Many studies have been conducted on the efficacy of vitamin A in the management of acute diarrhea, but the outcomes remain inconclusive.Objective To determine the effectiveness of vitamin A in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea in children.Methods We performed a single-blind-randomized controlled trial in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North of Sumatera, from August 2009 to January 2010 in children aged 6 months to 5 years, who had diarrheas. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a single dose of vitamin A (100,000 IU for subjects aged 6 to 11 month old or with body weights ≤ 10 kg, or 200,000 IU for subjects aged ≥ 12 month old or with body weights > 10 kg. Group 2 received a single dose of placebo. The establishment of severity was based on changes in diarrheal frequency, stool consistency, volume and duration of diarrhea after treatment. We performed independent T-test and Chi square tests for statistical analyses. The study was an intention-to-treat analysis.Results We enrolled 120 children who were randomized into two groups of 60 subjects each. Group 1, received vitamin A and group 2 received a placebo. The results showed significant differences between the two groups in stool volume starting on the first day (95%CI 192.30 to 3237.51; P=0.001, as well as diarrheal frequency (P=0.001 and stool consistency (P=0.001 on the second day observation and duration of diarrhea following treatment (95%CI - 40.60 to - 25.79; P=0.001;.Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation is effective in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea in children under five years of age.

  16. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SUN Xin-ting; ZENG Zheng; YU Yan-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea.Methods This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21-30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%).Conclusions Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  17. Effect of probiotics on diarrhea in children with severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Namusoke, Hanifa; Lanyero, Betty

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of probiotics on diarrhea during in- and outpatient treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted involving 400 children admitted with SAM. Patients received one daily dose...

  18. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

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    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  19. Bacterial enteric pathogens and serum interleukin-6 levels in children with acute diarrhea

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    Herlina Herlina

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Serum IL-6 levels are significantly more elevated in children with acute diarrhea and bacterial enteric pathogens. Therefore, serum IL-6 may be a useful marker for early identification of bacterial gastroenteritis in children aged 1-5 years. [Paediatr Indones. 2016;56:144-8.].

  20. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

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    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  1. Therapeutic value of zinc supplementation in acute and persistent diarrhea: a systematic review.

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    Archana Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For over a decade, the importance of zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea has been recognized. In spite of recently published reviews, there remain several unanswered questions about the role of zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhea in the developing countries. Our study aimed to assess the therapeutic benefits of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea in children, and to examine the causes of any heterogeneity of response to zinc supplementation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: EMBASE, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. The reviews and published RCTs were qualitatively mapped followed by updated random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with diarrhea-related outcomes. We found that although there was evidence to support the use of zinc to treat diarrhea in children, there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for the effect of zinc supplementation in reducing important diarrhea outcomes. Zinc supplementation reduced the mean duration of diarrhea by 19.7% but had no effect on stool frequency or stool output, and increased the risk of vomiting. Our subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression showed that age, stunting, breast-feeding and baseline zinc levels could not explain the heterogeneity associated with differential reduction in the mean diarrheal duration. However, the baseline zinc levels may not be representative of the existing zinc deficiency state. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the predictors of zinc efficacy including the role of diarrheal disease etiology on the response to zinc would help to identify the populations most likely to benefit from supplementation

  2. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-Hui Zhu; Lei Tian; Zhong-Ju Cheng; Wei-Yong Liu; Song Li; Wei-Ting Yu; Wen-Qian Zhang; Xu Xiang; Zi-Yong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by ...

  3. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children diarrhea and ARTIs in younger children. Interventions specifically designed to promote maternal autonomy and decision-making may lead to improved child health.

  4. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  5. [The preparation phosprenyl suppresses diarrhea and cattle infectious rhinotracheitis virus multiplication in sensitive cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozherelkov, S V; Belousova, R V; Danilov, L L; Deeva, A V; Mal'tsev, S D; Narovlianskiĭ, A N; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fosprenil suppressed the multiplication of cattle diarrhea virus in calf coronary vessel cell culture. Added to the culture of infected cells in a dose of 200 mg, the drug decreased the virus titer 30-fold in comparison with infected control cultures. Antiviral activity of fosprenil towards infective rhinotracheitis virus multiplication was still higher: in a dose of 100 mg it decreased the virus titer in fetal calf lung culture 100-fold in comparison with the control. Moreover, the cytopathogenic effects of the viruses in infected cultures were 24-48 h delayed under the effect of fosprenil in comparison with infected control cultures. These results recommend fosprenil for the treatment of cattle viral diseases.

  6. Analysis of etiology and drug-resistance of infectious diarrhea%儿童感染性腹泻病原菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春燕; 刘树平; 高庆双

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the etiology, epidemiologicfeatures, and drug—resistance tendency of acute infectious diarrhea among children in Tangshan area. METHODS 890 cases of stool samples were collected from outpatients and inpatients with diarrhea.Carried out bacterium isolation, cultivation and biochemical identification. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria was tested by disk diffusion method. RESULTS Of the 890 stool specimens, 86 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected with the detectable rate of 9.66%, 28 of the 86 strains (32.6%) were Salmonella, 17 (19.8%) were pathogenic Escherichia coli, 14 (14.3%) were Shigella, 11 ( 12.8%) were Proteus mirabilis, 8 (8.1%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 5 (5.8%) were Yersinia enterocolitica, and 4 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.7%). Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella were resistant to ampicillin and cephalosporin antibiotic, showed multiple drug resistance.Salmonella was significantly lower than Shigella species, but there was an upward trend; Proteus mirabilis was lower than others. Staphylococcus aureus was high resistant to fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION The main pathogenic bacteria which cause children's bacterial diarrhea in Tangshan are Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas. The treatment of infectious diarrhea of children should be based on drug susceptibility testing.%目的 研究唐山地区儿童感染性腹泻的病原菌变化、流行病学特征及耐药性变迁情况.方法 对2008~2009年来某院就诊及住院患儿大便进行培养鉴定,采用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验.结果 890份粪便培养标本共检出病原菌86株,检出率为9.66%.其中沙门菌属28株(32.6%),致病性大肠杆菌17株(19.8%),志贺菌属14株(14.3%),奇异变形杆菌11株(12.8%),金黄色葡萄球菌8株(8.1%),小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌5株(5.8%),铜绿假单胞菌4株(4.7%);致病性大

  7. Prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Cetin, Feyza; Dogruman Al, Funda; Oguz, Ilkiz; Aksu, Neriman

    2016-02-01

    Previously published studies of microsporidial infections have primarily focused on immunodeficient or immunocompromised patients. Data regarding infections caused by this microorganism in immunocompetent subjects are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea. The study included stool samples from 74 patients with acute diarrhea, 41 patients with chronic diarrhea, and 88 healthy volunteers. Slides were prepared after concentration with a formalin-ethyl acetate technique and were stained with modified trichrome, calcofluor white, and Uvitex 2B stains. The number of spores observed in each magnification field (×1000) was scored as follows: 1+, 1-10; 2+, 11-20; 3+, > 20. The prevalence of microsporidia was 27.0% in patients with acute diarrhea, 34.1% in patients with chronic diarrhea, and 45.5% in healthy volunteers. The parasite score was 1 + in all positive samples. The rate of microsporidia positivity was higher in solid stools (51.4%), and the rate of positivity increased with advancing age. Unexpectedly, a high prevalence of microsporidia was found in immunocompetent individuals in our region. There was no relationship between positivity for microsporidia and the presence of symptoms, due to higher rates both in solid stools and in healthy subjects. The parasite score was the same in all groups. Our results indicate that there is high exposure to microsporidia in immunocompetent subjects in our region. Natural reservoirs and environmental sources of microsporidia should be determined to design strategies for effective prevention of transmission.

  8. A blind, randomized comparison of racecadotril and loperamide for stopping acute diarrhea in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hwang-Huei Wang; Ming-Jium Shieh; Kuan-Fu Liao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Racecadotril is a specific enkephalinase inhibitor that exhibits intestinal antisecretory activity without affecting intestinal transit. Loperamide is an effective anti-diarrheal agent, but it usually induces constipation. This study is to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of racecadotril versus Ioperamide in the outpatient treatment of acute diarrhea in adults.METHODS: A two-center, randomized, parallel-group,single-blind study was carried out to compare the efficacy,tolerability, and safety of racecadotril (100 mg thrics daily)and Ioperamide (2.0 mg 2 twics daily) in 62 adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea. The main efficacy criterion used was the duration of diarrhea after beginning the treatment (in hours). Other signs and symptoms were also evaluated.RESULTS: The clinical success rates for these antidiarrheal treatments were 95.7% and 92.0% for racecadotril and Ioperamide respectively. Patients on racecadotril had a median duration of diarrhea of 19.5 h compared with a median of 13 h for patients on Ioperamide.Rapid improvement in anal burn and nausea was found for each drug. However, more patients on Ioperamide suffered from reactive constipation (29.0% vs 12.9%).Itching, another adverse event was notably higher in the racecadotril group (28.6% vs 0%). With regard to other adverse events, the two medications showed similar occurrence rates and similar concomitant medication usage rates.CONCLUSION: Racecadotril and Ioperamide are rapid,equally effective treatments for acute diarrhea in adults,but Ioperamide treatment is associated with a higher incidence of treatment-related constipation.

  9. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  10. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Anemia among Young Children with Acute Diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is still common in children under five years of age and may impair their growth and cognitive development. Diarrhea is the second most common reason for seeking medical care for young children in Nepal. However, neither screening programs nor effective preventive measures for anemia and iron deficiencies are in place among children with diarrhea in many developing countries. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency and explore their associations with clinical, socioeconomic, and anthropometric parameters in Nepalese children. This was a cross-sectional study based on 1232 children, six to 35 months old, with acute diarrhea participating in a zinc supplementation trial. The mean (SD) hemoglobin was 11.2 g/dL (1.2). Anemia was found in 493 children (40%); this estimate increased to 641 (52%) when we adjusted for the altitude of the study area (hemoglobin <11.3 g/dL). One in every three children had depleted iron stores and 198 (16%) of the children had both depleted iron stores and anemia, indicating iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of anemia among children presenting with acute diarrhea was high but the degree of severity was mainly mild or moderate. Iron deficiency explained less than half of the total anemia, indicating other nutritional deficiencies inducing anemia might be common in this population. PMID:27417782

  11. [Prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2007-11-01

    The prognosis of acute diarrhoea in infants is most often satisfactory in industrialized countries. However, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 children die every year in France from acute dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. In spite of an increasing use over the least few years, oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are used in only 70% of infants presenting with acute diarrhoea. The use of homemade ORS, plain water or fizzy drink should be strictly avoided. In case of acute diarrhoea there is no indication to stop breastfeeding or the use of infant formula for more than 4 hours. Lactose intolerance is observed in only 5-10% of infants. Lactose free formulae should only be used in infants with severe, persistent or recurrent diarrhoea. Under 3-4 months of age, infants with severe diarrhoea should receive for a period of 2-4 weeks lactose free protein hydrolysate formulae. Racecadotril is the only drug with anti-diarrheal properties, with a reduction of the stool output of 50%. Oral antibiotics should only be used in case of Shigella infection or in case of bacterial infection with severe sepsis or underlying debilitating disease. Oral Rotavirus vaccine, that is not reimbursed yet in France, has been shown to dramatically reduce the number of severe cases of diarrhoea with dehydration, and has been associated with a striking reduction of both morbidity and mortality, as well as of the number of hospitalisations during periods of epidemics.

  12. OPPORTUNICTIC ENTEROBACTERIACAE AS THE CAUSE OF THE ACUTE DIARRHEA AND GUT DISBIOSIS

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    S. A. Egorova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Strains of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from faces were studied to detect virulence factors of “classical” enteric pathogens causing acute diarrhea (Shigella, Salmonella, diarreagenic Escherichia coli. We haven’t detect in Klebsiella the genes encode different virulence factors: the abilities to adherence (sfa, afa, aaf/1, eae, invasion (ipaH, ial, production of heat-lable toxins (elt, LT II, heat-stable toxins (st1, st2 and Shiga toxins (stx1, stx2. Klebsiella spp. is well-known pathogen of the opportunistic infections of urinary tract, blood, wound, respiratory tract. But this bacteria hasn’t virulence factors of diarreagenic Enterobacteriaceae and can’t cause acute diarrhea and other gut pathology.

  13. Loperamide therapy for acute diarrhea in children: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ting T Li

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loperamide is widely used in adults for acute diarrhea. However, its use in children has been discouraged by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics owing to concerns over safety and efficacy in young children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of loperamide compared with placebo for acute diarrhea in children, we reviewed Medline, EMBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and bibliographies of known clinical trials and of review articles, and we also interviewed key investigators in the field. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of children younger than 12 y of age with acute diarrhea, comparing loperamide with placebo. Included trials reported data on diarrhea duration or severity, or provided data on adverse effects. Compared with patients who received placebo, patients allocated to loperamide were less likely to continue to have diarrhea at 24 h (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 0.78, had a shorter duration of diarrhea by 0.8 d (95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9 d, and had a lower count of stools at 24 h (0.84, 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.92. Results were similar when random-effects summaries were estimated. Serious adverse events, defined as ileus, lethargy, or death, were reported in eight out of 927 children allocated to loperamide (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4% to 1.7%. Serious adverse events were not reported in any of the 764 children allocated to placebo (0%, 95% CI: 0% to 0.5%. Among the children allocated to loperamide, serious adverse events were reported only among children younger than 3 y. CONCLUSIONS: In children who are younger than 3 y, malnourished, moderately or severely dehydrated, systemically ill, or have bloody diarrhea, adverse events outweigh benefits even at doses

  14. Microbiologic and Clinical Study of Acute Diarrhea in Children in Aswan, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    other enteropathogens. Salmonella- and shigella-infected children tended to be cider (mean age 26.6 months) than other children with acute diarrhea...Aswan. Mothers of patients were not just aware of the benefits of ORT but were Lnowledgeable enough to request the-goveriment supplied-rehydration packets...and use them effectively. -others were, in fact, soc.knowledgeable about the benefits of ORT that many were unwilling to wait for their child to

  15. [Death caused by acute diarrhea in children: a study of prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, P; Reyes, H; Rodríguez, L; Guiscafré, H; Gutiérrez, G

    1996-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors of death due to acute diarrhea related to the process disease-health care-death in the State of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A case-control design was used. Cases were defined as children who died between the ages of seventy-two hours and five years between 1992 and 1994. An event of acute diarrhea was the main cause of death stated in the death certificate. Case ascertainment was done through the verbal autopsy method. Controls were children who had suffered acute diarrhea with at least one sign of dehydration or alarm and had overcome the diarrheal episode. Controls were randomly selected from the population at large and were matched by age with cases. One hundred and six cases and the same number of controls were taken. Using a logistic regression procedure in which severity of illness and days of evolution were controlled for, the prognosis-worsening predictors were: visit provided by private physician (OR 8.9); inappropriate treatment (OR 10.4); a working mother (OR 8.7); mother's lack of knowledge to identify dehydration signs (OR 8.1); siblings' malnutrition (OR 28.2); and malnutrition prior to the diarrheal event (OR 7.5). These findings suggest that factors worsening the outcome of the diarrheal episode are: malnutrition, the inappropriate treatment provided by private physicians, and the deficient household care of the diarrheal episode.

  16. Risk factors for predicting diarrheal duration and morbidity in children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Ovung, Ronithung; Badhoniya, Neetu B; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    To identify baseline risk factors for prolonged diarrheal duration and subsequent complications in children aged 6 to 59 mo with acute diarrhea who participated in a micronutrient clinical trial in a tertiary care hospital. The adjusted odds ratio or incidence risk ratios (IRR) of the baseline variables for prolongation of diarrheal duration (cox proportional hazard model), diarrhea >7 d (multiple logistic regressions), severe dehydration experienced after hospitalization (poisson regression models) was estimated. Fever (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19, p = 0.02), dehydration (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.59, p = 0.003), dysentery (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.09-1.82, p = 0.008), those who received medications (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.39, p = 0.02), and weight for age Z-score ≤2 (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46, p = 0.004) were at a greater risk of prolonged diarrhea. Diarrhea >7 d was associated with younger age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14, p = 0.003), female child (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.19-4.55, p = 0.013), diarrheal duration before enrolment (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.09, p risk factors for diarrheal morbidity prospectively. The present study showed that children of acute diarrhea with above risk factors need stricter monitoring for complications to reduce diarrheal mortality.

  17. Association of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes with Infection and Diarrhea among Mexican Children and Association of Atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli with Acute Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Garcia, Teresa; Lopez-Saucedo, Catalina; Thompson-Bonilla, Rocio; Abonce, Maricela; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Santos, Jose Ignacio; Rosado, Jorge L.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Long, Kurt Z.

    2009-01-01

    Seventy-six children ≤2 years old were prospectively followed for 1 year in a peri-urban community of Mexico City to determine asymptomatic infection and acute diarrhea associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs). By use of a pathogen-specific multiplex PCR, DEPs were sought in 795 stool samples, of which 125 (16%) were positive for DEP; of these, 4 represented shedding episodes and 4 parasite coinfections. Most single-DEP infections (85/117) were asymptomatic (P < 0.001), and of the 32 DEP diarrhea episodes, 41% were associated with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), 37.5% with enterotoxigenic E. coli, 9% with typical EPEC, 9% with enteroinvasive E. coli, and 3% with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Among the 76 children, 54 had at least one stool positive for DEP, of which 23 experienced a DEP-associated diarrhea episode. In the last group of children, DEP infection was significantly associated with a diarrhea episode (relative risk [RR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79 to 3.57; P < 0.001), with ETEC (RR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.49 to 3.54; P = 0.003) and aEPEC (RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.0; P = 0.019) being the pathotypes associated with diarrhea. aEPEC-associated diarrhea episodes were frequently in the <12-month age group (RR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05 to 6.27; P = 0.04). aEPEC infections were distributed all year round, but associated diarrheal episodes were identified from April to October, with a May-June peak (rainy season). Most ETEC infections and diarrhea episodes characteristically occurred during the summer (rainy season), with a diarrhea peak in August. Of all DEPs, only aEPEC was associated with acute diarrhea episodes lasting 7 to 12 days (P = 0.019). DEPs are important causes of community-acquired enteric infection and diarrhea in Mexican children. PMID:19020055

  18. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, bacterial infections, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Bachman, D T; Shapiro, E D; Baron, M A

    1995-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. David Bachman reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children and focuses on community-acquired lower respiratory infections and respiratory syncytial virus. Eugene Shapiro discusses literature concerning several infectious diseases commonly seen in office settings and concerning which recent developments are of interest: the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin, infections in day care centers, and new antimicrobial drugs. Michael Baron reviews recent literature about gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood and discusses diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis and physiology, epidemiology, and treatment.

  19. Smectite in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, A A; Madina, E M; el-Azzouni, O E; Amer, M A; el-Walili, T M; Abbass, T

    1993-08-01

    Dioctahedral smectite (DS) a natural adsorbent clay capable of adsorbing viruses, bacteria, and other intestinal irritants in vitro, is claimed to possess beneficial "antidiarrheal" properties. This study tested the effect of DS on the duration of diarrhea and the frequency and amount of liquid stools. Ninety well-nourished boys, aged 3-24 months, with acute watery diarrhea and mild, moderate, or severe dehydration were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After initial rehydration, they received DS or placebo (1.5 g freshly dissolved in 50 ml of water, four times daily for 3 days) along with oral rehydration solution (ORS) and adequate feeding. The clinical characteristics of both groups were comparable on admission. Patients in the smectite group had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhea (mean +/- SD, 54 +/- 16 vs. 73 +/- 13 h) and significantly fewer stools (2.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3 +/- 0.7 on second day; 1.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.7 on third day; and 11.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 13.8 +/- 3 overall). The amount of liquid stools was not significantly reduced. Weight gain at 24, 48, and 72 h and on recovery was significantly higher in the smectite group despite the comparable fluid and food intake in both groups. These results suggest a beneficial effect of DS in shortening the duration of diarrhea and reducing the frequency of liquid stools in children rehydrated with ORS.

  20. 犊牛腹泻病原实验室诊断研究进展%Research Progress on Laboratory Diagnosis Methods of Infectious Etiology of Calf Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德琦; 何润霞; 龙淼

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common disease in calf rearing. Serious diarrhea always causes death of calf and brings huge economic loss to dairy cow breeding industry worldwide. While the emergence and prevalence of calf diarrhea was controlled in some of the dairy farms to some extent as the increase of feeding level, the calf diarrhea is still hard to be completely controlled due to the numerous infectious etiologies and the complex infection situation. The research progress on laboratory diagnosis methods of infectious etiology of calf diarrhea was reviewed in this paper, with the hope to provide theoretical foundation for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of calf diarrhea.%犊牛腹泻是犊牛培育过程中的常见疾病,严重时可导致犊牛死亡,常给奶牛养殖业造成严重的经济损失。随着奶牛场犊牛饲养管理水平的提高,犊牛腹泻的流行和发生在一定程度上得到了控制,但由于引起该病发生的病原种类较多、感染情况较为复杂,使得奶牛场对该病的防控仍存在一定难度。介绍了与犊牛腹泻有关的传染性病原的实验室诊断方法研究进展,以期为犊牛腹泻的诊断和防治提供理论依据。

  1. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Min GAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.

  2. The cost utility and budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for acute diarrhea in children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn Anne; Zerwes, Ute

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost utility and the budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children in Thailand. A cost utility model has been adapted to the context of Thailand to evaluate racecadotril plus oral rehydration solution (R+ORS) versus oral rehydration solution (ORS) alone for acute diarrhea in children costs and effects (quality-adjusted life years) over a 6-day time horizon from a public health care payer's perspective in Thailand. Deterministic sensitivity analysis and budget impact analysis have been undertaken. According to the cost utility model, the intervention (R+ORS) is less costly and more effective than the comparator (ORS) for the base case with a dominant incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -2,481,390฿ for the intervention. According to the budget impact analysis (assuming an increase of 5% market share for R+ORS over 5 years), the year-on-year reduction for diarrhea as a percentage of the total health care expenditure is -0.0027%, resulting in potential net cost savings of -35,632,482฿ over 5 years. Subject to the assumptions and limitations of the models, adjuvant racecadotril versus ORS alone is potentially cost-effective for children in Thailand and uptake could translate into savings for the Thailand public health care system.

  3. Comparison of zinc-probiotic combination theraphy to zinc theraphy alone in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hatta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although the incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the last five years, the mortality rate in children under five years old is still high. Therefore, appropriate and comprehensive management of diarrhea is essential. There have been many studies on the role of zinc therapy and probiotic therapy in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea, but not many studies have compared the use of a combination of the two therapies to zinc therapy alone. Objective To compare the efficacy of zinc-probiotic combination therapy to zinc alone in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial from July 2009 to January 2010 in Adam Malik Hospital and Pirngadi Hospital , Medan. Children aged between 1 month and 5 years who met the criteria were divided into two groups. Group I recieved zinc sulphate (aged 6 months: 20mg/day combined with heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus (3x1010 CFU/day for 10 days. zinc sulphate at the same dosage as group I. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. Results Eighty subjects were enrolled, randomised, and divided equally into two groups. 40 children received zinc-probiotic in combination (group I and the remainder (group II received zinc alone. We observed significant differences in frequency of diarrhea (2.1 vs 3.1 times/day, P= 0.001, 95%CI-1.62 to -0.49, and duration of diarrhea (52.1 vs 72.6 hours, P=0.001, 95%CI-30.91 to -10.18 in the two groups. Conclusion Combination of zinc-probiotic therapy was more effective in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea than zinc therapy alone in children under five years of age. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:1-6].

  4. [Double-blind controlled study of the efficacy of nifuroxazide versus placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, P; Chaput, J C; Krainik, F; Michel, H; Trépo, C

    1989-05-01

    In a double-blind, controlled randomized trial, 88 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 400 mg of nifuroxazide twice daily or placebo for 5 days. The mean duration of diarrhea in the nifuroxazide group was 2.09 days versus 3.26 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.004). The number of bowel movements per day diminished and mucus disappeared more quickly in patients treated by nifuroxazide than in patients of the placebo group. Nifuroxazide was well tolerated and no side effects were observed. Nifuroxazide is an effective therapy for acute diarrhea and can be prescribed from the onset of diarrhea without waiting for stool culture results which can be late or negative.

  5. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626

  6. Localized, diffuse, and aggregative-adhering Escherichia coli from infants with acute diarrhea and matched-controls

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Magalhães; Amorim,Rosemary J. M.; Yoshifumi Takeda; Teizo Tsukamoto; Maria G. Antas; Seiki Tateno

    1992-01-01

    Of 126 infants under 2 years, enrolled in a study on the etiology of acute diarrhea in Recife, Brazil, we selected 37 from whom no recognized enteropathogens, except classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, were identified. For comparison, we also examined 37 matched-control infants without diarrhea seen at the same hospital setting. This paper had the purpose to determine the prevalence of localized, diffuse, and aggregative-adhering E. coli strains in both groups. Three to five fecal E. c...

  7. OPEN ENDED RESULTS OF ACUTE DIARRHEA AGENT DETECTION TO VERIFY DIAGNOSIS IN ADULT CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kozhukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 264 adult acute diarrhea cases with moderate course it was analyzed both symptoms and agents detected by different methods: in 91 cases (examined in the period of shigellosis high incidence level — by culture and serologic (specific antibodies detection methods to detect Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. plus ELISA method to detect rotavirus antigen in feces; in 173 cases (examined in the period of shigellosis low incidence level — by above mentioned methods plus PCR based method. Data obtained in the period of shigellosis high incidence level have shown that there has been no significant difference in clinical scores (including colitis frequency between cases positive only for rotavirus antigen and those positive both for rotavirus antigen and Shigella spp. culture. That let suspect that acute diarrhea had been likely to be caused by association of rotavirus with any bacterial agent undetected by the methods used. PCR-based diagnostic method additionally used (in the period of shigellosis low incidence level resulted in detection of Campylobacter spp. accounted for campilobacteriosis as mono infection in 20,8% cases and as mixed infection (in association with other enteropatho-gens — in 4% cases. In cases with colitis the additional usage of PCR-based diagnostic method resulted in Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. detection in every third case, Shigella spp. and agent association detection — in every fifth case. The target analysis of enteropathogens detected in 15 cases positive for rotavirus (examined in the period of shigellosis low incidence level has shown that in 6 of them there has been detected association of rotavirus with other agents predominantly bacterial ones (in 5 of 6 cases. So, the PCR method might be quite useful to broaden the spectrum of detected enteropathogens in adult acute diarrhea cases especially in those with colitis syndrome available.

  8. TCM Therapeutic Strategy on Acute Lung Injury Caused by Infectious Atypical Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐光华

    2003-01-01

    @@ Infectious atypical pneumonia (IAP) is also called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by WHO. In its development, around 20% of SARS can develop into the stage of acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), active and effective treatment of it constitutes the important basis for lowering mortality and reducing secondary pulmonary function impairment and pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Acute diarrhea in HIV infected patient receiving antiretroviral therapy:is there any role of microscopic stool examination at present?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To reassess the usefulness of microscopic stool examination for theHIV infected patients with acute diarrhea.Methods:Overall100HIV-infected patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy who visited to a primary care center(for privacy reason, the name is hereby blinded) with compliant of acute diarrhea were reviewed.In all patients, the standard microscopic stool examination was performed.Results:Of interest, from overall100 indexed cases, there is no case with determined parasite in stool samples.Conclusions:Based on our setting, it seems that there is diagnostic role of using microscopic stool examination for determining possible parasitic infestation inHIV infected patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy who present with acute diarrhea.

  10. 浅谈小儿急性腹泻的治疗方法%Treatment of Children With Acute Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焱新

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment of children with acute diarrhea. Methods 35 cases of acute diarrhea in children treatedand analyzed clinical observation of treatment from June 2014 to November 2015 in our hospital. Results The group of children with acute diarrhea in 35 cases, 34 cases recovered after treatment, to chronic diarrhea in one case, the effective rate was 97.14%. Conclusion The onset timely ifnd out the reasons, effective control of infection, symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea in children can help a speedy recovery.%目的:探讨小儿急性腹泻的治疗方法。方法选取我院2014年6月~2015年11月收治的35例急性腹泻患儿,对其治疗方法进行临床观察分析。结果本组急性腹泻患儿共35例,治疗后痊愈34例,转为慢性腹泻1例,治疗有效率为97.14%。结论及时找出患儿发病原因,对感染进行有效控制,对症治疗,有助于急性腹泻患儿尽快康复。

  11. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  12. Prevalence of Clostridium spp. and Clostridium difficile in children with acute diarrhea in São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Claudia EA Ferreira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Clostridium are widely distributed in the environment, inhabiting both human and animal gastrointestinal tracts. Clostridium difficile is an important pathogen associated with outbreaks of pseudomembranous colitis and other intestinal disorders, such as diarrhea. In this study, the prevalence of Clostridium spp. and C. difficile, from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea, was examined. These children were admitted to 3 different hospitals for over 12 months. Eighteen (20% and 19 (21% stool specimens from children with (90 and without (91 diarrhea respectively, were positive to clostridia. Only 10 C. difficile strains were detected in 5.5% of the stool samples of children with diarrhea. None healthy children (without diarrhea harbored C. difficile. From these 10 C. difficile, 9 were considered as toxigenic and genotyped as tcdA+/tcdB+ or tcdA-/tcdB+, and 1 strain as nontoxigenic (tcdA-/tdcB-. They were detected by the citotoxicity on VERO cells and by the multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. Thirty clinical fecal extracts produced minor alterations on VERO cells. The presence of C. difficile as a probable agent of acute diarrhea is suggested in several countries, but in this study, the presence of these organisms was not significant. More studies will be necessary to evaluate the role of clostridia or C. difficile in diarrhoeal processes in children.

  13. Effect of Warming Moxibustion on Shenque Acupoint for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children with Infantile Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红运; 卢圣锋; 肖农

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of warming moxibustion on Shenque acupoint(RN8) for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with infantile cerebral palsy(ICP).Methods:Clinical observation was performed on 60 ICP children suffering from acute diarrhea,who were randomly assigned to two groups equally.The Mox group was treated with warming moxibustion on Shenque acupoint(RN8) and the control group treated with Smecta.The efficacy was evaluated by markedly effective rate and total effective rate after a ...

  14. Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

    2012-02-23

    We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy.

  15. A case of acute infectious mononucleosis presenting with very high ferritin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammed Hameed Thoufeeq; Shahul Leyakath Ali Khan; Sanjiv Kumar Jain; Hasanain Al-Shakerchi; Munem Hussain

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis is an important but uncommon manifestation of acute Epstein Barr infection. Infectious mononucleosis is usually a disease of young adults. We report a case of infectious mononucleosis in a 72-year old jaundiced gentleman with ferritin level of 2438 that normalised on clinical improvement.

  16. Understanding gut-immune interactions in management of acute infectious diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P; Hall, V

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the role that immunity plays in the risk of diarrhoea and the potential role for probiotics in the management of acute infectious diarrhoea in older people, including antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.

  17. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Gebresilassie, Begashaw Melaku; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Woldie, Habtamu Gebremeskel

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia. Methods A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance. Results Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69%) of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90.3%), whereas “chief complaint” was the least to be taken (23%), for patients presenting with diarrhea. Approximately 96 (85.0%) cases were provided with one or more medications. The remaining 17 (15%) cases did not receive any medication. A total of six pharmacologic groups of medications were given to alleviate acute diarrheal symptoms. Majority (66, 29.6%) of the medications were oral rehydration salts with zinc. The mean number of medications was 1.99 per visit. Components of advice, such as dose, frequency, duration, drug action

  18. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  19. 104例急性散发腹泻病例病原学分析%Analysis of etiology and epidemiology in 104 sporadic acute diarrhea cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继珊; 庞晶晶; 高波; 崔海洋

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解北京市宣武区春季就诊的急性散发腹泻病例中病原感染分布现状,为制定相关防治策略提供依据.方法:以北京市宣武医院就诊的腹泻病例作为监测对象,留取便标本进行霍乱弧菌、沙门菌、志贺菌、副溶血弧菌、致泻大肠杆菌和诺如病毒、轮状病毒检测及分析.结果:共调查并检测腹泻病例104例,总阳性率38.5%,细菌培养阳性率21.2%,病毒检测阳性率为20.2%,有3例患者便检结果细菌、病毒皆为阳性.结论:急性散发腹泻病原类型复杂多样,应进行必要的病原学监测及研究,以进一步明确感染性腹泻的流行特征.%Objective: To investigate the pathology, epidemiology and the clinical characteristic of sporadic acute diarrhea cases in Xuanwu district of Beijing. Methods: Diarrhea cases in Xuanwu hospital were selected as monitoring objects, and the stool specimens were collected from these cases for detection and analysis of vibrio cholerae, salmonella, shigella, vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic escherichia coli, norovirus and rotavirus. Results: 104 diarrhea cases were detected with the total positive rate of 38.5% , bacterial culture positive rate of 21.2% and virus positive rate of 20. 2% , and 3 cases were positive for both bacteria and virus. Conclusion: Sporadic acute diarrhea cases were various, which should be strengthened pathogenic monitoring to further show the epidemic characteristics of infectious diarrhea.

  20. Genetic Virulence Profile of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Danish Children with Either Acute or Persistent Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC is frequently found in diarrheal stools worldwide. It has been associated with persistent diarrhea, weight loss, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries. A number of important EAEC virulence genes are identified; however, their roles in acute and persistent diarrhea have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to identify specific EAEC virulence genes associated with duration and type of diarrhea in Danish children. We aimed to improve the current diagnostics of EAEC and enable targeting of strains with an expected severe disease course. Questionnaires answered by parents provided information regarding duration of diarrhea and presence of blood or mucus. A total of 295 EAEC strains were collected from children with acute (≤7 days and persistent diarrhea (≥14 days and were compared by using multiplex PCR targeting the genes sat, sepA, pic, sigA, pet, astA, aatA, aggR, aaiC, aap, agg3/4C, ORF3, aafA, aggA, agg3A, agg4A, and agg5A. Furthermore, the distribution of EAEC genes in strains collected from cases of bloody, mucoid, and watery diarrhea was investigated. The classification and regression tree analysis (CART was applied to investigate the relationship between EAEC virulence genes and diarrheal duration and type. Persistent diarrhea was associated with strains lacking the pic gene (p = 0.002 and with the combination of the genes pic, sat, and absence of the aggA gene (p = 0.05. Prolonged diarrhea was associated with the combination of the genes aatA and astA (p = 0.03. Non-mucoid diarrhea was associated with strains lacking the aatA gene (p = 0.004. Acute diarrhea was associated with the genes aggR, aap, and aggA by individual odds ratios. Resistance toward gentamicin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 7.5 and 3% of strains, respectively. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 38% of strains. Genetic host factors have been associated with an increased risk

  1. Prevalence and genetic diversity of norovirus among patients with acute diarrhea in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Alejandra; Arvelo, Wences; Hall, Aron J; López, María R; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-07-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea in industrialized countries. To study the prevalence and genetic diversity of NoVs in Guatemala, stool specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients presenting with diarrhea (≥3 loose or liquid stools in a 24-hr period) who were enrolled in a prospective surveillance system in the Departments of Santa Rosa (October 2007 to August 2010) and Quetzaltenango (August 2009 to August 2010), Guatemala. Specimens were tested for rotavirus, enteric bacteria, and parasites by routine methods and for genogroups I and II NoV by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 2,403 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized (n = 528) and ambulatory patients (n = 1,875). Overall, 341 (14%) samples tested positive for NoVs including 114 (22%) hospitalized and 227 (12%) ambulatory patients. NoVs disease peaked during the winter (November-January) months. Among the 341 NoVs-positive patients, 32 (9%) were also positive for rotavirus, 32 (9%) for bacteria, and 9 (3%) for protozoa. Nucleotide sequences were obtained from 84 samples collected from hospitalized children aged Guatemala. The findings highlight the need to implement laboratory diagnostics for NoVs to improve appropriate clinical management of diarrheal diseases and guide vaccine development.

  2. [Lactose intolerance in hospitalized infants with acute diarrhea due to classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coil (EPEC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, C R; Fagundes-Neto, U

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred and eleven hospitalized weaned infants with acute diarrhea, all under 12 months of age, were studied in order to evaluate the development of lactose intolerance and its association with age, nutritional status, birth weight, dehydration and enteropathogenic agents identified in fecal samples. After been rehydrated the infants received whole cow' milk assuring the intake of 100 kcal/kg per day. Lactose intolerance was defined according t the following criteria: 1) persistence of diarrhea associated with weight loss during 48 hours, 2) development of vomiting and/or abdominal distention associated with excretion of carbohydrate in feces and/or acids tools, 3) metabolic acidosis associated with abdominal distention at anytime of refeeding period. Lactose intolerance was detected in 52.1% (162/311) of the patients and it was significantly associated with age under 6 months (P < 0.01), birth weight under 3000 grams (P < 0.01), development of dehydration (P < 0.01) and with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serotypes infection (P < 0.01).

  3. Incidence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus infection among children with acute diarrhea admitted at Buri Ram Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkapalee, Thrissawan; Puntukosit, Puntawee; Eunsuwan, Orapun; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Poovorawan, Yong

    2006-11-01

    To study the incidence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus among children at Buri Ram Hospital, admitted with the diagnosis of acute diarrhea between November 2005 and February 2006. In the course of a cross sectional descriptive study, 103 stool samples obtained from inpatients below the age of 5 years were examined for rotavirus by RT- PCR. Data on clinical manifestations, complications, administration of antibiotics, length of admission and hospital cost were obtained by means of questionnaires distributed among physicians. The statistics used were presented as percentage, mean and 95% confidence interval, while chi-square and unpaired t-test were used to establish significant differences at p < 0.05. Rotavirus was detected in 45 of 103 stool samples (43.68%, 95%CI = 33.93, 53.81). No significant differences were found between clinical manifestations of children with rotavirus infection and non-rotavirus infection as both groups displayed acute watery diarrhea (p = 0.33), fever (p = 0.80), nausea or vomiting (p = 0.08), predominant lymphocytes (p = 0.54), absence of red blood cells (p = 0.63) or white blood cells (p = 0.57) in the stool examination, moderate or severe dehydration (p = 0.06), lactose intolerance (p = 0.41), hypokalemia (p = 0.55), metabolic acidosis (0.18) Administration of antibiotics was significantly reduced for treatment of rotavirus acute diarrhea (31.1% vs 63.8%, p = 0.001). Hospital cost and length of admission were significantly reduced in rotavirus acute diarrhea (1,845.04 baht vs 2,297.00 baht, p < 0.01) (2.09 days vs 2.81 days, p < 0.001). Compared to previous studies, no differences were found in the percentage of rotavirus acute diarrhea. Rotavirus infection is a major cause for hospitalization of children below the age of 5 years with acute diarrhea. Clinical characteristics of rotavirus acute diarrhea were not significantly different from those due to other etiologies. Diagnosis of rotavirus infection should be based on

  4. Acute Renal Replacement Therapy in Children with Diarrhea-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single Center 16 Years of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Silviu Grisaru; Morgunov, Melissa A.; Samuel, Susan M.; Julian P Midgley; Wade, Andrew W; Tee, James B.; Hamiwka, Lorraine A.

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is becoming more prevalent among hospitalized children, its etiologies are shifting, and new treatment modalities are evolving; however, diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) remains the most common primary disease causing AKI in young children. Little has been published about acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT) and its challenges in this population. We describe our single center's experience managing 134 pediatric patients with D+HUS out of whom 5...

  5. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  6. Intervention analysis of introduction of rotavirus vaccine on hospital admissions rates due to acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Teixeira Masukawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old after the introduction of the vaccine in 2006. A descriptive analytical observational study was carried out of the hospitalization rates occurred between 2000 and 2011 in 22 Regional Health Centers of Paraná State, Brazil. The effect of the vaccine was assessed by applying the SARIMA/Box-Jenkins time series methodology of intervention analysis, which allows verifying the slopes of the series are different after the introduction of the vaccine and estimating the magnitude of these effects for children younger than five years of age, by age group, for each region center. It was verified a statistically significant reduction by center/month on hospitalization rates for children 1 year old and younger, with averages of 47% and 58%, respectively, in December 2011.

  7. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  8. Comparison of zinc-probiotic combination therapy to zinc therapy alone in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hatta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although the incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the last five years, the mortality rate in children under five years old is still high. Therefore, appropriate and comprehensive management of diarrhea is essential. There have been many studies on the role of zinc therapy and probiotic therapy in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea, but not many studies have compared the use of a combination of the two therapies to zinc therapy alone. Objective To compare the efficacy of zinc-probiotic combination therapy to zinc alone in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial from July 2009 to January 2010 in Adam Malik Hospital and Pirngadi Hospital, Medan. Children aged between 1 month and 5 years who met the criteria were divided into two groups. Group I received zinc sulphate (aged <6 months: 10 mg/day; aged 2:6 months: 20 mg/day combined with heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus (3x101O CFU/day for 10 days. Group II received only zinc sulphate at the same dosage as group I. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. Results Eighty subjects were enrolled, randomised, and divided equally into two groups. 40 children received zinc-probiotic in combination (group I and the remainder (group II received zinc alone. We observed significant differences in frequency of diarrhea (2.1 vs 3.1 times/day, P=0.001, 95%CI -1.62 to -0.49, and duration of diarrhea (52.1 vs. 72.6 hours, P=0.00l, 95%CI -30.91 to -10.18 in the two groups. Conclusion Combination of zinc-probiotic therapy was more effective in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea than zinc therapy alone in children under five years of age.

  9. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Diniz-Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemical testing, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were automatically detected by the MicroScan Walkaway System. Data about patients' sex and age, monthly distribution of the cases, pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were recorded. Males corresponded to 55.4% of our sample, and most of our patients (42.7% were between one and four years of age. Shigella was the commonest pathogen, being found in 141 (54.3% cultures, while Salmonella was found in 100 (38.4% cultures and Enteropathogenic E. coli in 19 (7.3%. Salmonella was the main causal agent of diarrhea in children younger than five years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequent pathogen isolated from the stools of children between five and 15 years old. The peaks of incidence correspond to the periods of school vacations. Shigella specimens presented a very high resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90.1% and to ampicillin (22.0%, while Salmonella presented very low resistance rates to all drugs tested. These data are useful for practitioners and they reinforce the need for continuous microbiological surveillance.

  10. Do alcohol-based hand rubs reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea during military deployments? A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, Tiphanie; De Laval, Franck; Sicard, Sébastien; Belleoud, Didier; Marimoutou, Catherine; Mayet, Aurélie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Michel, Rémy

    Acute diarrhea remains a public health concern in armed forces deployed in tropical areas where access to water and soap is limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on incidence of diarrhea in poor hygiene conditions. A prospective randomized trial was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among French military troops deployed in Africa to compare a group of soldiers receiving usual hand hygiene recommendations (control group), to a group of soldiers who received ABHR in addition to usual hand hygiene recommendations (intervention group). Data on diarrhea and hygiene behaviors were collected using self-questionnaires. The incidence rate of diarrhea episodes in groups was compared. Participation rate was 59% (236/400). The proportion of individuals who used ABHR was 97% in the intervention group and 62% in the control group. The overall incidence rate of diarrheal episodes was observed to be in the region of 60 per 100 persons-month without any significant difference between groups after adjustment on confounding factors (p = 0.93). Handwashing with soap was used on average 4 times a day in the control group and twice a day in the intervention group (p = 0.93). It was the only significant protective factor for diarrhea (p soap and good quality water should be a priority on the field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abegaz TM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90

  12. Frequency of E.coli pathotypes in acute diarrhea of children and its related factorsat Beassat hospital,Sanandaj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalantar E; Solatni J; Khosravi B; Salehi A

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries.The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with childhood diarrhea is Escherichia coli.A one-year prospec-tive study was carried out in Sanandaj to determine the prevalence and roles of the different E.coli pathotypes in children less than five years of age with acute diarrhea.Methods:Rectal swab were collected prospectively from children with acute diarrhea and transported to the Department of Microbiology,School of Medicine, KUMS,Sanandaj during 2008.The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee.Results:During this study period,rectal swabs were investigated from a total of 466 children 1 to 144 months of age (mean, 29.97 months ±S.D)with diarrhea.Among the children,191 (41%,191 /466)were girls,and 275 (59%,275 /466)were boys.The age-specific incidence rates of acute diarrhea among children 13 -24 and 1-12 months of age were 37.37% (37 /99)and 26.26 % (26 /99),respectively,during the study period.A total of 99 strains of E.coli were detected.EPEC 59 (59.59%)and EIEC 22 (22.22%),were the most commonly found Escherichia coli strains detected in stools from children.Disk diffusion testing showed E.coli strains resistance to tetracycline (89.89 %),chloramphenicol (88.88%),Ampicillin (79.79%),Amoxi-cillin (75.75%)and Ceficime (75.75%).Among risk factors like age,sex,haemoglubin,father's and moth-er's education,food and weight of children only mother's education was significant (P =0.018).Conclusion:In most of the clinical laboratories in Iran,E.coli does not considered as an etiologic agent responsible for di-arrhea.Results in this study revealed that E.coli should be considered as an etiologic agent causing acute di-arrhea among children.We therefore,recommend the routine isolation and identification of E.coli strains in all the clinical laboratories in Sanandaj.Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in Sanandaj need upda-ting.

  13. Diarrhea in the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Elisabeth; Högenauer, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea is a common problem in patients with immunocompromising conditions. The etiologic spectrum differs from patients with diarrhea who have a normal immune system. This article reviews the most important causes of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, ranging from infectious causes to noninfectious causes of diarrhea in the setting of HIV infection as a model for other conditions of immunosuppression. It also deals with diarrhea in specific situations, eg, after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, diarrhea induced by immunosuppressive drugs, and diarrhea in congenital immunodeficiency syndromes.

  14. A randomized double-blind clinical trial of the effect of non-absorbable oral polymyxin on infants with severe infectious diarrhea

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    S. Tahan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of non-absorbable oral polymyxin on the duodenal microflora and clinical outcome of infants with severe infectious diarrhea. Polymyxin was chosen because classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was more sensitive to this antibiotic. Twenty-five infants were randomly assigned to a 7-day treatment with oral polymyxin (2.5 mg/kg in 4 daily doses or placebo. Duodenal and stool cultures were performed before and after the treatment. Five patients were excluded during the study because of introduction of parental antibiotic therapy due to clinical sepsis (N = 3 or rapid clinical improvement (N = 2. In the polymyxin group, small bowel bacterial overgrowth occurred in 61.5% of the cases (8/13 before treatment and in 76.9% (10/13 after treatment. In the placebo group these values were 71.4% (5/7 and 57.1% (4/7, respectively. By the 7th day, clinical cure was observed in 84.6% of the cases (11/13 in the polymyxin group and in 71.4% (5/7 in the placebo group (P = 0.587. Considering all 25 patients included in the study, clinical cure occurred on the 7th day in 12/14 cases (85.7% in the polymyxin group and 6/11 cases (54.5% in the placebo group (P = 0.102. Clinical sepsis occurred in 3/11 (27.3% of the patients in the placebo group and in none (0/14 in the polymyxin group (P = 0.071. Oral polymyxin was not effective in reducing bacterial overgrowth or in improving the clinical outcome of infants hospitalized with severe infectious diarrhea. Taking into account the small sample size, the rate of cure on the 7th day and the rate of clinical sepsis, further studies with greater number of patients are necessary to evaluate these questions.

  15. The Effect of Probiotics on Diarrhea in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte

    hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included number of days with diarrhea during outpatient treatment, diarrhea incidence, diarrhea severity according to the Vesikari scale, fever, vomit, pneumonia, weight gain and nutritional recovery. All outcomes were analyzed separately for in- and outpatient treatment......-seropositive. There was no effect of probiotics on days with diarrhea during inpatient treatment (adjusted difference +0.2 days [95% CI -0.8; 1.2], p=0.69). However a reduction in days with diarrhea was found in the probiotic group during outpatient treatment (adjusted difference -2.2 days [95% CI -3.5; -0.3], p=0.......025). There was no difference between the probiotic and placebo groups with regard to diarrhea incidence and severity, vomiting, fever, pneumonia, weight gain or nutritional recovery. Fortysix patients died, with 26 patients from the probiotic group and 20 patients from the placebo group (p=0.38). Caregivers understood...

  16. 新生儿非感染性腹泻乳糖不耐受发生情况调查%Lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慧敏; 姜毅; 胡玉莲; 杨慧; 董天津

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the development of lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea and its association with diarrhea, and to evaluate the diagnostic values of fecal pH value and urine galactose determination for neonatal lactase deifciency.MethodsSeventy hospitalized neonates who developed non-infectious diarrhea between October 2012 and June 2015 were enrolled as the diarrhea group, and 162 hospitalized neonates without non-infectious diarrhea were enrolled as the non-diarrhea group. Test paper was used to determine fecal pH value. The galactose oxidase method was used to detect urine galactose. The neonates with positive galactose oxidase were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, and those with lactase deficiency and diarrhea were diagnosed with lactose intolerance. According to the results of urine galactose detection, 69 neonates in the diarrhea group who underwent urine galactose detection were classiifed into lactose intolerance group (45 neonates) and lactose tolerance group (24 neonates), and their conditions after treatment were compared between the two groups. The follow-up visits were performed for neonates with diarrhea at 3 months after discharge.ResultsFecal pH value and positive rate of urine galactose (65% vs 54%) showed no signiifcant differences between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups (P>0.05). Fecal pH value showed no signiifcant difference between the lactose intolerance and lactose tolerance groups (P>0.05), while the neonates in the lactose intolerance group had a signiifcantly longer time to recovery of defecation than those in the lactose tolerance group (P0.05)。乳糖不耐受和耐受组腹泻患儿大便pH值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),乳糖不耐受患儿大便恢复时间比耐受组患儿长(P<0.05)。结论新生儿乳糖酶缺乏发生率高,易发生乳糖不耐受性腹泻。大便pH值测定对判断腹泻患儿乳糖不耐受意义不大。

  17. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Lamberti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact of zinc treatment among children under five has not been well documented by previously published systematic reviews on the topic. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review, which included an exhaustive search of the Chinese literature, in an effort to update previously published estimates of the effect of therapeutic zinc. We conducted systematic literature searches in various databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and abstracted relevant data from studies meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used STATA 12.0 to pool select outcomes and to generate estimates of percentage difference and relative risk comparing outcomes between zinc and control groups. We identified 89 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese studies for the review, including studies in 10 countries from all WHO geographic regions, and analyzed a total of 18,822 diarrhea cases (9469 zinc and 9353 control. None of the included Chinese studies had previously been included in published pooled effect estimates. Chinese and non-Chinese studies reported the effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration and proportion of episodes lasting beyond three and seven days. Pooling Chinese and non-Chinese studies yielded an overall 26% (95% CI: 20%−32% reduction in the estimated relative risk of diarrhea lasting beyond three days among zinc-treated children. Studies conducted in and outside China report reductions in morbidity as a result of oral therapeutic zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea among children under five years of age. The WHO recommendation for zinc treatment of diarrhea

  18. Diagnostic approach to acute infectious diarrhea: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available DIAGNOSTIC DES DIARRHEES INFECTIEUSES AIGUËS: LE POINT SUR LA QUESTION. On reconnaît actuellement un nombre croissant de micro-organismes responsables de la production de diarrhées infectieuses aiguës. Il est donc nécessaire pour les médecins et les autorités administratives médicales de compter sur un système de diagnostic efficace et peu coûteux. C'est ce que nous étudions dans cet article. Nous essayons de déterminer si la présence de leucocytes fécaux, de sang fécal occulte, de lactoferrine fécale, ou une combinaison de ces tests de triage avec les données cliniques permettent l’identification d’une majorité de cas de diarrhée inflammatoire. Après une section préliminaire destinée a la révision de la physiopathologie de la réponse inflammatoire de la muqueuse intestinale à l’infection par organismes pathogènes et une brève revue des premières études sur la valeur des leucocytes fécaux pour la discrimination entre les dysenteries bacillaires et amibiennes, nous faisons un analyse critique des plus récentes approches diagnostiques consacrées a la discrimination entre les diarrhées invasives et non-invasives. Plusieurs limitations méthodologiques trouvées sont discutées, notamment celles concernant le rôle des leucocytes fécaux en tant qu’indicateurs de diarrhées inflammatoires. Les problèmes les plus importants son ceux qui concernent la préparation des études, l’effet de la variation dans la validité des études sur l’exactitude diagnostique du test d’intérêt, et la possibilité de généralisation des résultats. Nous soulignons aussi des problèmes potentiels de confusion et de biais, surtout dans les études réalisées dans des pays en voie de développement, tel que la variation des tableaux cliniques et épidemiologiques par rapport aux pays industrialisés, et l’identification très fréquente des diarrhées aiguës avec plus d’un germe (diarrhées mixtes. La lactoferrine fécale semble être un test de triage potentiellement utile pour identifier les diarrhées inflammatoires, bien que la démonstration définitive de son utilité dépende d’études futures dans differents contextes cliniques et épidémiologiques. Finalement, nous discutons sur la nécessité de réaliser une révision scientifique d’ampleur (approche méta-analytique des études primaires réalisées. Une telle approche méta-analytique est soulignée comme une stratégie quantitative potentiellement utile pour répondre à des questions qui restent encore insuffisamment résolues. ENFOQUE DIAGNÓSTICO DE LAS DIARREAS AGUDAS INFECCIOSAS: EL ESTADO ACTUAL DEL PROBLEMA. El número de microorganismos reconocidos como enteropatógenos capaces de producir diarrea aguda infecciosa está en incremento continuo. Por ello, tanto los clínicos como las autoridades de salud requieren con apremio de un enfoque efectivo y de bajo costo para el diagnóstico y el manejo de la diarrea. Este artículo revisa la información disponible sobre el tema, intentando responder si la presencia de leucocitos fecales, sangre oculta, lactoferrina fecal, o una combinación de estas pruebas de tamizaje con datos clínicos, puede permitir la identificación de la mayoría de casos de diarrea inflamatoria. Luego de una sección preliminar relativa a la fisiopatología de la respuesta inflamatoria de la mucosa intestinal frente a la infección por organismos patógenos y una breve revisión de los estudios pioneros sobre el valor de los leucocitos fecales en la discriminación entre disentería bacilar y amebiana, se realiza un análisis crítico de los estudios posteriores dirigidos a evaluar la confiabilidad de diferentes enfoques en la distinción entre diarrea invasiva y no invasiva. Se discute varias limitaciones metodológicas halladas en los estudios revisados, particularmente aquellos relacionados al rol de los leucocitos fecales como un indicador de diarreas inflamatorias. Los problemas más relevantes identificados tienen que ver con los diseños de estudio, el efecto de la variación en l

  19. Probiotics do not improve the benefits of a hospital treatment protocol for acute diarrhea in the breastfed child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Santana Porbén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Probiotics have been used in the treatment of acute diarrhea occurring in pediatric ages with mixed results. Objective: To assess the impact of a probiotic (CFU per capsule: Lactobacillus rhamnosus G: 2 x 109, Lactobacillus cassei: 1 x 109, Bifidobacterium brevis: 2 x 109 upon the features and duration of acute diarrhea in breastfed children. Study location: Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Service, “Juan Manuel Márquez” Pediatric Teaching Hospital (Marianao, Havana City, Cuba. Study design: Open, quasi-experimental trial. Thirty children with ages 0.05; Improvement of the features of stools: Non-Treated: 93.3% vs. Treated: 96.1% (p > 0.05. Use of probiotics produced an increase of Hemoglobin ( = -0.44; p 0.05 values of indicators of systemic inflammatory response. Conclusions: Inclusion of probiotics within an institutional protocol for treatment of acute diarrhea does not significantly change the stool pattern of the breastfed child, but might reduce the systemic inflammatory tone which, in turn, would result in a better use of body iron.

  20. Cobalamin and folate status in 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

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    Manjeswori Ulak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cobalamin and folate are essential micronutrients and are important in DNA and RNA synthesis, cell proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and cognitive function. However, data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking particularly from young children residing in low and middle income countries. OBJECTIVE: To measure cobalamin and folate status and identifies their predictors among 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in 823 children presenting with acute diarrhea. We measured plasma cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine who sought treatment for acute diarrhea between June 1998 and August 2000. RESULTS: The mean (SD plasma concentrations of cobalamin, folate, total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were 206 (124 pmol/L, 55 (32 nmol/L, 11.4 (5.6 µmol/L and 0.79 (1.2 µmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of low plasma cobalamin (10 µmol/L and elevated methylmalonic acid (>0.28 µmol/L were 73% and 52%, respectively. In the regression analyses, the plasma cobalamin concentration was positively associated with age, and introduction of animal or formula milk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that poor cobalamin status was common particularly among breastfed children. Folate deficiency was virtually none existent. Possible consequences of cobalamin deficiency in young children need to be explored.

  1. Efficacy of probiotic use in acute rotavirus diarrhea in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotic therapies with different strains demonstrated some beneficial effects, although some studies did not show any significant effects. This study assessed systematically the current knowledge on the effect of probiotic bacteria on duration of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children compared with control. Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (CCTR) and Ovid (Wolters Kluwer Health) were searched between 1980 to June 15, 2013. Randomized controlled trials including the administration of probiotics for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in infants and children were reviewed. Results: A total number of 1244 articles were found through the aforementioned search. 203 articles were selected after the first screening of title and abstract. The intervention group included subjects who received probiotic strains and dosage in any conditions. Placebo or any similar vehicle without probiotic was used in the controlled trials. Finally, 14 articles were selected. The outcomes from each study were considered in the duration of diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software. The pooled estimate of efficacy of probiotics in prevention or treatment of disease yielded in all studies a mean difference of 0.41 (CI 95%: -0.56 to –0.25; p<0.001). The pooled estimate of efficacy of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and other probiotics significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea. Among trials, the overall reduction of LGG was 0.47 (CI 95%: -0.80 to -0.14; P= 0.020). Conclusion: In conclusion, probiotics exert positive effect in reducing the duration of acute rotavirus diarrhea compared with control. PMID:26644891

  2. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

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    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of

  3. A Two-Tube Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Viral and Bacterial Pathogens of Infectious Diarrhea

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    Ji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea caused by viral and bacterial infections is a major health problem in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to develop a two-tube multiplex PCR assay using automatic electrophoresis for simultaneous detection of 13 diarrhea-causative viruses or bacteria, with an intended application in provincial Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, China. The assay was designed to detect rotavirus A, norovirus genogroups GI and GII, human astrovirus, enteric adenoviruses, and human bocavirus (tube 1, and Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Yersinia, and Vibrio cholera (tube 2. The analytical specificity was examined with positive controls for each pathogen. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial tenfold dilutions of in vitro transcribed RNA, recombinant plasmids, or bacterial culture. A total of 122 stool samples were tested by this two-tube assay and the results were compared with those obtained from reference methods. The two-tube assay achieved a sensitivity of 20–200 copies for a single virus and 102-103 CFU/mL for bacteria. The clinical performance demonstrated that the two-tube assay had comparable sensitivity and specificity to those of reference methods. In conclusion, the two-tube assay is a rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, specific, and high throughput method for the simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria and virus.

  4. How to Do in Persistent Diarrhea of Children?: Concepts and Treatments of Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kun Song; Kang, Dong Soo; Yu, JeeSuk; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Woo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as passing watery stools that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Persistent diarrhea belongs to chronic diarrhea and is a chronic episode of diarrhea of infectious etiology. The etiology of chronic diarrhea is varied. It is important to consider the child's age and clinical manifestations with alarm signals for an application of proper treatments to children with chronic diarrhea. Vicious cycle is present in chronic diarrhea and nutritional rehabilitation can break the v...

  5. Profile of acute infectious markers in sporadic hepatitis E.

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    Shoujie Huang

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of acute infection of hepatitis E virus (HEV is commonly based on the detection of HEV RNA, IgM and/or rising IgG levels. However, the profile of these markers when the patients present have not been well determined. To clarify the extent of misdiagnosed sporadic hepatitis E in the initial laboratory detection, serial sera of 271 sporadic acute hepatitis cases were collected, detected and the dynamics of each acute marker during the illness course were analyzed. 91 confirmed cases of hepatitis E were identified based on the presentation of HEV RNA, IgM or at least 4 fold rising of IgG levels. 21 (23.1% hepatitis E cases were false negative for the viral RNA and 40 (44.0% for rising IgG, because occurrence of these markers were confined to acute phase of infection and viremia had already subsided and antibody level peaked when these patients presented. IgM was detected in 82 (90.1% cases. It is the most prevalent of the three markers, because the antibody persisted until early convalescence. Nine cases negative for IgM were positive for rising IgG and one was also positive for the viral RNA; all of these nine cases showed high avid IgG in their acute phase sera, which indicated re-infection. In summary, it is not practicable to determine the true occurrence of sporadic hepatitis E. Nevertheless, it could be closely approximated by approach using a combination of all three acute markers.

  6. The Effect of Probiotics on Diarrhea in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte

    with diarrhea and dehydration during hospitalization. In addition the association between days with diarrhea as well as dehydration and mortality during hospitalization were assessed. Results The study children had a mean age of 17.0 months, 58% were boys, 66% had edematous malnutrition and 14% were HIV...

  7. Probiotics for children with diarrhea: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2008-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy of probiotics for diarrhea in children in different settings: day-care centers, diarrhea acquired in the hospital, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. For prevention of diarrhea acquired in day-care centers, 5 randomized and placebo-controlled trials have been published. Probiotics tested were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis (alone or in combination with Streptococcus thermophilus), and Lactobacillus reuteri. The evidence of their efficacy in these settings is only modest: statistically significant for some strains only and in any case of minimal to mild clinical importance. Few trials have examined the potential role of probiotics in preventing the spread of diarrhea in hospitalized children, an event most commonly due to either rotavirus or Clostridium difficile, and they have yielded conflicting results. Overall, these studies provide only weak evidence on the efficacy of probiotics. On the other hand, a large number of trials on the role of probiotics in preventing the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea have been published. Most commonly employed probiotics were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. In general, these trials do show clear evidence of efficacy, with the 2 most effective strains being Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardii. Today, we have a large number of published clinical trials on the role of probiotics in treating sporadic infectious diarrhea in children, and many of them are randomized, blinded, and controlled. They consistently show a statistically significant benefit and moderate clinical benefit of a few, well-identified probiotic strains-mostly Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardii, but also L. reuteri-in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea, primarily rotaviral, in infants and young children of developed countries. Such a beneficial effect seems to result in a reduction of diarrhea duration of

  8. Sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage in patients with varying degrees of acute infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Gaïni, Shahin; Pedersen, Court;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate levels, associations between, and predictive value of plasma catecholamines and biomarkers of endothelial damage in patients with acute infectious illness stratified according to infection type and sepsis severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a post hoc study of plasma s...

  9. Accuracy of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound for Predicting Dehydration in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Resource-Limited Settings.

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    Payal Modi

    Full Text Available Although dehydration from diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, existing methods of assessing dehydration status in children have limited accuracy.To assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound measurement of the aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration in children.A prospective cohort study of children under five years with acute diarrhea was conducted in the rehydration unit of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b. Ultrasound measurements of aorta-to-IVC ratio and dehydrated weight were obtained on patient arrival. Percent weight change was monitored during rehydration to classify children as having "some dehydration" with weight change 3-9% or "severe dehydration" with weight change > 9%. Logistic regression analysis and Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC curves were used to evaluate the accuracy of aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration severity.850 children were enrolled, of which 771 were included in the final analysis. Aorta to IVC ratio was a significant predictor of the percent dehydration in children with acute diarrhea, with each 1-point increase in the aorta to IVC ratio predicting a 1.1% increase in the percent dehydration of the child. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.60, sensitivity (67%, and specificity (49%, for predicting severe dehydration were all poor.Point-of-care ultrasound of the aorta-to-IVC ratio was statistically associated with volume status, but was not accurate enough to be used as an independent screening tool for dehydration in children under five years presenting with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting.

  10. Prospective investigation of pituitary functions in patients with acute infectious meningitis: is acute meningitis induced pituitary dysfunction associated with autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, F; De Bellis, A; Teksahin, H; Alp, E; Bizzarro, A; Sinisi, A A; Bellastella, G; Paglionico, V A; Bellastella, A; Unluhizarci, K; Doganay, M; Kelestimur, F

    2012-12-01

    Previous case reports and retrospective studies suggest that pituitary dysfunction may occur after acute bacterial or viral meningitis. In this prospective study we assessed the pituitary functions, lipid profile and anthropometric measures in adults with acute bacterial or viral meningitis. Moreover, in order to investigate whether autoimmune mechanisms could play a role in the pathogenesis of acute meningitis-induced hypopituitarism we also investigated the anti-pituitary antibodies (APA) and anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) prospectively. Sixteen patients (10 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age 40.9 ± 15.9) with acute infectious meningitis were included and the patients were evaluated in the acute phase, and at 6 and 12 months after the acute meningitis. In the acute phase 18.7% of the patients had GH deficiency, 12.5% had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. At 12 months after acute meningitis 6 of 14 patients (42.8%) had GH deficiency, 1 of 14 patients (7.1%) had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. Two of 14 patients (14.3%) had combined hormone deficiencies and four patients (28.6%) had isolated hormone deficiencies at 12 months. Four of 9 (44.4%) hormone deficiencies at 6 months were recovered at 12 months, and 3 of 8 (37.5%) hormone deficiencies at 12 months were new-onset hormone deficiencies. At 12 months there were significant negative correlations between IGF-I level vs. LDL-C, and IGF-I level vs. total cholesterol. The frequency of AHA and APA positivity was substantially high, ranging from 35 to 50% of the patients throughout the 12 months period. However there were no significant correlations between AHA or APA positivity and hypopituitarism. The risk of hypopituitarism, GH deficiency in particular, is substantially high in the acute phase, after 6 and 12 months of the acute infectious meningitis. Moreover we found that 6th month after meningitis is too early to make a decision for pituitary dysfunction and these patients should be screened for at least 12 months

  11. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

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    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

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    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  13. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Characteritics of Rotavirus VP4(P Genotypes in Children With Acute Diarrhea

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    Haghshenas Z

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Rotaviruses are recognized as the most common etiologic factors of gastroenteritis. In this study, we determined the epidemiologic features, clinical symptoms and molecular structure of rotavirus VP4(P genotypes in children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran Iran, during 2009 for justifying the routine use of rotavirus vaccines in children. Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from 150 children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran were collected from January to December 2009. The patients’ mean age was 20.90+18.19 years (ranging from 1 month to 14 years. Fecal samples were transported on ice to the laboratory of virology department of Pasture Institute of Iran. The demographic and clinical data for each case were entered in an author-devised questionnaire. Group A rotavirus was detected by dsRNA-PAGE. Subsequently, rotavirus genotyping (VP4 was performed by semi-nested multiple RT-PCR and the phylogenetic tree of the Rotavirus nucleotides was constructed. The data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon signed and Mann-Whitney U. Results: Rotavirus was isolated in 19.3% of the samples, more than 90% of which had long RNA patterns. The predominant genotype (VP4 was P[8] (86% and other genotypes respectively were P[6] (6.9% and P[4] (6.9%. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the P[8] genotype was found to be the cause of acute diarrhea. The analysis of P[8] genotype sequence showed a high level of similarity of the virus in this study with those of other Asian countries.

  14. [Determination of capillary plasma C-reactive protein during therapy for acute infectious lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, V V; Vavilikhina, N F; Kastrikina, T N; El'chaninova, S A

    2011-06-01

    Changes in the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and differential blood count were comparatively estimated in the treatment of 66 infants (aged 1.12 +/- 0.95 years) with acute infectious lung diseases. There was a high correlation between capillary plasma and venous serum CRP concentrations. On the first day of effective antibiotic therapy, there was a significant decrease in CRP levels; the sensitivity and specificity were 96 and 94%, respectively. Thus, measurement of capillary blood CRP is an accessible and informative tool to monitor therapy for infectious lung diseases in infants.

  15. 福田区感染性腹泻病原体监测结果分析%Laboratory Monitoring of Infectious Diarrhea Pathogens in Futian District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志萍; 张勇; 莫浩联; 牛姬飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of diarrhea in Futian district, analyze its epidemiological characteristics, and provide measures of treatment and prevention. Method Stool samples, rectal swabs or vomit samples were collected from diarrhea patients without using any antibiotics from the sentinel hospitals for the isolation and culturing the pathogenic bacteria and analysis of the molecular characteristics of the positive strains. Results The infection rate of pathogenic intestinal bacteria was 8.59% (80/931). The detected pathogens were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli of EPEC, EIEC and ETEC. The infection rates had no significance differences in gender, age or household register (P>0.05). The infection rates of EPEC, EIEC and ETEC showed no seasonal differences, but that of Vibrio parahaemolyticus showed seasonal difference and more often in autumn (P=0.000). Conclusion Infectious diarrhea in Futian district was mainly caused by Escherichia coli of EPEC,EIEC and ETEC.%目的 利用感染性腹泻病原体监测了解深圳市福田区感染性腹泻分布情况及流行病学特征.方法 设置哨点医院采集门诊未使用抗生素腹泻监测病例的大便样本、肛拭子或呕吐物标本,进行致病菌的分离培养,疾病预防控制中心对阳性菌株进行复核和分析.结果 福田区腹泻病例肠道致病菌感染率为8.59%,检测出病原体为副溶血性弧菌,致泻性大肠埃希菌中的EPEC、EIEC、ETEC,不同性别、年龄段和户籍分布差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).副溶血性弧菌感染情况不同季节感染情况不同,秋季较多见,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000).致泻性大肠埃希菌中的EPEC、EIEC、ETEC感染不同季节差异无统计学意义.结论 福田区感染性腹泻以致泻性大肠埃希菌的EPEC、EIEC、ETEC为主.

  16. Incidence, etiology, and determinants associated with acute diarrhea among French forces deployed to Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Nicand, Elisabeth; Lagathu, Gisèle; Michel, Rémy; Rosenmayr, Georg; Raingeval, Jean-Baptiste; Samy, Julien; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Marimoutou, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses, for the first time, the incidence, etiology, and determinants associated with traveler's diarrhea (TD) among French forces deployed to N'Djamena, Chad. A prospective study was conducted based on physician consultation for diarrhea during a 5-month French forces mandate. Diarrhea was defined as ≥3 loose stools in a 24-hour period or ≥2 loose stools within the last 8 hours. For each diarrheic episode, an anonymous physician-administered questionnaire was completed and a stool sample collected. Samples were tested for parasites, bacteria, and enteric viruses. Global incidence rate was calculated using the mean number of soldiers based in N'Djamena (n = 1,024) over the 5-month period, as denominator. Incidence rates were also estimated for each of the eleven 2-week periods of stay. A case-crossover analysis estimated determinants associated with diarrhea. A total of 240 cases of diarrhea were notified by military physicians, resulting in a global incidence rate of 49 cases per 1,000 person-months (PM). The cumulative individual risk of developing diarrhea during the study period was 0.23. The incidence per 2-week stay began at 8.8/1,000 PM, rose to 54.4/1,000 PM after 1 month, and decreased after 2 months. Of the 240 cases reported, stool samples were obtained for 196 cases. Pathogens were identified in 40% of samples; enteric viruses were predominant (28.1%). Three determinants were associated with diarrhea by multivariate analysis: diarrhea in the close circle [OR: 3.8 (2.0-7.0)]; always eating at the military mess [OR: 0.2 (0.1-0.5)]; or staying in a temporary encampment [OR: 0.3 (0.1-0.8)]. This study found a high frequency of enteric viruses and a high risk of person-to-person transmission associated with diarrhea. Eating at the military mess or staying in a temporary encampment conferred a protective effect. In addition to food-borne disease prevention, stringent hygiene measures are required to break transmission of diarrhea during

  17. 感染性腹泻临床与病原学分布特点及耐药分析%Clinical features, etiology distribution and drug resistance in patients with infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋莹; 庄天彦; 郭祥萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨新疆地区感染性腹泻的临床及病原学分布特点,指导经验性治疗感染性腹泻,避免滥用抗菌药物.方法 回顾性分析2009年8~10月及2010年5~10月新疆医科大学第二附属医院肠道门诊感染性腹泻患者的临床及病原学特点、药敏结果.结果 以急性腹泻为首发症状就诊的183例患者中,26例(14.2%)粪便细菌培养阳性,其中志贺菌属感染14例(53.8%),大肠埃希菌属感染5例(19.2%),沙门菌属感染3例(11.5%),肺炎克雷伯杆菌、嗜水气单胞菌、摩氏摩根菌、雷氏普罗威登斯菌感染各1例(3.8%).年龄≤60岁患者病原菌的检出率高于年龄>60岁者(P<0.05).志贺菌属感染以黏液便、水样便为主,大肠埃希菌与沙门菌感染以稀便为主.志贺菌、大肠埃希菌及沙门菌普遍对氨苄西林耐药,对β-内酰胺酶类、头孢菌素类和喹诺酮类等抗菌药物产生不同程度的耐药性;尚未发现病原菌对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物产生耐药性.结论 肠道门诊细菌感染性腹泻患者粪便细菌培养阳性率较低,仍以志贺菌属为主要病原菌.监测病原菌分布、药敏结果,合理选择抗菌药物对降低细菌耐药十分重要.%Objective To investigate the clinical features and etiological distribution of infectious diarrhea , direct the empirical treatment of infectious diarrhea and avoid the overuse of antibiotics. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed in the data of clinical and etiological characteristics and drug susceptibility in patients with infectious diarrhea in enteric diseases clinic, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from August to October 2009 and from May to October 2010. Results Of 183 patients with acute diarrhea as first symptom, fecal bacterial culture were positive in 26 cases (14.2%), including Shigella (14 cases, 53.8%), E. coli (5 cases, 19.2%), Salmonella (3 cases, 11.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas

  18. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus RNA present in commercial spray-dried porcine plasma is not infectious to naive pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Opriessnig

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus emerged in North America in April 2013 and has since been identified in 30 U.S. States, Canada and Mexico. The rapid spread of PEDV has raised concerns about the role of feed and particularly pork-by-product components such as spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP in PEDV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of PEDV RNA present in commercial SDPP. Specifically, 40 3-week-old PEDV naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. At day post inoculation (dpi 0, NEG-CONTROL pigs were sham-inoculated, PEDV-CONTROL pigs received cell culture propagated PEDV, and SDPP-CONTROL pigs were switched to a diet with 5% SDPP containing 5.1±0.1 log10 PEDV RNA copies/g. To evaluate a potential positive effect of anti-PEDV antibodies in SDPP on PEDV challenge, four days prior to PEDV challenge the pigs in the SDPP-PEDV group were switched to and remained on a 5% SDPP diet through dpi 28. Another group, EGG-PEDV, was orally administered a commercial egg-derived liquid PEDV globulin product from dpi -4 through 6. All PEDV-CONTROL pigs began shedding PEDV in feces by dpi 3 and seroconverted between dpi 7 and 14, whereas pigs in NEG-CONTROL and SDPP-CONTROL groups remained PEDV RNA negative and did not seroconvert to PEDV for the study duration. This indicates no evidence of infectivity of the PEDV RNA in the SDPP lot utilized. Furthermore, under the study conditions SDPP or egg-derived liquid PEDV globulin addition did not significantly alter PEDV-shedding or overall disease course after experimental challenge.

  19. Respiratory protection and emerging infectious diseases: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Lange

    2005-01-01

    @@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.

  20. Transmission of acute infectious illness among cases of Kawasaki disease and their household members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Fan, Tsui-Yen; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Hu, Jen-Jan; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Chang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a disease of unknown cause and the causative agent is most likely to be infectious in nature. To investigate the household transmission pattern of infectious illness and etiology, we thus initiated a prospective case and household study. We enrolled KD cases and their household members from February 2004 to September 2008. The KD cases and their household members accepted questionnaire-based interviews of the contact history, signs of infection, and symptoms to check whether clusters of infectious illness occurred. A total of 142 KD cases and 561 household members were enrolled. Among the 142 KD cases, 136 cases (96%) were typical KD, and six (4%) were atypical KD. Of the 561 household members, 17% were siblings, 46% were parents, 18% were grandparents, and the others were cousins or babysitters. Prior to the onset of their KD illness, 66% (94/142) KD cases had contact with ill household members. On the same day of the onset of KD cases' illness, 4% (6/142) KD cases had household members with illness. After KD cases' disease onset, 70% (100/142) KD cases had at least one other family member with illness. Overall, 61% (343/561) of all the household members had acute infectious illness during KD cases' acute stage, and 92% (130/142) of the families had clusters of infectious illness. A total of 66% KD cases had positive contact with ill household members prior to their disease onset and 92% of families had clusters of infectious illness, so KD is strongly associated with infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  2. Clinical value of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea%粪钙卫蛋白测定判断感染性腹泻的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白乌日娜; 蒋琳; 计春燕; 黄平晓; 陈志强; 覃丽佳; 谭诗云

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨粪便钙卫蛋白(FCP)在腹泻鉴别诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 感染性腹泻48例、腹泻型肠易激综合征(D-IBS)30例及正常对照组30例分别留取粪便5~10 g,用ELISA法检测粪便钙卫蛋白含量;同时收集患者病史及临床资料.结果感染性腹泻病人粪便钙卫蛋白检测值(515.21 μg/g,n=48 )显著高于D-IBS组(35.02 μg/g,n=30)和正常对照组(25.18 μg/g,n=30)(P<0.001).D-IBS组和正常对照组之间无明显差异(P>0.05).感染性腹泻FCP检测值与粪便显微镜下白细胞个数呈正相关(r=0.761).设定FCP值100 μg/g 为临界值时判断感染性腹泻的检测敏感性为85.4% 特异性为90.0% 准确性为87.2%.结论 FCP有望用于感染性腹泻和非感染性腹泻的初步鉴别,具有快速、简便、准确率高、患者依从性好等优点,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To explore the clinical value of fecal calprotectin in the differential diagnosis of infectious diarrhea. Methods Thirty people for health examination as controls, forty-eight patients with infectious diarrhea and thirty patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) were recruited. Stool sample (5 ~ 10 g) was collected in each people to determine fecal calprotectin by an emzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; meanwhile the case history and clinical data were collected simultaneously. Results The fecal calprotectin concentration in infectious diarrhea patients (515.21 μg/g, n = 48) was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (25.18 μg/g, n = 30)and the D-IBS patients (35.02 μg/g,n = 30, P <0. 001 ). There was no statistical significance of calprotectin concentration between D-IBS patieuts and healthy controls (P > 0. 05). The level of FCP in infectious diarrhea patients was related with the quantity of fecal leukoeytes (r =0. 761 ). When the cut-off limit of fecal calprotectin was set as 100 μg/g, its diagnostic sensitivity of infectious diarrhea was 85.4

  3. Analysis of etiology and drug resistance of infectious diarrhea among children in Beijing area in 2009%2009年北京地区儿童感染性腹泻病原学及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国慧; 董方; 刘锡清; 许宏; 宋文琪; 徐樨巍

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究北京地区儿童急性感染性腹泻的病原学变化、流行病学特征及耐药性变迁情况.方法 对2009年1月~10月肠道门诊疑诊为细菌性腹泻病者便标本做细菌培养和血清分型鉴定,药敏试验采用纸片扩散法,以免疫层析双抗体夹心法定性检测A群轮状病毒抗原.结果 256份标本检出病原菌4种87株(有1份便标本同时检出2种菌),检出率为34.0%.男女检出比为1.69∶1,2岁以下患儿55例(64.0%).沙门菌40株(46.0%),志贺菌23株(26.4%),致泻性大肠杆菌2株(2.3%),金黄色葡萄球菌22株(25.3%).志贺菌中D群13株(56.5%),22株金黄色葡萄球菌有20株发生于<1岁婴儿.沙门菌和志贺菌的耐药率分别为:氨苄西林(65.0%;95.7%)、复方新诺明(20.0%;78.3%)、环丙沙星(7.5%;8.7%)、头孢曲松(15.0%;73.9%).256份标本中A群轮状病毒检测阳性47份,其中同时便培养阳性者13份.结论 2009年北京地区儿童细菌性腹泻的病原菌以非伤寒沙门菌为主,志贺菌以D群为主要流行株,二者的易感人群以2岁以下婴幼儿为主,金黄色葡萄球菌感染以1岁以下婴儿为主,阳性检出男孩居多.多重耐药仍以志贺菌明显,细菌与轮状病毒混合感染的比例上升.%Objective To investigate the etiology, epidemiologic features and drug resistance tendency of acute infectious diarrhea among children in Beijing area. Methods Enteric pathogenic bacteria were isolated, cultured and identified for serotype from the stool specimens of children with the initial clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial diarrhea in the intestinal clinic from January to October in 2009 ,and the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria was tested by disk diffusion method. The cluster A rotavirus antigen was also detected by the qualitative technique of immunochromatographic double-antibody sandwich assay. Results Of the 256 stool specimens, 87 strains of 4 species of pathogenic bacteria were detected with the detectable rate

  4. Infectious events prior to chemotherapy initiation in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Portwine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary objective was to describe infectious complications in children with acute myeloid leukemia from presentation to the healthcare system to initiation of chemotherapy and to describe how these infections differ depending on neutropenia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study that included children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia diagnosed and treated at 15 Canadian centers. We evaluated infections that occurred between presentation to the healthcare system (for symptoms that led to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia until initiation of chemotherapy. RESULTS: Among 328 children, 92 (28.0% were neutropenic at presentation. Eleven (3.4% had sterile-site microbiologically documented infection and four had bacteremia (only one Gram negative. Infection rate was not influenced by neutropenia. No child died from an infectious cause prior to chemotherapy initiation. CONCLUSION: It may be reasonable to withhold empiric antibiotics in febrile non-neutropenic children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia until initiation of chemotherapy as long as they appear well without a clinical focus of infection. Future work could examine biomarkers or a clinical score to identify children presenting with leukemia and fever who are more likely to have an invasive infection.

  5. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen®) in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Menor, Emilia; García-Marín, Fátima; Vecino-López, Raquel; Horcajo-Martínez, Gloria; de Ibarrondo Guerrica-Echevarría, María-José; Gómez-González, Pedro; Velasco-Ortega, Syra; Suárez-Almarza, Javier; Nieto-Magro, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p diarrhea (median and interquartile range) was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377). The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children. PMID:28229091

  6. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen® in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia García-Menor MD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p < 0.001. The duration of diarrhea (median and interquartile range was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377. The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children.

  7. Impact of NOD2 polymorphisms on infectious complications following chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomade, Olaposi; Spies-Weisshart, Bärbel; Glaser, Anita; Schnetzke, Ulf; Hochhaus, Andreas; Scholl, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of the NOD2 gene and infectious complications following intensive induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We hypothesised that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NOD2 gene are associated with a higher rate of infections during the phase of severe neutropenia. In 131 AML patients receiving induction therapy, the presence of the three most frequent polymorphisms of NOD2 (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, Leu1007fsinsC) was analysed. SNP analyses by means of genomic PCR incorporating fluorescence-labelled probes with characteristic melting curves were performed using the LightCycler platform. Our data suggest a significantly lower probability of mucositis or enteritis in AML patients lacking any of the three evaluated NOD2 polymorphisms. Furthermore, bloodstream cultures of AML patients carrying either a missense or a frameshift mutation of NOD2 were significantly more frequently tested positive concerning Streptococcus spp. In contrast, the presence of NOD2 polymorphisms had no impact on such important infectious complications as systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis, the rate of central venous catheter infections or the incidence of pneumonia including fungal infections. Our data represent one of the first reports investigating the impact of polymorphisms of the innate immune system on infectious complications in patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy. A correlation between NOD2 polymorphisms and infectious events in AML patients is demonstrated.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis in Association with Campylobacter jejuni- Associated Diarrhea in a 15-Year-Old with CFTR Mutations: Is There a Link?

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Kandula; Lowe, Mark E.; Seema Khan; Whitcomb, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Acute pancreatitis has occasionally been reported in association with Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. However, the mechanism linking Campylobacter jejuni infection and pancreatitis isunclear. Acute pancreatitis in association with an infectious illness may be related to underlying genetic mutations. For instance, studies show that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene increase the susceptibility for acute and chronic pancreatitis. Case re...

  9. An enzyme-linked immuno focus assay for rapid detection and enumeration, and a newborn mouse model for human non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C Durga; Reddy, Harikrishna; Naidu, Jagadish R; Raghavendra, A; Radhika, N S; Karande, Anjali

    2015-11-01

    We have recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute and persistent diarrhea (18-21% of total diarrheal cases), and non-diarrheal Increased Frequency of Bowel Movements (IFoBM-ND) (about 29% of the NPEV infections) in children and that the NPEV-associated diarrhea was as significant as rotavirus diarrhea. However, their diarrhea-causing potential is yet to be demonstrated in an animal model system. Since the determination of virus titers by the traditional plaque assay takes 4-7 days, there is a need for development of a rapid method for virus titer determination to facilitate active clinical research on enterovirus-associated diarrhea. The goal of this study is to develop a cell-based rapid detection and enumeration method and to demonstrate the diarrhea-inducing potential of purified and characterized non-polio enteroviruses, which were isolated from diarrheic children. Here we describe generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against purified strains belonging to different serotypes, and development of an enzyme-linked immuno focus assay (ELIFA) for detection and enumeration of live NPEV particles in clinical and purified virus samples, and a newborn mouse model for NPEV diarrhea. Plaque-purified NPVEs, belonging to different serotypes, isolated from children with diarrhea, were grown in cell culture and purified by isopycnic CsCl density gradient centrifugation. By ELIFA, NPEVs could be detected and enumerated within 12h post-infection. Our results demonstrated that Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and CVB5 strains, isolated from diarrheic children, induced severe diarrhea in orally-inoculated 9-12 day-old mouse pups, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The methods described here would facilitate studies on NPEV-associated gastrointestinal disease.

  10. [Viral diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, H

    1982-04-12

    Viruses are one of the most frequent causes of acute infectious gastroenteritis. Thus, rotaviruses are responsible for 40-60%--and in winter sometimes for over 90% - of diarrhoea in infants. These viruses may also cause disease in adults, but small viruses of a size of about 27 nm, such as the Norwalk agent, play a much more important role. Several other non-cultivable viruses such as adeno-, calici- and astroviruses have been implicated as a cause of infectious diarrhoea. Knowledge of rotaviruses is so far advanced that routine laboratory diagnosis can easily be performed and active immunization against rotavirus infection envisaged.

  11. 2014年无锡市感染性腹泻的病原学分析%Etiological analysis of infectious diarrhea in Wuxi,2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管红霞; 肖勇; 沙丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the pathogen spectrum and epidemiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in Wuxi. Methods The stool specimens from outpatients with diarrhea were collected from sentinel hospitals from January to December 2014. The nucleic acid of norovirus,rotavirus,enteric adenovirus,human astrovirus and sapovirus was determined by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli,Salmonella spp,Shigella spp,Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae were identified by conventional culture methods. Pathogenic composition,seasonal variation and population distribution were analyzed. Results A total of 915 specimens were monitored. The positive rate of viral nucleic acid was 14.4%,and norovirus(9.4%) and rotavirus(3.4%) showed obvious seasonal distribution characteristics with the peak incidence occurring in winter and spring. The infection rate of children of 0-5 years old was higher than those of the other age groups. Bacteria,with the positive rate 15.0%,were isolated from June to September. Salmonella spp(6.0%) was the main isolate whose predominant serotypes were Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium,and the second was diarrheagenic Escherichia coli(4.6%). Conclusions The viral diarrhea deserves attention in winter and spring,norovirus and rotavirus are the common pathogens. The bacterial diarrhea is given priority in summer,whose dominant pathogens are Salmonella spp and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Children under 5 years old are main for the prevention and control of viral diarrhea.%目的:了解无锡市感染性腹泻的病原谱及流行特征。方法连续采集2014年1至12月无锡市腹泻监测哨点医院门诊腹泻病例的粪便样本,采用实时荧光聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测诺如病毒、轮状病毒、肠道腺病毒、人星状病毒和札如病毒的核酸,采用传统的分离培养方法检测致泻性大肠埃希菌、沙门菌、志贺菌、副溶血性

  12. Pseudomembranous colitis presenting as acute colonic obstruction without diarrhea in a patient with gastric Burkitt lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Nomura; Shigeo Horiike; Takeshi Okanoue; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kohei Fukumoto; Daisuke Shimizu; Takashi Okuda; Naohisa Yoshida; Yuri Kamitsuji; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideyuki Konishi; Yuji Ueda

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) usually manifests asfever and diarrhea in hospitalized patients treated withsystemic antibiotics. We described a case of PMC withintestinal obstruction but without diarrhea. A 60-yearold man was hospitalized for chemotherapy for the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma of the stomach. The patient became febrile and complained of crampy abdominal pain during the post-chemotherapy nadir. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and niveau. Because stool cytotoxin assay for clostridium difficile was positive and colon fiberscopic examination showed a pseudomembrane at the left side of the colon,and a diagnosis of PMC was made. Treatment with intracolonic vancomycin administration by colonoscopy and nasoileus tube was successful. Physicians should take into account the possibility of bowel obstruction due to PMC occurring in patients undergoing chemotherapy and perform emergency colonoscopy examination of suspected cases.

  13. Acute Renal Replacement Therapy in Children with Diarrhea-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single Center 16 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Grisaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is becoming more prevalent among hospitalized children, its etiologies are shifting, and new treatment modalities are evolving; however, diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS remains the most common primary disease causing AKI in young children. Little has been published about acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT and its challenges in this population. We describe our single center's experience managing 134 pediatric patients with D+HUS out of whom 58 (43% required ARRT over the past 16 years. In our cohort, all but one patient were started on peritoneal dialysis (PD. Most patients, 47 (81%, received acute PD on a pediatric inpatient ward. The most common recorded complications in our cohort were peritoneal fluid leaks 13 (22%, peritonitis 11 (20%, and catheter malfunction 5 (9%. Nine patients (16% needed surgical revision of their PD catheters. There were no bleeding events related to PD despite a mean platelets count of 40.9 (±23.5 × 103/mm3 and rare use of platelets infusions. Despite its methodological limitations, this paper adds to the limited body of evidence supporting the use of acute PD as the primary ARRT modality in children with D+HUS.

  14. Evaluating the cost utility of racecadotril for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in children: the RAWD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rautenberg TA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tamlyn Anne Rautenberg1,2, Ute Zerwes1, Douglas Foerster3,4, Rick Aultman51Assessment in Medicine GmbH, Lörrach, Germany; 2Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 3Abbott Products Operations AG, Allschwil, Switzerland; 4University of Bielefeld, School of Public Health, Bielefeld, Germany; 5Semalytics, Arizona, United States of AmericaBackground: The safety and efficacy of racecadotril to treat acute watery diarrhea (AWD in children is well established, however its cost effectiveness for infants and children in Europe has not yet been determined.Objective: To evaluate the cost utility of racecadotril adjuvant with oral rehydration solution (ORS compared to ORS alone for the treatment of AWD in children younger than 5 years old. The analysis is performed from a United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS perspective.Methods: A decision tree model has been developed in Microsoft® Excel. The model is populated with the best available evidence. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA have been performed. Health effects are measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and the model output is cost (2011 GBP per QALY. The uncertainty in the primary outcome is explored by probabilistic analysis using 1000 iterations of a Monte Carlo simulation.Results: Deterministic analysis results in a total incremental cost of –£379 in favor of racecadotril and a total incremental QALY gain in favor of racecadotril of +0.0008. The observed cost savings with racecadotril arise from the reduction in primary care reconsultation and secondary referral. The difference in QALYs is largely attributable to the timely resolution of symptoms in the racecadotril arm. Racecadotril remains dominant when base case parameters are varied. Monte Carlo simulation and PSA confirm that racecadotril is the dominant treatment strategy and is almost certainly cost effective, under the central assumptions of the model, at a

  15. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Ivan D; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Sierra, Javier M; Granados, Claudia M; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan J; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos; Perez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Zea, Adriana M; Hernandez, Gilma N; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Guyatt, Gordon H; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-20

    Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown. We will conduct a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of zinc, vitamin A, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, racecadotril, smectite, and fermented and lactose-free milk/formula for AD/AGE treatment in children. The primary outcomes are diarrhea duration and mortality. Secondary outcomes are diarrhea lasting 3 or 7 days, stool frequency, treatment failure, hospitalizations, and adverse events. We will search MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and LILACS through Ovid, as well as grey literature resources. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, review full texts, extract information, and assess the risk of bias (ROB) and the confidence in the estimate (with the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation [GRADE] approach). Results will be summarized narratively and statistically. Subgroup analysis according to HIC vs. LMIC, age, nutrition status, and ROB is planned. We will perform a Bayesian network meta-analysis to combine the pooled direct and indirect treatment effect estimates for each outcome, if adequate data is available. This is the first systematic review and network meta-analysis that aims to determine the relative effectiveness of pharmacological and nutritional treatments for reducing the duration of AD/AGE in children. The results will help to reduce the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the interventions, find knowledge gaps, and

  16. [Beliefs and knowledge of a group of doctors about the nutritional management of the child with acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Terrazas, Martha; Martínez, Homero; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Duque-L, Ma Ximena; Turnbull, Bernardo; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' dietary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July to December 1998, on ten physicians that care for the infant population ascribed to Hospital Rural IMSS-Solidaridad of San Juanito Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data were collected through focus groups, case vignettes, free listing, pile sorting, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and then cross-referred. The physicians recognized the negative impact of diarrhea on the nutritional state of the child, but not all of them evaluated this state. Prevailing interventions were antibiotic therapy, fluid management, and feeding recommendations. Among the latter, the most consistent were breastfeeding, delayed feeding, and gradual feeding. The obtained information is in conflict with WHO's recommendations, specially with that of sustained feeding. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  17. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  18. Clinical efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and yogurt fluid in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children: a randomized, controlled, open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Makbule; Dinleyici, Ener C; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 +/- 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, although these differences were not significant. However, diarrhea had resolved in significantly more children on day 3 in the S. boulardii group (48.5% versus 25.5%; P yogurt treatment was cheaper than S. boulardii whereas in hospitalized patients, treatment cost was similar. In conclusion, the effect of daily freshly prepared YF was comparable to S. boulardii in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the S. boulardii group, expressed as a significantly higher number of patients with normal stools on day 3.

  19. Acute post-infectious cerebellar ataxia due to co-infection of human herpesvirus-6 and adenovirus mimicking myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naselli, Aldo; Pala, Giovanna; Cresta, Federico; Finetti, Martina; Biancheri, Roberta; Renna, Salvatore

    2014-11-26

    Acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) is a relatively common neurological disease in children. Most common types of ACA are acute post-infectious (APCA) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Less common but important causes include opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and acute cerebellitis. Cerebellar neoplasms and acute hydrocephalus are additional causes of paediatric ataxia. APCA is the most common cause of ACA in children, comprising about 30-50% of total cases. This is a report about an immunocompetent 4-yrs-old male affected by APCA, due to co-infection by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and adenovirus, with symptoms mimicking myositis.

  20. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah; Supriatmo Supriatmo; Melda Deliana; Selvi Nafianti; Atan Baas Sinuhaji

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Method...

  1. Clinical Efficacy Comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and Yogurt Fluid in Acute Non-Bloody Diarrhea in Children: A Randomized, Controlled, Open Label Study

    OpenAIRE

    Makbule EREN; Dinleyici, Ener C; Vandenplas,Yvan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 ± 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, a...

  2. 锌制剂治疗小儿急性腹泻效果观察%Effect of zinc sulfate on acute diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋莉; 王丽娟

    2012-01-01

      Objective To observe the clinical effect of zinc sulfate on infants with acute diarrhea and study its mechanisms. Methods This study consisted of 136 infants with acute diarrhea,who were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Both groups received conventional therapy.Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of fever,diarrhea,and hospital stay.Conclusion Zinc sulfate is effective in treating infants with acute diarrhea and preventing recurrence of the disease.%  目的探讨锌制剂治疗小儿急性腹泻的疗效。方法将136例小儿急性腹泻患儿随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组68例,均给予相同综合治疗,治疗组加用硫酸锌口服。结果治疗组在腹泻、发热,住院时间均较对照组减少,差异有显著性。结论口服锌制剂治疗小儿急性腹泻可减轻腹泻症状、缩短病程。

  3. 贵阳市2010年感染性腹泻细菌病原学检测分析%Detection and analysis on bacteria etiology for infectious diarrhea cases in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦小瑜; 田克诚; 游旅; 马青; 唐光鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解贵阳市感染性腹泻细菌病原学构成,为制定预防控制感染性腹泻的措施提供依据.方法 采集2010年贵阳市感染性腹泻病例粪便标本434份,进行细菌培养,鉴定病原菌.结果 从434份腹泻标本中检出5种48株病原菌,检出率11.06%,其中沙门菌16株(33.3%),气单胞菌16株(33.3%),志贺菌7株(14.58%),空肠弯曲菌7株(14.58%),结肠弯曲菌2株(4.17%).2~9岁年龄组患者检出率为42.31%,显著高于0~1岁组和≥10岁组(x2=27.45,P< 0.005).结论 沙门菌和气单胞菌是贵阳市感染性腹泻的主要病原菌,其次为空肠弯曲菌和志贺菌.%OBJECTIVE To understand the constitution of bacteria etiology for infectious diarrhea patients in Guizhou province, and provide basis for making prevention and control measures of infectious diarrhea. METHODS Stool specimens of 434 infectious diarrhea cases were collected, and bacteria isolated and pathogenic bacteria identified in Guizhou. RESULTS 48 pathogenic bacteria strains were detected, the rate of detection were 11.06%, in which 16 strains (33.3%) were salmonella, 16 strains (33.3%) were aeromonas spp, 7 strains (14.58%) were Shigella, 7 strains (14.58%) were campylobacter jejuni, and 2 strains (4.17%) were campylobacter coli. The detection rate (42.31%) of 2-9 years old was significant higher than 0-1 years old (8.51%) and beyond 10 years old (11.39%) (χ2 = 27.45, P< 0.005). CONCLUSION Salmonella and aeromonas spp. Are the main pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in Guizhou province, secondly campylobacter jejuni and shigella.

  4. Effect of Brad's yeast in the prevention of secondary diarrhea in neonatal infectious pneumonia%布拉酵母菌预防新生儿感染性肺炎继发腹泻的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯永歌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of Brad's yeast in the prevention of secondary diarrhea in neonatal infectious pneumonia. Methods 120 cases of children fit the diagnosis of neonatal infectious pneumonia were assigned to observation group (62 cases) and control group (58 cases). Both groups were given antibiotics and symptomatic supportive treatment, while the observation group was given additional full course of oral administration of Brad's yeast. Children with secondary diarrhea in both groups were given montmorillonite powder orally. Time of occurrence, incidence of diarrhea, the number of diarrhea three days after onset, diarrhea duration and adverse reactions in the course of treatment of both groups were statistically analyzed. Results There were 33 cases of diarrhea in the control group, with the incidence rate of 56.9%; in the observation group there were 12 cases of diarrhea, with the incidence rate of 19.4%. Differences analysis results between the two groups were statistically significant (x2 = 11.87, P < 0.01). Diarrhea onset times, number of diarrhea three days after onset and diarrhea duration of the two groups were significantly different (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). In addition to antibiotics allergic reactions in both groups, the control group showed four cases of fungal stomatitis. No other significant adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion Brad's yeast used in the prevention of secondary diarrhea in neonatal infectious pneumonia shows good effect. It can significantly reduce and delay the occurrence of secondary diarrhea, reduce the secondary diarrhea extent, lead to rapid recovery after symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. It is safe to be used in the prevention of neonatal antibiotic-associated diarrhea except for critically ill cases.%目的 观察布拉酵母菌用于预防新生儿感染性肺炎继发腹泻的临床效果及安全性.方法 将符合新生儿感染性肺炎诊断的患儿120例分为观察组(62

  5. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in those slums. A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0-50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5-17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5-10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. This study reveals the slum environment to be high risk for diarrhea due to close proximity

  6. Infectious diarrhea pathogens among children in Beijing area in the summer of 2011%2011年夏季北京地区儿童腹泻病原菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少丽; 钟雪梅; 冯燕玲; 薛冠华; 闫超; 张艳玲; 孙红妹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main infectious diarrhea pathogens among children in Beijing area in the summer of 2011, and to find out a rapid differential diagnosis method for pathogenic bacteria and provide the basis for prevention and treatment of this disease.Methods Stool samples of children with infectious diarrhea in Department of Gastrointestinal and Infectious in the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics were collected from June to August in 2011.Specimens' DNA was extracted and a specific PCR method was established to detect the most common pathogens which easily to cause the children diarrhea.The results were sequenced and confirmed,and then compared with the previous studies.Results In the 259 cases with diarrhea, the total detection rate of the pathogen was 69% ,among which the rate of diarrhea cause by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was 64% ,by Shigella bacteria was 15% and by Salmonella bacteria was 4.2%.The rates of pathogenic bacteria detection had non-statistical difference between boys and girls and different age groups,and also no significant difference among the different months in summer.Conclusion Escherichia coli might be the main pathogen of diarrhea in Beijing this year, followed by Shigella.There could be a significant change about pathogenic bacteria causing children s diarrhea in Beijing area in summer.PCR assay,established in this study,could be used for rapid detection of pathogens of children s diarrhea.%目的 监测分析2011年夏季北京地区儿童腹泻主要病原菌,为该地区儿童腹泻病原的快速诊断与防治提供依据.方法 收集2011年夏季在该院感染消化科就诊的腹泻患儿粪便标本,提取粪便标本DNA,设计特异性引物建立PCR方法 对易导致儿童腹泻的最常见的3种病原菌进行检测,部分阳性结果 测序验证,并与以往腹泻病原菌监测结果 进行比较分析.结果 在259例腹泻患儿中,总病原菌的检出率为69%,其中

  7. Genetic determinants of pathogenicity of Escherichia coli isolated from children with acute diarrhea in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbana, Jose; Taviani, Elisa; Manjate, Alice; Paglietti, Bianca; Santona, Antonella; Colombo, Mauro M

    2015-07-04

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) represents one of the leading cause of diarrhoea in developing countries. In this study a molecular approach was applied for the detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) circulating in Maputo, Mozambique. All isolates were PCR tested for species-specific genes and for 11 molecular markers: stx1, stx2, eae, bfpA, lt, st, ipaH, aap, aggR CVD432 and daaE. Of the 80 E. coli isolated, 74% were potential DEC: 21% EIEC, 19% EPEC, 15% EAEC, 13% ETEC, 5% DAEC and 1% hybrids. This study revealed the complexity of the etiology of diarrhea caused by pathogenic E. coli in Mozambique, and the risk of the emergence of new pathogenic variants due to the horizontal transmission of pathogenicity factors.

  8. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose ChacónOn behalf of the Racecadotril Post-authorization Record Group; Centro Clinico Profesional Caracas, Caracas, VenezuelaAbstract: Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 ± 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9–19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In

  9. A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduction of gross diarrhea rate in excess of that seen over time with intravenous therapy and appropriate antibiotics is not usually achieved by oral glucose-electrolyte rehydration therapy for cholera and cholera-like diarrheas. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective randomized clinical trial at a tertiary referral hospital in southern India was undertaken to determine whether amylase resistant starch, substituting for glucose in hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution, would reduce diarrhea duration and weight in adults with acute severe dehydrating diarrhea. 50 adult males with severe watery diarrhea of less than three days' duration and moderate to severe dehydration were randomized to receive hypo-osmolar ORS (HO-ORS or HO-ORS in which amylase resistant high amylose maize starch 50g/L substituted for glucose (HAMS-ORS. All remaining therapy followed standard protocol. Duration of diarrhea (ORS commencement to first formed stool in hours was significantly shorter with HAMS-ORS (median 19, IQR 10-28 compared to HO-ORS (median 42, IQR 24-50 (Bonferroni adjusted P, P(adj<0.001. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier showed faster recovery from diarrhea in the HAMS-ORS group (P<0.001, log rank test. Total diarrhea fecal weight in grams (median, IQR was not significantly lower in the HAMS-ORS group (2190, 1160-5635 compared to HO-ORS (5210, 2095-12190 (P(adj = 0.08. However, stool weight at 13-24 hours (280, 0-965 vs. 1360, 405-2985 and 25-48 hours (0, 0-360 vs. 1080, 55-3485 were significantly lower in HAMS-ORS compared to HO-ORS group (P(adj = 0.048 and P = 0.012, respectively. ORS intake after first 24 hours was lower in the HAMS-ORS group. Subgroup analysis of patients with culture isolates of Vibrio cholerae indicated similar significant differences between the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to HO-ORS, HAMS-ORS reduced diarrhea duration by 55% and significantly reduced fecal weight after the first 12 hours of ORS

  10. The Incidence of Acute Diarrhea in Children under Five Years Old in Rasht City in 2009: The First Phase if the Effect of Using Sewerage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Arshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The lack of a proper sewage collection & disposal system, the water and sewerage project, in the city of Rasht, became a priority by Guilan province Urban Water and Sewerage Company with the government partnership and World Bank financial support. The objective of this research was to complete the first phase of a two-phase study, to determine the impact of using an urban sewerage system on acute diarrhea in children under five years old, in Rasht city in the Guilan province.Materials and Methods: The study is a concurrent control before and after field trial which is carried out in two phases: before (phase I and after (phase II. Sampling for phase I was performed in the middle month of each season, November and February 2009 and May and August 2010. The incidence of acute Diarrhea was measured with the participation of 1560 mothers of children under 5 years old. This was done in two groups: the intervention group (inside the sewerage system project perimeters and the control group (outside the project perimeters. Data was collected by local female general practitioners and medical students by door-to-door interviews with mothers. Data was analyzed using the SPSS 11.5 software package. The Pearson Chi-Square was used to compare qualitative variables between groups, whilst the t-test and One-Way ANOVA was used to compare quantitative variables.Results: The average annual incidence of acute diarrhea in children under five years old was 10.4% (9.4% in the intervention group and 11.4% in the control group. The seasonal pattern of acute diarrhea incidence was 10.5% (9.3% in the intervention group and 11.7% in the control group in May, 12.5% (11.5% in the intervention group and 13.4% in the control group in August, 9.3% (8.1% in the intervention group and 10.5% in the control group in November, and 9.1% (8.5% in the intervention group and 9.8% in the control group in February respectively.Conclusion: The study showed the

  11. Infectious dengue vesicles derived from CD61+ cells in acute patient plasma exhibited a diaphanous appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Yi-Hui; Wu, Shang-Rung; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chen, Po-Lin; Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Lo, Yu-Chih; Ho, Tzu-Chuan; Lee, Meed; Chen, Min-Ting; Chiu, Yen-Chi; Perng, Guey Chuen

    2015-01-01

    The levels of neutralizing antibody to a pathogen are an effective indicator to predict efficacy of a vaccine in trial. And yet not all the trial vaccines are in line with the theory. Using dengue virus (DENV) to investigate the viral morphology affecting the predictive value, we evaluated the viral morphology in acute dengue plasma compared to that of Vero cells derived DENV. The virions in plasma were infectious and heterogeneous in shape with a “sunny-side up egg” appearance, viral RNA was enclosed with CD61+ cell-derived membrane interspersed by the viral envelope protein, defined as dengue vesicles. The unique viral features were also observed from ex vivo infected human bone marrow. Dengue vesicles were less efficiently neutralized by convalescent patient serum, compared to virions produced from Vero cells. Our results exhibit a reason why potencies of protective immunity fail in vivo and significantly impact dengue vaccine and drug development. PMID:26657027

  12. Infectious dengue vesicles derived from CD61+ cells in acute patient plasma exhibited a diaphanous appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Yi-Hui; Wu, Shang-Rung; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chen, Po-Lin; Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Lo, Yu-Chih; Ho, Tzu-Chuan; Lee, Meed; Chen, Min-Ting; Chiu, Yen-Chi; Perng, Guey Chuen

    2015-12-11

    The levels of neutralizing antibody to a pathogen are an effective indicator to predict efficacy of a vaccine in trial. And yet not all the trial vaccines are in line with the theory. Using dengue virus (DENV) to investigate the viral morphology affecting the predictive value, we evaluated the viral morphology in acute dengue plasma compared to that of Vero cells derived DENV. The virions in plasma were infectious and heterogeneous in shape with a "sunny-side up egg" appearance, viral RNA was enclosed with CD61+ cell-derived membrane interspersed by the viral envelope protein, defined as dengue vesicles. The unique viral features were also observed from ex vivo infected human bone marrow. Dengue vesicles were less efficiently neutralized by convalescent patient serum, compared to virions produced from Vero cells. Our results exhibit a reason why potencies of protective immunity fail in vivo and significantly impact dengue vaccine and drug development.

  13. [Effects of nifuroxazide (Ercefuryl), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bactisubtil in acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulović-Telalbasić, S

    1991-01-01

    The clinical effects of Nifuroxasid (N), Trimetoprim sulphametoxasol (TS) and Bactisubtil (B) on bacillar dysentery and alimentary toxicoinfections in the patients treated at the Clinic from January 1984 to the end of December 1989 have been analysed. According to the clinical signs, patients have been divided in ten categories of light, mild and heavy forms. In total, 329 cases of bacillar dysentery and 89 cases of alimentary toxicoinfections have been analysed. The following was established: A. Bacilar dysentery: the fastest normalization of the stool was achieved with N in every clinical form (averages 2.2, 3.5 and 4.05 days). With TS the effects were slower (3.0, 3.9 and 4.4 days), but the slowest normalization was recorded with B (3.4, 4.6 and 5.4 days). However, with TS, some Shigella strains showed resistance (in 23 out of 94 antibiograms), which diminished the effects. B. Alimentary toxicoinfections were treated only with N and B, since these forms of diarrhea caused by toxigenic factors were milder. Better results were achieved with N in this case as well.

  14. Utilization of health facilities and predictors of health-seeking behavior for under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metadel Adane; Bezatu Mengistie; Worku Mulat; Helmut Kloos; Girmay Medhin

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to assess the status of health facilities utilization and predictors for health-seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers of under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums...

  15. High creatinine clearance in critically ill patients with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautrette Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dose of anti-infective agents is recommended when treating infectious meningitis. High creatinine clearance (CrCl may affect the pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic relationships of anti-infective drugs eliminated by the kidneys. We recorded the incidence of high CrCl in intensive care unit (ICU patients admitted with meningitis and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two common methods used to identify high CrCl. Methods Observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis (defined by >7 white blood cells/mm3 in cerebral spinal fluid between January 2006 and December 2009 to one medical ICU. During the first 7 days following ICU admission, CrCl was measured from 24-hr urine samples (24-hr-UV/P creatinine and estimated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation. High CrCl was defined as CrCl >140 ml/min/1.73 m2 by 24-hr-UV/P creatinine. Diagnostic accuracy was performed with ROC curves analysis. Results Thirty two patients were included. High CrCl was present in 8 patients (25% on ICU admission and in 15 patients (47% during the first 7 ICU days for a median duration of 3 (1-4 days. For the Cockcroft-Gault formula, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 101 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.96, specificity: 0.75, AUC = 0.90 ± 0.03 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.06. For the simplified MDRD equation, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 108 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.91, specificity: 0.80, AUC = 0.88 ± 0.03 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.11. There was no difference between the estimated methods in the diagnostic accuracy of identifying high CrCl (p = 0.30. Conclusions High CrCl is frequently observed in ICU patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis. The estimated methods of CrCl could be used as a screening tool to

  16. Short-term effect of prebiotics administration on stool characteristics and serum cytokines dynamics in very young children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Nachum; Press, Josef; Leibovitz, Eugene; Boehm, Güenther; Barak, Vivian

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9-24 months) with acute diarrhea. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and sIL-2R cytokine levels were determined. The significant decrease in number of stools and increase in stool consistency in the supplemented group was of little clinical relevance. The only significant change in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was decreased TNF-α levels in the supplemented group. Prebiotic supplementation during acute diarrhea episodes did not influence the clinical course.

  17. Short-Term Effect of Prebiotics Administration on Stool Characteristics and Serum Cytokines Dynamics in Very Young Children with Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachum Vaisman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9–24 months with acute diarrhea. Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and sIL-2R cytokine levels were determined. The significant decrease in number of stools and increase in stool consistency in the supplemented group was of little clinical relevance. The only significant change in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was decreased TNF-α levels in the supplemented group. Prebiotic supplementation during acute diarrhea episodes did not influence the clinical course.

  18. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...

  19. Acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis in adults: A single center report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Hamouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis (APIGN is uncommonly seen in adults; its incidence is progressively declining, particularly in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and biologic features of APIGN in a Tunisian center. A retrospective descriptive analytic study was carried out on 50 patients aged more than 15 years who were admitted to the Monastir Hospital between 1991 and 2007, with a diagnosis of APIGN. There were more males than females (66% vs. 34%, and the mean age of the patients was 36.8 ± 10 years. Only 10% had an immunocompromised background, including diabetes. The most common site of infection was upper respiratory tract, followed by skin and pneumonia. The most common causative agent was Streptococcus (66%, followed by Staphylococcus (12%. 73.8% of the patients had low C3 complement levels. The mean peak serum creatinine was 190 μmol, and 4% of patients required acute dialysis. The patients were followed-up for a mean period of 18 months (range, 0.16-97 months. During follow-up, of the 46 patients reviewed in the consultation, the majority showed complete remission, 12 patients had persisting abnormalities such as hypertension in 17%, chronic renal failure in 8% and proteinuria in 6.5%, and one patient had concomitant hypertension and chronic renal failure. Our study suggests that APIGN is still endemic in some parts of the world such as Tunisia, and our data showed a favorable prognosis in adults.

  20. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  1. Pathogenic detection of infectious diarrhea in patients in a district of Beijing from 2011 to 2013%2011-2013年北京某城区感染性腹泻患者致病菌检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白书媛; 刘淑岭; 高波; 胡三梅; 霍哲; 张浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)of pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in a district of Beijing from 2011 to 2013,and provide basis for tracing infection sources.Methods A total of 1 179 stool specimens of infectious diarrhea from patients in a diarrhea outpatient department from January 2011 to December 2013 were collected,all isolated pathogens were identified by serotyping and PFGE analysis.Results 330 enteric pathogens were isolated from 1 179 specimens,the top 4 bacteria were Shi-gella spp .(28.18%,n=93),Salmonella spp .(20.91 %,n=69),Vibrio parahaemolyticus (13.33%,n =44),and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (3.33%,n = 11 ).18 Shigella sonnei isolates were identified as 8 PFGE patterns, clustering similarity was close to 88%;69 Salmonella spp .strains belonged to 18 serotypes and 41 PFGE patterns, Salmonella senftenberg and Salmonella enteritidis had dominant patterns;no dominant PFGE patterns were obviously identified among 23 strains ofVibrio parahaemolyticus .Conclusion The serotypes and PFGE patterns of pathogenic bacteria in infectious diarrhea in past three years showed a wide distribution characteristics,the dominant PFGE patterns of Salmonella spp .and Shigella spp .need to be paid more attention,and outbreak of infectious diarrhea caused by Salmonella spp .and Shigella spp .should be alerted.%目的:分析北京某城区2011—2013年感染性腹泻患者致病菌分布及脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)图谱特征,为感染溯源提供依据。方法收集2011年1月—2013年12月该区域肠道门诊感染性腹泻患者粪便标本1179份,对其培养分离的致病菌进行血清分型及 PFGE 分析。结果1179份标本,共培养肠道病原菌330株,其中检出居前4位的肠道致病菌依次为志贺菌属93株(28.18%)、沙门菌属69株(20.91%)、副溶血性弧菌44株(13.33%)及致泻性大肠埃希菌11株(3.33%)。18

  2. Acute Corneal Hydrops Mimicking Infectious Keratitis as Initial Presentation of Keratoconus in a 10-Year-Old Child

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    Elise A. Slim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of acute hydrops in a 10-year-old child with advanced keratoconus. Case Presentation. A ten-year-old boy diagnosed as having right eye (RE infectious keratitis, not responding to antimicrobial therapy, was referred to our hospital. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was established one month prior to his presentation following an episode of acute corneal whitening, pain, and drop in visual acuity. Topical fortified antibiotics followed by topical antiviral therapy were used with no improvement. Slit lamp examination showed significant corneal protrusion with edema surrounding a rupture in Descemet’s membrane in the RE. The diagnosis of acute corneal hydrops from advanced keratoconus was highly suspected and confirmed with corneal topography. Conclusion. Although a relatively rare disease at the age of 10 years, keratoconus can be rapidly progressive in the pediatric group. Keratoconus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive vision loss in this age group.

  3. A cross-sectional study of acute diarrhea in Pudong, Shanghai, China: prevalence, risk factors, and healthcare-seeking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J-X; Zhu, W-P; Ye, C-C; Xue, C-Y; Lai, S-J; Zhang, H-L; Zhang, Z-K; Geng, Q-B; Yang, W-Z; Sun, Q; Li, Z-J

    2017-10-01

    Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3-4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4-29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.

  4. Acute diarrhea in adults consulting a general practitioner in France during winter: incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Christophe; Amoros, Jean Pierre; Vaillant, Véronique; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Chikhi-Brachet, Roxane; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Varesi, Laurent; Arrighi, Jean; Souty, Cécile; Blanchon, Thierry; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas

    2014-10-30

    Data describing the epidemiology and management of viral acute diarrhea (AD) in adults are scant. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factors of winter viral AD in adults. The incidence of AD in adults during two consecutive winters (from December 2010 to April 2011 and from December 2011 to April 2012) was estimated from the French Sentinelles network. During these two winters, a subset of Sentinelles general practitioners (GPs) identified and included adult patients who presented with AD and who filled out a questionnaire and returned a stool specimen for virological examination. All stool specimens were tested for astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, and norovirus of genogroup I and genogroup II. Age- and sex-matched controls were included to permit a case-control analysis with the aim of identifying risk factors for viral AD. During the studied winters, the average incidence of AD in adults was estimated to be 3,158 per 100,000 French adults (95% CI [2,321 - 3,997]). The most reported clinical signs were abdominal pain (91.1%), watery diarrhea (88.5%), and nausea (83.3%). GPs prescribed a treatment in 95% of the patients with AD, and 80% of the working patients with AD could not go to work. Stool examinations were positive for at least one enteric virus in 65% (95% CI [57 - 73]) of patients with AD with a predominance of noroviruses (49%). Having been in contact with a person who has suffered from AD in the last 7 days, whether within or outside the household, and having a job (or being a student) were risk factors significantly associated with acquiring viral AD. During the winter, AD of viral origin is a frequent disease in adults, and noroviruses are most often the cause. No preventable risk factor was identified other than contact with a person with AD. Thus, at the present time, reinforcement of education related to hand hygiene remains the only way to reduce the

  5. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  6. Infantile Diarrhea on Clinical Therapeutic Effect and Montmorillonite Powder in Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children%小儿腹泻贴与蒙脱石散治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫四会

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿腹泻贴与蒙脱石散治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效。方法收集2013年1月至12月我院收治的60例急性腹泻患儿资料,随机分为对照组和观察组,各30例。对照组患儿给予蒙脱石散治疗,观察组患儿给予小儿腹泻贴治疗,两组患儿同时根据脱水情况口服补液盐。比较两组患儿疗效和临床症状。结果治疗2d后,观察组患儿总有效率为90.0%,明显高于对照组的76.7%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗4 d后,观察组患儿总有效率为96.7%,对照组患儿总有效率为93.3%,且两组患儿的水样便、蛋花样便明显减少,腹痛、腹胀明显好转,两组比较差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。结论小儿腹泻贴和蒙脱石散治疗小儿急性腹泻效果均明显,且减轻患儿痛苦。%Objective To investigate the infantile diarrhea Montmoril onite powder paste and the therapeutic effect in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children.Methods 60 cases of acute diarrhea in children from 2013 January to December in our hospital,were randomly divided into control group and observation group,30 cases in each.The control group were given Montmoril onite powder treatment,the observation group were given the treatment of infantile diarrhea paste,two groups of children at the same time according to the dehydration of oral rehydration salts. And the curative effects were compared between the two groups of children.Results After 2 d treatment,the observation group with total effective rate was 90.0%,significantly higher than 76.7% in the control group,the difference was statistical y significant(P0.05).Conclusion Children with diarrhea posted and Montmoril onite powder in treatment of acute diarrhea in children are obvious effect,and reduce the pain of patients.

  7. Ileus in children presenting with diarrhea and severe acute malnutrition: A chart review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Severely malnourished children aged under five years requiring hospital admission for diarrheal illness frequently develop ileus during hospitalization with often fatal outcomes. However, there is no data on risk factors and outcome of ileus in such children. We intended to evaluate predictive factors for ileus during hospitalization and their outcomes.This was a retrospective chart review that enrolled severely malnourished children under five years old with diarrhea, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh between April 2011 and August 2012. We used electronic database to have our chart abstraction from previously admitted children in the hospital. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with (cases = 45, and without ileus (controls = 261 were compared. Cases were first identified by observation of abnormal bowel sounds on physical examination and confirmed with abdominal radiographs. For this comparison, Chi-square test was used to measure the difference in proportion, Student's t-test to calculate the difference in mean for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney test for data that were not normally distributed. Finally, in identifying independent risk factors for ileus, logistical regression analysis was performed. Ileus was defined if a child developed abdominal distension and had hyperactive or sluggish or absent bowel sound and a radiologic evidence of abdominal gas-fluid level during hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders revealed that the independent risk factors for admission for ileus were reluctance to feed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-8.39, p = 0.02, septic shock (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.247-8.95, p<0.01, and hypokalemia (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.03-3.86, p = 0.04. Mortality was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (22% vs. 8%, p<0.01 in univariate analysis; however

  8. Viral causes of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodgame, R W

    2001-09-01

    Viruses are important causes of diarrhea. In healthy adults, the main clinical manifestation is acute, self-limited gastroenteritis. Advances in molecular diagnostics have shown that epidemics of acute gastroenteritis most frequently are due to caliciviruses spread through contaminated food or through person-to-person contact. Application of similar technology is needed to make a definitive statement about the role of such candidate viruses as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus as the cause of nonepidemic acute gastroenteritis in adults. Rarely a previously healthy adult gets acute CMV colitis. CMV and EBV mainly cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, however. Advances in prophylaxis and treatment have reduced the frequency and severity of these diseases. Acute infantile gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus. These viral diseases of the gut are seen by the physician as routine and rare clinical problems.

  9. Treatment of acute infectious endophthalmitis by vitrectomy surgery with silicon oil tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe theclinical effect of acute infectious endophthalmitis by vitrectomy surgery with silicon oil tamponade.METHODS:The clinical data of 23 patients(23 eyesdiagnosed with acute endophthalmitis in our hospital from January, 2008 to February, 2013 were retrospectively analyzed, excluding the patients with intraocular foreign body. All the patients were undergone routine closed three-channel vitrectomy with silicon oil, including 6 eyes(complicated with traumatic cataractwith Ⅰ lensectomy and Ⅰ intraocular lens(IOLimplantation, 3 eyes(complicated with traumatic cataractwith Ⅰ lensectomy and Ⅱ IOL implantation, 4 eyes(complicated with cataract during silicon oil tamponadewith Ⅱ lensectomy and Ⅱ IOL implantation, 5 eyes(4 eyes with traumatic endophthalmitis and 1 eye with entophthalmia caused by glaucoma filtering bleb leakingreserved lens, 1 eye(post-cataract surgery entophthalmiawith Ⅰ IOL explantation and Ⅱ IOL implantation, and 4 eyes(post-cataract surgery entophthalmiareserved lens. RESULTS:Within follow-up 6~24mo, inflammation after vitrectomy surgery with silicon oil tamponade was controlled in all the 23 patients(23 eyes. Final visual acuity was improved in 21 eyes(91%. The intraocular pressure(IOPof 2 eyes were over 30mmHg. IOP of 1 eye was controlled after silicon oil removed, and IOP of the other eye after silcon oil extraction was still high and needed to be controlled by IOP lowering drugs. CONCLUSION: The patients of acuteinfectious endophthalmitis should undergo vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade as early as possible, which can effectively controli endophthalmitis and improve visual acuity.

  10. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Sergeeva; L. Y. Poslova; O. V. Kovalishena; A. S. Blagonravova; N. V. Epifanova; T. A. Sashina; Morozova, O.V.; N. A. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation o...

  11. Experience of Prof. ZHU Shan for treating non-infectious diarrhea in children%朱珊教授治疗小儿非感染性腹泻经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怡锦; 朱珊

    2015-01-01

    Non-infectious diarrhea in children is a common pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Based on years of clinical experience, Prof. ZHU Shan found that Pixu and Shisheng is a key factor of pathogenesis, should be treated by Jianpi Huashi. The disease was divided into Shangshi, Shire, and Pixu, it treated in differentiation can achieve good effects.%小儿非感染性腹泻是儿科消化道常见疾病。朱珊教授依据多年临床经验总结发现,脾虚和湿盛是其发病的关键因素,治疗当以健脾化湿为基本治则,临床将其常症分为伤食泻、湿热泻和脾虚泻三大类。并自拟方药对证治疗,临床效果显著。

  12. 儿童感染性腹泻病原菌分布及耐药分析%Distribution and Drug Resistance of Pathogens in Children With Infectious Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾彩屏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察儿童感染性腹泻病原菌的分布情况,并对其耐药性进行分析。方法选取我院收治的培养出病原菌的1572例感染性腹泻患儿作为临床研究对象,取其大便标本进行常规的病原菌分离培养,采用ATP细菌鉴定仪对细菌进行鉴定,然后通过诊断血清凝集进行确认和分型,最后使用K-B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验分析。结果 1572例感染性腹泻患儿的大便标本中,共检出84株病原菌,阳性率为5.3%。20株大肠埃希菌对于多种抗菌药物均普遍具有耐药性,其中对于氨苄西林和哌拉西林的耐药率均非常高,共检出6株ESBL菌株,共占30.00%。沙门菌和志贺氏菌对于第3代头孢菌素和头孢哌酮/舒巴坦为基本敏感。所有菌株对于哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、亚胺培南类药物均比较敏感。结论儿童感染性腹泻应根据病原菌的分布及耐药性情况来选择合理的抗菌药物。%Objective To observe the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in children infectious diarrhea and investigate the drag resistance analysis. Methods Chose 1572 children with infectious diarrhea who were cultured pathogens as research objects. Took the stool specimens for routine pathogen isolation and culture, the bacteria identiifcation was used by ATP automatic detection machine, and then through the diagnosis of serum agglutination to get recognition and classifications. Finally, K-B method was used to analysis of drug sensitivity test. Results In 1572 cases of stool specimens in children with infectious diarrhea, 84 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected, the positive rate was 5.3%. 20 strains of Escherichia coli are generally resistant to many kinds of antimicrobial agents, especially resistance to ampicillin and piperacillin were very high, a total of 6 of ESBL strain detection accounted for 30.00%.The third generation cephalosporins and cefoperazone/sulbactam were basically sensitive to both

  13. DR3 regulation of apoptosis of naive T-lymphocytes in children with acute infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Elena Nikolaevna; Anisenkova, Elena Viktorovna; Presnyakova, Nataliya Borisovna; Utkin, Oleg Vladimirovich

    2016-09-01

    Acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) is a widespread viral disease that mostly affects children. Development of AIM is accompanied by a change in the ratio of immune cells. This is provided by means of different biological processes including the regulation of apoptosis of naive T-cells. One of the potential regulators of apoptosis of T-lymphocytes is a death receptor 3 (DR3). We have studied the role of DR3 in the regulation of apoptosis of naive CD4(+) (nTh) and CD8(+) (nCTL) T-cells in healthy children and children with AIM. In healthy children as well as in children with AIM, the activation of DR3 is accompanied by inhibition of apoptosis of nTh. In healthy children, the stimulation of DR3 resulted in the increase in apoptosis of nCTL. On the contrary, in children with AIM, the level of apoptosis of nCTL decreased after DR3 activation, which is a positive contribution to the antiviral immune response. In children with AIM, nCTL are characterized by reduced level of apoptosis as compared with healthy children. These results indicate that DR3 can be involved in the reduction of sensitivity of nCTL to apoptosis in children with AIM.

  14. Absence of intestinal PPARγ aggravates acute infectious colitis in mice through a lipocalin-2-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2. Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion.

  15. Simultaneous investigation of influenza and enteric viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting in general practice for acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are not an uncommon manifestation of an influenza virus infection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting their general practitioner for uncomplicated acute diarrhea (AD and the proportion of concurrent infections by enteric and influenza viruses. Method A case-control study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Stool specimens were collected and tested for influenza viruses A (seasonal A/H3N2 and pandemic A/H1N1 and B, and for four enteric viruses (astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, norovirus of genogroups I – NoVGI - and genogroup II - NoVGII. Results General practitioners enrolled 138 cases and 93 controls. Of the 138 stool specimens collected, 92 (66.7% were positive for at least one of the four enteric viruses analysed and 10 (7.2% tested positive for one influenza virus. None of these 10 influenza positive patients reported respiratory symptoms. In five influenza-positive patients (3.6%, we also detected one enteric virus, with 4 of them being positive for influenza B (2 had co-detection with NoVGI, 1 with NoVGII, and 1 with astrovirus. None of the 93 controls tested positive for one of the enteric and/or other influenza viruses we investigated. Conclusions In this study we showed that the simultaneous detection of influenza and enteric viruses is not a rare event. We have also reported, for the first time in general practice, the presence of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting for uncomplicated AD. A simultaneous investigation of enteric and influenza viruses in patients complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms could be useful for future studies to better identify the agents responsible for AD.

  16. ADVANCES IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ROTAVIRUS INFECTIOUS DIARRHEA%儿童轮状病毒感染性腹泻的防治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋铭; 郭卫东; 张宇耕; 任启静

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is an important pathogen of children with infectious diarrhea. Almost all of the children had been infected with the virus before they were 3 years old. The typical manifestations of the disease are watery stool, electrolyte disturbance, fever and so on. At present there is no effective drugs, mainly in the treatment of Chinese and Western medicine symptomatic treatment. It has been conifrmed that the vaccine is an effective means to prevent and control the disease, some oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved, and the new vaccine is in research and development. This article reviews the progress in the prevention and treatment of children with rotavirus infectious diarrhea.%轮状病毒是导致儿童感染性腹泻的重要病原。几乎所有儿童3岁以前都感染过该病毒。其致病的典型表现为稀水样便、电解质紊乱及发热等,严重可致死。目前尚无特效药物,主要治疗以中、西医对症治疗为主。已证实疫苗是预防和控制该病的有效手段,一些口服轮状病毒活疫苗已批准上市,并且新的疫苗正在的研发中。本文就儿童轮状病毒感染性腹泻的防治进展作一综述。

  17. Diarrhea (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water contaminated with organisms like bacteria and parasites. Medications can also cause diarrhea, especially antibiotics, laxatives containing magnesium, and chemotherapy for cancer treatment.

  18. Acute and subacute non-infectious lung diseases. Usefulness of HRCT for evaluation of activity especially in follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Honda, Osamu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School] (and others)

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the usefulness of high-resolution CT (HRCT) for the evaluation of activity in acute and subacute non-infectious diffuse infiltrative lung diseases before and after corticosteroid treatment. Sequential HRCT images and chest radiographs obtained before and after treatment were retrospectively evaluated in 33 patients with acute or subacute non-infectious diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. All these patients were histologically confirmed to have pulmonary Inflammation and to have responded to treatment with corticosteroid. Radiographic and CT scores were correlated with the degree of dyspnea and the results of arterial blood gas analysis using Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient. On follow-up HRCT, the profusion score of areas with increased attenuation was significantly correlated with arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}) (p=.003, r=-.53) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (AaDO{sub 2}) (p=.001, r=.57). No other correlation was found after treatment. Nodular and linear opacities were more commonly seen on follow-up chest radiographs and HRCT images than on initial ones. HRCT is useful for the evaluation of disease activity in acute and subacute non-infectious infiltrative lung diseases before and after treatment if paying special attention to the profusion of ground-glass attenuation. Even if pretreatment HRCT has not been performed, posttreatment HRCT should be examined. (author)

  19. Diarrhea in neonatal intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annalisa; Passariello; Gianluca; Terrin; Maria; Elisabetta; Baldassarre; Mario; De; Curtis; Roberto; Paludetto; Roberto; Berni; Canani

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the frequency,etiology,and current management strategies for diarrhea in newborn.METHODS:Retrospective,nationwide study involving 5801 subjects observed in neonatal intensive care units during 3 years.The main anamnesis and demographic characteristics,etiology and characteristics of diarrhea,nutritional and therapeutic management,clinical outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:Thirty-nine cases of diarrhea(36 acute,3 chronic) were identified.The occurrence rate of diarrhea was 6.72 per 1000 hosp...

  20. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine comprehensive therapy in the treatment of children with non-infectious diarrhea%中医综合疗法治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine comprehensive therapy on children with non-infectious diarrhea.Methods One hundred and twenty cases of non-infectious diarrhea from January 2011 to December 2012 admitted to our hospital were randomly divided into two groups.Sixty patients in the control group were treated with the symptomatic treatment and smecta treatment,60 patients in the observation group were treated with the comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine.The clinical efficacy and the recovery time were compared between the two groups.Results The total effective rate was 83.33% in the observation group and 65.00% in the control group,the difference was significant (x2 =5.39,P < 0.05).The vomiting stopping time,diarrhea stopping time,cooling time,improvement of clinical symptoms,hospitalization time in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group,the differences were statistically significant(P < 0.05).Conclusions The comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine treatment on non-infectious diarrhea has satisfactory effect,and is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨中医综合疗法治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床疗效.方法 将2011年1月至2012年12月济阳县人民医院收治的120例非感染性腹泻患几随机分为两组,对照组60例采用对症治疗加思密达治疗,观察组60例采用中医综合疗法,比较两组疗效和临床康复时间.结果 观察组总有效率为83.33%,对照组为65.00%,观察组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(x2=5.39,P<0.05);观察组患者呕吐停止时间、腹泻停止时间、退热时间、临床症状改善时间、住院时间明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 中医综合疗法治疗非感染性腹泻疗效满意,值得临床推广应用.

  1. [Monitoring and research on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from sentinel hospital of Zhejiang Province during 2009 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S F; Yu, F; Chen, X; Cui, D W; Yang, X Z; Xie, G L; Wang, Y Y; Yu, J X; Li, Z J; Chen, Y

    2016-12-06

    Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g). Eight kinds of bacteria (Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Diarrheagenic E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica and Plesiomonas shigelloides) and five kinds of viruses (Rotavirus, Norovirus, Sappovirus, Astrovirus and Adenovirus) were detected. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact probability method were used to compare different characteristics of patients with single bacterial infection, single virus infection and multiple infection (bacteria-bacteria, bacteria-viruses, virus-virus). Results: During 2009 to 2014, 9 364 fecal samples from acute diarrhea patients were collected and tested, among which 3 500 cases were tested positive, with total positive rate of 37.38%. Positive rates of bacteria and viruses were 13.14% (1 230 cases) and 20.75% (1 943 cases), respectively. Mixed infection positive rate of multiple pathogens was 3.49% (327 cases). Positive rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (5.96% , 558 cases) was the highest among bacterial pathogens, followed by pathogenic Escherichia coli (3.86%, 361 cases). Viruses were mainly Norovirus (10.73%, 1 005 cases) and rotavirus (8.35%, 782 cases). A big difference existed in diarrheogenic pathogen spectrum between patients less than 15 years old and patients equal or older than 15 years old. Pathogens for patients less than 15 years old were mainly virus, with the positive rate of 32.69% (1 014 cases). However, the positive rate of bacteria was

  2. Study on epidemiological characteristics of cluster A rotavirus from stool specimens of patients with acute diarrhea%腹泻患者粪便标本中A组轮状病毒感染特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚萍; 宋士利; 张心会; 檀薇; 陈燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析病毒性腹泻患者中人轮状病毒( Human Rotavirus,HRV)的感染情况及毒株流行特点.方法:收集杭州市239份疑似病毒性腹泻患者粪便标本分别应用酶联免疫吸附法及RT-PCR法进行HRV抗原及核酸检测..其中HRV阳性核酸应用巢式RT-PCR进行轮状病毒分型检测.结果:239份粪便标本中HRV抗原阳性为44份(18.4%),HRV核酸阳性为55份(23.0%),其中G血清分型:G3型15份(27.3%),G1型9份(16.4%),G2型为7份(12.7%),G9型为1份(1.8%),G2 +G3混合感染1份(1.8%),未分型22份(40%).结论:A组轮状病毒是婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的重要病原体,同时也可引起成人腹泻散发流行,成人A组轮状病毒流行季节和流行株与婴幼儿一致,G3为主要流行株,且同时存在多种血清型流行,未分型标本的比例较大有待深入研究.%Objective;To analyze the infectious status and epidemiological characteristics of acute viral diarrhea caused by cluster A human rotavirus. Methods: A total of 239 stool specimens from suspected cases with acute virus diarrhea were collected in Hangzhou. IDEIATM kits of Lanzhou institute for biological products were used for antigen detection of human rotavirus. The nucleic acid identifications of the rotavirus were determined by RT - PCR, and the positive samples of HRV nucleic acid were analyzed for genotypes by nested - PCR. Results: Among 239 detected stool specimens,rotavirus antigen positive was 44 cases( 18. 4% ) . Rotavirus nucleic acid positive was 55 cases(23.0% ) , the serotypes were G3(15 cases, 27. 3% ) , Gl (9 cases, 16.4% ) , G2(7 cases, 12. 7% ) , G9 (1 case, 1.8%), G2 + G3 (1 case, 1.8%) and unidentified ones (22 cases, 40% ). Conclusion: Cluster A rotavirus remained the most important pathogen causing diarrhea among infants and sporadic epidemic case with acute diarrhea among adults. The epidemic season and serotype of group A rotavirus in adults are all just the same as those in infant and children. G3

  3. Diarrhea - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of diarrhea is the stomach flu ( viral gastroenteritis ). This mild viral infection goes away on its own within a few days. Eating or drinking food or water that contains certain types of bacteria or parasites can also lead to diarrhea. This ...

  4. Clinical Observation of Colitis a Pill in Treating Acute Diarrhea%结肠炎A片治疗急性腹泻临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 赵星海; 高履冰

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察结肠炎A片治疗急性腹泻的临床疗效.方法:将80例急性腹泻患者随机平均分为治疗组和对照组.治疗组以结肠炎A片(主要成分:葛根、黄连、黄芩、木香、败酱草、马齿苋、厚朴、枳实、神曲、焦山楂)治疗;对照组以思密达治疗.观察两组临床疗效.结果:治疗组有效率为95%,对照组有效率为85%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:结肠炎A片能有效的缓解患者症状,提高对急性腹泻的临床治疗效果.%Objective: Observe colonitis A tablet in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Methods: 80 cases of acute diarrhea were randomly divided into 2 groups. 40 patients in treatment group with colitis film was given colonitis A tablet ( Bases: gegen, huanglian, huangqin, mux-iang,baijiangcao,machixian,houpu,zhishi,shenqu,jiaoshanzha). The control group was treated with smecta. Observe and compare the clinical efficacy. Results ;The clinical total effective rate of treatment group is 95% and 85% of control group. The difference has statistics significance(P <0. 05). Conclusion: Colitis A tablet can effectively relieve symptoms and improve the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea.

  5. Clinical Analysis of Treatment on Children with Acute Diarrhea%小儿急性腹泻的临床治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹敏; 祖敏; 李莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical treatment and comprehensive effect of acute diarrhea in children. Method:150 patients with acute diarrhea in children in our hospital from 2012 March to in 2013 March were received as object for study. The children were divided into three groups(group A,B and group C),50 cases in each group. Patients in the group A were treated with Qingkailing,patients in the group B received the Leigh Bhave Lin treatment,patients in the group C were treated with antibiotics,racecadotril combined ORS treatment. Result:The group C was better than the other group (P<0.05). Conclusion:For patients with acute diarrhea in children,antibiotics,racecadotril combined ORS treatment has high curative effect,is worth popularizing in clinic.%目的:综合探析小儿急性腹泻的临床治疗措施与效果。方法:选取2012年3月-2013年3月本院接收的150例小儿急性腹泻患者为研究对象,将其均分成三组(A、B组和C组),每组50例。A组患者接受清开灵治疗,B组患者接受利巴韦林治疗,C组患者接受抗生素、消旋卡多曲联合ORS治疗。结果:C组治疗效果优于其他组(P<0.05)。结论:对小儿急性腹泻患者来说,采用抗生素、消旋卡多曲联合ORS治疗具有较高的治疗效果,值得在临床上大力推广。

  6. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response

  7. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda N Shrikhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is associated with atherosclerosis. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to study the association between Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and C-reactive protein (CRP with AMI. Materials and Methods: This group-matched case-control study was carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study compared the risk of occurrence of AMI (outcome if subjects were ever-infected with H. pylori or C. pneumoniae; and their CRP positivity (exposure. Incident cases of myocardial infarctions in a tertiary care hospital were included as cases. Results: The study recruited 265 cases and 265 controls and detected an odds ratio (OR of 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-3.70 and an OR of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.71-3.65 for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori, respectively. Raised CRP levels had an OR of 3.85 (95% CI: 2.54-5.87. Conclusion: Although our study indicates the role of infections in the etiology of AMI in study population, the relative public health impact of these agents in the overall prevalence of AMI needs urgent research attention.

  8. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhea with emphasis on Entamoeba histolytica infections in preschool children in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Akther, Selim; Farr, Barry M; Sack, R Bradley; Petri, William A

    2003-10-01

    morbidity from diarrheal illness. Understanding the etiology, frequency, and consequences of acute diarrhea in children from a developing country should aid in the design of interventions to improve child health.

  9. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages.

  10. Acute Diarrhea attributed to Yindan Pinggan Capsule%茵胆平肝胶囊致急性腹泻1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文娱

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old male with moderate Chronic Hepatitis B took yindanpinggan capsule by clearing heat and promoting diuresis 2 grain every time, 3 times a day. On the third day, the patient appeared acute diarrhea, but didn't give special treatment. On the fifth day, the patient continued diarrhea, yindanpinggan capsule was stopped, then took Smectite powder 3 g every time, 3 times a day and bacillus licheniformis capsules 0.5g every time, 3 times a day. Not again on the 7th of diarrhea.Because Yindanpinggan capsule is of bitter cold, those patients with spleen deficiency were easily led to gastrointestinal reactions, therefore recommended medication in patients with comprehensive analysis, dialectical theory of governance, in order to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea.%1例31岁男性患者,因中度慢性乙型肝炎口服茵胆平肝胶囊清热利湿,2粒 /次,3次/日.第3日患者出现急性腹泻症状,未给予特殊处理.第5日仍持续腹泻,停用茵胆平肝胶囊,给予蒙脱石散剂3g/次,口服,3次/日.地衣芽孢杆菌胶囊0.5g/次,口服,3次/日 .第7日未再腹泻.由于茵胆平肝胶囊性味苦寒,如患者脾胃虚寒,易导致消化道反应,因此建议用药时综合分析患者症型,辩证论治,以减少腹泻的发生.

  11. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah; Supriatmo; Melda Deliana; Selvi Nafianti; Atan Baas Sinuhaji

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a...

  12. Appropriate Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children Among Public and Private Providers in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-05-07

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In 2006, the Indian government formally endorsed the World Health Organization guidelines that introduced zinc supplementation and low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of diarrhea. Despite this, zinc is rarely prescribed and has not been available in the public sector in India until very recently. The Diarrhea Alleviation Through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) project was implemented in Gujarat between 2011 and 2013 to accelerate the uptake of zinc and ORS among public and private providers in 6 rural districts. As part of an external evaluation of DAZT, we interviewed 619 randomly selected facility- and community-based public and private providers 2-3 months after a 1-day training event had been completed (or, in the case of private providers, after at least 1 drug-detailing visit by a pharmaceutical representative had occurred) and supplies were in place. The purpose of the interviews was to assess providers' knowledge of appropriate treatment for diarrhea in children, reported treatment practices, and availability of drugs in stock. More than 80% of all providers interviewed reported they had received training or a drug-detailing visit on diarrheal treatment in the past 6 months. Most providers in all cadres (range, 68% to 100%) correctly described how to prepare ORS and nearly all (range, 90% to 100%) reported routinely prescribing it to treat diarrhea in children. Reported routine prescription of zinc was lower, ranging from 62% among private providers to 96% among auxiliary nurse-midwives. Among providers who reported ever not recommending zinc (n = 242), the 2 most frequently reported reasons for not doing so were not completely understanding zinc for diarrhea treatment and not having zinc in stock at the time of contact with the patient. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, recent training or

  13. Prebiotics in healthy infants and children for prevention of acute infectious diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population.

  14. Hospitalizações por diarréia infecciosa no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Hospitalization due of infectious diarrhea in Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Azevedo Bittencourt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diarréia é causa de hospitalização importante entre os menores de um ano, sendo influenciada por múltiplos e complexos fatores, tais como, sociais, econômicos, culturais, além de necessidades médicas e seu tipo de financiamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de medir a taxa de hospitalização de diarréia infantil no Rio de Janeiro, em 1996, e a associação com informações demográficas, geográficas e clínicas, cotejando diferenças entre hospitais públicos/universitários e contratados/filantrópicos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os dados do estudo foram provenientes do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar. Os estabelecimentos contratados/filantrópicos admitem cerca de quatro vezes mais crianças do que os públicos/universitários. As variações observadas quanto à idade das crianças internadas, o tempo e custos médios de internação e a utilização da Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo podem refletir diferenças na conduta médica, e por conseguinte, na capacidade do serviço em evitar o óbito por diarréia das crianças internadas. Conclui-se que é necessário monitorar, de forma contínua, a utilização dos recursos hospitalares, para atuar diretamente nos custos e na qualidade da assistência prestada.Diarrhea is an important cause of hospitalization among infants. There are many complex factors that influence hospital use: socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, access, medical needs, and supply. The objective was to measure hospitalization rates from diarrhea among infants in Rio de Janeiro in 1996 and the association with demographic, geographical, and clinical data comparing differentials between public/university and private/philanthropic hospital care under the Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors used data from the Hospital Information System. Private/philanthropic hospitals admitted approximately four times more children than public/university hospitals. Analysis shows that variation in

  15. Infectious component of the pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS in terms of evidence-based medicine principles (review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Bezrukov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The first clinical cases of obsessive-compulsive di­sorder and/or tic disorder in children with acute sudden onset associated with infectious diseases have been named pediatric infection-triggered autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PITANDS. The relationship of such neuropsychiatric manifestations with preceding infectious diseases caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was the most important, and it has been called paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS. Due to the low level of evidence of the research on the relationship of infectious agents with neurological and behavioral symptoms with an acute onset, since 2014 another syndrome is diagnosed in children — pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS. Currently, the question about infectious etiology, pathogenesis and autoimmune mechanisms of these paediatric neuropsychiatric syndromes are still debatable.

  16. PFGE, Lior serotype, and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from travelers and US military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serichantalergs Oralak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In Thailand, several strains of C. jejuni have been isolated and identified as major diarrheal pathogens among adult travelers. To study the epidemiology of C. jejuni in adult travelers and U.S. military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand from 1998-2003, strains of C. jejuni were isolated and phenotypically identified, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results A total of 312 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from travelers (n = 46 and U.S. military personnel (n = 266 in Thailand who were experiencing acute diarrhea. Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 94.9% and 93.0% of the isolates, respectively. From 2001-2003, resistance to tetracycline (81.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57.9%, ampicillin (28.9%, kanamycin (5.9%, sulfisoxazole (3.9%, neomycin (2.0%, and streptomycin (0.7% was observed. Combined PFGE analysis showed considerable genetic diversity among the C. jejuni isolates; however, four PFGE clusters included isolates from the major Lior serotypes (HL: 36, HL: 11, HL: 5, and HL: 28. The PFGE analysis linked individual C. jejuni clones that were obtained at U.S. military exercises with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusions In summary, most human C. jejuni isolates from Thailand were multi-resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. PFGE detected spatial and temporal C. jejuni clonality responsible for the common sources of Campylobacter gastroenteritis.

  17. Health related quality of life and impact of infectious comorbidity in outpatient management of patients with acute leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis; Appel, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    a longitudinal HRQOL evaluation (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer core 30-item questionnaire; EORTC-QLQ C-30) and the impact of infectious comorbidity among 60 patients with leukemia (median age 47) treated in an outpatient management program at Copenhagen University Hospital......Although survival has improved among patients with acute leukemia, there is still a considerable risk of severe complications throughout the course of treatment. This contrast increases the interest in monitoring health related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients. This study presents....... Significant improvement was seen on several HRQOL scores during follow-up. Explorative general linear models (GLMs) suggest that high cumulative severity of infectious comorbidity significantly reduces physical functioning and overall quality of life at treatment completion....

  18. Travelers' Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Visiting Friends or Family in an ... East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevention In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious ...

  19. Controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of fruit juice consumption on the evolution of infants with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Carlos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to assess the effects of juice feedings during acute diarrhea a double-blind, randomized study was performed in 90 children, mean age of 10 ± 4.28 months. Thirty patients with acute diarrhea were fed twice-daily 15 ml/kg of Apple Juice (AJ, 30 received White Grape Juice (WGJ, and 30 were given colored and flavored water (WA as part of their age appropriate dietary intake. The duration and severity of diarrhea were the main endpoint variables of the study performed in a metabolic unit. The patients were similar among the 3 groups, had diarrhea for 50–64 hours prior to admission, and were dehydrated when admitted to the unit for study. Half of the patients in each group were well nourished and the others had mild to moderate degrees of malnutrition. Rotavirus infection was the agent causing the illness in 63% of the patients. The infants fed juice ingested 14–17% more calories than those given WA, (those receiving AJ and WGJ ingested 95 and 98 Calories/Kg/d respectively whereas those receiving WA consumed 81 cal/kg/d. The increased energy intake was not at the expense of other foods or milk formula. The mean body weight gain was greater among patients receiving WGJ (+ 50.7 gm as compared with the patients in the AJ group (+ 18.3 gm or the patients fed WA (- 0.7 gm (p = 0.08. The duration of the illness was longer in the infants fed juice as compared with those given WA (p = 0.006, the mean +/- SD duration in hours was 49.4 ± 32.6, 47.5 ± 38.9 and 26.5 ± 27.4 in patients fed AJ, WGJ and WA respectively. All patients improved while ingesting juice and none of them developed persistent diarrhea; most recovered within 50 hours of the beginning of treatment and less than one fourth had diarrhea longer than 96 hours in the unit. The fecal losses were also increased among the juice fed patients (p = 0.001; the mean ± SD fecal excretion in g/kg/h was 3.94 ± 2.35, 3.59 ± 2.35, and 2.19 ± 1.63 in AJ, WGJ and WA respectively

  20. Diarrhea among children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataro, James P

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to stand among the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Although the introduction of oral rehydration and other case-management strategies have reduced acute diarrhea fatalities, many of the survivors develop persistent diarrhea and/or deficiencies of growth and cognition. Thus understanding the true global burden of diarrhea requires attention to acute diarrhea as well is its sequelae. To understand the etiology of moderate to severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia we performed a comprehensive case-control study of children under 5 years of age at seven sites. Each site employed an identical case-control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. Results of the studies will inform diarrhea prevention and management efforts worldwide.

  1. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  2. Investigation and Analysis of The Result of Children Infectious Diarrhea form Huairou District%怀柔地区儿童感染性腹泻结果调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雪征; 刘淑玲; 曹红艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first hospital of huairou area children diarrhoea samples for analysis,Investigate the epidemic condition of rotavirus diarrhea.Methods With col oidal gold immune chromatography test antigen of Group A rotavirus.Results Analysis about statistics.Result:positive rate 14.89%Children Infectious Diarrhea group A Rotavirusmorbidity.Children about 0~2 year old, positive rate 88.07%.The onset of season 11~12 month.boys and girls positive rate ratio 1.29:1.compare have significant difference.Conclusion Group A rotavirus are The main pathogens.High incidence of diarrhea,Alert doctors pay attention to the prevention and treatment.%目的:对怀柔地区第一医:儿童腹泻样本检验分析,调查轮状病毒腹泻的流行状况。方法用胶体金免疫层析法检测A群轮状病毒(Rotavirus)抗原。进行统计学分析。结果A群轮状病毒感染性腹泻阳性率14.89%。发患者群主要集中在0~2周岁之间,阳性率占88.07%。11~12月为发病高发期。男女发病比为1.29:1。与北京地区的报道[1]比较,有显著性差异。结论轮状病毒是本区儿童感染性腹泻的主要病原体。其引起的腹泻发病率在0~2岁中最高,提醒临床应该根据年龄段和季节性特点,采取预防和治疗措施。

  3. 住院精神病患者感染性腹泻影响因素病例对照研究%Case-control study on risk factors for infectious diarrhea diseases in patients with mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东升; 徐银儿; 宋平; 胡珍玉

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influencing factors for infectious diarrhea diseases in patients with mental disorders, so as to provide basis for prevention and control of nosocomial infections. METHODS A total of 64 cases of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized psychiatric patients were retrospectively surveyed from Jan 2008 to Dec 2010. In a ratio of 1:2, the patients hospitalized during the same period, the same ward, same sex, age difference of less than±2 years old, without diarrhea were set as the control group, then the univariate regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out. RESULTS Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the education level, type of disease, physical illness, insight, medication history, combination with other physical diseases, cold food, snacks, drinking habits, hand washing habits, antibiotics taken a week ago, and the season were the risk factors for infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients with metal disorders(p<0. 05) ; multivariate analysis showed that the OR value of summer and autumn, combined physical disease, no insight, poor hand-washing habits, cold food, drinking cold water habits, and depressive symptoms were 19. 347(5. 386-23.476), 6. 821(2. 457-19. 642),4. 446(1. 809-18. 934), 3. 892(1. 743-16. 973), 3. 642(1. 672-12. 652), and 3. 243(1. 462 - 10. 354), respectively. CONCLUSION The season, physical illness, insight, hand-washing habits, cold food, and drinking habits are the independent risk factors for the infectious diarrhea in mentally ill patients.%目的 调查住院精神病患者感染性腹泻的影响因素,为医院感染的控制与预防提供依据.方法 对2008年1月-2010年12月确诊为医院感染性腹泻的64例住院精神病患者进行回顾性调查,按照1∶2的比例,选择同一时期、同一病区、同性别、年龄相差≤2岁、未发生腹泻的精神病患者作为对照组,做单因素回归分析和多

  4. Acute Pancreatitis in Association with Campylobacter jejuni- Associated Diarrhea in a 15-Year-Old with CFTR Mutations: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kandula

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acute pancreatitis has occasionally been reported in association with Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. However, the mechanism linking Campylobacter jejuni infection and pancreatitis isunclear. Acute pancreatitis in association with an infectious illness may be related to underlying genetic mutations. For instance, studies show that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene increase the susceptibility for acute and chronic pancreatitis. Case report :We describe a patient with Campylobacter jejuni infection who developed acute pancreatitis in the setting of an underlying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutation. Discussion :In this patient with an underlying mutation in the CFTR gene, we propose that the interaction between the mutant gene and an environmental factor, Campylobacter jejuni infection, resulted in pancreatitis.

  5. Acute kidney injury in a tropical country: a cohort study of 253 patients in an infectious diseases intensive care unit

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    Elizabeth De Fransceco Daher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent and potentially fatal complication in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of AKI associated with infectious diseases and the factors associated with mortality. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in patients with AKI who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU of a tertiary infectious diseases hospital from January 2003 to January 2012. The major underlying diseases and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: A total of 253 cases were included. The mean age was 46±16 years, and 72% of the patients were male. The main diseases were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS (30%, tuberculosis (12%, leptospirosis (11% and dengue (4%. Dialysis was performed in 70 cases (27.6%. The patients were classified as risk (4.4%, injury (63.6% or failure (32%. The time between AKI diagnosis and dialysis was 3.6±4.7 days. Oliguria was observed in 112 cases (45.7%. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (57±20, p-value=0.01 and dengue (68±11, p-value=0.01. Death occurred in 159 cases (62.8%. Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (76.6%, p-value=0.02. A multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for death: oliguria, metabolic acidosis, sepsis, hypovolemia, the need for vasoactive drugs, the need for mechanical ventilation and the APACHE II score. Conclusions: AKI is a common complication in infectious diseases, with high mortality. Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS, most likely due to the severity of immunosuppression and opportunistic diseases.

  6. The clinical value of neutrophil CD64 and CRP in diagnosis of infectious diarrhea in children%C D64及C-反应蛋白在儿童感染性腹泻中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程蓉; 吴成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨CD64及CRP在儿童感染性腹泻中的意义。方法收集96例腹泻患儿的临床资料,分为细菌性腹泻组(40例),病毒性腹泻组(36例)及非感染性腹泻组(20例);细菌性腹泻组分为轻度腹泻组(27例)和重度腹泻组(13例)。采用流式细胞术检测外周血中性粒细胞表面CD64的表达,免疫比浊法检测外周血中C反应蛋白(CRP)的水平。结果治疗前细菌性腹泻组CD64和CRP水平显著高于病毒性腹泻组及非感染性腹泻组(P<0.01);重度细菌性腹泻组 CD64较轻度组高(P<0.05);细菌性腹泻患儿治疗后,CD64及CRP表达水平下降(P<0.01);治疗前CD64与CRP水平呈正相关(r=0.784,P<0.01)。结论联合检测CD64和CRP水平对儿童细菌性腹泻的早期诊断、判断病情及观察疗效具有一定的指导意义。%Objective To explore the clinical value of peripheral blood neutrophil CD64 and CRP in the diagnosis of infectious diar-rhea in children.Methods We collected the clinical data of 96 patients,who were classified into three groups:bacterial diarrhea group (n=40),viral diarrhea group (n=36)and non infectious diarrhea group (n=20);bacterial diarrhea group are subdivided into mild diarrhea group (n=27)and severe diarrhea group (n=13).The levels of peripheral blood neutrophil CD64 were measured using flow cytometry and dynamic changes of C-reactive protein were detected with immunonephelometry.Results The CD64 index and CRP levels of pre-treatment bacterial diarrhea group were significantly higher than those of viral diarrhea group and non-infectious diarrhea group (P<0.01).The CD64 index of severe bacterial diarrhea group were significantly higher than those of mild group (P<0.05).After standard treatment,the CD64 in-dex and CRP levels of severe diarrhea group decreased significantly (P<0.01).Correlation analysis showed that before treatment the CD64 index was positively

  7. Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, F; Carosi, G

    1995-01-01

    Annually, over 75 million international passengers travel to tropical areas, more than 20 million of whom come from industrialized countries. They experience a high rate of traveler's diarrhea (TD), varying from 20 to 56%, which may result in serious limitations to their activities. The cause of TD is considered to be infectious in the overwhelming majority of cases and, apart from differences in relative importance, the list of responsible microbial agents is fairly constant regardless of geographic origin. The ingestion of contaminated food or water is considered to be the principal mode of transmission of the enteric pathogens of TD. Several factors have been proposed as playing a role in the etiogenesis of diarrhea in travelers, including personal (age, socioeconomic status, body weight, preexisting gastrointestinal illnesses), behavioral (mode of travel, standard of accommodation, eating in public places, dietary errors) and travel-related (destination, duration of stay, country of origin, season) factors, which are reviewed in detail.

  8. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  9. Respiratory infectious phenotypes in acute exacerbation of COPD: an aid to length of stay and COPD Assessment Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai MY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Yuan Dai,1 Jin-Ping Qiao,2 Yuan-Hong Xu,2 Guang-He Fei1 1Pulmonary Department, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Patients and methods: We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results: Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion: Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. Keywords: COPD, acute exacerbation, respiratory infectious, phenotypes, LOS, CAT

  10. Acute Renal Failure: Unusual Complication of Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Infectious Mononucleosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul S. Lei; Amy Lowichik; Wain Allen; Teri Jo Mauch

    2000-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis presented with jaundice, confusion, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure secondary to titer-confirmed acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV...

  11. Infectious Aortitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, F Daniel; Jamison, Bruce M; Hibbert, Benjamin

    2016-09-28

    Aortitis is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious etiologies, each with distinct treatment implications. We present the case of a patient who sustained a type A aortic dissection during urgent coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome. Clinical findings and events during the procedure raised suspicion for an underlying vascular disorder; however, the diagnosis of staphylococcal aortitis was not made until pathological examination of resected tissue. Clues to the diagnosis of infectious aortitis noted throughout the patient's clinical course are detailed as are potential consequences of diagnostic delays and treatment decisions, underscoring the difficulties in recognizing and managing the condition. In addition, we describe a previously unreported complication of cardiac catheterization in the setting of an infectious aortopathy.

  12. VP4 and VP7 genotyping by reverse transcription-PCR of human rotavirus in mexican children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castillo, A; Villa, A V; Ramírez González, J E; Mayén Pimentel, E; Melo Munguía, M; Díaz De Jesús, B; Olivera Díaz, H; García Lozano, H

    2000-10-01

    Dual typing (VP4 and VP7) of rotavirus obtained from 257 Mexican children during three epidemiological seasons was performed by reverse transcription-PCR. The P1G1 genotype was the most prevalent (40%), followed by P1G3 (19%) and P2G2 (16%). Thirty-one specimens (12%) presented mixed infections, while some genotypes were not found. This is the first dual typing of isolates from diarrhea cases in Mexico.

  13. The Clinical Efficacy of Bifidobacterium Quadruple Living Bacterium on Children With Infectious Diarrhea%双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗非感染性腹泻患儿疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冒宇峰

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗非感染性腹泻患儿的临床疗效。方法将2013年5月~2016年5月于我院确诊为非感染性腹泻的81例患儿纳入研究并随机分组,对照组40例患儿均依据指南采用常规补液、纠正电解质等基础治疗,观察组41例联合四联双歧杆菌活菌片治疗。比较两组患儿症状体征恢复正常时间及临床疗效情况。结果观察组患儿大便恢复正常时间、腹泻停止时间、体温恢复正常时间、住院时间均更短,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05;观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论双歧杆菌四联活菌片可作为非感染性腹泻重要的辅助治疗手段,能更好地改善临床症状,缩短病程,优于常规治疗。%Objective To study the effcacy of biifdobacterium quadruple living bacterium on children with infectious diarrhea.Methods 81 cases of non infectious diarrhea were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into control group from May 2013 to May 2016 in our hospital, 40 cases were based on the guidelines by conventional rehydration and correction of electrolyte and other basic treatment, the observation group of 41 cases combined with quadruple Biifdobacterium tablets in the treatment of. Comparison of two groups of children with symptoms and signs to return to normal time and clinical effcacy.Results The observation group with stool normal time, diarrhea stopping time, temperature recovery time and hospitalization time were shorter, the difference was statistically signiifcant, P<0.05, the total efficiency of the observation group than the control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant,P<0.05.Conclusion The treatment of biifdobacterium quadruple living bacterium piece can be as an important means of adjuvant therapy, which can better improve the clinical symptoms, shorten the course of the disease, superior to the conventional treatment.

  14. Etiology of Acute Diarrhea in Tunisian Children with Emphasis on Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Identification of E. coli Virulence Markers.

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    Imen Ben Salem-Ben Nejma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases can be caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. This paper provides a preliminary image of diarrhea with regards to etiology and epidemiologic factors in Tunisian children less than five years of age.Overall, 124 diarrhoeal stools were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea and 54 stool samples from healthy children. All stools were examined for the presence of enteric pathogens.In diarrheagenic children, 107 pathogenic bacteria were isolated (12 Salmonella spp. (9.7% and 95 diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains (76.6%: 29 enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC (23.4%, 15 enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC (12.1%, 17 enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC (13.7%, 26 enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC (21% and 2 enterohemoragic E.coli (EHEC (1.6%. However, in the control group, 23 pathogenic E.coli strains were isolated (42.6%: 8 EAEC (14.8%, 12 EIEC (22.2% and 3 EPEC (5.5%. Among diarrheagenic E.coli (DEC, only ETEC strains were significantly recovered from diarrheagenic children than from healthy controls (P < 0.0003. Group A rotavirus was identified in 33.9% (n=42 of diarrheagenic children and in 11.1% among the control group (n=6. Concerning norovirus, 8.9% (n=11 of the samples collected from diarrheagenic children and 9.2% (n=5 from the control group were positive. The prevalence of rotaviruses and Salmonella spp were also significantly higher in patients with diarrhea than in controls (P = 0.002 and P < 0.019, respectively. Finally, enteropathogenic parasites (Entamoeba coli and cryptosporidium Oocystes were isolated from 4.8% and 9.2% of diarrheagenic and control children, respectively.These results provide baseline data about the relative importance of different enteropathogens in Tunisian children.

  15. Analysis of the pathogen microbes in 0 to 5 years old children with acute diarrhea%0~5岁小儿急性腹泻病原微生物检验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳正东

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To knowledge the characteristics of pathogen microbes in 0 to 5 years old children with acute diarrhea, and provide the basis for effective treatment. Methods:The 310 stool specimens from less than 5 years old children with diarrhea were collected for routine bacteria culture to screen the pathogenic bacteria from April 2012 to March 2013. The virus was detected using ELISA,and virus genotype was determined by PCR. Results:The virus in 121 cases(39. 03%) were postive,the rotavirus was the main pathogenic virus. The bacteria in 24 cases(7. 74%) were positive,the Salmonella was imjor. Virus and bacterial co-infection was not found. The difference of infection rate between gender was not statistical significance(P>0. 05). Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Autumn and Winter,the popular type was G2,G3,and P[8],18 to 23 weeks old children were a high-risk group. The bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer. Conclusions:Rotavirus infection is the main pathogen of infectious diarrhea,bacterial infection also accounted for certain proportion in Yongchuan district. Strengthening the pathogen monitoring can provide the basis for clinical treatment.%目的:了解5岁以下小儿腹泻病原微生物的构成情况,为采取合理有效的治疗措施提供依据。方法:收集2011年4月至2013年3月5岁以下住院腹泻患儿的粪便标本310份,进行常规细菌培养,筛检致病菌;同时采用ELISA法检测病毒,利用聚合酶链反应方法进行病毒分型。结果:病毒检测阳性121例(39.03%),其中人轮状病毒为主要致病病毒;检出致病菌24例(7.74%),以沙门菌为主;未发现病毒和细菌同时感染,男女性患儿感染性腹泻检出率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。人轮状病毒感染主要流行于秋冬季,流行型为G2、G3和P[8],18~23周龄儿童多发;而细菌性和杯状病毒性腹泻主要流行于夏季。结论:永川地区人轮状病毒感染是导致5岁以下婴幼

  16. 消旋卡多曲治疗成人急性腹泻的临床疗效%Clinical effect of racecadotril tablets for acute diarrhea in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 席利力

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察消旋卡多曲(抗腹泻药)治疗成人急性腹泻的临床疗效及安全性.方法 将109例急件腹泻患者随机分为消旋卡多曲治疗组(55例)和对照组(54例).对照组用WHO标准化口服补液治疗,纠正电解质和酸碱失衡;治疗组在此基础七,加用消旋卡多曲每次100 mg,每天3次.观察2组临床疗效及不良反应发生情况.结果 治疗组大便次数及性质恢复时间较对照组缩短,分别为(33.3±23.96)h vs(64.3±27.32)h;(47.8±10.46)h vs(70.8±12.82)h;脱水、电解质紊乱纠正时间也较对照组明显缩短,分别为(30.7±14.51)h vs(56.0±16.58)h;消旋卡多曲治疗总病程短于对照组,分别为(56.8 4±20.51)hvs(90.9±21.35)h;治疗72 h后,治疗组总有效率(90.90%)高于对照组(72.22%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 常规治疗基础上配合消旋卡多曲治疗,可较快缓解急性腹泻的病情,缩短病程,且安全.%Objective To observe the curative effects of racecadotril tablets for acute diarrhea in adults. Methods One hundred and nine patients with acute diarrhea were randomly divided into racecadotril group (55 cases) and control group (54 cases). The control group was treated only by standardized oral rehydration therapy,and the racecadotril group was treated by racecadotril tablets with the dosage of 100 mg/time, three times a day,based on the standardized oral rehydration therapy. The improvement time of diarrhea and dehydration /electrolyte disturbances and the total duration of treatment was observed. Results The improvement time of frequency and quality of diarrhea in racecadotril group was significantly shorter than that of the control group, ( 33. 3 ± 23. 96 ) h vs ( 64. 3±27. 32) h; (47. 8 ± 10. 46) h vs (70. 8 ± 12. 82) h, respectively. The improvement time of dehydration /electrolyte disturbances was also significantly shorter than that of the control group, (30. 7 ± 14. 51) h vs (56. 0±16. 58) h, respectively. The course of treatment in

  17. Prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii, were screened simultaneously in patient blood samples using anti-pathogen IgM tests. Regression analysis was used to reveal correlations among the pathogens. Our results showed that one or more pathogens were identified in 10,206 patients, and that Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenoviruses, and influenza B virus were the leading infectious agents. Mixed-infections of pathogens were detected in 2,391 cases, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the most frequent pathogen. The most common agents in the co-infections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza B virus. Regression analysis revealed a linear correlation between the proportion of mixed infections and the incidence of multi-pathogen infections. The prevalence of infectious agents in children with ARTIs was determined. Equations were established to estimate multiple infections by single-pathogen detection. This revealed a linear correlation for

  18. Modeling the hospital burden of common infectious diseases with application to northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardkaew, Jurairat; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to identify the incidence patterns of the most common infectious diseases, including acute diarrhea, pyrexia of unknown origin, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and pneumonia, in the 7 provinces of northeastern Thailand, based on individual hospital case records of infectious disease routinely reported from 1999 to 2004. Log-linear regression analysis with age-group, season, and district as factors was used, with data from all 4 diseases as outcomes combined into 1 model. confirmed that the highest incidence of each infectious disease occurred in children aged less than 5 years of age, with particularly high rates for diarrhea. In addition, the burden of pyrexia of unknown origin was found to be lower in districts bordering Laos, and the incidence rates were higher from April to June in 1999-2001 and 2004 and from July to September in 2002-2003. Higher incidence rates also occurred in most rural districts of Loei and Udon Thani provinces.

  19. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  20. 婴幼儿腹泻病原菌分布特点及药敏分析%Distribution characteristics of pathogens associated with infectious diarrhea in children from Qingdao district in 2012 and its sensitivity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱国; 李海燕; 宋冬; 丁伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of pathogens causing infectious diarrhea in children from Qingdao district in 2013 and analyze epidemiological characteristics and corresponding drug-sensitivity, in order to guide clinical prevention and treatment. Methods Pathogens were isolated and identified from fresh faeces of children preliminarily diagnosed with infectious diarrhea from January 2013 to December 2013. Drug-sensitivity testing was performed using paper disc diffusion method, and rotaviruses of A group were identified qualitatively with double antibody sandwich method to detect viral antigen. Results 80 strains of pathogens belonging to six species were isolated from 526 samples of faeces with the detection rate of 15.2%(80/526), including 38 strains of Salmonella (47.5%), 8 strains of Shigella (10.0%), 8 strains of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (10.0%), 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (5.0%), 19 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.7%) and 3 strains of Candidid albicans (3.75%). 7 strains of Shigella belonged to S. flexneri, 1 strain of Shigella belonged to S. boydii. Drug-sensitivity testing showed that for Salmonella and Shigella, the rates of drug resistance are as follows, to ampicillin, 60.5%and 87.5%, to SMZ-TMP, 21.1%and 37.5%, to Ciprofloxacin, 15.8%and 25%, to Ceftriaxone, 21.1%and 25%, respectively. A total of 107 samples were positive for rotavirus of group A. Conclusion The main pathogens causing bacterial diarrhea in children from Qingdao distrinct in 2012 are Shigella, mainly infecting infants below two years old, while Staphylococcus aureus prefer to infect infants below one year old. And bacterial diarrhea caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candidid albicans are induced mostly by enteric dysbacteriosis owing to long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Rotavirus of group A is the most common pathogen causing diarrhea of infants in autumn and winter. Therefore, clinical usage of antibotics should be regulated towards

  1. Clinical effect of norfloxacin on treatment of infectious diarrhea due to Escherichia coli%诺氟沙星治疗大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建平; 尚乃英; 郑爱娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨诺氟沙星治疗大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻的临床疗效,提高大肠埃希菌感染的治疗效率。方法选取2011年3月-2013年3月收治的感染性腹泻患者共232例,将入选患者分为观察组115例和对照组117例;观察组患者采用诺氟沙星联合双歧四联活菌治疗,对照组单纯采用诺氟沙星治疗。结果232株大肠埃希菌中致病性大肠埃希菌(EPEC)135株占58.2%,侵袭性大肠埃希菌(EIEC)73株占31.5%,产毒性大肠埃希菌(ETEC)24株占10.3%;其中EPEC型和EIEC型对诺氟沙星、氯霉素的耐药率较低,分别为28.15%和30.37%、21.92%和26.03%;ETEC对头孢吡肟、头孢曲松以及诺氟沙星的耐药率较低,分别为20.83%、33.33%及37.50%;观察组患者腹泻停止时间和体温恢复正常时间明显要短于对照组患者;观察组患者的白细胞总数(WBC)5~10/HP的病例数明显要少于对照组患者,WBC<5/HP的病例数则多于对照组患者,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组的显效率为63.48%、治疗总有效率为92.17%,明显高于对照组的42.74%、88.03%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论诺氟沙星可有效治疗大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻,致泻性大肠埃希菌对诺氟沙星的耐药率低。%OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical effect of norfloxacin on treatment of infectious diarrhea due to Esch‐erichia coli so as to raise the effective rate of treatment of E .coli infection .METHODS A total of 232 patients with infectious diarrhea who were treated in the hospital from Mar 2011 to Mar 2013 were enrolled in the study and di‐vided into the observation group with 115 cases and the control group with 117 cases .The observation group was treated with norfloxacin combined with bifidobacterium tetravaccine ,while the control group was treated with sin‐gle norfloxacin

  2. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency of North Sumatera, from August to November 2009 in children aged 2 months to 14 years. Microscopic stool examinations were undertaken to separate subjects into the acute bacterial or non-bacterial diarrhea groups. Both groups received 10 mg/day of zinc sulphate for subjects aged <6 months or 20 mg/day for those aged ≥6 months for 10 days. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. We performed independent T-test for statistical analysis. Results Sixty-two children participated in this study, with 31 children in the acute bacterial group, and the remainder in the non-bacterial group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in frequency of diarrhea (2.61 vs 2.70 times/day, respectively, P=0.27 or in duration of diarrhea (63.39 vs 66.68 hours, respectively, P=0.06. Conclusion Zinc is not more effective in reducing the severity of acute bacterial diarrhea compared to non-bacterial diarrhea in children. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:334-8.].

  3. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under five with acute diarrhea in Bahir Dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Ayrikim; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Nibret, Endalkachew; Adal, Melaku

    2015-06-01

    Diarrheal disease and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The prevalence and antibiogram of E. coli as causative agents of diarrhea vary from region to region, and even within countries in the same geographical area. To determine the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli in children under-five years of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 children with diarrhea from December 2011 to February 2012. Identification of E. coli and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard procedures. The overall isolation rate of E. coli was 48.3%. Poly 2 sero-groups, poly 3 sero-groups, poly 4 sero-groups and E. coli O157:H7 accounted for 80 (39.2%), 40 (19.6%), 25 (12.3%), and 59 (28.9%) of the isolates, respectively. Poly 2 sero-groups, constituting isolates belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli were the most commonly isolated serotypes. E. coli exhibited high levels of antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin (86.8%), tetracycline (76%) and cotrimoxazole (76%). Low levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin (6.9%) and norfloxacin (9.3%) were documented. High prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli compounded by alarming antimicrobial resistances is a serious public health problem. Regular determination of antibiogram and public education are recommended.

  4. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli as a cause of acute diarrhea in young children in northeast Brazil: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaletsky, Isabel CA; Fabbricotti, Sandra H. [UNIFESP; Carvalho, Rozane LB [UNIFESP; Nunes, Claudia R.; Maranhao, Helcio S.; Morais, Mauro B; FAGUNDES-NETO Ulysses

    2002-01-01

    In a prospective study carried out in two urban centers in northeastern Brazil, 195 HEp-2-adherent Escherichia coli strains were isolated; 110 were identified as the only pathogen in stools of children with diarrhea, and 85 were from controls. Enteropathogenic E. coli isolates were identified in 21 children with diarrhea (8.9%) and 7 children without diarrhea (3.0%), and they were significantly associated with diarrhea (P < 0.01). Enteroaggregative E. coli strains were isolated from 40 childr...

  5. Analysis of Salmonella infection in 6 417 cases of infectious diarrhea%6417例感染性腹泻患者沙门氏菌感染情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭南; 汪伟山; 林爱心; 杨晓华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the status quo of Salmonella infection in the patients with infectious diarrhea in Zhongshan city .Methods The fecal samples collected from 6 417 outpatients or inpatients with infection diarrhea in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2013 were performed the Salmonella culture ,isolation and identification and at the same time the serological clas-sification and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed .Results Among 6 417 samples ,460 strains of Salmonel-la were detected with the isolation rate of 7 .17% .Salmonella infection was dominated by children infection .The Salmonella infec-tion rate in children aged less than 1 years was 52 .4% (241 cases) ,followed by children aged 1- < 3 years ,which was 36 .7% (169 cases) .In the serological classification ,the most of detected Salmonella was salmonella typhimurium 46 .1% ,accounting for 46 .1% , Stanley salmonella accounting for 13 .5% and Salmonella enteritidis accounting for 8 .7% .The PFGE homology analysis showed that in the XbaI enzyme digestion spectral band ,26 PFGE band types had 100% homology .Conclusion Salmonella is one of the main pathogenic bacteria causing diarrhea and serious impact on health ,which is worthy of clinicians to pay attention to .%目的:了解该市感染性腹泻患者中沙门氏菌的感染现状。方法对该院在2010年1月至2013年12月期间收治的6417例门诊或住院的腹泻患者的粪便进行沙门氏菌的分离培养鉴定,同时对分离菌进行血清分型以及脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE )分析。结果在这6417份样本中,一共检测出460株沙门氏菌,分离率为7.17%。沙门氏菌感染以儿童感染为主,小于1岁患者沙门氏菌阳性率为[241(52.4%)],其次为1~<3岁患者阳性率为[169(36.7%)]。血清分型检出最多的是鼠伤寒沙门氏菌占46.1%、斯坦利沙门氏菌占13.5%和肠炎沙门氏菌占8.7%。PFGE同源分

  6. A study of the effectiveness of a needle-free injection device compared with a needle and syringe used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michel R; Undi, Michael; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan C; Joseph, Tomy; Morrison, Jason; Yitbarek, Alexander; Wittenberg, Karin; Tremblay, Robert; Crow, Gary H; Ominski, Kim H

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a needle-free injection device (NF) with a needle and syringe (NS) when used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). The study was conducted in two independent phases. Ninety-six crossbred beef calves were vaccinated in the spring and 98 beef calves in the autumn. The calves were vaccinated using a NF or NS at 2 months of age (day 0) and again on day 119, with a modified-live virus vaccine containing IBRV, BVDV (types 1 and 2), parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. In each herd 10 calves were left unvaccinated to determine whether exposure to either BVDV or IBRV occurred. Visible vaccine residue at the surface of the skin/hair was apparent immediately following vaccination with NF in 30% of the spring-born calves following both the primary and booster vaccination. In the autumn, visible vaccine residues occurred in 19% and 8% of NF-vaccinated calves following the primary and booster vaccination. Post-vaccination skin reactions recorded on days 21, 42, 119 and 140 occurred with greater frequency in NF-vaccinated calves than NS-vaccinated ones. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, 42, 119, and 140 and tested for antibodies to BVDV and IBRV. Vaccination technique had no significant effect on BVDV or IBRV antibody concentrations at any time point. NF was as effective as NS vaccination in eliciting BVDV and IBRV antibody responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoloops or endostapler use in laparoscopic appendectomy for acute uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis : No difference in infectious complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossem, Charles C; van Geloven, Anna A W; Schreinemacher, Marc H F; Bemelman, Willem A

    2017-01-01

    The most appropriate closure for the appendicular stump with either endoloops or an endostapler in laparoscopic appendectomy remains unclear and under debate because of limited and conflicting evidence. In a 2-month prospective, observational, resident-led nationwide cohort study, patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis were analysed. Logistic regression analyses were performed for identifying the possible effect of stump closure type and other risk factors for infectious complications. Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis was performed in 1369 patients in 62 hospitals; endoloops were used in 76.7 % and an endostapler in other patients. Median operating time was not different between endoloop and endostapler use (42.0 vs. 44.0 min, P = 0.243). A superficial surgical site infection was seen in 2.0 % after uncomplicated appendicitis and in 0.8 % after complicated appendicitis. The intra-abdominal abscess rate was 1.9 % after uncomplicated and 11.0 % after complicated appendicitis. No significant effect of stump closure type was observed for any infectious complication (OR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.625-1.766, P = 0.853) or an intra-abdominal abscess (OR OR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.523-1.768, P = 0.899). In multivariable analysis, complicated appendicitis was identified as the only independent risk factor for an intra-abdominal abscess (OR 6.26; 95 % CI 3.454-11.341, P < 0.001). The infectious complication rate is not influenced by the type of appendicular stump closure with either endoloops or an endostapler in this study. If technically feasible, closure with endoloops is advised for cost considerations.

  8. Dietary Restriction Combined with Intravenous Nutritional Support in Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children%饮食限制联合静脉营养支持治疗小儿急性腹泻临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海芳; 纪福利; 李晓惠; 解金凤; 吴永利; 苏立红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effect of diet restriction combined with intravenous nutri-tional support in treatment of acute diarrhea in children .Method:The observation group was given intrave-nous nutritional support therapy , while limiting the enteral feeding .The control group was given conventional rehydration therapy and usual eating .They all received the same basic remedy .Their efficiency and antidiar-rheal time and the incidence of infectious diseases in three months post -discharge were compared .Result:The efficiency and antidiarrheal time and the incidence of infectious diseases in three months post -discharge between two groups had statistical significance ( P <0.05 ) .Conclusion: Effect of dietary restriction com-bine with intravenous nutrition support for treatment of acute diarrhea in children is significant , can reduce the occurrence of the short-term infection diarrhea after discharge .%目的:观察饮食限制联合静脉营养支持治疗小儿急性腹泻的疗效。方法:105例腹泻病住院患儿在口服用药基础上,观察组给予静脉营养支持治疗,同时限制经肠道进食。对照组仍为常规补液治疗及照常进食。比较两组有效率、止泻时间及出院后3个月内感染性疾病的发生率。结果:观察组与对照组有效率及止泻时间比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。观察组出院后3个月内感染性疾病的发病例率与对照组比较差异有统计学意义。结论:饮食限制联合静脉营养支持治疗小儿急性腹泻疗显著且可降低腹泻患儿出院后短期内感染性疾病的发生。

  9. Microbiological and epidemiological analysis of 320 acute diarrhea cases%320例腹泻患者病原菌分离及流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珉珉; 朱勤爱; 张苹; 张培; 于德宪; 李曦; 苏建新

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市2009年至2010年肠道门诊就诊的细菌性腹泻患者病原谱的分布情况,为制定针对重点人群肠道传染病防治策略提供依据.方法 收集2009年5月至2010年5月暨南大学附属第一医院腹泻患者的粪便标本,使用卡-布运送培养基,增菌培养后,采用生化反应和氧化酶试验进行菌株鉴定,并用梅里埃API生化板条进行验证,用病原菌诊断血清进行细菌分型.结果 从320份粪便标本中分离到38株菌株,其中沙门菌15株,产毒大肠埃希菌12株,致病大肠埃希菌6株,志贺菌2株,出血性大肠埃希菌、霍乱弧菌、气单胞菌各1株.0~ 20岁年龄段高发,以1岁以内婴幼儿为主;7~10月为发病高峰期.结论 来该院肠道门诊就诊的细菌性腹泻患者,其病原体以沙门菌为主,其次为产毒大肠埃希菌.因此,广州地区细菌性腹泻的预防,应有针对性的面向重点人群和重点病原菌.%Objective To study the bacterial pathogens distribution of acute diarrhea in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University. Method 320 cases of stool specimens were collected from acute diarrhea patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University during May, 2009 to May, 2010. Specimens were transported by Cary-Blair transport media. Bi-omerieux API biochemistry strip and serological diagnosis were used to identify the bacteria after enrichment cultivation. Result There were 38 strains isolated from the 320 stool samples, which contained 15 strains of Salmonella, 12 strains of Bacterium coli and 3 strains of Sgigella. Patients at the age of 0 - 20 were the high risk population, especially baby under 1 year old. The peak period of diarrhea was during July and October. Conclusion Salmonella is the top-ranking pathogen in bacterial diarrhea patients who went to the intestinal disease clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, followed by Bacterium coli. Prevention and control target the high

  10. Diarrhea and its effect on growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1986-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1986 The predominant etiology of diarrhea in the general population of underdeveloped countries is infection by viruses and bacteria. Studies in rural areas clearly suggest an infectious cause. For example, diarrhea initially affects one individual in the family (index case) and then spreads to other family and community members. Infants and toddlers are affected more frequently than older children, ad...

  11. Hyperglycemia during induction therapy is associated with increased infectious complications in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic adult ALL patients have shorter remissions, more infections, and increased mortality. No corresponding data are available in children. We hypothesized that children with ALL who become hypergl...

  12. Adenovirus Infection in Children with Diarrhea Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    41(Ad41), can cause acute and severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study was ... specimen in adenovirus infected patients showed watery diarrhea in 87% (55/63), diarrhea with mucus in ..... However, the impact of these viruses ...

  13. Probiotic bacteria in prevention and treatment of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of different diseases. The results of preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea during last ten years are shown in this paper. The greatest preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria was identified for acute diarrhea in children caused by rotaviruses. Significant, but slightly lower effect of probiotic bacteria was proved for antibiotic associated diarrhea. Positive effect in prevention of traveller’s diarrhea and radiation-induced diarrhea is not significant. Preventive and therapeutic effect on diarrhea is not dependent on the way of probiotic bacteria consumption, by fermented milk, capsule or oral rehydration solution.

  14. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    gondii) and one viral (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus) infection and one aseptic inflammation. Immunochemical analyses of seven APPs, four positive (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig major acute phase protein (pigMAP) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) and three negative......The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect...... for single APPs and for APP combinations. Combinations of APPs allowed the detection of disease more sensitively than any individual APP and the best three-protein combinations were CRP, apoA1, pigMAP and CRP, apoA1, Hp, respectively, closely followed by the two-protein combinations CRP, pigMAP and apoA1...

  15. [Neuroimmunocorrection therapy for the prophylaxis of infectious complications in acute stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin has been used for the prophylaxis of clinical pneumonia development in the early stage of acute stroke in a group of 140 patients with heavy clinical course of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). All patients in the test and control groups received the basal anti-AIS therapy and antibacterial drugs (IV-generation cephalosporins) in case of pneumonia development. The efficacy of cerebrolysin administration was evaluated both on the clinical scale (NIH-NINDS, CPIS, SIRS immonograms) and using laboratory indices. It is established that the proposed neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin decreases the frequency of the clinical pneumonia development. A relationship between the pneumonia onset rate and the focus localization in limbico-diencephalic part of the brain is established. The use of cerebrolysin decreases lethality, normalizes the impaired immunity indices, accelerates the restoration of violated neural functions, suppresses pneumonia development, restores the level of albumin, and normalizes the laboratory indices of inflammatory syndrome.

  16. 门诊急性腹泻儿童的肠道病原监测%Surveillance of enteric pathogens in outpatient children with acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海岭; 曾玫; 黄峥; 蔡洁皓; 郭家胤; 许学斌; 王相诗; 葛艳玲; 王中林

    2016-01-01

    目的监测门诊急性腹泻儿童的临床流行特征及肠道病原分布特点。方法2013年8月至2014年7月对复旦大学附属儿科医院门诊临床诊断为急性腹泻的儿童进行主动监测,对患儿的粪便标本进行包括诺如病毒、致泻大肠埃希菌、非伤寒沙门菌、弯曲菌、志贺菌、致病性弧菌和小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌在内的病原进行检测。统计分析采用卡方检验。结果881例急性腹泻患儿粪便中有246例(27.92%)检出病原体,其中诺如病毒、致泻大肠埃希菌、非伤寒沙门菌、弯曲菌和志贺菌分别检出98株(11.12%)、74株(8.40%)、61株(6.92%)、34株(3.86%)和2株(0.23%),未检出致病性弧菌及小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌。<36月龄(3.27%,26/794)儿童较>36月龄(9.20%,8/87)儿童感染弯曲菌的风险低(χ2=7.41,P=0.006)。感染诺如病毒的患儿呕吐比较常见(37.76%),且水样便比例高(21.34%);感染非伤寒沙门菌和弯曲菌的患儿发热(40.98%和29.41%)及粪便含黏液(21.31%和26.47%)多见。结论肠道病原感染在本次研究的急性腹泻患儿中占有重要地位,对肠道病原的持续性监测有助于儿童急性腹泻的防治。%Objective To monitor the clinical epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrhea in children in the outpatient setting in Shanghai .Methods An active surveillance study in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University between August 2013 and July 2014 was conducted .Outpatient children with acute diarrhea were enrolled in this study and stool samples were collected .Pathogens including norovirus ,diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) , nontyphoidal Salmonella spp .(NTS),Campylobacter,Shigella,pathogenic vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica were identified and typed .The χ2 test was used for statistical analysis .Results Of the 881 stool samples from enrolled

  17. An analysis on the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in infectious diarrhea among infants%婴幼儿感染性腹泻病原微生物及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪程基; 李毅; 孙宝昌; 林丹; 上官智慧

    2016-01-01

    by salmonella(31 strains,41 .89%).Diarrhea virus included norovirus type 2 (56 strains,44.09%),norovirus type 1 (24 strains,1 8.90%),A group rotavirus (56 strains,31 .50%)and goblet virus(7 strains,5.51 %).The resistance rate of Salmonella to ampicillin was 64.52%,and that to ampicillin,tetracycline,compound newMing were more than 70.00%.The resistance rate of Rifampicin.Novobiocin in all bacteria reached 1 00%.Conclusion E.coli and salmonella epidemic strains were the common pathogenic bacteria in infectious diarrhea among infants inWenzhou City.The predominant viruses were norovirus and rotavirus group A.The drug resistance of various pathogenicbacteria was different,and active surveillance should be strengthened.

  18. Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon, and Cyclospora Infections in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Diarrhea in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Cegielski, J P; Ortega, Y. R.; McKee, S; Madden, J F; Gaido, L; Schwartz, D. A.; Manji, K; Jorgensen, A F; Miller, S E; Pulipaka, U P; Msengi, A E; Mwakyusa, D H; Sterling, C R; Reller, L B

    1999-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), children with acute diarrhea (of whom 15 of 55 were HIV+), and HIV control children without diarrhea. Cryptosporidium was identified in specimens from 6/86 adults, 5/59 children with chronic diarrhea (3/5, HIV+), 7/55 children with acute diar...

  19. The pattern of histologically-proven acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis in Tunisian adults seen in 1976-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Imed; Kaaroud, Hayet; Goucha, Rym; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Kheder, Adel

    2012-05-01

    Acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis (APIGN) is uncommon in adults. It is widely recognized that the prognosis of APIGN is good in children. There is however little information about its long-term prognosis in adults. Between December 1976 and October 2004, 148 adult cases of APIGN were managed in our center. We retrospectively reviewed these patients' records and evaluated their clinical course and outcome. The mean age of studied patients was 36 ± 15 years, and the male to female ratio was 2.3. The most common site of preceding infection was the respiratory tract (68.8%). At presentation, 89.2% had nephritic syndrome and 9.4% had rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Proteinuria was observed in 99.3%, hematuria in 95.3%, peripheral edema in 89.2% and hypertension in 81.8%. Most patients (60.7%) had acute kidney injury and four patients (2.7%) required dialysis. Renal biopsy showed diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis in 88.8% of patients, associated with extracapillary proliferation in 12%. After a median follow-up of 2.5 year, only two patients died and 16.12% of patients had persistent clinical and/or biological abnormality. Chronic kidney disease was noted in 10 patients (6.75%) including four patients (2.7%) who progressed to end-stage renal disease. Poor prognostic factors included nephrotic range proteinuria, extracapillary proliferation in renal biopsy, acute kidney injury and the need for dialysis. In this cohort of patients, APIGN progressed to chronic kidney disease in less than 10% of patients.

  20. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of non-typhoid salmonella in 296 children with infectious diarrhea%296例腹泻患儿非伤寒沙门菌菌型分布及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖卫明; 唐玲玲; 王海燕; 黄艳芬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and drug resistance of non-typhoid salmonella (NTS) infection in children in Guangzhou from 2013 to 2015.Methods Salmonella was cultured using the stool samples collected from the diarrheal children,in-or out-patients at Guangdong Women and Children Hospital.The isolates were identified by serological typing.Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by VITEK-2 Compact automicroscan.Results The 296 strains of NTS could be divided into 33 serotypes.Among which,171 (57.43%) strains were salmonella typhimurium,29 (9.80%) salmonella stanley,and 18 (6.08%) salmonella enteritidis.The male-to-female ratio for children with infectious diarrhea was 1.51∶1.The NTS infection peak was from July to October.84.45% infants were less than 1 year old.Susceptibility test indicated that the 296 strains of NST were severely resistant to the first and second generations of cephalosporin,gentamicin,tobramycin,and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,while susceptible to carbapenem,levofloxacin,and the third generation of cephalosporin.Salmonella typhimurium was increasingly resistant to the third generation of cephalosporin in these years.Conclusions Most children with diarrhea caused by NTS infection are less than 1 year old in Guangzhou.The NTS infection peaks in summer and autumn.Salmonella typhimurium is the major and severely drug resistant serotype in Guangzhou.Antibiotics should be used reasonably basing on drug susceptibility test.%目的 了解2013至2015年广州地区腹泻患儿非伤寒沙门菌感染的流行病学特征和耐药情况.方法 对2013至2015广东省妇幼保健院门诊及住院的腹泻患儿的粪便标本进行沙门菌培养和血清学分型,采用VITEK-2 Compact进行药物敏感性试验.结果 296株非伤寒沙门菌可分为33种血清型,其中鼠伤寒沙门菌171株(占57.43%),斯坦利沙门菌29株(占9.80%),肠炎沙门菌18株(占6.08%).患儿男女性别比约为1.51∶1

  1. Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Antibiotic-associated diarrhea refers to passing loose, watery stools ... after taking medications used to treat bacterial infections (antibiotics). Most often, antibiotic-associated diarrhea is mild and ...

  2. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  3. [Relationship between child day-care attendance and acute infectious disease. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, Carlos; Barajas Sánchez, M Verisima; Muñoz Martín, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Child day-care attendance is considered to be an acute early childhood disease risk factor, the studies available however not affording the possibility of fully quantifying this risk. A systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted, in which the effects child day-care attendance had on the health of young children based on the Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed and Spanish Medical Index databases, without any time or language-related limits, were analyzed and rounded out with analyses of referenced works and an additional EMBASE search. The methodological quality was evaluated by means of personalized criteria. Pooling measures (relative risks, incidence density ratios and weighted mean differences) were calculated with their confidence intervals, assuming random effects models. A significant increase was found to exist of a risk consistent over time and among different social and geographical environments. Considering the most methodologically-stringent studies with adjusted effect estimates, child day-care attendance was related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (RR=1,88), acute otitis media (RR=1,58), otitis media with fluid draining (RR=2,43), lower respiratory tract infections (overall RR=210; acute pneumonia RR=1.70; broncholitis RR=1,80; bronchitis RR=2,10) and gastroenteritis (RR=1,40). Child day-care attendance could be responsible for 33%-50% of the episodes of respiratory infection and gastroenteritis among the exposed population. In conclusion, it can be said that the risk for childhood health attributable to the child day-care attendance is discreet but of high-impact. This information has some major implications for research, clinical practice, healthcare authorities and society as a whole.

  4. 急性腹泻中医证候季节性分布规律的临床研究%Clinical Research of Seasonal Distribution Regularity of Chinese Medicine Patterns in Acute Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宁; 谢春娥; 李安德; 王晓才; 张秋林

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对急性腹泻患者的中医证候进行分析、归纳,总结出急性腹泻患者的临床中医证候特点和常见的证候类型,为急性腹泻的中医辨证论治提供指导.方法 通过观察本年度在肠道门诊就医的急性腹泻患者,根据临床病史,结合舌、脉表现,参考流行病学史,经综合分析,从急性腹泻患者中随机入选609例作为临床研究病例.辨别相应的证候归类为寒湿证、湿热证、疫毒泻、食滞胃肠、肝气乘脾、脾胃虚弱等证型.结果 总体样本证型分布以湿热证、寒湿证和食滞胃肠证为主,其他证型不足5%.春季湿热证候多于冬季,冬季寒湿证候多于春季;夏季湿热证候多于秋季,秋季寒湿证候多于夏季.夏、秋季节湿热证候明显多于春、冬季节;而冬、春季节寒湿证候明显多于夏、秋季节.结论 通过归纳急性腹泻中医证候季节分布规律,有助于分析急性腹泻初期的病因病机,为中医辨证治疗急性腹泻提供更多客观依据.%Objective To summarize the clinical pattern characteristics of Chinese medicine and common patterns of acute diarrhea through the analysis and synthesis of Chinese medicine patterns for the patients with acute diarrhea so as to provide the guidance for pattern differentiation and treatment of acute diarrhea in terms of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods For the patients with acute diarrhea visited in enteric clinic in the year, according to clinical history,in association with tongue and pulse conditions and in reference to epidemic history, after comprehensive analysis,609 patients with acute diarrhea were selected in random as clinical research cases and they were differentiated as cold damp pattern, damp heat pattern, epidemic toxin pattern, food retention in the stomach and intestine pattern,liver qi stagnation counteracting the spleen pattern and spleen and stomach deficiency pattern. Results The samples were differentiated generally

  5. 儿泻停颗粒联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗小儿急性腹泻的疗效分析%Efficacy of Child Diarrhea Stops Particles Joint Triple Viable Bifidobacterium Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Children With Acute Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 张晓

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析儿泻停颗粒联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床效果。方法选取2013年2月~2015年2月我院收治的小儿急性腹泻患儿82例,随机分为对照组、观察组,各41例。对照组给予蒙脱石散联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗,观察组给予儿泻停颗粒联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗,对比两组临床治疗效果。结果观察组治疗3d后总有效率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05);观察组不良反应情况与对照组相比,无差异(P>0.05)。结论儿泻停颗粒联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗小儿急性腹泻能够迅速缓解患儿临床症状,提高临床效果。%Objective To analysis the clinical effect of child diarrhea stops particles joint triple viable bifidobacterium lactobacil us in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea. Methods Children with acute diarrhea in children chosen from February 2013 to February 2015 in our hospital 82 cases,randomly divided into two groups,the observation group,41 cases each. The control group received montmorillonite joint triple viable bifidobacterium lactobacil us tablets in the treatment,the observation group were children diarrhea stops particles joint triple viable bifidobacterium lactobacil us tablets in the treatment,compared two groups of clinical effect. Results Total effective observation group was significantly higher than after 3 d,the difference was significant(P0.05). Adverse reactions observed group compared with the control group,no significant difference(P>0.05). Conclusion Child diarrhea stops particles joint triple viable bifidobacterium lactobacil us tablets in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea can quickly relieve symptoms in children, improve clinical results.

  6. Implications of infectious diseases and the adrenal hypothesis for the etiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azevedo-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in children. Recently, a new hypothesis was proposed for the pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The so-called "adrenal hypothesis" emphasized the role of endogenous cortisol in the etiology of B-cell precursor ALL. The incidence peak of ALL in children between 3 to 5 years of age has been well documented and is consistent with this view. The adrenal hypothesis proposes that the risk of childhood B-cell precursor ALL is reduced when early childhood infections induce qualitative and quantitative changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. It suggests that the increased plasma cortisol levels would be sufficient to eliminate all clonal leukemic cells originating during fetal life. Because Brazil is a continental and tropical country, the exposure to infections is diversified with endemic viral and regionally non-viral infections, with some characteristics that support the recent adrenal hypothesis. Here we discuss this new hypothesis in terms of data from epidemiological studies and the possible implications of the diversity of infections occurring in Brazilian children.

  7. Implications of infectious diseases and the adrenal hypothesis for the etiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Silva, F; Camargo, B de; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S

    2010-03-01

    Acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in children. Recently, a new hypothesis was proposed for the pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The so-called 'adrenal hypothesis' emphasized the role of endogenous cortisol in the etiology of B-cell precursor ALL. The incidence peak of ALL in children between 3 to 5 years of age has been well documented and is consistent with this view. The adrenal hypothesis proposes that the risk of childhood B-cell precursor ALL is reduced when early childhood infections induce qualitative and quantitative changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. It suggests that the increased plasma cortisol levels would be sufficient to eliminate all clonal leukemic cells originating during fetal life. Because Brazil is a continental and tropical country, the exposure to infections is diversified with endemic viral and regionally non-viral infections, with some characteristics that support the recent adrenal hypothesis. Here we discuss this new hypothesis in terms of data from epidemiological studies and the possible implications of the diversity of infections occurring in Brazilian children.

  8. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  9. 中医药治疗急性腹泻的临床研究进展%Research advances on the application of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星余

    2012-01-01

    近年来,中医药治疗急性腹泻的疗效日益受到国内外医学界的重视.中医药治疗急性腹泻的报道很多,临床研究方案不尽相同,各有特色.本文从中医药治疗急性腹泻的病因病机分析及临床辨证治疗方案等方面进行综述,认为中医药治疗急性腹泻的疗效好,副作用小,并提出优化选方、进行作用机制研究等建议,为进一步研究提供参考.%In recent years, the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute diarrhea has been paid attention in the domestic and international medical community. There have been many reports on using traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute diarrhea. The clinical research programs used are different and have their own characteristics. This paper reviewed the use of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute diarrhea, from the aspects of etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of clinical syndromes, etc. A great number of studies have proved that the traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of acute diarrhea have better therapeutic effect, less side effects. It is suggested that prescription should be well selected, and the mechanism should be studied, which provides consultations for studies in the future.

  10. Observation of therapeutic effectiveness of Qiuxieling granules on child acute diarrhea%秋泻灵颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菊芬; 鲁春红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨秋泻灵颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效。方法随机分成2组,对照组60采用常规治疗措施,治疗组在常规治疗的基础上加用秋泻灵治疗。比较两组主要症状和体征改善情况。结果总有效率治疗组95.4%,对照组83.3%,两组比较有显著差异(p<0.05)。结论秋泻灵颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻疗效好。%Objectives:To study the efficacy of Qiuxieling granules in treating of child acute diarrhea.Methods:126 cases of child acute diarrhea were randomly divideded into treating group(n=66)who were given qiuxieling granules and the normal therapy.The same therapy was performed in control group(n=60)except qiuxieling granules.Main symptom and improvement of two groups were compared.Results:The incidence of clinical effect in treating group is94.5% which was morethan 83.3%of control group (p<0.01).Conclusions:The Qiuxieling granules is satisfactory in the treatment of child acute diarrhea.

  11. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    OpenAIRE

    Abegaz TM; Belachew SA; Abebe TB; Gebresilassie BM; Teni FS; Woldie HG

    2016-01-01

    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarr...

  12. Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus subgenotype IA as an imported infectious disease from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria I; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    A 25-year-old Japanese man was admitted with general malaise and fever, which had developed 12 days after coming back to Japan from Indonesia. Blood examination revealed elevated transaminase levels and positivity for the IgM anti-HAV antibody; therefore, he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. HAV-RNA was detected in his serum and phylogenetically classified as subgenotype IA. The partial genome in the VP1/P2A region was consistent with the strain recently isolated from Surabaya, which indicated that he had been infected during his stay in Indonesia. Thus, HAV vaccination is recommended before visiting HAV-endemic countries for a long period of time.

  13. Hantavirus: an infectious cause of acute kidney injury in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kate; Jameson, Lisa; Meigh, Rolf; Brooks, Tim

    2014-07-17

    We present a case of an undifferentiated febrile illness in a 59-year-old man from East Yorkshire. He was initially treated for leptospirosis due to the fact that he had farm exposure and the findings of acute kidney injury (AKI), thrombocytopenia and a raised alanine transferase (ALT) on his initial blood results. Serology tests later proved him to have had another rodent-borne illness: hantavirus. An investigation by Public Health England (formerly known as Health Protection Agency) (PHE) went on to prove the presence of the same serotype of hantavirus in rats caught on the patient's property. After an initial deterioration, the patient made a relatively uneventful recovery and all his blood tests returned to normal levels.

  14. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heegaard Peter MH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acute phase protein (APP response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect any disease with an inflammatory component seven porcine APPs were analysed in serum sampled at regular intervals in six different experimental challenge groups of pigs, including three bacterial (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, one parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii and one viral (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection and one aseptic inflammation. Immunochemical analyses of seven APPs, four positive (C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, pig major acute phase protein (pigMAP and serum amyloid A (SAA and three negative (albumin, transthyretin, and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1 were performed in the more than 400 serum samples constituting the serum panel. This was followed by advanced statistical treatment of the data using a multi-step procedure which included defining cut-off values and calculating detection probabilities for single APPs and for APP combinations. Combinations of APPs allowed the detection of disease more sensitively than any individual APP and the best three-protein combinations were CRP, apoA1, pigMAP and CRP, apoA1, Hp, respectively, closely followed by the two-protein combinations CRP, pigMAP and apoA1, pigMAP, respectively. For the practical use of such combinations, methodology is described for establishing individual APP threshold values, above which, for any APP in the combination, ongoing infection/inflammation is indicated.

  15. Analysis of Salmonella surveillance in patients with acute diarrhea in Jinshan District (2006-2010)%上海市金山区2006-2010年急性腹泻患者沙门氏菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志城; 宋灿磊; 叶玉龙; 张媛媛; 李澜; 钟海明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of Salmonella infection and distribution of various Salmonella serotypes in acute infectious diarrhea patients in Jinshan District. Methods Stool specimens of patients with diarrhea from the hospitals under surveillance were collected, traditional methods were used for detection of Salmonella, epidemiological investigation was carried out in the Salmonella-positive patients. Results Among the 4 105 eases of diarrhea, 18lcases were infected by Salmonella, the positive rate of infection was 4.41 % ; twenty-two serotypes were identified, in which 60 i-soJates were Salmonella enteritidis, 52 were Salmonella typhimurium and other Salmonella; 107 cases had suspicious dietary history, accounting for 62.57%. Conclusions The surveillance of Salmonella infection in the diarrhea OPD should be strengthened to prevent and control the foodbome diseases; and the relevant departments should enhance the intensity of the supervision of meat and other meat markets to ensure food hygiene and safety.%目的 了解和掌握金山区急性腹泻患者中沙门氏菌感染情况、菌型分布.方法 对区内监测点医院就诊的急性腹泻患者采集标本检测沙门氏菌,阳性患者进一步进行流行病学调查,并对结果进行统计分析.结果 监测4 105例急性腹泻患者中,沙门氏菌阳性181例,阳性率4.41%;实验室分型以肠炎沙门氏菌为主,占33.15%,其次鼠伤寒沙门氏菌占28.73%,伦敦沙门氏菌等其他20种血清型均有检出;181例阳性患者中107例有可疑饮食史,占62.57%.结论 辖区应加强对腹泻门诊腹泻患者沙门氏菌的监测,防止食源性疾病的发生;同时相关部门应加强对肉制品等市场的监管力度,确保食品卫生安全.

  16. Absence of Intestinal PPARγ Aggravates Acute Infectious Colitis in Mice through a Lipocalin-2–Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Parag; Ling, Teo Wei; Korecka, Agata; Li, Yinghui; D'Arienzo, Rossana; Bunte, Ralph M.; Berger, Thorsten; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Chambon, Pierre; Mak, Tak Wah; Wahli, Walter; Pettersson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2). Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion. PMID:24465207

  17. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hectorina Rodulfo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%, and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2% strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  18. Antibiotic use and clinical outcomes in the acute setting under management by an infectious diseases acute physician versus other clinical teams: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicola; Mistry, Vikash; Crook, Derrick; Peto, Tim; Walker, A Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the magnitude of difference in antibiotic use between clinical teams in the acute setting and assess evidence for any adverse consequences to patient safety or healthcare delivery. Design Prospective cohort study (1 week) and analysis of linked electronic health records (3 years). Setting UK tertiary care centre. Participants All patients admitted sequentially to the acute medical service under an infectious diseases acute physician (IDP) and other medical teams during 1 week in 2013 (n=297), and 3 years 2012–2014 (n=47 585). Primary outcome measure Antibiotic use in days of therapy (DOT): raw group metrics and regression analysis adjusted for case mix. Secondary outcome measures 30-day all-cause mortality, treatment failure and length of stay. Results Antibiotic use was 173 vs 282 DOT/100 admissions in the IDP versus non-IDP group. Using case mix-adjusted zero-inflated Poisson regression, IDP patients were significantly less likely to receive an antibiotic (adjusted OR=0.25 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.84), p=0.03) and received shorter courses (adjusted rate ratio (RR)=0.71 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.93), p=0.01). Clinically stable IDP patients of uncertain diagnosis were more likely to have antibiotics held (87% vs 55%; p=0.02). There was no significant difference in treatment failure or mortality (adjusted p>0.5; also in the 3-year data set), but IDP patients were more likely to be admitted overnight (adjusted OR=3.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 10.03), p=0.03) and have longer length of stay (adjusted RR=1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.36), p=0.007). Conclusions The IDP-led group used 30% less antibiotic therapy with no adverse clinical outcome, suggesting antibiotic use can be reduced safely in the acute setting. This may be achieved in part by holding antibiotics and admitting the patient for observation rather than prescribing, which has implications for costs and hospital occupancy. More information is needed to indicate whether any such longer admission will

  19. A cross-sectional survey on acute diarrhea and risk factors of dietary behavior in Shanghai%上海市急性腹泻及饮食行为危险因素现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘弘; 罗宝章; 吴春峰; 陆冬磊; 邢之慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study acute diarrhea status and risk factors of dietary behavior in Shanghai. Methods A stratified multi-stage cluster random household sampling was used in this cross-sectional survey. Results The incidence rate of acute diarrhea among Shanghai residents was 0. 68 episodes per person-year. It was 0. 75 episodes per person-year for males and 0.62 episodes per person-year for females. It was estimated to be 0.96, 0.54, 0.71, 0.71 and 0.64 episodes per person-year for age groups of 0 - 7 , 8 - 17 , 18 - 33 , 34 - 59 and ≥60, respectively. 24. 34% of respondents suspected their illness was due to contaminated food. 40. 03% of respondents had visited doctor. Single variable and logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratio of acute diarrhea were 1.37 ( 95 % confidence interval, 1. 13 - 1. 67 ) , 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.49 -0.88) and 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.62 -0.94) for the respondents who had the behavior of eating delicatessen, keeping food at low temperature and salty taste. Conclusion Acute diarrhea is a common illness among residents in Shanghai. The incidence of acute diarrhea was slightly higher in males. After the age of eight, the incidence declined, but increased again in adult and then declined above 60. The behavior of eating delicatessen was a risk factor for acute diarrhea. The habit of keeping the food at low temperature and salty taste might be the protective factors for acute diarrhea.%目的 了解上海市急性腹泻现况及饮食行为危险因素.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样,进行横断面入户问卷调查.结果 上海市居民急性腹泻年发生率0.68次/人年.男性0.75次/人年、女性0.62次/人年,0~7岁、8 ~17岁、18 ~33岁、34 ~59岁、≥60岁分别为0.96、0.54、0.71、0.71、0.64次/人年.有24.34%人自诉有可疑食物史、40.03%的人就诊.单因素及Logistic回归多因素分析显示:食用散装熟食者的急性腹泻OR值为1.37、95%CI (1.13~1.67),

  20. Risk Assessment and Epidemiological Characteristics of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Dairy Herds in Beijing%北京地区奶牛场牛传染性鼻气管炎、牛病毒性腹泻病风险评估及流行情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋梁; 赵景义; 沈俊乐; 史苍桀; 曹杰

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) were assessed in the medium and small dairy herds and the farming community in Beijing.The percent of IBR antibodypositive heifers was 50.52%,and the result was 70.98% for BVDV.At the herds level,the antibody positive rate reached 50% (12/24) for IBR and 87.50% (21/24) for BVD.IBR high-risk herds were 9,BVD high-risk herds were 12,seven herds were combination risk of IBR and BVDV.The serological investigation and analysis showed that IBR prevalence is relatively serious in Beijing,and vaccine should be considered; Most of herds had BVDV history or contact with acute infection,high-risk herds need to start BVDV eradication program.%本研究对北京地区中小奶牛场及养殖小区进行了牛传染性鼻气管炎(IBR)、牛病毒性腹泻病(BVD)的风险评估.结果表明,参试牛场及小区的后备牛IBR血清阳性率达50.52%,BVD血清抗体阳性率达70.98%;从牛场水平看,24个牛场中IBR抗体场间阳性率达到50% (12/24),BVD抗体场间阳性率达到87.50%(21/24),IBR高风险牛场9个,BVD高风险牛场12个,双高风险牛场7个.此次评估结果表明,北京地区IBR流行情况较为严重,应考虑疫苗免疫;参试的大部分牛场有BVDV的急性感染史或接触史,高风险牛场应启动BVDV清除计划.

  1. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  2. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  3. Rotavirus genotypes in sewage treatment plants and in children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Italy in 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Franco M; Bonomo, Paolo; Ianiro, Giovanni; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Germinario, Cinzia; Chironna, Maria; Triassi, Maria; Campagnuolo, Rosalba; Cicala, Antonella; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Castiglia, Paolo; Serra, Caterina; Gaggioli, Andrea; Fiore, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Although the molecular surveillance network RotaNet-Italy provides useful nationwide data on rotaviruses causing severe acute gastroenteritis in children in Italy, scarce information is available on rotavirus circulation in the general Italian population, including adults with mild or asymptomatic infection. We investigated the genotypes of rotaviruses present in urban wastewaters and compared them with those of viral strains from clinical pediatric cases. During 2010 and 2011, 285 sewage samples from 4 Italian cities were tested by reverse transcription-PCRs (RT-PCRs) specific for rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes. Rotavirus was detected in 172 (60.4%) samples, 26 of which contained multiple rotavirus G (VP7 gene) genotypes, for a total of 198 G types. Thirty-two samples also contained multiple P (VP4 gene) genotypes, yielding 204 P types in 172 samples. Genotype G1 accounted for 65.6% of rotaviruses typed, followed by genotypes G2 (20.2%), G9 (7.6%), G4 (4.6%), G6 (1.0%), G3 (0.5%), and G26 (0.5%). VP4 genotype P[8] accounted for 75.0% of strains, genotype P[4] accounted for 23.0% of strains, and the uncommon genotypes P[6], P[9], P[14], and P[19] accounted for 2.0% of strains altogether. These rotavirus genotypes were also found in pediatric patients hospitalized in the same areas and years but in different proportions. Specifically, genotypes G2, G9, and P[4] were more prevalent in sewage samples than among samples from patients, which suggests either a larger circulation of the latter strains through the general population not requiring medical care or their greater survival in wastewaters. A high level of nucleotide identity in the G1, G2, and G6 VP7 sequences was observed between strains from the environment and those from patients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC. RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em pa

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Diarrhea: Still an Issue in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dikman, Andrew E.; Schonfeld, Emily; Srisarajivakul, Nalinee C.; Poles, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Over half of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience diarrhea that contributes negatively to quality of life and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Opportunistic infectious agents that cause diarrhea in patients with HIV span the array of protozoa, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. With global use of ART, the incidence of diarrhea because of opportunistic infections has decreased; however, the incidence of noninfectious diarrhea has increased. The etiology of noninfect...

  6. [The verbal autopsy on children with a respiratory infection and acute diarrhea. An analysis of the disease-care-death process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Tomé, P; Guiscafré, H; Martínez, H; Romero, G; Portillo, E; Rodríguez, R; Gutiérrez, G

    1993-01-01

    The study focuses on children between 72 hours and five years of age who died of acute respiratory infection (ARI) or acute diarrhea (AD) in the State of Tlaxcala. Peer Review Mortality Committee of the State contributed with the staff to the deaths analysis. Cases were included only when diagnosis was confirmed by verbal autopsy (VA). One hundred and thirty two cases were included (98 corresponding to ARI deaths and 34 to AD). The process related to medical care-seeking behaviors and prescribing practices by private and non-private physicians was analyzed through the VA. During the study period, 60% of children with ARI and 58.9% of children with AD died at home. More than 80% of these children had received medical care within three days preceding their death, and 50% of them had been seen by a physician within 12 hours prior to their death. Most of these visits were to a private doctor (71% for ARI and 86% for AD). Forty seven percent of treatments prescribed for ARI were judged to be wrong, either because of a bad choice of antibiotic or because the physician did not prescribe an antibiotic when the patient required it. Similarly, 65% of treatments for AD were considered erroneous, either due to the use of an antibiotic which was not justified or due to the lack of oral rehydration therapy when it was needed. Additionally, late referral to a hospital was considered as having direct influence at the death in half of the consultation. Families were too late in demanding medical care or demanded no care at all in 21.9% of cases of ARI and in 6.1% of cases of AD. We have found the VA to be useful in identifying problems related to the process of health-seeking behaviors and medical care. Our results suggest interventions that may lower the high mortality rates in Tlaxcala, such as training workshops directed to institutional and private physicians, and the implementation of top-of-line treatment centers where high-risk patients can be referred and also the health

  7. ANTI-APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF CD95 RECEPTOR IN NA VE CD8+ T-LYMPHOCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Filatova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious mononucleosis is a widespread viral disease, which most often manifests in childhood. The development of acute infectious mononucleosis is accompanied by the change of the CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes ratio and the increase of the virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes number. One of the T-lymphocytes number regulation mechanisms is the modulation of their progenitor cells apoptosis. The death receptor CD95 takes part in the regulation of T-lymphocytes apoptosis, including naïve T-cells. We studied the effect of CD95 receptor activation on apoptosis of naïve CD4+ and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes in healthy children and children with acute infectious mononucleosis. In this study children with acute infectious mononucleosis at the age of 9 to 16 years were included. For comparison healthy children of the same age with no clinical and laboratory signs of the disease were used. Naïve CD4+ and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes were isolated by negative magnetic immunoseparation. The analysis of naïve T-cells apoptosis and the CD95 receptor surface expression density was performed by using the flow cytometry analysis. The analysis of T-cells was performed in three variants: freshly isolated naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and also cells after 24 hours of the cultivation with anti-CD95 monoclonal antibodies or without them. In healthy children both CD95– and CD95+ naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes underwent apoptosis. In children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95– naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes lost their susceptibility to apoptosis induction. In healthy children and children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95– naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes were resistant to apoptosis in contrast to CD95+ naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes. In healthy children CD95 receptor did not induce apoptosis of isolated naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes. In children with acute

  8. Curative Evaluation on Infants Diarrhea Stopping Granule Combined with Montmorillonite Powder in Treatment of Children with Acute Diarrhea%儿泻停颗粒联合蒙脱石散剂治疗小儿急性腹泻疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚梅; 阮志稳; 郭丽琴

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical curative effect and security of infants diarrhea stopping granule combined with montmorillonite powder in treatment of children with acute diarrhea and provide reference for clinical drug uses. Methods 100 cases of children with acute diarrhea treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups with 50 cases in each, the two groups were given the same conven-tional treatment measures, the control group were treated with montmorillonite powder, the research group were treated with infants diarrhea stopping granule combined with montmorillonite powder, the curative effect, symptom improvement time and adverse drug reaction of the two groups were compared. Results The total effective rate in the research group was obviously higher than that in the control group (98.0%vs 78.0%), the difference was statistically significant (P﹤0.05);the body tem-perature recovery time, vomiting, stomachache and diarrhea disappearance time in the research group were obviously lower than those in the control group , the differences were statistically significant (P﹤0.05), each group has 2 cases with mild constipation phenomenon during treatment, there was no other adverse reaction (P﹥0.05). Conclusion Infants diarrhea stopping granule combined with montmorillonite powder in treatment of children with acute diarrhea has an obvious curative effect, and it can improve the curative effect and improve the symptoms quickly compared with simple montmorillonite pow-der treatment, and it has good security and is worthy of promotion and application in clinic.%目的:探究儿泻停颗粒联合蒙脱石散剂治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效及安全性,为临床用药提供参考依据。方法研究对象为随机选取为2014年1月—2015年1月之间该院收治的100例急性腹泻患儿,采用数字表法随机分为研究组和对照组各50例,两组患儿均

  9. 两种锌剂辅助治疗小儿急性腹泻患儿的临床疗效%The Clinical Curative effect of Two Kinds of zinc in Adjuvant Treatment of Infantile Acute Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨葡萄糖酸锌和乳酸锌辅助治疗小儿急性腹泻患儿的临床疗效。方法选取小儿急性腹泻患儿160例,将其采用随机数字表法分为A组和B组,各80例,分别在常规综合治疗基础上加用葡萄糖酸锌和乳酸锌,比较两组患儿的临床疗效和腹泻停止时间。结果 B组患儿的临床疗效明显优于A组,且腹泻停止时间明显短于A组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论乳酸锌辅助治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效优于葡萄糖酸锌,具有临床应用价值。%Objective To investigate clinical effects differences of zinc gluconate and zinc lactate in adjuvant treatment of acute diarrhea in children.Methods Selection of children with acute diarrhea in 160 cases,which were randomly divided into A group and B group,each 80 cases,the use of zinc gluconate and zinc lactate respectively on the basis of routine comprehensive treatment,compared the clinical efficacy of two groups of children with diarrhea stop time.Results The clinical curative effect of group B was better than that of A group,and diarrhea stopping time was significantly shorter in the A group,the differences were statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Compared with zinc gluconate treatment,zinc lactate in adjuvant treatment of acute diarrhea in children possess better clinical effects.

  10. Acute Infectious Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-23

    transport of longer chain fatty acids into the mitochondria may be impaired. However, carnitine which contributes to the mitochondrial uptake of...but they can be used to supplement ongoing gluconeogenesis as may be required to meet cellular needs for carbohydrate fuels.8 An infection places

  11. 不同喂养方式对小儿急性腹泻病程影响的观察%Observation of the effect of different feeding methods on the acute diarrhea of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚丽娟; 张旭亚

    2013-01-01

    目的观察不同喂养方式对小儿急性腹泻病程的影响。方法将98例小儿急性腹泻患儿按不同喂养方式分为两组,分别给予限量喂养和全量喂养,在其他治疗方法相同情况下,比较其病程转归。结果全量喂养组平均痊愈时间(6.2±1.4)d,限量喂养组平均痊愈时间(4.7±1.1)d,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论小儿急性腹泻应继续进食,适当限制进食量有利于疾病康复,缩短病程。%Objective To observe the impact of different feeding methods on the acute diarrhea of children. Methods According to different feeding methods, 98 children with acute diarrhea were divided into two groups. The other treatments were of the same. The disease turnover was compared between the two groups. Results Compared with the full capacity feeding group,The average healing time was (6.2±1.4)days,restricted feeding group, The average healing time was(4.7±1.1)days was superior in shortening the length of the disease(P < 0.05). Conclusion Children with acute diarrhea should continue eating.Restricting food intake properly contributes to shortening the length of the disease.

  12. 布拉氏酵母菌治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床效果观察%Effect of Saccharomyces Boulardii in Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白光磊

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究急性腹泻患儿实施布拉氏酵母菌治疗效果及其在细胞免疫学方面的影响。方法收集我院治疗的急性腹泻儿童74名,治疗组实施布拉氏酵母菌治疗,对照组实施基础治疗。结果治疗组有效率(97.30%)高于对照组(86.49%),差异具有统计学意义。结论急性腹泻儿童实施布拉氏酵母菌治疗效果良好,能够提高细胞免疫功能,从根本上治疗疾病。%Objective To explore children with acute diarrhea in implementation of Saccharomyces boulardii treatment effect and its influence in cellular immunology. Methods A total of 74 in our hospital treatment of children with acute diarrhea,the treatment group implementation of Saccharomyces boulardii treatment. The control group received basic treatment. Results The effective rate of treatment group(97.30%)was significantly higher than that of the control group(86.49%),the difference was statistical y significant. Conclusion Children with acute diarrhea implementation of Saccharomyces boulardii treatment effect is good,can improve the cel ular immune function,fundamental y treatment of disease.

  13. Diarrhea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospitalization. Another group of viruses that can cause diarrhea in children, especially during the summer months, are enteroviruses, particularly ... water, this parasite often is the culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in child-care centers and other public places. Cryptosporidiosis often ...

  14. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby food that makes diarrhea worse, such as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice ... Diarrhea Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  15. Analysis of the Utilization of Antibacterials in Hospitalized Children with Acute Diarrhea%我院急性腹泻病住院患儿抗菌药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琼; 宋新文; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价我院急性腹泻病住院患儿抗菌药物的应用情况.方法:随机抽取我院2009年6-8月及10-12月诊断为急性腹泻病的住院患儿病历668份,按腹泻病发病月份分为A,B组,对2组患儿的病原学检测结果、抗菌药物应用及用药合理性等进行分析.结果:病原学检测结果显示,B组患儿轮状病毒感染率(41.43%)明显高于A组(10.94%),而B组患儿杭菌药物应用率、应用时间同A组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:我院腹泻病患儿抗菌药物应用存在不合理现象,临床需根据病原菌不同区别用药.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the utilization of antibacterials in hospitalized children with acute diarrhea in our hospital.METHODS: 668 hospitalized cases of acute diarrhea were randomly collected from our hospital during Jun.~Aug.2009 (group A)or Oct.~Dec.2009 (group B).The etiological inspection, the utilization of antibacterials and the rationality of drug use in two groups were analyzed.RESULTS: Results of etiological inspection showed that the rotavirus infection rate of group B (41.43%)was significantly higher than that of group A (10.94%).There were no significant differences in utilization rate of antibacterials and medication duration between two groups.CONCLUSION: The utilization of antibacterials in acute diarrhea children is irrational.The treatment for acute diarrhea should vary according to different pathogenic bacteria.

  16. 陕西省镇巴县某校一起感染性腹泻暴发的流行病学调查%Epidemiological Investigation on An Outbreak of Infectious Diarrhea in A School of Zhenba County of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 马荣庆; 王小军

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握赤南小学感染性腹泻暴发疫情的原因和流行病学特征,为行政部门制定传染病防治策略提供科学依据.方法 采用现场个案流行病学调查、临床诊断和实验室检验.结果 共发病84例,罹患率10.64%.实验室检验,生活饮用水3份,菌落总数、总大肠菌群、粪大肠菌群均严重超标;产肠毒素性大肠埃希菌阳性率100%,临检粪便产肠毒素性致泻性大肠埃希菌阳性率87.50%.结论 赤南乡集中式供水管网和学校蓄水池水被细菌严重污染,学校不能为学生提供开水,学生只能喝生水,是导致感染性腹泻的直接原因.乡政府和学校疏于对供水系统的管理,未制定严格的消毒制度和采取必要的消毒措施,是导致该次疫情发生的关键.%[Objective]To investigate the causes and epidemic features of infectious diarrhea outbreak and in Chinan primary school , and provide scientific evidence for administration to develop infectious disease control measures.[Methods]Field epidemiological investigation of individual case, clinical diagnosis and laboratory tests were adopted. [Results]A total of 84 cases were reported, the attack rate was 10.64%. Three samples of drinking water were conducted laboratory tests; the colony count, total coliform, and fecal coliform were all beyond standards seriously. The positive rate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was 100%, that of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea in faeces was 87.50%.[Conclusion]Centralized water supply networks and school impounding reservoir of Chinan County was polluted by bacteria. The direct cause of infectious diarrhea was the unboiled water supply for students. The lack of water supply management and strict disinfection measures was the key to the outbreak.

  17. Prevalência baixa de adenovírus em crianças com diarreia em Belo Horizonte-MG Low prevalence of adenoviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jenner Duarte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos microrganismos são reconhecidos como agentes de diarreia aguda, entre eles, os adenovírus, cuja associação com a doença apresenta variações geográficas e é pouco conhecida no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a presença de adenovírus em fezes de crianças com diarreia aguda e sem diarreia, em Belo Horizonte-MG, e estudar os fatores epidemiológicos associados à adenovirose intestinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O teste imunocromatográfico qualitativo (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bioMérieux foi utilizado para pesquisa de antígenos de adenovírus em amostras fecais obtidas de 268 crianças com diarreia aguda e 124 sem diarreia, em 2005 e 2006, no Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, Belo Horizonte-MG. Dados laboratoriais, clínicos e epidemiológicos foram registrados em banco de dados (SPSS Statistical package, IBM. RESULTADOS: Adenovírus foi detectado nas fezes de 16 crianças (4,1%: 12 (4,5% com diarreia e quatro (3,2% sem diarreia. A virose foi mais comum em meninas e a distribuição etária da infecção foi homogênea. Entre as 16 crianças com infecção pelo vírus, 11 (68,8% tinham até 12 meses de idade. Entretanto, diferença significativa não foi observada para os parâmetros analisados. Distribuição sazonal da infecção por adenovírus não foi detectada. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados demonstram que a prevalência da adenovirose é baixa na população pediátrica no nosso meio.INTRODUCTION: Several microorganisms, among them enteric adenovirus, are widely recognized as etiological agents of acute diarrhea. The association between adenovirus and the disease varies among geographical regions and is poorly known in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of adenovirus in stool samples from children with and without diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG. To study factors associated with enteric adenovirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A qualitative immunochromatographic assay (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bio

  18. Probiotic bacteria in prevention and treatment of diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Havranek; Šimun Zamberlin; Iva Dolenčić Špehar; Tamara Prtilo; Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of different diseases. The results of preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea during last ten years are shown in this paper. The greatest preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria was identified for acute diarrhea in children caused by rotaviruses. Significant, but slightly lower effect of probiotic bacteria was proved for antibiotic associated diarrhea. Positive effect in preventi...

  19. 陕西省十家医院成人急性腹泻诊治与指南存在的差距%The gaps between the guideline and clinical practice of the management of acute diarrhea in adults in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凤琴; 王贵强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the management of acute diarrhea in adult and to assess physician's adherence to guidelines recommended by Manatsathit working group.Methods A multicenter cross-sectional survey was carried out in 10 hospitals in Shaanxi Province with assignment of 40 patients each hospital.The difference of enumeration data between groups was analyzed using chi square test.Quantitative data were compared using t test.Results Data were collected from 400 patients.60.5% (242/400) were female and mean age was (38.4 ± 17.5) years.In Manatsathit guideline,stool examination and stool culture for bacteria are recommended in patients with watery diarrhea with dehydration and in patients with bloody diarrhea.In this survey,of the 64 patients with dehydration,only 38 (59.4%) and 13 (23.3%) patients had done stool routine test and vibriocholera culture,respectively.Compared to Manatsathit guideline,the differences were obvious (x2 32.627 and 84.779,respectively; both P<0.01).Of the 30 patients with bloody diarrhea,25 (83.3%) cases had stool examination done,which was roughly in line with Manatsathit guideline (x2 =3.491,P=0.062).However,stool culture for bacteria was performed only in 3 (10%) patients,which was significantly different with the guideline (x2 =49.091,P< 0.001).Overall,30 (7.5 %) cases were diagnosed with acute bacillary dysentery clinically,and the remaining 370 (92.5%) were diagnosed with acute infectious diarrhea.Of the 370 patients with watery diarrhea,only 189 (51.1%) patients were prescribed with rehydration therapy,which was different with the recommendation of Manatsathit guideline (x2 =239.600,P<0.01).Of the 216 patients who received rehydration therapy,144 (66.7%) cases should be prescribed with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and 72 cases should be prescribed with intravenous fluid replacement according to Manatsathit guideline.However,only 31 (14.4%) were prescribed ORS and up to185 (85.6%) patients received

  20. The epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in children with infectious diarrhea in Zhuhai City from 2009 to 2014%2009~2014年珠海市腹泻儿童沙门菌感染的流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桦; 汪伟山; 周玉球

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella infection in children with infectious diarrhea in Zhuhai City from 2009 to 2014 .Methods Isolation ,culturing ,biochemical identification and serotyping of Salmonella were carried out in strains isolated from stool specimens of 4 395 children with infectious diarrhea in inpatient and outpatient settings in Zhuhai Municipal Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital from 2009 to 2014 ,and data were statistically analysed .Results A total of 546 strains of Salmonella was isolated(the overall isolation rate was 12 .42% ) and 30 serotypes were identified .Among children with Salmonella infection ,those under 3 years old accounted for 93 .22% .There was no statistically significant difference of isolation rate between male and female children with infectious diarrhea(P<0 .05) .June and July were peak period of Salmonella infection ,and the isolation rate was 16 .40% and 16 .09% respectively .Isolates of Salmonella typhimurium ,Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella stanley account for 50 .92% ,13 .55% and 10 .26% respectively ,which were dominant serotypes .Conclusion Salmonella is the main pathogenic bacteria in children with infectious diarrhea in Zhuhai area ,and Salmonella typhimurium is the main serotype .The infec‐tion of Salmonella might be correlated with children′s age and climate change .%目的:了解2009~2014年珠海市腹泻儿童感染沙门菌的流行病学特征。方法对2009~2014年珠海市妇幼保健院4395例门诊和住院感染性腹泻患儿送检的粪便标本进行沙门菌分离、培养、生化鉴定和血清学分型,并进行统计学分析。结果共检出30种血清型沙门菌546株,分离率为12.42%,小于3岁的婴幼儿沙门菌阳性病例占93.22%,男女患儿分离率差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.572,P>0.05)。6、7月是沙门菌感染的高峰时期,分离率分别为16.40%和16.09

  1. 思密达联合合生元益生菌治疗小儿非感染性腹泻疗效分析%Analysis on the effect of Smecta and synbiotics probiotics on treatment of pediatric non-infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察思密达联合合生元益生菌制剂治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效.方法 将194例0~3岁确诊为非细菌感染性小儿腹泻的住院患儿随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用合生元益生菌制剂与思密达联合治疗,对照组给予传统方法常规治疗.结果 两组在显效率方面存在明显差异(P<0.05).结论 益生菌联合思密达在0~3岁小儿腹泻治疗中可显著提高疗效,值得推荐.%OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of Smecta and synbiotics prohtolics treatment for non-infectious diarrhea in new-bom. METHODS 194 cases of 0 to 3 years patients diagnosed with non-bacterial diarrhea hospitalized in pediatric department were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, the observation group was treated with synbiotics probiotics and Smecta, the control group was given conventional method for routine treatment RESULTS The efficiency in the two groups were obviously different (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION Probiotics combined with Smecta in treatment of diarrhea for 0-3 years old children can improve the curative effect, and is worthy of recommendation.

  2. Effect of amino acid powder on infants with acute diarrhea complicated with lactose intolerance%氨基酸奶粉对急性腹泻并发乳糖不耐受患儿的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁丰; 项秀荷

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察氨基酸奶粉在婴儿急性腹泻并发乳糖不耐受治疗中的效果。方法选取大便检测还原糖阳性的急性腹泻患儿130例作为研究对象,随机分为治疗组62例和对照组68例。两组均给予常规药物治疗的基础上,治疗组给予氨基酸特殊配方奶粉喂养,对照组给予无乳糖婴儿配方奶粉喂养,观察5天后两组的治疗效果。结果氨基酸奶粉喂养组腹泻的总有效率为95.16%,无乳糖奶粉喂养组的总有效率为82.35%,治疗组的总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.212,P<0.05)。结论氨基酸奶粉在婴儿急性腹泻并发乳糖不耐受的治疗中效果显著,能减轻腹泻症状,疗效优于无乳糖奶粉。%Objective To observe the efficacy of amino acid powder on infants with acute diarrhea complicated with lactose intolerance . Methods Totally 130 infants with acute diarrhea whose stool examination was positive for reducing sugar were selected in the study , and they were randomly divided into treatment group ( n =62 ) and control group ( n =68 ) .Based on conventional drug treatment , the treatment group was given special amino acid powder feeding , while the control group was given lactose-free infant powder feeding .The curative effect of two groups was observed after 5 days.Results The total effective rate was 95.16% and 82.35% in the treatment group and the control group, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =5.212, P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of amino acid powder on infants with acute diarrhea complicated with lactose intolerance is remarkable .Amino acid powder can alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea , and its efficacy is better than that of lactose-free powder .

  3. Flavored according decoction syndrome of acute diarrhea curative effect analysis%加味葛根芩连汤治疗湿热型急性腹泻疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析加味葛根芩连汤治疗湿热型急性腹泻疗效。方法选取2013年3月~2013年11月我院收诊的湿热型急性腹泻患者120例,将其随机分成对照组和观察组,各60例,对照组采取常规治疗,观察组采取加味葛根芩连汤治疗,比较两组患者临床治疗的有效情况。结果观察组显效的有26例,总有效率达到95%,远高于对照组的75%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论湿热型急性腹泻进行加味葛根芩连汤治疗对腹泻、腹痛、呕吐等症状具有显著的治疗效果,且在疗程治疗中,值得推广与应用。%Objective to analyze lfavored according decoction syndrome of acute diarrhea curative effect. SelectionMethods March 2013~in November 2013, our hospital into clinical syndrome 120 patients with acute diarrhea were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 60 cases, control group treated with conventional, flavored according soup treatment group adopted to compare the situation of effective in clinical treatment in both groups.Results the observation group of 26 cases were markedly effective, total effective rate reached 95%, far higher than that of control group 75%, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion the syndrome of acute diarrhea is flavored according soup treatment of diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting has signiifcant therapeutic effect, and in the course of treatment, is worthy of popularization and application.

  4. Lactancia materna y diarrea aguda en los primeros tres meses de vida Breast feeding and the incidence of acute diarrhea during the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Macías-Carrillo

    2005-02-01

    ón como el aseguramiento de la provisión de agua potable para el recién nacido.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding and its interactions with selected socioeconomic factors, on the incidence of acute infantile diarrhea during the first three months of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a follow up of three months was conducted in 327 mother and child pairs, living in the city of Durango, Mexico, between April and June 1994. Data analyses included simple univariate and bivariate cross-tabulations, as well as multivariate logistic regression models with random effects. RESULTS: Infants who were not exclusively breastfed were at a significantly increased risk of having acute diarrhea during early infancy (ORcombined breastfeeding= 3.23; 95% CI 1.84-5.68 and ORartificial breastfeeding=4.36; 95% CI 2.32-8.19. Moreover, the protective effect of breastfeeding was independent from the effects of the following factors: poor maternal education, lack of social support for baby care, and being an adolescent mother. However, lack of potable water and lack of sewerage were potential effect modifiers of type of lactation deltaG=9.26; p=0.09; ORno water/no sewerage= 2.58; 95% CI 1.10-6.03 in the final multivariate model, for simultaneous lack of potable water and sewerage, which is greater than the sum of the individual OR for each variable. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to previous studies, exclusive breastfeeding was found to have great importance, since this practice protects the child's health and allows for a better development, despite unfavorable social and economic conditions. In particular, it seems that the protection conferred by breastfeeding is stronger when home conditions are poor, but this same condition presents an intervention opportunity, particularly the assurance of potable water provision for the infant when breastfeeding is not an option.

  5. Progress in understanding the relationship between diarrhea and intestinal ion transport%腹泻与肠道离子转运关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志博; 韩雪峰; 谭支良; 肖文军

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. There are millions of people dying of diarrhea, and most of them are children. Diarrhea can be divided into acute diarrhea and chronic diarrhea based on the length of the course, and into infectious diarrhea and noninfectious diarrhea according to the etiology.Diarrhea is an imbalance in absorption and secretion of water and electrolytes in the intestine, which involves abnormal ion transport. This paper reviews recent advances in understanding the causes of diarrhea, the relationship between intestinal ion transport and diarrhea, and ion transport in different kinds of diarrhea, with an aim to providing a reference and some new ideas on the comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis, pathophysiology and treatment of diarrhea.%腹泻作为全球性发病率和致死率较高的疾病之一,全世界每年有几百万的人因腹泻而死,其中绝大部分是婴幼儿童,腹泻按病程的长短可分为急性腹泻和慢性腹泻两类,而根据病因学又可分为感染性腹泻和非感染性腹泻,其本质上是肠道中水、电解质吸收和分泌功能的紊乱,这其中就与肠道离子的异常转运密切相关.本文从腹泻的发病原因,腹泻症状的产生与肠道不同离子转运的关系以及不同类型腹泻中的各种离子的转运过程进行了综述,以期为更全面地了解不同类型腹泻的相关发生发病机制,并为腹泻的病理生理学研究及相关肠道病症的治疗提供一定的依据.

  6. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  7. Acute parvovirus B19 infection causes nonspecificity frequently in Borrelia and less often in Salmonella and Campylobacter serology, posing a problem in diagnosis of infectious arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuminen, Tamara; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Seppälä, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Several infectious agents may cause arthritis or arthropathy. For example, infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, may in the late phase manifest as arthropathy. Infections with Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Yersinia may result in a postinfectious reactive arthritis. Acute infection with parvovirus B19 (B19V) may likewise initiate transient or chronic arthropathy. All these conditions may be clinically indistinguishable from rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we present evidence that acute B19V infection may elicit IgM antibodies that are polyspecific or cross-reactive with a variety of bacterial antigens. Their presence may lead to misdiagnosis and improper clinical management, exemplified here by two case descriptions. Further, among 33 subjects with proven recent B19V infection we found IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA) positivity for Borrelia only; for Borrelia and Salmonella; for Borrelia and Campylobacter; and for Borrelia, Campylobacter, and Salmonella in 26 (78.7%), 1 (3%), 2 (6%), and 1 (3%), respectively; however, when examined by Borrelia LineBlot, all samples were negative. These antibodies persisted over 3 months in 4/13 (38%) patients tested. Likewise, in a retrospective comparison of the results of a diagnostic laboratory, 9/11 (82%) patients with confirmed acute B19V infection showed IgM antibody to Borrelia. However, none of 12 patients with confirmed borreliosis showed any serological evidence of acute B19V infection. Our study demonstrates that recent B19V infection can be misinterpreted as secondary borreliosis or enteropathogen-induced reactive arthritis. To obtain the correct diagnosis, we emphasize caution in interpretation of polyreactive IgM and exclusion of recent B19V infection in patients examined for infectious arthritis or arthropathy.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of nimodipine and MK-801 on acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli to neocortex of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立华; 刘丽旭; 杨于嘉; 刘运生; 曹美鸿

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism and type of acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli (PB) in rat neocortex, to study the neuroprotective effect of non-competitive antagonist of N-methl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor ( MK-801 ) and antagonist of Ca2+ channels ( nimodipine )on brain edema, and to investigate the relationship between percentage of water content and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in synaptosomes or content of Evans Blue (EB).Methods: 95 SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, ie, normal control group, sham-operated control group, PB group, nimodipine treatment group and MK-801 pretreatment group. The acute infectious brain edema was induced by injection of PB into the rats. Quantitative measurements of water content and the concentration of EB were performed. [Ca2+]i was determined in calcium fluorescent indication Fura-2/AM loaded neuronal synaptosome with a spectrofluorophotometer. To observe the effect of MK-801 and nimodipine, we administered MK-801 48 hours and 24 hours before the injection of PB in MK-801 pretreatment group, and nimodipine after the injection of PB in nimodipine treatment group. The specific binding of NMDA receptor was measured with [3H]-MK-801 in the neuronal membrane of cerebral cortex. Results: The levels of water content and EB content of brain tissues, and [Ca2+]i in the neuronal synaptosomes increased more significantly in the PB-injected cerebral hemisphere in the PB group than those of normal control group and sham-operated control group (P0.05). Conclusions: The changes in the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and Ca2+-overload may participate in the pathogenesis of infectious brain edema. Treatment with nimodipine can dramatically reduce the damage of brain edema and demonstrate neuroprotective effect on brain edema by inhibiting the excess of Ca2+ influx and reducing the permeability of BBB. MK-801 pretreatment may inhibit the delayed Ca2+ influx into

  9. Effect of racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension on acute diarrhea in infants%消旋卡多曲联合服药对婴幼儿急性水样泻的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕妮; 朱昌琼

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察消旋卡多曲颗粒联合复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗婴幼儿急性水样泻的疗效及安全性.方法 筛选84例符合条件的腹泻婴幼儿,随机分为两组:对照组为43例,给予消旋卡多曲颗粒治疗;治疗组为41例,在对照组的基础上加用复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗,观察两组疗效.结果 治疗组的大便性状改善时间和总病程较对照组短,两组比较有显著性差异(t值分别为2.019、2.021,均P<0.05);治疗组的有效率明显高于对照组,两组比较有显著性差异(χ2=4.484,P<0.05).结论 消旋卡多曲颗粒联合复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗婴幼儿急性水样泻,较单一应用消旋卡多曲颗粒可较快减少腹泻次数,缩短病程,无明显不良反应.%Objective To observe the efficacy and security of the treatment of infantile acute diarrhea by using racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension. Methods Eighty-four cases of acute diarrhea were randomly divided into two groups, 43 cases in control group and 41 cases in treatment group. Both groups were treated with racecadotril granules,and compound ocimum oil oral suspension was given to the treatment group besides. The clinical efficacy of two groups was observed. Results Diarrhea time and total duration in the treatment group were shorter than those in the control group, and there were statistically significant differences ( t value was 2. 019 and 2. 021, respectively, both P <0. 05 ). The effective rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (x2= 4. 484, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Compared with the treatment with only racecadotril granules, the treatment of infantile acute diarrhea by using racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension can reduce the frequency of diarrhea quickly and shorten duration of diarrhea without significant adverse reactions.

  10. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  11. Acute infectious diseases and immunologic responses. Some stories from clinical practice apropos the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apropos of the appearance of some unusual clinical pictures in the course of the recent epidemic of Influenza A (H1N1, and with the intention of sharing controversial ideas related to the immunologic responses of the patients to the infectious agents, we expose here a group of stories arisen from a clinical practice of almost five decades.

  12. 苍苓止泻口服液联合双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗小儿非感染性腹泻%Cangling oral liquid combined with Bifidobacterium Tetravaccine tablets on treatment of children with non infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新文; 刘存英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Cangling antidiarrheal oral liquid combined with bifid Bacillus tetragenus lacto-bacillus tablets in the treatment of children with non infectious diarrhea clinical effect .Methods Selected 130 cases of non infectious diarrhea were randomly divided into observation group and control group .Control group was treated with conven-tional therapy ,the observation group in the control group on the basis of the Cangling antidiarrheal oral liquid combined with bifid Bacillus tetragenus live bacteria tablets in the treatment of and compared between the two groups the total efficiency , diarrhea stopping time ,dehydration ,correct time ,hospitalization time and serum IL-6 ,IL-7 ,fecal SIgA level .Results The total effective rate in the observation group was 96 .92% ,higher than that of the control group of 86 .15% ,the difference is statistically significant ( P<0 .05 );observation group of children with diarrhea stops time ,dehydration ,correct time and hospitalization time were lower than those in the control group ,the difference is statistically significant ( P<0 .05 );72 hours treatment ,the observation group ,IL-6 and IL-7 levels significantly lower than that in control group ,the difference is statisti-cally significant ( P<0 .05 );treatment group fecal SIgA levels higher than that of the control group ,the difference is statisti-cally significant ( P<0 .05 ) .Conclusion Bifidobacterium quadruple live bacteria tablets combined Cang Ling antidiarrhea oral liquid can effectively shorten the non infectious diarrhea in children with diarrhea time ,dehydration recovery time and hospitalization time ,reduce IL-6 and IL-17 levels ,increased intestinal SIgA level ,reduce the inflammatory response in chil-dren ,and defense against pathogen invasion ,and treatment of children with non infectious diarrhea .%目的:探讨苍苓止泻口服液联合双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床效果。方法选取130例非感染

  13. Impact of norovirus/sapovirus-related diarrhea in renal transplant recipients hospitalized for diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos-Weil, Damien; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Nochy, Dominique; Pothier, Pierre; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Anglicheau, Dany; Snanoudj, Renaud; Bererhi, Lynda; Thervet, Eric; Lecuit, Marc; Legendre, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Zuber, Julien

    2011-07-15

    Diarrhea of unspecified cause frequently occurs after renal transplantation and is usually ascribed to mycophenolic acid toxicity. Norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) have been sporadically reported to cause chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised patients. We undertook a retrospective study (2008-2009) to examine the clinical and epidemiologic significance of NoV and SaV infections in adult renal transplant recipients hospitalized for acute or chronic diarrhea. Ninety-six renal transplant recipients were hospitalized for diarrhea at our institution during a 16-month period, 87 of whom were included in the study, including 46 patients with chronic diarrhea. Among 41 patients with unexplained diarrhea, 20 patients were screened for NoV/SaV, 16 of whom were positive. Fifteen of them (94%) had chronic diarrhea. When compared with bacterial and parasitic infections, NoV/SaV infections were associated with a greater weight loss at the time of admission, a 8.7-fold longer duration of symptoms and a more frequent need for mycophenolic acid dosage reduction. Eighty-one percent of patients hospitalized for NoV/SaV-associated diarrhea experienced acute renal failure. Five and one patients subsequently had biopsy-diagnosed active graft rejection and oxalate nephropathy, respectively. Ten of the 14 patients who underwent a longitudinal study of NoV/SaV stool's clearance exhibited a prolonged viral shedding period with a median time of 289 days (107-581 days). Our study indicates that NoV/SaV infection causes posttransplant chronic diarrhea potentially complicated by severe kidney graft impairment.

  14. Effect of Wenwei Huashi Tang on acute diarrhea and gastric empty in mice%温胃化湿汤对小鼠急性腹泻及胃排空作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正腾

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察温胃化湿汤对番泻叶所致的腹泻模型作用及胃排空作用的影响,探讨其作用机制.方法 采用番泻叶煎剂致小鼠腹泻模型,连续4d观察温胃化湿汤给药后3h内的腹泻指数,并观察小鼠小肠墨汁推进率;采用甲基橙为标志物,观察温胃化湿汤对新斯的明致小鼠胃排空亢进的影响.结果 温胃化湿汤各组均能明显降低小鼠腹泻指数,减慢小鼠小肠推进速度,与模型组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),与香连丸组比较,高、中剂量组有显著性差异(P<0.05);溘温化湿汤各组能增加新斯的明致胃排空亢进小鼠的胃残留率,与模型组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),与香连丸组比较,高、中剂量组有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 温胃化湿汤对小鼠腹泻和胃排空亢进有较好的防治作用,其作用优于香连丸.%Objective To observe the effect of Wenwei Huashi Tang on diarrhea induced by sennae folium and gastric empty in mice and investigate the mechanism. Methods The acute diarrhea models were induced by giving senna decoction, and then Wenwei Huashi Tang and positive control drug were fed for 3 h to compare the diarrhea index. We observed the diarrhea index, and the advance rate of ink in the small intestine of the mice for 4 d. Gastric residual rate of methyl orange method was used for gastric emptying in mice pretreated with neostigmine. Results Compared with the model group, each dosage group of Wenwei Huashi Tang significantly decreased the diarrhea index and slowed down the advance rate of ink in the small intestine in the mice (P <0. 05). Compared with Xianglian Wan group, the high- and middle-dose Wenwei Huashi Tang groups significantly decreased the diarrhea index in the mice (P <0. 05). Compared with the model group, each dosage group of Wenwei Huashi Tang significantly increased the gastric residual rate in the gastrointestinal hyperfunctional model of hyperactivity (P <0. 05). Compared with

  15. Brady's Yeast Powder Treatment of Acute Diarrhea of Children with Dia-betes Results Analysis%布拉氏酵母菌散剂治疗小儿糖尿病急性腹泻病效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯蕴慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective to investigate and study the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea of children with diabetes, the curative effect of application of brady′s yeast powder. Methods select in May 2014 to April 2015, we treated 120 cases of children with acute diarrhea of children with diabetes as the object of study and observation. Patients aged from 6 months to 7 years old, the sufferer randomly divided into observation group and control group, two groups of 60 cases. Two groups of patients were given including oral montmorillonite powder, and anti-infection and rehydration of routine treatment, at the same time, the observation group was given oral brady′s yeast powder treatment. On two groups of children with diarrhea used time and relieve diarrhea remission rate, and number of traits and stool. Results After two weeks of treatment, the observation group of patients with the total effective rate was 92.7% (56/60), significantly higher than the control group (71.4%, 47/60) pa-tients, the total effective rate in patients with two groups of contrast, there are significant differences, statistically significant (P value is less than 0.05), with statistical significance. Conclusion in the conventional treatment at the same time, it is in giving children with diarrhea combination treatment with oral brady′s yeast powder, diarrhea can effectively shorten the course of the disease and the curative effect is obviously improved, has good clinical application and popularization value.%目的 探讨和研究临床上治疗小儿糖尿病急性腹泻病,应用布拉氏酵母菌散剂的疗效. 方法 选取2014年5月—2015年4月间,该院收治的120例小儿糖尿病急性腹泻病患儿为研究和观察对象. 患者年龄在6个月~7岁, 随机将患者分成观察组和对照组,两组人数各为60例. 两组患者均给予包括口服蒙脱石散,以及抗感染和补液等常规性治疗,同时,对观察组还给予口服布拉氏酵母菌散剂治疗. 对两组患

  16. molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    3Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. ABSTRACT ... associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 ... each case. ..... Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Zaria,.

  17. 急性腹泻婴幼儿患者实施粪便轮状病毒检测的检验学研究%Study on the detection of fecal rotavirus in infants with acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:检测急性腹泻婴幼儿患者粪便轮状病毒对急性腹泻的感染情况,得出准确快捷的临床治疗方案。方法:抽取我院2013年4月—2014年6月465例急性腹泻婴幼儿患者作为研究对象,采用乳胶凝集试验(LAT)对我院就诊的465例急性腹泻婴幼儿患者进行粪便轮状病毒检测。结果:在不同季节,对急性腹泻婴幼儿患者粪便轮状病毒进行检测,研究结果表明,在抽取的465例急性腹泻婴幼儿患者中,总阳性例数为132,阳性率达到28.4%。不同季节轮状病毒检测阳性检出率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=21.2806,P=0.0001)。对不同年龄阶段的急性腹泻婴幼儿粪便轮状病毒进行检测,0~5个月大的婴幼儿病例达168例,感染率达17.9%,在婴儿6个月~2岁时病例达299例,阳性率高达26.8%。2~5岁病例数为98,感染率达16.3%。不同年龄阶段检测轮状病毒阳性检出率比较差异具有数学统计意义(x2=7.3579,P=0.0252)。结论:及时检测急性腹泻婴幼儿患者轮状病毒,有助于减少感染,达到更好的治疗效果。%Objective:To detect the infection of acute diarrhea stool rotavirus in infant with acute diarrhea in order to accurately and quickly draw the clinical treatment scheme. Methods:465 cases with acute diarrhea from April,2013 to June,2014 in our hospital were selected as the research objects and detected fecal rotavirus by latex agglutination test (LAT). Results:In different seasons, the detection of acute diarrhea feces infants with rotavirus was carried out and the results of the study showed that, in the sample of 465 cases of acute diarrhea in infants and young children , 132 cases were positive, the positive rate was 28.4%. Detection of different seasonal rotavirus positive rate had a significant difference (x2=21.2806, P=0.0001). The different ages of children acute diarrhea stool rotavirus were detected, 0~5 month­old infants

  18. Clinical, Paraclinical, and Antimicrobial Resistance Features of Community-Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis at a Large Infectious Diseases Ward in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Behrooz; Khalili, Hossein; Karimzadeh, Iman; Emadi-Kochak, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to a referral center for infectious diseases in Iran, have been evaluated. Medical records of adult (> 18 years) individuals with confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis during a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. All required data were obtained from patients' medical charts. Available findings about antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from CSF and/or blood were also collected. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Details of medical management including antibiotic regimen, duration, patients' outcome, and possible sequelae of meningitis were recorded. The most commonly isolated microorganism from CSF or blood of patients was Streptococcus pneumonia (33.33%) followed by Neisseria meningitidis (27.78%) and Haemophilus influenza (16.67%). The most common antimicrobial regimen was ceftriaxone plus vancomycin (69.44%) followed by ceftriaxone plus vancomycin plus ampicillin (11.11%). Neurological sequelae of meningitis including cranial nerve palsy, deafness, and hemiparesis were identified in 4 (11.11%), 2 (5.56%), and 1 (2.78%) subjects, respectively. Regarding mortality, only 3 (8.33%) patients died from bacterial meningitis and the remaining 33 individuals discharged from the hospital. In conclusion, findings of the current study demonstrated that the mean incidence of acute bacterial meningitis in a referral infectious diseases ward in Iran was 9 episodes per year. The majority cases of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to our center had negative CSF culture and classic triad of meningitis was absent in them.

  19. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  20. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Glotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i., refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3, and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16. Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines.

  1. Umbilical Compress Therapy Combined with Smecta for 127 Cases of Acute Diarrhea in Infants%脐疗法联合思密达治疗小儿急性腹泻127例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晗怡; 董亚娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察脐疗法联合思密达治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效.方法:将254例腹泻患儿随机分为治疗组和对照组各127例,对照组给予正确的饮食指导,通过口服补液盐(ORS)或静脉补液及时纠正水、电解质紊乱、酸碱失衡及酸中毒等一般常规治疗,同时用胃肠黏膜保护剂思密达止泻;治疗组在上述方案治疗的基础上加中药粉剂调敷脐中.结果:与对照组相比,治疗组的显效率、总有效率均明显增高(P<0.01).结论:脐疗法联合思密达治疗小儿腹泻疗效显著.%Objective: To approach curative effects of umbilical compress therapy and smecta in treating infants with acute diarrhea. Method: All 254 cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Control group were administered with dietary instruction, correcting water and electrolyte disturbance, acid-base imbalance and acid poisoning through oral rehydration salt or intravenous dripping, and smecta to stop diarrhea; treatment group received herbal powder applied to the navel. Result: Compared with control group, effectual rate and total effective rate of treatment group raised remarkably (P<0.01). Conclusion: Applications of umbilical compress therapy and smecta to infant diarrhea are effective.

  2. Intestinal coccidia in Cuban pediatric patients with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez FA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From May to August 1999, we evaluated 401 patients from a pediatric hospital of Havana City. One group was composed of 113 patients with diarrhea admitted to the Gastroenterology ward and a second consisted of 288 patients without diarrhea, admitted for other reasons, and hospitalized within the same time period. Three stool samples were collected from each child and were examined using three parasitological techniques. When we compared the frequency of parasite species between both groups, we found Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis, only in the group of children with diarrhea (P 0.05. In addition, in those children infected with Cryptosporidium, the diarrhea had a more prolonged duration (P < 0.01, while those infected with Cyclospora, the abdominal cramps or pain, and acute diarrhea were more frequently detected (P < 0.01. Our results showed that emerging intestinal coccidia are pathogens strongly associated in this group of children with diarrhea.

  3. Clinical study ofSaccharomyces boulardii in prevention of secondary diarrhea caused by neonatal infectious pneumonia%布拉酵母菌预防新生儿感染性肺炎继发腹泻的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海亮; 呼旭东

    2014-01-01

    objective To investigate the clinical efficacy ofSaccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of secondary diarrhea caused by neonatal infectious pneumonia.MethodsPatients with neonatal infectious pneumonia were randomly divided into control (54 cases) and treatment (54 cases) groups. All patients were given antibiotics and support treatment such as rehydration and vitamin. Patients in the treatment group werepo administered withS. boulardii while taking antibiotics, 125 mg/time, twice daily. Patients with diarrhea in two groups werepo administered with Montmorillonite Powder, 1.0 g/time, 3 times daily, and were given rehydration treatment until they were cured. Two groups were continuous treated for 14 d. After treatment, the treatment efficacy was evaluated, while the cellular immunological indexes were tested.Results The total effective rates of the treatment and control groups were 94.44% and 75.93%, respectively, with the significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea in treatment group was 38.89%, while that in the control group was 61.11%. In the treatment group, diarrhea occurred later than the control group, and the number of diarrhea per day in treatment group was less than that in the control group, while the duration of diarrhea in treatment group was also significantly shorter than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant between the two groups (P< 0.05). After treatment, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ of the treatment group increased, CD8+ decreased, with statistically significant difference before and after treatment (P < 0.05). Those detection indexes were compared with control group, and difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).ConclusionS. boulardii has a good clinical efficacy in the prevention of secondary diarrhea caused by neonatal infectious pneumonia, and can improve immunity of patients, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨布拉酵母菌预防新生儿

  4. Analysis on the use of antibiotics in treatment of 180 infantile patients with acute diarrhea in our hospital%180例小儿急性腹泻病住院患者抗菌药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宏丽; 肖顺林; 王国俊

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the usage of antibiotics in treatment of infantile acute diarrhea in our hospital and provide reference for clinical rational administration. Methods: The application of antibiotics in the treatment of 180 infantile inpatients with acute diarrhea from October 2010 to March 2011 was investigated retrospectively, and the basic situation of the patient diagnosis, pathogeny examination,outcomes and the use of the antibiotics in infantile patients with acute diarrhea were statistically analysed. Results: Among 180 patients, 135 patients received antibiotics (75.0%). Aztreonam took the highest proportion (49.39%) in use frequency of antibiotics. In terms of drug combination (14.81%), the first place was piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium in combination with cefazolin sodium pentahydrate (4.44%). Conclusion: Clinical management of rational use of antibiotics must be enhanced because the application of antibiotics had unreasonable administration problems in terms of indications, drug selection, dosage, length of the treatment and combination therapy.%目的:了解我院小儿急性腹泻病住院患者应用抗菌药物的情况,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:回顾性调查我院2010年10月-2011年3月180例小儿腹泻病住院患者抗菌药物的应用情况,从患者基本情况、诊断及病原学检查、患儿转归情况、抗菌药物应用基本情况等方面进行统计.结果:180例患儿中,有135例(75.0%)应用抗菌药物,应用频率最高的药物是氨曲南,占49.39%;联合用药率为14.81,以哌拉西林钠舒巴坦钠联用五水头孢唑啉钠最多,占4.44%.结论:我院治疗小儿腹泻病抗菌药物的应用在用药指征、品种选择、剂量、疗程及联合使用等方面存在不合理现象,需加强管理.

  5. 磷酸铝凝胶治疗小儿急性腹泻病的临床疗效观察%Observation of Clinical Effect of Aluminum Phosphate Gel in Treatment of Children with Acute Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭易苗; 方艳; 罗颂; 何周康

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨磷酸铝凝胶对小儿急性腹泻病的临床治疗效果。方法选择我院2013年7月至2014年8月收治的260例小儿急性腹泻病患儿为研究对象,随机分为对照组和观察组各130例。对照组患儿给予对症治疗,观察组在对症治疗的基础上给予磷酸铝凝胶治疗,比较两组的临床疗效以及腹泻、发热、脱水、呕吐等症状缓解时间。结果观察组的总有效率为95.38%,显著高于对照组的73.08%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组呕吐、腹泻、发热及脱水等症状缓解时间均显著短于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论小儿急性腹泻治疗在常规用药基础上加磷酸铝凝胶,可提高治疗效果,缩短见效时间,促进患者远期预后。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aluminum phosphate gel in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea. Methods 260 cases of children with acute diarrhea admitted to our hospital from July 2013 to August 2014 were selected as research objects and randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 130 cases in each group. The control group was given with symptomatic treatment, the observation group was treated with aluminum phosphate gel on the basis of symptomatic treatment. The clinical effect, alleviation time of diarrhea, fever, dehydration and emesis were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 95.38%, significantly higher than 73.08% of the control group, with statistical difference (P <0.05). The alleviation time of diarrhea, fever, dehydration and emesis in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group, with statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusions For children with acute diarrhea, aluminum phosphate gel on the basis of conventional medicine can improve the therapeutic effect, shorten the response time and promote the long-term prognosis of

  6. 葡萄糖酸锌治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻疗效观察%THE EFFECT OF ZINC GLUCONATE ON INFANTS WITH ACUTE DIARRHEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴爱兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of zinc gluconate on infants with acute diarrhea and study its mechanisms. Methods This study consisted of 172 infants with acute diarrhea, who were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Both groups received conventional therapy. In addition to that, zinc gluconate was given to patients in the treatment group for two weeks, 10 mg/d for those below 6 months old and 20 mg/d for those over 6 months old. The total effective rate, symptomdisappearing time, and recurrence during a 3-month follow-up were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group (x2= 6.14, P<0.05). There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of fever, diarrhea, and hospital stay (t=2. 976-5. 907,P<0.01), but no significant difference in terms of vomiting between the two groups (t=O. 532,P>0. 05). During the follow-up duration, the recurrence rate of diarrhea in the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control (x2 =4.40, P<0.05). Conclusion Zinc gluconate is effective in treating infants with acute diarrhea and preventing recurrence of the disease within three months.%目的 观察葡萄糖酸锌治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻的临床疗效,探讨其作用机制.方法 将172例急性腹泻婴幼儿随机分为治疗组和对照组.两组均给予常规治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用葡萄糖酸锌治疗.剂量为≤6个月儿给予葡萄糖酸锌10 mg/d,>6个月儿给予葡萄糖酸锌20 mg/d,疗程均为14 d.比较两组治疗总有效率、I临床症状消失时间及随访3个月腹泻再发生率.结果 治疗组总有效率明显高于对照组(X=6.14,P0.05).在随访3个月过程中,治疗组腹泻再发生率与对照组比较差异有显著性(X=4.40,P<0.05).结论 葡萄糖酸锌可有效治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻并预防3个月内腹泻的再次发生.

  7. Analysis of efficacy and safety in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with diarrhea stop Montmorillonite powder%蒙脱石散与儿泻停联合治疗小儿急性腹泻病的疗效与安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探析蒙脱石散与儿泻停联合用药下小儿急性腹泻病的临床疗效与安全性。方法:从2014年1月~2015年2月入住我院的急性腹泻患儿中随机选取92例作为研究对象。并按随机分组法分为观察组和对照组,各46例。观察组实施蒙脱石散与儿泻停联合治疗,对照组给予单纯蒙脱石散治疗,对比两组患儿的临床疗效、症状复常时间、住院时间及不良反应情况。结果:观察组的总有效率为97.83%,显著高于对照组的84.78%,且腹泻、呕吐、发热复常时间及住院时间明显少于对照组(P<0.05),上述差异均有统计学意义。观察组的不良反应发生率为2.17%,低于对照组的8.70%(P>0.05),差异无统计学意义。结论:蒙脱石散与儿泻停联合不仅能有效治疗小儿急性腹泻,缩短临床症状复常时间,且安全性高,值得临床推荐。%Objective: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of acute diarrhea in children of Montmorillonite powder with erxieting combined medication. Methods:From January 2014~February 2015 in our hospital with acute diarrhea were randomly selected 92 cases as the research object, which were randomly divided into observation group and control group, 46 cases in each. The observation group received Montmorillonite powder with erxieting combined treatment, control group was treated with Montmorillonite powder treatment. The symptoms, clinical curative effect were compared between the two groups in the recovery time, hospitalization time and adverse reaction. Results: The total effective rate of observation group was 97.83%, significantly higher than that of the control group was 84.78%, and diarrhea, vomiting, fever recovery time and hospitalization time was significantly less than that of the control group (P0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Montmorillonite powder with erxieting joint not only can be effective in

  8. 急性腹泻患者粪便细菌培养及临床特征分析%Clinical features and bacterial culture on stools of patients with acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安德; 王晓才; 王蕻馨; 王作梅; 黄象安

    2012-01-01

    目的:对急性腹泻患者的粪多细菌培养结果和临床特征分析.方法:在2010年4月-2011年3月在东方医院和佑安医院肠道门诊就医的急性腹泻患者中,随机抽取158例粪标本作细菌培养,对其临床诊断、临床特征、细菌培养结果进行综合分析.结果:158例中包括急性肠炎60例,急性菌痢17例,胃肠功能紊乱58例,消化不良7例,腹泻待查16例;粪细菌培养阳性41例(25.95%、41/158),包括副溶血弧菌17例(41.46%、17/41)、志贺菌属10例(24.39%、10/41)、沙门菌7例(17.07%、7/41)、类志贺邻单胞4例(9.76%、4/41)、温和气单胞2例(4.88%、2/41)、霍乱弧菌1例(2.44%、1/41).41例粪细菌培养阳性患者的临床诊断分别为:急性肠炎24例,急性菌痢10例,胃肠功能紊乱3例,腹泻待查3例,消化不良1例.结论:北京市丰台区急性腹泻患者肠道致病菌以副溶血弧菌为主,志贺菌属次之;急性腹泻的临床诊断存在过分依赖便常规化验结果的情况,值得临床医师引起重视.%Objective;To analyze clinical features and multi - bacteria culture result of acute diarrhea patients. Methods; Among the acute diarrhea patients who seek medical advice in intestinal outpatient service in Dongfang Hospitital and Youan Hospitital from April in 2010 to March in 2011, 158 cases were randomly selected carry out the dung bacteria culture, then their clinical diagnosis, clinical features and the multi - bacteria culture result were analyzed. Results; Among the 158 cases, 60 cases were acute enteritis, 17 cases were acute bacterial dysentery, 58 cases were gastrointestinal dysfunction, 7 cases were indigestion, and 12 cases were diarrhea referred;41 cases were found dung bacteria culture positive (25.95% , 41/158) , which consist of 17 cases of (41.46% , 17/41 )Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 10 cases of Shigella (24. 39% , 10/41) , 7 cases of Salmonella (17.07% , 7/41), 4 cases of plesiomonas shigelloides(9. 76% , 4/41 ) , 2

  9. Epidemiological analysis of 3 cases of infectious diarrhea caused by Enteropathogenic E. coll%3起肠致病性大肠埃希菌造成感染性腹泻爆发疫情的流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆向东; 缪国忠; 马焰

    2011-01-01

    目的对我市2005-2007年报告的3起由致病性大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻爆发疫情进行流行病学分析,为该类疫情的预防控制提供依据。方法运用回顾性流行病学分析法对我市2005-2007年报告的3起由致病性大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻爆发疫情进行分析,相关资料录入计算机,用Excel软件进行统计分析。结果①2005-2007年共发生3起由致病性大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻爆发疫情,占细菌性食源性疾病总数的6.98%。②发生高峰季节是春、夏和秋季。③人群年龄、性别和职业无特异性。④潜伏期最短的6h,最长的6d;临床症状以腹痛、腹泻为主。⑤传播方式以粪-口途径、人-人接触,食物、水源传播为主。结论我市致病性大肠埃希菌感染性腹泻发病率水平较高,且卫生管理上存在监管未到位等薄弱环节;提示今后应加强监督管理,提高自身检验能力,同时要在高峰季节前做好预防该类疫情的关键控制点的健康教育工作。%Objective To analysis of 3 cases of infectious diarrhea which caused by Enteropathogenic E. Coli, and provide evidences for prevention and control this kinds of epidemic Method Using retrospective epidemiological analysis for analyzing the epidemic situation from 2005 to 2007 in our city, correlated data was recorded to computers and analysis by ExceL Results ① During 2005 to 2007, there were 3 cases of infectious diarrhea which caused by Enteropathogenic E.coli, and accounted for 6. 98% of all bacterial food origin disease. ② The peak time of the disease were spring, summer and autumn. ③There were no specificity on age, gender and profession of poisoning people. ④The shortest incubation period was 6 hours, the longest was 6 days, clinical symptoms were abdominal pain and diarrhea. ⑤The dissemination ways were that fecal to oral way, people to people contact, food, water, spread primarily. Conclusions The incidence rate of

  10. Serum type and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp.in infectious diarrhea cases from Zhengzhou City, 2006-2011%郑州市2006-2011年腹泻病人沙门菌血清型和耐药谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春荣; 沈艳丽; 董柯; 安戈; 赵瑞臻; 张月泉; 史军; 刘战伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解郑州市感染性腹泻病人中沙门病原菌血清型分布和耐药谱,为沙门菌防治提供基础数据.方法 从2006-2011年腹泻病监测点感染性腹泻病例的粪便标本中进行沙门菌分离培养、血清学分型及药敏试验,用WHONET5.4软件分析药敏试验结果.结果 2006-2011年共采集的3 266份腹泻病人标本中共检出196株沙门菌,检出率为6.0%,分布于10个血清群,37个血清型;以B群和D1群为主,各占33.67%(66/196)和32.14%(63/196);血清型以肠炎沙门菌和鼠伤寒沙门菌为主,各占29.59%(58株)和19.90%(39株).药敏试验结果提示对氨苄西林、萘啶酸、复方新诺明和四环素的耐药率分别达到44.90%、42.34%、34.18%和32.14%.结论 沙门菌血清型和耐药谱监测对感染性腹泻疫情防控意义重大.%The objective of the present study is to understand the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of Sal monella spp. in infectious diarrhea cases, and to provide the scientific basis for diseases control and treatment. Salmonella strains were isolated from infectious diarrhea cases and tested for serotyping and antibiotic sensitivity during 2006-2011. Re suits were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software, and all 196 isolates of Salmonella were detected from 3 266 diarrhea patients and distributed in 10 serogroups and 37 serotypes. The detection rate was 6. 0% and there were about 66 isolates belong to se rogroup B (33. 67%) and 63 belong to serogroup Dl (32. 14%). The main serotypes were Salmonella enteritis and Salmonella typhimurium (29.59%, 58/196; 19.90%, 39/196). Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, tetracycline, andSXT, and the resistance rates were 42. 34% , 44.90%, 32.14%, and 34. 18%, respective ly. It's suggested that there is significant to monitor the serotypes and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. infection for pre vention and control of epidemic diarrhea.

  11. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Neha; Marcotte, Harold; Brüssow, Harald; Svensson, Lennart; Hammarström, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an evaluati...

  12. Diarréia aguda: o conhecimento materno sobre a doença reduz o número de hospitalizações nos menores de dois anos? Acute diarrhea: does mother's knowledge of the disease reduce admission of children under two years of age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar o conhecimento materno sobre as causas, sinais de desidratação e manejo da diarréia aguda e a ocorrência de hospitalização, por complicações desta doença, em seus filhos menores de dois anos. MÉTODOS: Desenho de corte transversal aninhado em estudo de caso _ controle. Casos: crianças internadas por complicações da diarréia aguda no Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco. Controles: crianças com doenças ambulatoriais exceto diarréia aguda. Variáveis: internamento por diarréia aguda (dependente; condições socioeconômicas; estado nutricional das crianças; tempo de aleitamento materno; conhecimento materno sobre diarréia aguda e seu manejo. Na análise foi utilizado software Epi-info 6.0. RESULTADOS: Houve associação estatística entre internamento por diarréia aguda e condições socioeconômicas precárias (p OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship of mother's knowledge about signs of dehydration, causes and management of acute diarrhea with admission of children under two years of age with the disease. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional and case-control study was carried out with children who were admitted at the "Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco" with acute diarrhea: and control children admitted with other diseases. Variables were: patient admission having or not acute diarrhea (dependent; social-economic condition, nutritional state; duration of breastfeeding; mother's knowledge about acute diarrhea and its management (independent. The Epi-info software, 6.0 was used for analysis. RESULTS: There was statistical association between patient admission with acute diarrhea and poor social-economic conditions (p= 0.01; malnutrition (p=0.01; short time of breastfeeding (p=0.01, lack of mother's knowledge about how to avoid dehydration (p=0.05 and effectiveness of oral rehydration solutions (p=0.02. There was no statistical association with knowledge about causes, signs of dehydration or

  13. Bacterial spectrum and drug-resistant clinical analysis in children with infectious diarrhea%儿童感染性腹泻细菌谱及耐药性变迁临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时花; 杨晓云; 周瑞; 诸宏伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童感染性腹泻细菌谱的改变和耐药性的变迁,为临床合理选择抗菌药物提供依据.方法 将2005年1月至2007年12月我院股泻患儿大便培养阳性分离菌株设为A组,将2008年1月至2010年12月分离菌株设为B组,比较2组细菌谱及耐药性的变化.结果 共分离菌株1046株,其中革兰阳性菌(G+)149株(14.24%),革兰阴性菌(G-)860株(82.22%),念珠菌37株(3.54%);主要菌株及构成比(%):大肠埃希菌65.68 %、肠球菌12.24%、克雷伯杆菌4.78%、肠杆菌3.73%.B组分离菌株对常用抗菌药物耐药率高于A组,产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)菌株增加.结论 小儿消化道感染病原菌以革兰阴性菌为主,并有逐渐增长趋势;随着广谱抗菌药物的应用,细菌的耐药性增加明显.%Objective To investigate the bacterial spectrum and drug resistance changes in children with pediatric infective diarrhea and provide a basis for the correct use of antibiotics. Methods We retrospectively analysed the bacterial spectrum and drug resistance of the positive isolates from the sepsis strains of bacteria in diarrhea stool culture of patients from January 2005 to December 2010 in our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A were the patients from January 2005 to December 2007, and group B were from January 2008 to December 2010, then the bacterial spectrum and resistance of the two groups were compared. Results A total of 1046 strains were i-solated, of which the pathogens of Gram - positive bacteria was 149 ( 14. 24% ), Gram - negative bacteria 860 ( 82. 22% ), and candidias 37 ( 3. 54% ). Major strain and composition ratio ( % ): Escherichia coli accounted for 65. 68% , enterococcus 12. 24% , Klebsiella 4. 78% , and Enterobacter 3. 73% . Drug resistance for common antibiotics medicine of group B was higher than that of group A, and isolates producing extended - spectrum β- lactamases ( ESBLs ) strains increased. Conclusion Gram - negative bacteria

  14. Survey of diagnosis and treatment of acute diarrhea in adults in 10 hospitals of Beijing%北京10所三级医院成人急性腹泻的诊断治疗调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凤琴; 王艳; 李俊; 刘颖; 王贵强

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估北京成人急性腹泻的诊断治疗与Manatsathit成人腹泻诊疗指南的一致性,了解各级医院急性腹泻的诊断治疗水平,为有针对性的腹泻诊断治疗提供依据。方法在北京10所医院,采取诊治医师自行填写诊断治疗报告的形式进行腹泻诊断治疗的调查;采用SPSS13.0软件进行统计分析。结果2011年5-6月10所医院报告了400例急性腹泻患者的诊断治疗情况,患者年龄(35.5±14.8)岁,女性209例,占52.3%;患者从起病到就诊时间为(2.0±1.4)d;所有400例被调查患者中89.8%进行了粪便检查,所有患者均进行了粪便霍乱弧菌培养,但只有8.5%的患者进行了其他细菌的粪便培养;400例患者中69.3%给予了补液,其中48.8%给予口服补液、20.5%给予静脉补液;所有患者中,有抗菌药物应用指征的患者只有17.8%,却有57.0%的患者给予抗菌药物治疗,且27.0%的患者给予了静脉抗菌药物治疗;在非教学医院,更多患者给予了无适应证的抗菌治疗,与重点大学教学医院及普通大学教学医院比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论北京三级甲等医院对成人腹泻的诊治与指南有一定差距,需进一步加强腹泻诊治的培训,以提高腹泻治疗的合理性。%OBJECTIVE To assess if the diagnosis and treatment of the adults with acute diarrhea in Beijing adhere to the guidelines recommended by Manatsathit working group and understand the conditions of diagnosis and treat‐ment of acute diarrhea in different levels of hospitals so as to provide guidance for targeted diagnosis and treatment of the diarrhea .METHODS A survey was conducted for the diagnosis and treatment of diarrheas in 10 hospitals of Beijing by using the diagnosis and treatment reports filled out by clinicians ,and the statistical analysis was per‐formed with the use of SPSS 13 .0

  15. 临床营养干预路径在婴儿急性腹泻治疗中的应用%Application of clinical nutritional intervention pathway in infants with acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 薛继红

    2013-01-01

    目的评价临床营养干预路径在急性腹泻病患儿中实施的效果。方法将104名患儿随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组严格应用临床营养干预路径;对照组采用传统治疗方法,不进行临床营养干预。结果治疗组腹泻缓解时间平均约(3.79±0.37)天;对照组腹泻缓解时间平均约(4.26±0.43)天;静脉补液时间治疗组平均为(4.24±0.40)天,对照组为(4.97±0.70)天;平均住院日治疗组为(5.98±0.67)天,对照组为(7.04±0.69)天;两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组临床显效率明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论应用临床营养干预路径明显缩短静脉补液时间,缩短腹泻缓解平均时间,减少并发症,缩短住院时间,增加了患儿家属的满意度。%Objective To explore the effect of clinical nutritional intervention pathway in treatment of infant with acute diarrhea . Methods Totally 104 cases of diarrhea disease were randomly divided into treatment group and control group .In the treatment group cases were treated with clinical nutritional pathway , but the control group was treated with traditional way .Results The average time of diarrhea relief, during of venous transfusion and average hospitalization length in the treatment group and control group was 3.79 ±0.37 and 4.26 ± 0.43 days, 4.24 ±0.40 and 4.97 ±0.70 days, 5.98 ±0.67 and 7.04 ±0.69 days, respectively.There were statistical significant differences between two groups (P<0.05).The clinical significant efficiency of the treatment group was obviously higher than that of the control grope(P<0.05).Conclusion Application of clinical nutritional intervention pathway in treatment of infant with acute diarrhea can shorten the time of venous transfusion , reduce the average duration of diarrhea , reduce complications and hospital stay significantly , which improves the satisfactory rate of

  16. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  17. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the specially designed form. Results: 116 children with rotavirus diarrhea are included in the study. The majority boys (74.4%) and children aged 0 – 12 months (82.75%). Mean age of children in the study was 16.38 months. Almost every third child in the study was hypotrophic (29.2%). More than half of the infants (55.2%) were on mixed food, somewhat more than every third was breast feeding (36.45%), and every twelfth (8.33%) was on artificial milk (animal or formula). Apart from diarrhea, present in all patients, vomiting (97.41%) and fever (43.96%) were characteristics of the clinical presentation of the diarrhea. Two thirds of the children had mild grade dehydration (70.7%). All patients recovered with no sequels. Conclusion: Rotavirus continues to be responsible for a significant portion of acute diarrhea in Kosovo. Clinical features, epidemiological data and the agglutination test are safe enough to establish the diagnosis. Treated correctly rotavirus diarrhea has a favorable outcome. PMID:25568634

  18. Translating Molecular Physiology of Intestinal Transport into Pharmacologic Treatment of Diarrhea: Stimulation of Na+ Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Varsha; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Tiane-e; Zachos, Nick; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Verkman, Alan; Donowitz, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The WHO recommended low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea1, but there are no approved, safe drugs which have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including i...

  19. Carbamazepine-Induced Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1992-01-01

    Intractable diarrhea induced by carbamazepine (CBZ) in 3 patients and necessitating discontinuation of the drug is reported from the Departments of Neurology and Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky.

  20. Acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence leads to depletion and redistribution of WC1(+) γδ T cells in lymphoid tissues of beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Sakamoto, Kaori; Walz, Heather L; Brock, Kenny V; Hurley, David J

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of γδ T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue during acute infection with high (HV) or low virulence (LV) non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in beef calves. This study was performed using tissue samples from a previous experiment in which thirty beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: LV [n=10; animals inoculated intranasally (IN) with LV BVDV-1a (strain SD-1)], HV [n=10; animals inoculated IN with HV BVDV-2 (strain 1373)], and control (n=10; animals inoculated with cell culture medium). On day 5 post inoculation, animals were euthanized, and samples from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to assess the abundance of WC1(+) γδ T cells. A higher proportion of calves challenged with BVDV showed signs of apoptosis and cytophagy in MLN and spleen samples compared to the control group. A significantly lower number of γδ T cells was observed in spleen and MLN from calves in HV and LV groups than in the control calves (P<0.05). In conclusion, acute infection with HV or LV BVDV resulted in depletion of WC1(+) γδ T cells in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues at five days after challenge in beef calves. This reduction in γδ T cells in the studied lymphoid tissues could be also due to lymphocyte trafficking to other tissues.

  1. 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的效果及对血清IL-6、IL-17表达的影响%Effect of combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacil-lus cereus tablets,live in the treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in chil-dren and influence study on serum IL-6,IL 17 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧恩; 梁斐; 周运南; 黎惠章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus tablets,live in the treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in children and influence on serum IL-6,IL 17 expression. Methods 120 children with non-infectious diarrhea in our hospital from February 2013 to June 2014 were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group,each group of 60 cases.Conventional method was used in control group,combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus tablets,live were applied in observation group on the basis of control group.Total effective rate,diarrhea stopped time,hospital admission time,level of IL-6 and IL-17 in two groups were compared. Results Total effective rate in observation group was 96.67%,higher than that in control group(85.00%),with statistical difference(P<0.05).Diarrhea stopped time,hospital ad-mission time in observation group was shorter than that in control group respectively,with statistical difference(P<0.05). After treatment of 72 hours,level of IL-6 and IL-17 was lower than that in control group respectively (P<0.05). Con-clusion Combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus tablets,live in the treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in children can shorten diarrhea stopped time,hospital admission time,reduce level of IL-6 and IL-17,has a substantial clinical curative effect and is worthy of promotion and application.%目的:探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床效果及对血清IL-6、IL-17表达的影响。方法选取2013年2月~2014年6月本院收治的120例非感染性腹泻小儿,将其随机分为观察组和对照组,各60例,对照组采用常规方法治疗,观察组在对照组基础上采用双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗,比较两组的总有效率、腹泻停止时间、住院时间和IL-6、IL-17水平。结果观察组总有效率为96.67%,

  2. Utilization of health facilities and predictors of health-seeking behavior for under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Mulat, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay

    2017-04-04

    Information on health-seeking behavior and utilization of health facilities in slums of Addis Ababa is scarce, impeding the implementation of effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess the status of health facilities utilization and predictors for health-seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers of under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed in five rounds of surveys in seven kebeles in slums of Addis Ababa among 472 mothers/caregivers of 472 under-five children with acute diarrhea in reference to Andersen's behavioral model. Data were entered into EpiData Version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA Version 14.0. Descriptive statistics were used to examine patterns of health facilities utilization and multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to identify predictors associated with health-seeking behavior. Most mothers/caregivers (70.8%) sought care either at home (14.2%) or health facilities (56.6%), whereas 29.2% reported that they did not seek any care. Of those who consulted health facilities, government health facilities (76.9%) were more utilized than private (18.0%) and informal (5.1%) health facilities. Nearly all (93.9%) of the mothers/caregivers using government health facilities used health centers, and of those who took their children to private health facilities (60.9%) used clinics and 26.1% used pharmacies/drug vendors. Mothers/caregivers visiting health facilities obtained mainly oral rehydration salt (ORS) (39.8%) and home-recommended fluids (HRF) (40.3%), but few of them (11.9%) obtained ORS plus zinc supplementation. Predisposing factors of literacy of mothers/caregivers (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1) and occupation (AOR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.6), the enabling factors of households monthly income of 50 United States Dollars (US$) and above (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.6) and availability of nearest health

  3. 2010年夏季急性细菌感染性腹泻患儿沙门菌感染分析%Analysis of Salmonella infection in children with acute bacterial diarrhea in 2010 summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱敏; 何磊燕; 许学斌; 宋建明; 薛建昌; 王传清

    2011-01-01

    The current report aims to investigate the prevalence and resistance patterns of Salmonella in children with acute bacterial diarrhea. A total of 1045 stool specimens were collected from outpatients and inpatients with acute bacterial diarrhea admitted to Children's Hospital, Fudan University, from 1 July to 30 September in 2010. Salmonella spp. Was identified by culture isolation method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested via the Kirby-Bauer method. Salmonella was found in 160 specimens. The total infection rate was 15.3% (160/1045). The infection rate was 23. 6% (119/505) in children under 1-year old, which was significant higher than those in children aged 1 to 5 years (7. 6%, 32/423) and older (7.7%, 9/117) (x2 =2 090, P<0. 001). Twenty-one serotypes of Salmonella were found. Salmonella typhimurium accounted for 40.6% (65/160), Salmonella enteritidis accounted for 25.0% (40/160), and the others accounted for 34.4% (55/160). The resistance rates of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis to ampicillin were 91. 4% and 69. 0%, to ceftriaxone 29. 3% and 6. 9%, and to cefotaxime 29.3% and 6.9%, respectively. The sensitivity rates of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis to cefmetazole and fosfomycin were above 90%. These results suggest that Salmonella was the dominant pathogenic bacterium associated with acute bacterial diarrhea in children in our hospital in 2010 summer.The children under 1-year old were more susceptible to Salmonella infection. The prevalence serotypes were Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis and we found that they exhibited varying resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin.%本文旨在了解急性细菌感染性腹泻患儿中沙门菌的感染现状及其耐药性.采集2010年7月1日~2010年9月30日复旦大学附属儿科医院门诊及住院急性细菌感染性腹泻患儿的粪便标本,进行沙门菌分离、培养及鉴定,采用Kirby-Bauer法进行药敏试验.共收集急性细菌

  4. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  5. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking ...

  6. Tissue Sites of Persistent Infection and Active Replication of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus during Acute Disease and Asymptomatic Infection in Experimentally Infected Equids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Sharon M.; Cook, Sheila J.; Cook, R. Frank; Rushlow, Keith E.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses is characterized by recurring cycles of disease and viremia that typically progress to an inapparent infection in which clinical symptoms are absent as host immune responses maintain control of virus replication indefinitely. The dynamics of EIAV viremia and its association with disease cycles have been well characterized, but there has been to date no comprehensive quantitative analyses of the specific tissue sites of EIAV infection and replication in experimentally infected equids during acute disease episodes and during asymptomatic infections in long-term inapparent carriers. To characterize the in vivo site(s) of viral infection and replication, we developed a quantitative competitive PCR assay capable of detecting 10 copies of viral DNA and a quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR assay with a sensitivity of about 30 copies of viral singly spliced mRNA. Animals were experimentally infected with one of two reference viruses: the animal-passaged field isolate designated EIAVWyo and the virulent cell-adapted strain designated EIAVPV. Tissues and blood cells were isolated during the initial acute disease or from asymptomatic animals and analyzed for viral DNA and RNA levels by the respective quantitative assays. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the appearance of clinical symptoms in experimentally infected equids coincided with rapid widespread seeding of viral infection and replication in a variety of tissues. During acute disease, the predominant cellular site of viral infection and replication was the spleen, which typically accounted for over 90% of the cellular viral burden. In asymptomatic animals, viral DNA and RNA persisted in virtually all tissues tested, but at extremely low levels, a finding indicative of tight but incomplete immune control of EIAV replication. During all disease states, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were found to harbor less than 1% of

  7. Effect of Zinc supplementation on the Management of Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zinc supplementation on the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Young ... Incidence and prevalence of diarrhea were compared between the groups. ... Supplementing the treatment of acute watery diarrhea with Zinc in just 2 cases ...

  8. Pathology image of the month. Black esophagus detected at autopsy in a patient with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. DIAGNOSIS: Acute esophageal necrosis, ischemic and pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Christin; Thomas, Louise; McGoey, Robin R

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old African-American male was transported to the emergency department due to what emergency personnel described as "coffee ground emesis." He was pronounced dead shortly after arrival. An unlimited autopsy examination was conducted under authorization of the coroner's office. Medical record review revealed that the decedent had been discharged from the hospital just one day prior to his death following a three-day admission for abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and a 22-lb unintentional weight loss. Medical history documented hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, and a 57-pack-year smoking history. Alcohol abuse was also endorsed, but cessation of use was reported six months prior. During that admit, he was treated for volume-depletion, a urinary tract infection, and suspected infective colitis with antibiotics. Symptoms had resolved on hospital day three, and the patient was discharged home with a two-week course of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole and a follow-up colonoscopy appointment in one month. At the time of autopsy, the decedent was described as cachectic. Figure 1a shows the decedent's esophagus, opened longitudinally. Figure 1b shows the corresponding histology from the esophagus. Other findings documented at autopsy included ischemic bowel disease in the descending colon with patchy superimposed pseudomembranous colitis, emphysematous change, papillary renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, microscopic prostatic adenocarcinoma, hepatic fibrosis, and intact hepatic hemangiomata.

  9. [Parasitic diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrel, D

    2003-12-01

    In many areas, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are found together and their microscopic appearance is identical. Biochemical tests which can show cell wall differences are often falsely negative and the only possible way is to treat with metronidazole when amoebiasis is suspected. In case of clinical failure of metronidazole, a bacterial diarrhea is frequently found. Giardia is an other protozoa frequently found in stools of children in endemic areas. Diarrheas due to Giardia are possible in normal children and frequent in malnourished. They can determine severe atrophy of jejunal mucosa and must be treated. Cryptoridiosis is frequently asymptomatic but induces diarrhea in malnourished children. Diarrhea due to helminths is rare and only Strongyloides stercoralis induces severe diarrhea in malnourished child and must be treated in emergency with Ivermectin to avoid dissemination. In immune deficiency induced by corticosteroid treatment or cancer chemotherapy, a prophylactic treatment with Ivermectin against Strongyloides stercoralis must be given in endemic areas or after return, and probably also with metronidazole against Giardia.

  10. 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药对小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效及血清中IL-6、IL-17表达影响研究%Effect of viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use in treating children non-infectious diarrhea and its influence on serum IL-6,IL-17 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 张声生

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药对小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效及血清中白细胞介素(IL)-6、IL-17表达的影响.方法 选择重庆市开县人民医院儿科收治的非感染性腹泻患儿100例,采用双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗50例为观察组;采用常规治疗50例为对照组.比较两组患儿的疗效及血清中IL-6、IL-17表达水平.结果 观察组总有效率与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗小儿非感染性腹泻疗效显著,且血清中IL-6、IL-17表达水平恢复正常相对更快,而且服用方便,无明显不良反应,适宜应用于临床.%Objective To investigate the effect of viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use in treating children non-infectious diarrhea and its influence on serum IL-6,IL-17 expression. Methods 100 children with non-infectious diarrhea in this hospital were selected .The observation group (50 cases) was treated by viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use and the con -trol group (50 cases) by the conventional therapy .The effects and serum expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were compared between the two groups .Results The total effective rates had statistical differences between the two groups (P0 .05) .Conclusion Viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use has significant effect in treating children non-infectious diarrhea ,serum IL-6 ,IL-17 expression returning to normal rapidly ,which is easy to take without significant adverse reactions and suitable for clinical application .

  11. Short-term effect of prebiotics administration on stool characteristics and serum cytokines dynamics in very young children with acute diarrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vaisman (Nachum); J. Press (Josef); E. Leibovitz (Eugene); G. Boehm (Günther); V. Barak (Vivian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9-24 months) with acute diar

  12. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. The goal of the traveler's diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting ...

  13. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarström Lennart; Svensson Lennart; Brüssow Harald; Marcotte Harold; Pant Neha

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an...

  14. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Prongay, Kamm; Park, Byung; Murphy, Stephanie J

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdo...

  15. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    PRONGAY, KAMM; Park, Byung; Murphy, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdo...

  16. 544例急性腹泻门诊病例粪便的细菌菌谱及药敏分析%Analysis bacterial culture,identification and antibiotics resistance of 544 stools specimens of acute diarrhea outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨焕章; 严育忠; 范慧清; 徐英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens isolated from stool of acute diarrhea outpatients ,and provide scientific evidence for clinic rational use of antibiotics .Methods Bacteria was detected by conven‐tional feces culture method ,including separation and biochemistry appraisal sure strains .The predominant bacteria were conducted antimicrobial resistance testing in acute diarrhea outpatients .Results 544 stool specimens were collected from acute diarrhea outpa‐tients from January 2011 to December 2012 .The total positive rate was 17 .83% .Positive rates of Escherichia coli ,Salmonella , Campylobacter ,Vibrio parahaemolyticus ,Other Aeromonas ,Shiga Plesiomonas ,Shigella and Aeromonas hydrophila were 4 .78% ,3 .68% ,2 .57% and 2 .39% ,1 .84% ,1 .28% ,0 .92% and 0 .37% ,respectively .Salmonella ,Campylobacter and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were susceptible to Ofloxacin ,Amoxicillin ,Ceftazidime .They were different resistance to conventional antibiot‐ics ,which were commonly used by clinic ,and the most serious resistance are ampicillin and nalidixic acid .Conclusion Escherichia coli ,Salmonella ,Campylobacter and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are predominant bacteria pathogens .It is important to better under‐stand pathogens spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria for controlling infection in acute diarrhea outpatients .%目的:了解急性腹泻患者粪便细菌菌群分布及其抗菌药物耐药情况,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供科学依据。方法对该院2011年1月至2012年12月544例肠道门诊患者的粪便标本进行分离鉴定和药物敏感试验。结果544份粪便标本共分离到97株致病菌,总检出率为17.83%,其中致泻性大肠埃希氏菌属、非伤寒沙门氏菌属、弯曲菌属、副溶血性弧菌、其他气单胞菌、类志贺邻单胞菌、志贺氏菌属和嗜水气单胞菌的检出率分别为4.78%、3.68%、2.57%、2.39

  17. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, María Pía; Carreño, Monica

    2015-10-29

    Acute otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in children. Antibiotic treatment use remains controversial. This summary aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics in children with acute otitis media. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including 18 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded antibiotics reduce pain at 48-72 hours and reduce the risk of tympanic perforations in children with acute otitis media, but they do not reduce late recurrences and increase the risk of side effects (rash, vomiting and diarrhea).

  18. Comparison of Culture, Cytotoxin Assay and Two Eia Tests with Clinical Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

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    Marilyn Binning

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common etiology of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients is Clostridium difficile. No single laboratory test yields a definitive diagnosis. Four methods were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity in patients who had clinically defined C difficile-associated diarrhea.

  19. Executive summary of imported infectious diseases after returning from foreign travel: Consensus document of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel; Salvador, Fernando; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Martín-Echeverría, Esteban; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena; Norman, Francesca; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Zubero-Sulibarría, Zuriñe; Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Muñoz-Gutierrez, José; Ramos-Rincón, José Manuel; Sánchez-Seco-Fariñas, M Paz; Velasco-Arribas, María; Belhassen-García, Moncef; Lago-Nuñez, Mar; Cañas García-Otero, Elías; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-04-07

    In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

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    ... All Content Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ... and Diseases Diarrhea Celiac Disease IBS in Children Lactose Intolerance Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Upper GI ...

  1. Diarrhea and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they swallow the water. If you have diarrhea, the most important thing you can do is to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. This is especially important for young children, pregnant women, and persons with weakened immune systems (such as those living with HIV/AIDS, ...

  2. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY BASED INPATIENT DATA ANALYSIS AT AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE HOSPITAL

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    Meera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Communicable diseases continue to be the leading cause of considerable m ortality & morbidity in our country . At the hospital where the study was done , patients with febrile illnesses from various parts of the state are admitted for infectious diseases which include Viral fevers , acute diarrheal diseases ( ADD , Enteric fever , Cholera , Infectious hepatitis , Malaria , Dengue , Chikungunya , Measles , Mumps , Chicken pox , Diphtheria , Tetanus , Dog bites & Rabies . CONTEXT: Patients attending outpatient department ( OPD of an infectious disease hospital with febrile illnesses . AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of various communicable diseases among patients attending the OPD of the hospital , the rate of admission with provisional diagnosis and patient outcome in relation to the disease . MATERIAL & METHO DS: Patients who attended the OPD from September 2012 till August 2013 were included in the study . Clinical and personal data was documented for each patient . Laboratory investigations were done as guided by clinical presentation . All patients with moderat e to severe morbidity & serious illnesses were admitted . RESULT OF THE STUDY: The study showed that while the incidence of infective illnesses like acute diarrhea , malaria , dengue & clinical diphtheria is high , tetanus and rabies cases are not uncommon .

  3. 急性腹泻住院婴幼儿轮状病毒和诺如病毒感染的临床研究%Comparison of clinical features between rotavirus and norovirus infections in hospitalized infants with acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 王小琴; 刘蓬勃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the infection status and clinical features of human rotavirus (HRV) and norovirus (NoV) as well as NoV genotypes in hospitalized children with acute diarrhea. Methods Fecal specimens and clinical data were collected from 198 hospitalized children under 5 years old diagnosed of acute diarrhea from April 2009 to May 2010. Fifty-three children without diarrhea were selected as control. Group A rotavirus antigen was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NoV was detected by one-step real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). After detection of noroviruses, positive samples were reamplified using conventional RT-PCR and the PCR amplicons were sequenced. The severity of diarrhea in children was compared. Results Group A rotaviruses and norovirus were identified in 137 (69.2%) and 40 (20.2%) children with diarrhea, respectively. These two viruses were also detected in 7 (13.2%) and 19 (35.8%) control children, respectively. Co-infection with both rotavirus and norovirus was found in 6.1% (12/198) of children with diarrhea and also in 5.7% (3/53) of children without diarrhea. The average severity scores of diarrhea didn’t indicate a statistically significant difference between groups with rotavirus alone and with norovirus alone. Sequencing analysis of NoV in cases and controls showed that GⅡ.3 and GⅡ.4 were the predominant genotypes. Conclusions Rotavirus is the most common pathogen of childhood diarrhea.In addition, data showed that NoV was the second most common cause of acute diarrhea in children after rotavirus. Asymptomatic infection of NoV was found in young children.%目的 了解腹泻婴幼儿诺如病毒 (NoV) 和A组轮状病毒 (HRV) 的感染状况、临床表现以及NoV的基因 型分布.方法 收集2009年4月至2010年5月间,198例<5岁的住院腹泻患儿的粪便标本和临床资料,并同时收集53例 非腹泻患儿作为对照;采用酶联免疫吸附法 (ELISA) 检

  4. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años Sustained feeding during acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age

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    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.Objective. To identify locally available and culturally acceptable foods for children with acute diarrhea, and test their acceptance and effect on the childís weight. Material and methods. 142 mothers of children younger than five years of age living in rural communities were interviewed to indentify culturally accepted diets by means of group sorting. These were displayed in a multidimensional scale. A descriptive study was performed of the clinical course of 54 children, ages 4 to 50 months who received the designed diets during the first 48 hours of diarrhea. Results. The designed diets considered age of the child, and stage of the disease. Children spent 47.6 ± 22.2 h in the hospital during which they consumed 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/day (additional to breast milk and they gained 70.6 ± 179.7 g. A direct relationship was observed between increasing age and

  5. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda Physicians' beliefs and knowledge on dietary management of children with acute diarrhea

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    Martha Corral-Terrazas

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.Objective. To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' dietary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. Material and Methods. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July to December 1998, on ten physicians that care for the infant population ascribed to Hospital Rural IMSS-Solidaridad of San Juanito Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data were collected through focus groups, case vignettes, free listing, pile sorting, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and then cross-referred. Results. The physicians recognized the negative impact of diarrhea on the nutritional state of the child, but not all of them evaluated this state

  6. xTAG(R) GPP多重核酸技术在北京地区感染性腹泻诊断中的应用及流行病学研究%The application and epidemiological research of xTAG(R) GPP multiplex PCR in the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟明; 顾秀丽; 隋文君; 张明新; 鲁炳怀; 王玫; 黄艳飞; 鲁辛辛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of xTAG(R) gastrointestinal pathogen panel (xTAG9(R) GPP) multiplex PCR in the early diagnosis of infectious diarrhea,and understand the epidemiology of intestinal diarrhea pathogens.Methods Five hundred and ninety two specimens were collected in outpatient of Tongren Hospital,Capital Medical University,from 1st Oct 2013 to 30th Sep 2014,comparing the xTAG(R) GPP multiplex PCR assay with the traditional methods (culture,rapid enzyme immunoassay chromatography,microscopic examination,Real-time PCR) and mading the statistical analysis.Results The positive rate of 592 patients with diarrhea specimens was 47.8% (283/592),the proportion of male and female was 1:1.02,the average age was 31 years.The virus detection rate was 18.1%,Rotavirus A was the most common organism detected(8.8%),concentrated in winter,popular in children.Secondly,Norovirus G Ⅰ/G Ⅱ (8.4%),Adenovirus 40/41 was five cases.The positive rate of bacteria was 35.5%,Enterotoxigenic E.coli (8.4%,50/592) was most frequently detected in summer,common in young adults.The other pathogens were Campylobacter 7.7%,Salmonella 7.0%,Clostridium difficile toxinA/B 3.5%,Shigella 3.3%,E.coli O157 3.3% and Shiga toxin-producing E.coli LT/ST 1.7%.None of Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio cholerae was detected.There were ten samples with parasitic (1.7%),five samples were positive for Cryptosporidium,three for Entamoeba histolytica and two for Giardia.All of them did not have obvious distribution followed by season and population.Totally 242 (40.8%) infected specimens with single pathogen were detected.There were 41 (6.9%) co-infections samples,including two pathogens 36 cases (6.1%),three pathogens in 5 cases (0.8%).Conclusions xTAG(R) GPP multiplex PCR is simple,sensitive,specific and can be used as a quick way to diagnose the infectious diarrhea.Diarrhea pathogen has significant characteristics with the season and crowd.%目的

  7. Fatores de risco para internamento por diarréia aguda em menores de dois anos: estudo de caso-controle Risk factors for hospitalization due to acute diarrhea in children under two years old: a case-control study

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    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre determinantes sócio-econômico-demográficos e biológicos e hospitalização por diarréia aguda (DA em menores de dois anos. Utilizou-se estudo tipo caso-controle de base hospitalar no período de maio a outubro de 1997, em hospital pediátrico de nível terciário em Recife, Pernambuco. Os casos (n = 185 foram crianças internadas por DA e os controles (n = 185 foram crianças com doenças ambulatoriais, exceto diarréia, que tinham apresentado a doença nos últimos 15 dias, atendidas no mesmo local e período. Utilizaram-se os programas Epi Info e Stata para a análise dos dados. Foram calculados o odds ratio e os intervalos de confiança de 95% por meio da técnica de regressão logística múltipla, para o controle dos fatores de confusão, considerando um modelo hierarquizado dos fatores de risco. A investigação mediante o modelo proposto mostrou existência de associação entre internamento por DA e piso de terra ou tábua, paridade das mães igual a cinco ou mais filhos, criança menor de seis meses e gravidade dos episódios, que depende da interação entre condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis, baixa idade das crianças e episódio diarréico grave.The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic, demographic, and biological determinants of hospitalization due to acute diarrhea (AD in children under two years old. The hospital-based, case-control study was conducted from May to October 1997 in a pediatric hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Cases (n = 185 were children hospitalized due to AD, and controls (n = 185 were children with various diseases (except AD presenting in the previous 15 days in the same area and time period. Data analysis used the Epi Info and Stata software. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by multiple logistic regression to control confounding factors, considering a hierarchical risk factor model

  8. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered.

  9. Nutritional Status and Infectious Disease of Undernourished Children under five in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, from April to December 2012

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    Palomina Caesarea Nurhasanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition frequently occurs in children under five. If not treated, it will cause acute health effects and affect on cognitive development, social, physical work capacity and productivity. Undernutrition can be accompanied by the presence of infectious disease that can worsen the children’s nutritional status. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status and infectious disease of undernutrition children under five in Jatinangor Subdistrict. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out to 7 parents and undernourished children under five, in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor. It was conducted from April to December 2012. The inclusion criterias were undernourished children under five with a history of infectious disease in the previous year, and the parents were willing to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria were parents and/or the children who were not at home when the collection of the data was conducted.. Data collection was conducted using measurement of nutritional status, in depth interview and environmental observation. The data were presented in tables, figures and narration. Results: Three subjects with undernutrition (-3SD to -2SD and four subjects with severe undernutrition (<-3SD. Factors affecting poor nutritional status were weight loss, no significant weight gain, diet and eating habit, and onset of disease. Commonly occurred infectious diseases were common cold, diarrhea, fever and cough. Some factors affecting infectious diseases were family member transmission, immunization, and treatment behavior. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and infectious diseases contribute to undernutrition in children under five.

  10. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea

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    Felipe Mota-Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at the oral rehydration unit of Hospital Infantil de Mexico "Federico Gomez", between September 1998 and June 1999. Forty patients five-year old and younger children, dehydrated due to acute diarrhea, were given oral rehydration solution (ORS ad libitum (AL group; another forty patients received ORS in fractionated doses (FD group. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Results are presented as

  11. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

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    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. METHODS: From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI, diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera. Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.067 and 0.026 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; diarrhea--0.40 and 0.71 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.09 and 0.062 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; AFI--0.17 and 0.09 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.03 and 0.015 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively. Annually, based on household visits, children <5 years in Asembo and Kibera had 60 and 27 cough days, 10 and 8 diarrhea days, and 37 and 11 fever days, respectively. Household-based rates were higher than clinic rates for diarrhea and AFI, this difference being several-fold greater in the rural than urban site. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Giardia lamblia and Endemic Pediatric Diarrhea in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection. Eligible were case/control and longitudinal studies that defined the outcome as acute or persistent (>14 days) diarrhea, adjusted for confounders and lasting for at least 1 year. Data on G. lamblia detection (mainly in stools) from diarrhea patients and controls without diarrhea were abstracted. Random effects model meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve nonindustrialized-setting acute pediatric diarrhea studies met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. Random-effects model meta-analysis of combined results (9774 acute diarrhea cases and 8766 controls) yielded a pooled OR of 0.60 (95% CI, .38–.94; P = .03), indicating that G. lamblia was not associated with acute diarrhea. However, limited data suggest that initial Giardia infections in early infancy may be positively associated with diarrhea. Meta-analysis of 5 persistent diarrhea studies showed a pooled OR of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.50–6.76; P Giardia with that syndrome. The well-powered Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is prospectively addressing the association between G. lamblia infection and diarrhea in children in developing countries. PMID:23169940

  13. The Predictive Value of Acute Diarrhea Frequency on Positive Rate of Abdominal Structural Lesions by Ultrasound%急性腹泻次数对腹部超声结构性病变阳性检出率的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兆兴; 闫崴; 江凌; 孔丽丽; 赵文奎; 张玉梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore whether acute diarrhea frequency had predictive value on positive rate of abdominal structural lesions by ultrasound, which could guide the clinician make reasonable choice for patients who had acute abdominal pain. Methods Retrospectively analyze the data of patients visiting Emergency Department of Peking University Third Hospital, who manifested acute abdominal pain with diarrhea, from January 2009 to January 2011, 3100 in total. They were divided into groups by diarrhea frequency and positive rate of abdominal ultrasound, the positive detection rate of abdominal structural lesions was calculated, and differences were compared among groups. Results The positive group of structural lesions accounted for 42% and negative accounted for 58%. Acute structural lesions accounted for 84% of the positive group of structural lesions, and non-acute structural lesions accounted for 65% of the total. Diarrhea <3 times/day, the positive rate of acute structural lesions was 95% ; diarrhea 3~4 times/day, the rate was 4%; diarrhea≥5 times/day, the rate was 5%o; the positive rate of chronic structural lesions was 7% of the total, and the rate of non-acute structural lesion was 65% of the total. Conclusions Diarrhea frequency had excellent predictive value on the positive rate of ultrasound for abdominal structural lesions of patients with acute abdominal pain, and it could be an auxiliary judgmental method and guide rational examination.%目的 探讨急性腹泻次数对腹部结构性病变超声检查阳性检出率的预测价值,以期帮助临床医师对急性腹痛患者合理的进行超声检查.方法 回顾分析患者3 100例,根据腹泻次数及腹部超声阳性检出率分组,计算腹部结构性病变阳性病变检出率,比较组间差异.结果 结构性病变阳性组占总体42%,结构性病变阴性组占总体58%,急性结构性病变占结构性病变阳性组的84%,非急性结构性病变占总体65%.腹泻<3次/d,

  14. Envolvimento de Aeromonas em surto de doença diarréica aguda em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco Aeromonas associated with an acute diarrhea outbreak in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No primeiro semestre de 2004, ocorreu um surto de diarréia em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco, registrando-se 2.170 casos. Nas 582 coproculturas realizadas, 145 (25% revelaram um enteropatógeno bacteriano, destacando 114 casos (19,5% com a participação de Aeromonas, representadas por Aeromonas caviae (57/9,8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23/3,9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15/2,6% e outras espécies (19/3,2%. Nos 31 episódios restantes (5,3%, foram detectados: V. cholerae O1 Ogawa toxigênico (18/3,1%, Salmonella spp (8/1,4%, Shigella spp (3/0,5% e Vibrio cholerae não O1/não O139 (2/0,3%.An acute diarrhea outbreak, with 2170 cases, was described during January to July, 2004, in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco. 582 stools were examined and an enteric pathogen was recovered in 25% (145 patients. Aeromonas species were the most frequent (114-19.5% and the main isolates were Aeromonas caviae (57-9.8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23-3.9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15-2.6% and other species (19-3.2%. The other isolated enteropathogens were Vibrio cholerae O1-Ogawa toxigenic (18-3.1%, Salmonella spp (8-1.4%, Shigella spp (3-0.5% and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (2-0.3%.

  15. Racecadotril in treatment of children with acute watery diarrhea curative effect%消旋卡多曲治疗小儿急性水样腹泻的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永英

    2012-01-01

      Objective : To observe the effect of racecadotril in treatment of children with acute watery diarrhea curative effect, for children with acute watery diarrhea in clinical drug treatment to provide guidance. Methods: in our hospital in 2011 January to 2012 June were treated 109 cases of acute watery diarrhea, be considered as the object of study, al the patients were divided into 2 groups, control group (n=54) and treatment group (n=55); the 2 groups were given a reasonable diet, the anti-virus therapy, oral rehydration or intravenous rehydration and symptomatic and supportive therapy and other conventional treatment options, patients in the control group in the conventional treatment regimens based on given Bifidobacterium lactis Streptococcus thermophilus triple viable tablets, oral, > 1 years old 1 /d, 2 /d, 1-3 years 2 / time, 2 /d, plus double eight montmorilonite powder, oral, > 1 years old, 1 bags of /d, divided into 3 suits, 1-3 2-3 /d bag, cent is taken 3 times, the first dose in the standard double; the treatment group was treated with routine treatment in the given on the basis of racecadotril, oral, 1.5 mg/kg, 3 /d; comparative analysis of the clinical effect of 2 groups was observed differences, adverse reaction. Results: (1) clinical effect: the treatment group was treated with 29 cases (52.7%, 29/55), effective in 24 cases (43.6%,24/55), failure in 2 cases (3.6%,2/55), effective in 53 cases (96.4%, 53/55) of patients in the control group, 16 cases (29.6%,16/54), effective in 20 cases (37%,20/54), failure in 18 cases (33.3%,18/54), effective in 36 cases (66.7%), the 2 groups between the total efficiency significantly, with statistical significance (P1岁1片/d,2次/d,1-3岁2片/次,2次/d,另加双八面蒙脱石散剂,口服,>1岁,1袋/d,分3次服下,1-3岁2-3袋/d,分3次服下,首次服用剂量依前述标准加倍;治疗组患儿在常规治疗方案的基础上给予消旋卡多曲,口服,1.5 mg/kg,3次/d;对比分析2组患儿的临

  16. Nosocomial diarrhea in children:is astrovirus the leading pathogen?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Chakravarti; Manisha Jain; Mayank Singh Chauhan; Anju Sharma; Sayani Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To screen for the presence of mixed infection with rotavirus. Methods:The present study included 140 children aged less than 2 years with acute diarrhea. Fecal samples of all these patients were analyzed for the presence of astroviral antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Also 40 rotavirus positive fecal samples were screened for the presence of astrovirus. Results:In case of acute diarrhea in children the prevalence of astrovirus was around 34%(48/140). It was seen that even in rotavirus positive cases astrovirus co infection was 25%. Conclusions:Astrovirus is a growing problem which is often underrecognised. With the rotavirus vaccine licensure being imminent astrovirus will emerge out as the single most important cause of viral diarrhea.

  17. [Infectious colitis. Endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dive, C

    1986-11-01

    Colon and rectum localizations of an disease or a parasitosis depend essentially on the nature of the pathogenous agent and the host resistance. Acute enterocolitis is secondary to enterotoxinogenous germs (such as cholera vibrio), invasive germs (such as shigella), penetrating germs (such as salmonella); viruses are seldom concerned. Parasitic colitis include mostly amibiasis and bilharziosis. Infectious and parasitic enterocolitis may be transmitted sexually. On the other hand, certain venereal diseases have intestinal manifestations. Finally, in AIDS, timely gastro-intestinal infections develop. The diagnosis rests on endoscopy, histological examination and biological and parasitological samplings.

  18. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  19. Loperamide-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halla Vidarsdottir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is a common disease leading to hospitalizations, most often caused by gallstones or alcohol. We present a case of a patient diagnosed with acute pancreatitis considered to be due to loperamide treatment for diarrhea.

  20. Management of the Returning Traveler with Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20—60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers. PMID:21180583

  1. Management of the returning traveler with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saussure, Philippe P H

    2009-11-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20-60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers.

  2. 复方嗜酸乳杆菌联合利福昔明治疗急性细菌性腹泻疗效观察%Curative effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus complex combined rifaximin in treatment of acute bacterial diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田景波; 张长青; 曲燕; 李京军; 刘建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of Lactobadllus acidophilus complex combined rifaximin in treating acute bacterial diarrhea. Methods 100 cases of acute bacterial diarrhea patients were randomly divided into Group A and B. Group A (50 patients) was treated with the combination of Lactobadllus acidophilus complex and rifaximin, while Group B (50 patients) was treated with rifaximin only. The total effective rate, average time to diarrhea stops and the rate of side effects of both groups were observed. Results The total effective rate of Group A and Group B were 100% and 92% respectively. The difference was significant (P <0. 05). The average time to diarrhea stops in Group A was (37. 9 ± 10. 0) hours, shorter than the (43.4 ± 13.6) hours in Group B (P <0, 05). Side effects were found in group A and B, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion Combination of Lactobadllus acidophilus complex and rifaximin is better than rifaximin alone for treatment of acute bacterial diarrhea, and can help shorten the average time of antidiarrhea.%目的 观察复方嗜酸乳杆菌联合利福昔明治疗急性细菌性腹泻的临床疗效.方法 将100例急性细菌性腹泻患者随机分为A、B两组,A组50例给予复方嗜酸乳杆菌联合利福昔明治疗,B组50例单用利福昔明治疗,观察两组的总有效率、平均止泻时间、不良反应发生率.结果 A、B两组的总有效率分别为100%和92%,两组疗效比较,A组疗效优于B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).A组平均止泻时间为(37.9±10.0)h,短于B组(43.4±13.6)h(P <0.05).治疗中A组和B组出现不良反应,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 复方嗜酸乳杆菌联合利福昔明治疗急性细菌性腹泻的效果要优于单用利福昔明,并可缩短腹泻时间.

  3. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  4. pic gene of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, David; Contreras, Carmen A; Mosquito, Susan; Ruíz, Joaquim; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea among children, HIV-infected patients, and travelers to developing countries. We have searched for 18 genes-encoding virulence factors associated with aggregative adherence, dispersion, biofilm, toxins, serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) and siderophores, analyzed in 172 well-characterized EAEC strains (aggR(+)) isolated from stool samples of 97 children with diarrhea and 75 healthy controls from a passive surveillance diarrhea cohort study in Peru. Eighty-one different genetic profiles were identified, 37 were found only associated with diarrhea and 25 with control samples. The most frequent genetic profile was aggC(+)aatA(+)aap(+)shf(+)fyuA(+), present in 19 strains, including diarrhea and controls. The profile set1A(+)set1B(+)pic(+) was associated with diarrhea (P pic was associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and with prolonged diarrhea (diarrhea ≥ 7 days) (P < 0.05). In summary, this is the first report on the prevalence of a large set of EAEC virulence genes and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children. More studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of each virulence factor.

  5. Changes of the number of atypical lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte subsets in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea%轮状病毒腹泻患儿急性期异形淋巴细胞数量和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 潘明; 赵海军

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究轮状病毒(RV)腹泻患儿急性期外周血异形淋巴细胞数量和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化.方法 采用外周血涂片瑞特染色,显微镜计数40例RV腹泻婴幼儿急性期外周血异形淋巴细胞和20名健康对照组婴幼儿的异形淋巴细胞;同时用流式细胞仪测定T淋巴细胞亚群.结果 RV腹泻患儿急性期外周血异形淋巴细胞计数为(16.18%±3.59%),较健康对照组明显升高(P<0.001);外周血CD3+、CD4+、CD8+T细胞及CD4 +/CD8+比值分别为(50.93%±5.86%)、(22.02%±5.17%)、(27.07%±4.79%)及(0.84%±0.29%),较健康对照组明显下降(P<0.01).结论 RV腹泻患儿急性期外周血异形淋巴细胞数量升高,淋巴细胞亚群异常;RV腹泻患儿急性期进行外周血异形淋巴细胞计数和T淋巴细胞亚群的测定可较好的反映患儿的机体免疫状态.%Objective To investigate dynamic changes of the number of peripheral blood atypical lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte subsets in children with acute rotavirus (RV) diarrhea. Methods A total of 40 children with acute RV diarrhea and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The proportions of peripheral blood atypical lymphocytes in their peripheral blood smear with Wright stain were figured out by microscopy. Meanwhile, the T-lymphocyte subsets were examined by flow cytometry. Results The proportion of peripheral blood atypical lymphocytes was( 16. 18% ± 3. 59% ) in children with acute RV diarrhea and had an obviously increase compared with that in healthy controls (P < 0.001) . The percentages of CD3 + , CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in peripheral blood of children with acute RV diarrhea and CD4VCD8+ ratio were (50.93% ±5. 86% ), (22. 02% ±5. 17% ), (27. 07% ±4.79%) and (0. 84%_ ±0. 29% ) respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, the infected groups had a decreased percentage of T cells (P < 0.01). Conclusions There are the increasing of atypical lymphocyte number and atypical T

  6. Search for Cytolethal Distending Toxin Production among Fecal Escherichia Coli Isolates from Brazilian Children with Diarrhea and without Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Lilian RM; Tavechio,Ana T; Abe, Cecilia Mari [UNIFESP; Gomes, Tania Aparecida Tardelli [UNIFESP

    2003-01-01

    The enteropathogenic role of cytolethal distending toxin-producing Escherichia coli was investigated by searching sequences homologous to the cdt genes of an O86 strain among 2,074 isolates from 200 children with acute diarrhea and 200 controls in Brazil. Only one (0.5%) diarrheic child and two (1.0%) nondiarrheic controls harbored cdt-positive isolates.

  7. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chaochao Lv,1,* Yan Xiao,1,* Xiangdong Li,1 Kegong Tian,1,2 1National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine, Luoyang, People's Republic of China; 2College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this review Abstract: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, can infect pigs of all ages and causes acute and watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in neonatal piglets. This disease was first observed in England in 1971 and was subsequently reported in many swine-producing countries in Europe and Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe, the disease has remained a major cause of diarrhea outbreaks on swine farms in Asia. Since late 2010, severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED epizootics caused by new variants have been affecting pigs in the People's Republic of China, resulting in substantial economic losses. In April 2013, PEDV was identified for the first time in the United States and resulted in the estimated death of over seven million piglets during a 1-year epidemic. Nowadays, it has spread into North and South America, Asia, and Europe, causing significant economic problems worldwide. More studies have been conducted in PEDV research, and the number of scientific literatures published during the last 5 years has exceeded the total of that in the past several decades. This review focuses on the current understanding of the etiology, molecular epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of PEDV, as well as the vaccine to prevent PEDV infection. Keywords: PEDV, molecular epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine

  8. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E Mönkemüller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider when tailoring the work-up of diarrhea in the HIV-infected patient is the immune status, which is reflected by the total CD4 lymphocyte cell count. A CD4 count of less than 100 cells/µL is significantly correlated with opportunistic disorders. For the HIV-infected patient with diarrhea, repeated stool studies to investigate for bacteria, ova and parasites should be the first step. When either upper or lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms are present and stool studies are negative, endoscopy directed to the probable organ of involvement is appropriate. If localizing symptoms are absent, the most appropriate next test is sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Not infrequently, despite extensive evaluation, the cause of diarrhea in patients with AIDS remains unexplained. Recently, the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors, has led to a change in the epidemiology of diarrhea in AIDS patients. As their immune status improves, HIV-infected patients treated with combination therapy become less prone to opportunistic disorders. However, diarrhea appears to be frequent because several antiretroviral agents can themselves cause diarrhea.

  9. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation given with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth on infant rotavirus infection and diarrhea: a randomized prospective study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Christoffersen, Dorthe; Pedersen, Ulla Britt

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide.......Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide....

  10. Clinical efficacy and safety of saccharomyces boulardii powder combined with montmorillonite powder in treatment of acute diarrhea in children%布拉氏酵母菌散联合蒙脱石散治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效与安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨聂妃; 樊慧苏; 吴俊

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨布拉氏酵母菌散联合蒙脱石散治疗小儿急性腹泻的临床疗效与安全性。方法选取2014年3月~2015年7月丽水市人民医院诊断为急性腹泻的患儿68例,按随机数字表法分为2组:对照组34例,在抗炎、补液、支持等基础治疗基础上给予蒙脱石散;实验组34例,在基础治疗上联合应用布拉氏酵母菌散和蒙脱石散,均治疗6 d。观察2组患者治疗前后大便次数、腹泻控制时间、腹泻总时间和不良反应。结果治疗后,实验组每天大便次数明显低于对照组( P<0.05);实验组腹泻控制时间和腹泻总时间明显低于对照组(P<0.05);实验组临床总有效率为91.18%,明显高于对照组的73.53%(P<0.05)。结论布拉氏酵母菌散联合蒙脱石散对小儿急性腹泻能缩短腹泻时间,具有较好的临床疗效。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of montmorillonite powder combined with saccharomyces boulardii powder in treatment of acute diarrhea in children.Methods A total of 68 children with acute diarrhea from March 2014 to July 2015 in Lishui People’s Hospital were collected and randomly divided into experiment group and control group, with 34 cases in each group.Patients in control group were treated by montmorillonite on the basis of anti-inflammation, fluid infusion, support and other symptomatic treatment; patients in experiment group were treated saccharomyces boulardii powder combined with montmorillonite powder on the base of clinical routine treatment, the course was 6 days.The stool frequency, diarrhea control time, diarrhea total time and incidence of adverse reactions rate of two groups before and after treatment were observed, and the validity and safety were compared.Results After 6 days treatment, the daily stool frequency of experiment group were significantly lower than control group(P<0.05); diarrhea control time and diarrhea total

  11. 小儿腹泻贴联合蒙脱石散治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果分析%The effect observation of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie in combination with montmorillonite on the acute diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉立

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect observation of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie in combination with montmorillonite on the acute diarrhea in children.Methods Sixty-five children with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned into control group and observation group.Both groups were treated with montmorillonite,but only the observation group was given Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie additionally.The efficacy after treatment and diarrhea were analyzed in both groups.Meanwhile,the vomiting and appetite were recorded in both groups as well as the adverse reactions.Results The total efficiency(93.9% vs.71.9%,P0.05).The no vomiting rate(97.0%vs. 81.3%,P<0.05) and good appetite rates(90.9%vs. 68.8%,P<0.05) of the observation group were also higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The combined effect of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie with montmorillonite was better on the acute diarrhea in children,which can be promoted in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨小儿腹泻贴联合蒙脱石散治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果。方法:将65例急性腹泻患儿随机分为对照组与观察组,均给予蒙脱石散剂治疗,仅观察组加用小儿腹泻贴,分析两组治疗后的疗效、腹泻情况(大便次数及性状)并记录呕吐及食欲情况。结果:观察组的总有效率高于对照组(93.9%与71.9%,P<0.05);两组的大便次数无差异,但观察组的大便性状优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组的无呕吐率(97.0%与81.3%,P<0.05)及食欲好的百分比(90.9%与68.8%,P<0.05)均高于对照组。结论:小儿腹泻贴联合蒙脱石治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果较好,可在临床治疗中进行推广。

  12. Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simadibrata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolerance, benign tumor, carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, post surgery complications, laxative etc. The approaches to diagnosis include good anamnesis, careful physical examination, supporting laboratory tests, more specialized supporting examinations including X-ray of the colon, esophagogastroduodenum follow-through, enteroclysis, ileo-colonoscopy and endoscopy on the upper portion of the digestive tract including the small intestine with biopsy for histopathology examinations. The treatment for chronic diarrhea is divided into supportive and causal therapy. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 179-89 Keywords: small bowel, chronic diarrhea, approaches to diagnosis, treatment

  13. 口服补液盐Ⅲ联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果分析%The Result Analyze of Treatment Children Acute Diarrhea by Oral Rehy-dration Salts Ⅲ Compared with Live Combined Bifidobacterium、Lacto-bacillus Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎瞳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To approach result of treatment children acute diarrhea by Oral Rehydration Salts Ⅲ compared with Live Combined Bifidobacterium、Lactobacillus Tablets. Methods To analyze 46 cases clinical data of children a-cute diarrhea in maternal and child care service centre pediatrics Zhuhai city from June 2014 to Delember 2015 were analyzed,which was to be divided into two groups by different treatment methods,control group 23 cases and combined treatment group 23 cases. The defecate frequency back to normal time、body temperature returned to normal time、stool form returned to normal time、clinical effects of two groups acute diarrhea children were detected. Results The defecate frequency back to normal time(1.7±0.4)d、body temperature returned to normal time(19.6±5.4)h、stool form returned to normal time (2.0±0.8)d of combined treatment group children acute diarrhea were lower than control group(2.4±0.6)d、(27.8 ±6.2)h、(3.7 ±1.2)d,the clinical treatment total effective rate (100%)of combined treatment group were higher than control group (82.6%),P<0.05,the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The treatment children a-cute diarrhea by Oral Rehydration Salts Ⅲ compared with Live Combined Bifidobacterium、Lactobacillus Tablets,clini-cal symptoms could improve obviously,result is good,which is to be used.%目的:探讨口服补液盐Ⅲ联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果情况。方法分析该院小儿血液消化内科2014年6月—2015年12月收治的46例急性腹泻患儿临床资料,依据治疗措施不同进行分组,对照组23例和联合治疗组23例。观察两组急性腹泻患儿大便次数恢复正常时间、体温恢复正常时间、大便性状恢复正常时间、临床疗效情况。结果联合治疗组急性腹泻患儿大便次数恢复正常时间(1.7±0.4)d、体温恢复正常时间(19.6±5.4)h、大便性状恢复正常时间(2.0±0.8)d均低于对照组(2.4

  14. When your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods, pastries, donuts, and sausage. Avoid giving children apple juice and full-strength fruit juices, as they ... Diarrhea Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  15. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mönkemüller, Klaus E; C Mel Wilcox

    2000-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider ...

  16. 综合护理干预在急性感染性心内膜炎患者中的应用观察%Observation of Comprehensive Nursing Intervention in Patients With Acute Infectious Endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董欢欢

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨在急性感染性心内膜炎患者中应用综合护理干预的护理效果,以丰富临床护理经验。方法选取2012年6月~2014年6月在我院收治的急性感染性心内膜炎患者54例,根据入院顺序随机分为两组各27例,对照组给予常规护理,观察组则使用综合护理干预。统计对比其临床护理效果及护理满意率。结果观察组的护理有效率以及护理满意率均高于对照组,差异显著(P<0.05)。结论急性感染性心内膜炎患者应用综合护理干预能有效提高了护理满意率,且能显著提高其护理效果。%Objective To investigate effects of comprehensive nursing intervention in patients with acute infectious endocarditis and enriched the nursing experience.Methods Patients we selected 54 cases with acute infectious endocarditis from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital. According to the order of admission, they were randomly divided into two groups, each group 27 cases. The control group received routine care. Observer Group used comprehensive nursing intervention. the effect of its clinical care and nursing satisfaction rate were made Statistical comparison. ResultsIn observation group Nursing effectiveness and nursing satisfaction were significantly higher. The difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with acute infectious endocarditis using integrated care intervention can effectively improve the rate of care satisfaction .And it can signiifcantly improve the effectiveness of their care.

  17. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity Diarreia aguda em crianças hospitalizadas no município de Juiz de Fora, MG: prevalência e fatores de risco associados à gravidade da doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay

  18. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  19. Randomized Trial of Probiotics and Calcium on Diarrhea and Respiratory Tract Infections in Indonesian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Kok, F.J.; Rest, van de O.; Fahmida, U.; Firmansyah, A.; Lukito, W.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Albers, R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of calcium and probiotics on the incidence and duration of acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in low-socioeconomic communities of Jakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 494 health

  20. DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICATION OF EXANTHEMA IN THE PREHOSPITAL CARE IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease, with exanthema, pose a significant differential diagnostic difficulty for physicians multidisciplinary hospitals and require the consultation of an infectious disease physician. The article highlights the problem of early diagnostics of acute infectious diseases proceeding with exanthema. The analysis of quality of diagnostics of infectious disease on the outcomes of the consultative infectious ambulance team for 2013-2014.

  1. Analysis of shigella and salmonella monitoring results in patients with acute diarrhea in Tianshan District of Urumqi City%乌鲁木齐天山区急性腹泻患者志贺菌、沙门菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇平

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解乌鲁木齐天山区2013-2015年腹泻患者志贺菌、沙门菌感染情况和菌型分布。方法:对区内监测点医院就诊的急性腹泻患者采集标本,检测志贺菌、沙门菌,对阳性患者进一步进行流行病学调查。结果:2013-2015年共检测1363份标本,检出志贺菌、沙门菌共40株,阳性检出率2.93%,阳性率最高发生在6、7月份。结论:加强健康教育,养成良好的卫生习惯是预防腹泻,防止志贺菌、沙门菌感染的关键。%Objective:To explore the shigella and salmonella infection and bacterial distribution in patients with diarrhea in Tianshan District of Urumqi City from 2013 to 2015.Methods:Specimens of patients with acute diarrhea were collected at the monitoring point of the hospital,shigella and salmonella were detected.For positive patients,we further carried out epidemiological investigation.Results:From 2013 to 2015,a total of 1 363 samples were detected.40 samples had shigella and salmonella,and the positive detection rate was 2.93%.The highest positive rate was in June and July.Conclusion:To strengthen health education and to develop good health habits were the keys to prevent diarrhea and salmonella and shigella infection.

  2. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRONGAY, KAMM; PARK, BYUNG; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7–3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing. PMID:23568382

  3. Risk factor analysis may provide clues to diarrhea prevention in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prongay, Kamm; Park, Byung; Murphy, Stephanie J

    2013-08-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15-39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21-33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7-3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing.

  4. Military Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Vaccine and Clinical Trials and Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Microbiology Hub Kericho (MHK), USAMRU-Kenya/KEMRI. This protocol is a case (volunteers with acute diarrhea ) control (volunteers with no diarrhea ...in a high malaria transmission area. PLoS One, 2009. 4(7): p. e6465. 23. Waitumbi, J.N., et al., Impact of RTS,S/AS02(A) and RTS,S/AS01(B) on

  5. Clinical effect of branch bacilli triplex viable bacteria combined with montmorillonite powder in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea%双歧三联活菌联合蒙脱石散治疗小儿急性腹泻疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊青林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨双歧三联活菌联合蒙脱石散治疗急性腹泻对患儿排便次数及症状改善的影响。方法选择2012年8月至2013年8月在我院接受治疗的急性腹泻患儿132例作为研究对象。根据随机数表法将患儿分成观察组和对照组各66例。对照组患儿给予蒙脱石散治疗,观察组在此基础上采用双歧三联活菌进行治疗。比较两组患儿治疗前后的腹泻排便次数、疗效以及症状改善情况。结果观察组患儿治疗后5d的腹泻排便次数明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患儿的显效率和总有效率分别为65.15%,98.48%,均明显高于对照组的45.45%,86.36%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患儿的腹痛消失时间、呕吐消失时间、退热时间及大便常规的正常时间均少于对照组,差异均有显著统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论双歧三联活菌与蒙脱石散联合治疗小儿急性腹泻可明显减少患儿排便次数,改善其临床症状,疗效明显,值得临床上推广应用。%Objective To investigate the effect (stool frequency and symptoms) of branch bacilli triplex via-ble bacteria combined with montmorillonite powder in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea. Methods From August 2012 to August 2013, 132 children of acute diarrhea treated in our hospital were selected as research subjects, which were divided into the observation group and control group (each had 66 cases) according to random number table. Children in the control group were given montmorillonite powder for treatment, while those in the observation group were treated with branch bacilli triplex viable bacteria on the basis of the control group. The diarrhea stool fre-quency, the curative effect before and after treatment, and improvement of symptoms were compared between the two groups. Results After 5 days of treatment, the diarrhea stool frequency in the observation group was signifi

  6. Persistent diarrhea: risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, B; Biswal, Niranjan; Adhisivam, B; Parija, S C; Srinivasan, S

    2010-08-01

    To identify risk factors associated with Persistent diarrhea (PD) and deaths due to PD. This prospective case control study included 60 children with PD (cases) and 60 children (controls) with acute diarrhoea (AD). Detailed history, examination and appropriate investigations were done for all children. Crude Odds ratio was calculated for each risk factor by univariate analysis and adjusted odds ratio was calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Prior antibiotic use, steroid use, anemia, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition, LRI, UTI, oral candidiasis, and hyponatremia, were statistically significant risk factors by univariate analysis. Prior antibiotic use, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition and LRI were independently associated with PD by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk factors for mortality were stool frequency more than 10 times per day, severe malnutrition, oral candidiasis, hypoalbuminemia and HIV positivity. The presence of these risk factors should alert the clinician to take appropriate measures, to decrease the mortality.

  7. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection.

  8. ARI-EL: een case-controle onderzoek naar Acute Respiratoire Infecties in de Eerste lijn. Tussenrapportage over okt. 2000 t/m sept. 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhof WE van den; Bartelds AIM; Peeters MF; Wilbrink B; Heijnen MLA; Nederlands Instituut voor; Streeklaboratorium voor de Volksgezondheid; CIE; NIVEL; Streeklaboratorium voor de Volksgezondheid; LIS

    2002-01-01

    From October 2000 the Dutch influenza surveillance is temporarily expanded to a case-control study on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in general practitioner (GP) patients: the ARI-EL study. The aim is gaining insight into 1) the incidence and aetiology of ARI, 2) risk factors for contracting ARI

  9. Analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium Proteome through Environmental Response toward Infectious Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (aka, S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes ~40,000 reported cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea a year in the United States. To develop a deeper understanding of the infectious state of S. typhimurium, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based “bottom-up” proteomics was used to globally analyze the proteins present under specific growth conditions. Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain cells were grown in contrasting culture conditions that mimicked both natural free-living conditions and an infectious state, i.e., logarithm phase, stationary phase and Mg-depleted medium growth. Initial comparisons of the LT2 strain protein abundances among cell culture conditions indicate that the majority of proteins do not change significantly. Not unexpectedly, cells grown in Mg-depleted medium conditions had a higher abundance of Mg2+ transport proteins than found in other growth conditions. A second more virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain (14028) was also studied with these growth conditions and used to directly compare to the LT2 strain. The strain comparison offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast observations in these closely related bacteria