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Sample records for acute idiopathic hemorrhagic

  1. Idiopathic omental hemorrhage: A case report and review of the literature

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    Jiro Kimura

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Idiopathic omental hemorrhage is a rare cause of an acute abdomen, which may develop after eating. Omentectomy is preferred to ligation or transcatheter arterial embolization to rule out an underlying malignancy or aneurysm.

  2. A case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage

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    Toshimitsu Hosotani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrhage in young women is caused by the high frequency of ectopic pregnancy and ovarian bleeding. Here, we describe a case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage, which is a rare cause of intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was suspected in a 38-year-old Japanese woman based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Her last menstrual period was 23 days prior, and ovarian bleeding was considered based on bloody ascites revealed by culdocentesis. She underwent emergency surgery for hypovolemic shock. Although both ovaries were of normal size and no abnormal findings were observed, we performed a partial omentectomy because multiple clots were attached only to the greater omentum. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred, and she was discharged 11 days after the surgery. Because she did not have a clear history of trauma and underlying disease, idiopathic omental hemorrhage was diagnosed.

  3. Predictors of acute symptomatic seizures after intracranial hemorrhage in infants.

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    Bansal, Seema; Kebede, Tewodros; Dean, Nathan P; Carpenter, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of acute symptomatic seizures in infants with supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage, to identify potential risk factors, and to determine the effect of acute seizures on long-term morbidity and mortality. Children less than 24 months with intracranial hemorrhage were identified from a neurocritical care database. All patients who received seizure prophylaxis beginning at admission were included in the study. Risk factors studied were gender, etiology, location of hemorrhage, seizure(s) on presentation, and the presence of parenchymal injury. Acute clinical and electrographic seizures were identified from hospital medical records. Subsequent development of late seizures was determined based on clinical information from patients' latest follow-up. Patients with idiopathic neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, premature infants, and those with prior history of seizures were excluded from analysis. Seventy-two infants met inclusion criteria. None. Forty percent of infants had acute symptomatic seizures. The prevalence was similar regardless of whether etiology of hemorrhage was traumatic or nontraumatic. Seizures on presentation and parenchymal injury were independent risk factors of acute seizures (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Younger children and women were also at higher risk (p Acute seizures were not predictive of mortality, but nearly twice as many patients with acute seizures developed late seizures when compared with those without. Electrographic seizures and parenchymal injury were also predictive of development of late seizures (p hemorrhage are at high risk for acute symptomatic seizures. This is regardless of the etiology of hemorrhage. Younger patients, women, patients with parenchymal injury, and patients presenting with seizure are most likely to develop acute seizures. Although the benefits of seizure prophylaxis have not been studied in this specific population, these results suggest that it is an important component

  4. MR of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.; Dion, J.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging was performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR images as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of MR of the basal cisterns results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR studies in many cases

  5. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  6. MR imaging of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.B.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.R.; Dion, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging were performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of the basal cisterns on MR images results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR in many cases

  7. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

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    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  8. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

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    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  9. Idiopathic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage in the third trimester of pregnancy causing neonatal death.

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    Peng, X; Liu, C; Peng, B

    2016-01-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH), which can occur throughout pregnancy, is still a poorly understood clinical condition. It is very difficult to be timely diagnosed and often results in poor pregnancy outcomes. Here the authors reported two rare cases of silent massive FMH of unknown cause in the third trimester of pregnancy, which presented with non-reactive fetal heart rhythm or decreased fetal movement at the very beginning, and resulted in severe fetal anemia and neonatal deaths. A pregnant woman at late pregnancy with a com- plain of unspecific signs such as decreased fetal movement should arouse a high index of clinical suspicion of idiopathic FMH, and an urgent ultrasound or lab tests detecting FMH could be suggested. Considering emergent delivery versus expectantly management will de- pend upon acute or chronic FMH, gestational age, results of fetal testing, availability of experienced personnel, and procedural difficulty.

  10. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

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    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  11. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by Aspergillus empyema

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    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. This is the first report describing AE-IPF triggered by Aspergillus empyema, which was improved by a combination of corticosteroid, systemic antifungal therapy, local antifungal therapy, and additional pharmacological therapies. Future research may reveal optimal strategies for both idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Acute exacerbation, AE-IPF, Triggered AE, Aspergillus infection

  12. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ohno, Masato

    1989-01-01

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author)

  13. Dynamic study on digital cineangiography of acute digestive tract hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianming; Feng Gansheng; Zeng Jun; Xu Caiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study dynamically acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage with digital cine angiography. Methods: Fifty patients with acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage were performed with digital cineangiography and observed dynamically during arterial, capillary and venous phases. Results: Among 50 cases, there were positive results in 44 ones including gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 14, biliary hemorrhage in 2, splenic arterial bleeding in 3, left gastric arterial bleeding in 4, right gastroepiploic arterial bleeding in 5, SMA bleeding in 7 and IMA bleeding in 9.17 cases underwent a permanent embolization through artery and 11 with temporary embolization as well as 9 with infusion of hemostatic agent via artery. Conclusions: Serial digital cineangiogram can dynamically show acute digestive tract hemorrhage within different phase. It is helpful to detect the location and cause of hemorrhage

  14. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

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    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  15. Acute visual loss and intraretinal hemorrhages associated to energy drink consumption.

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    Pagano, Christina W; Wu, Max; Wu, Lihteh

    2017-12-01

    To report the association of acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages and energy drink consumption. Case report and literature review. A 48-year-old hypertensive man developed an elevation in systemic blood pressure, tachycardia, and acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages shortly after drinking several cans of energy drinks. High consumption of energy drinks may lead to intraretinal hemorrhages and acute visual loss.

  16. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation.

  17. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

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    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  18. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok; Ciolino, Jody D.; Alden, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  19. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children commonly presents with osteo articular manifestations that may mimic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This may create considerable diagnostic difficulty and lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. Case: An eight year old boy who presented with multiple ...

  20. [in-hospital mortality in patient with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke].

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    Sadamasa, Nobutake; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Narumi, Osamu; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of evidence to compare in-hospital mortality with different types of stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the in-hospital mortality after acute ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and compare the factors associated with the mortality among stroke subtypes. All patients admitted to Kurashiki Central Hospital in Japan between January 2009 and December 2009, and diagnosed with acute ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke were included in this study. Demographics and clinical data pertaining to the patients were obtained from their medical records. Out of 738 patients who had an acute stroke, 53 (7.2%) died in the hospital. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the cerebral infarction group than in the intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage group (3.5%, 15.1%, and 17.9%, respectively; Phemorrhage group than in the other 2 groups. With regard to past history, diabetes mellitus was significantly found to be a complication in mortality cases of intracranial hemorrhage. Further investigation is needed to clarify the effect of diabetes on mortality after intracranial hemorrhage.

  1. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  2. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy: report of three cases.

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    Emerich, Paulo Sergio; Prebianchi, Patricia Almeida; Motta, Luciene Lage da; Lucas, Elton Almeida; Ferreira, Leonardo Mello

    2011-01-01

    Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy is an infrequent leukocytoclastic vasculitis which occurs almost exclusively in children between 4 months and 2 years of age. It is clinically characterized by the triad fever, purpuric lesions on the face, auricular pinna and extremities, and edema. Although the cutaneous findings are dramatic and of rapid onset, the prognosis is favorable, with spontaneous resolution within 1 to 3 weeks. Three cases are described in which clinical and histopathological findings are characteristic of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy.

  3. Investigation on the clinical practice of transcatheter embolization for acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Bin; Xu Shengde; Cheng Bing; Peng Qiong; Hong Ci; Xu Guozhong; Wang Tao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the tactics, methods and relevant factors of transcatheter embolization for acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods: Fifteen patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage were embolized by one of the methods of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), gelfoam or metal coils. Four of the fifteen patients were upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the other cases were lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage which were embolized using coaxial microcatheter. Results: Fourteen of the fifteen patients were treated successfully by these methods. There were total 17 times of embolization for 16 parts, the success rate reached 94. 1%. The other one revealed an infarction of intestine after the embolization and was cured by resection. One of the fifteen patients appeared a recurrent hemorrhage 3 months later, and confirmed to be a hemangiolymphangioma. Two patients with malignant tumor were operated upon selectively. The other patient of intestinal hemorrhage was embolized successfully by using a metal coil after shock. Leiomyoma complicated with large area of bleeding was finally proven by operation. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization for acute massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage is safe and efficient under different choice of methods. The key of success is the right selection of embolized target artery and dosage of emboli

  4. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as "Acute Scrotum"-looking beyond the obvious: a sonographic insight.

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    Bhatt, Shuchi; Ahmad, Mohammad; Batra, Prerna; Tandon, Anupama; Roy, Satarupa; Mandal, Samrat

    2017-09-01

    Acute swelling and discoloration of scrotum in new born can have many localized causes like testicular torsion, inguinal hernia, scrotal or testicular edema, hydrocele, or even remote causes like adrenal hemorrhage. We report a neonate of adrenal hemorrhage presenting clinically as acute scrotum misguiding the clinician to rule out a local scrotal pathology. As the local clinical examination is not reliable in a newborn, it definitely requires an imaging evaluation to establish the diagnosis. This case report emphasizes being aware of the clinical association of acute adrenal hemorrhage and an acute scrotum and the role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of the various differential diagnoses leading to an acute scrotum. An optimum sonographic examination helps in suspecting an abdominal pathology as a cause of acute scrotum and in establishing the specific diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage to avoid an unnecessary surgical exploration.

  5. Tranexamic acid for acute intracerebral hemorrhage growth predicted by spot sign trial: Rationale and design.

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    Liu, Liping; Wang, Yilong; Meng, Xia; Li, Na; Tan, Ying; Nie, Ximing; Liu, Dacheng; Zhao, Xingquan

    2017-04-01

    Rationale Acute intracerebral hemorrhage inflicts a high-economic and -health burden. Computed tomography angiography spot sign is a predictor of hematoma expansion, is associated with poor clinical outcome and is an important stratifying variable for patients treated with haemostatic therapy. Aims We aim to compare the effect of treatment with tranexamic acid to placebo for the prevention of hemorrhage growth in patients with high-risk acute intracerebral hemorrhage with a positive spot sign. Design The tranexamic acid for acute intracerebral hemorrhage growth predicted by spot sign (TRAIGE) is a prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, investigator-led, randomized clinical trial that will include an estimated 240 participants. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage demonstrating symptom onset within 8 h and with the spot sign as a biomarker for ongoing hemorrhage, and no contraindications for antifibrinolytic therapy, will be enrolled to receive either tranexamic acid or placebo. The primary outcome measure is the presence of hemorrhage growth defined as an increase in intracerebral hemorrhage volume >33% or >6 ml from baseline to 24 ± 2 h. The secondary outcomes include safety and clinical outcomes. Conclusion The TRAIGE trial evaluates the efficacy of haemostatic therapy with tranexamic acid in the prevention of hemorrhage growth among high-risk patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

  6. Intracranial hemorrhage complicating thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglietta, J.P.; Boyko, O.B.; O'Connor, C.M.; Aldrich, H.; Massey, E.W.; Heinz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the incidence and types of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 1,696 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Thirteen of 1,696 patients experienced ICH, and their nonenhanced brain CT scans were reviewed. Their mean age was 62 years (range, 53-74 years), and nine of 13 were male. Six patients received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), four streptokinase, two urokinase, and one tPA and urokinase. The hemorrhages were classified according to CT location: intraparenchymal (IPH), subarachnoid (SAH), subdural (SDH), and intraventricular (IVH). The incidence of ICH was 0.76%. There were 31 hemorrhages in 13 patients. Twelve hemorrhages were IPH, 10 were SDH, seven were SAH, and two were IVH. Excluding IVH, 24 of 29 hemorrhages (83%) were supratentorial

  7. Acute and Chronic Fetal Anemia as a Result of Fetomaternal Hemorrhage

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    Paul Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fetomaternal hemorrhage represents a transfer of fetal blood to the maternal circulation. Although many etiologies have been described, most causes of fetomaternal hemorrhage remain unidentified. The differentiation between acute and chronic fetomaternal hemorrhage may be accomplished antenatally and may influence perinatal management. Case. A 36-year-old gravida 6 para 3 presented at 37 and 5/7 completed gestational weeks with ultrasound findings suggestive of chronic fetal anemia such as right ventricular enlargement, diminished cerebral vascular resistance, and elevated middle cerebral artery end-diastolic velocity. On the other hand, signs of acute fetal decompensation such as deterioration of the fetal heart tracing, diminished biophysical score, decreased cord pH, and increased cord base deficit were noted. Following delivery, the neonate’s initial hemoglobin was 4.0 g/dL and the maternal KB ratio was 0.015 indicative of a significant fetomaternal hemorrhage. Discussion. One should consider FMH as part of the differential diagnosis for fetal or immediate neonatal anemia. We describe a unique case of FMH that demonstrated both acute and chronic clinical features. It is our hope that this case will assist practitioners in differentiating acute FMH that may require emergent delivery from chronic FMH which may be able to be expectantly managed.

  8. Acute and chronic fetal anemia as a result of fetomaternal hemorrhage.

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    Singh, Paul; Swanson, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Fetomaternal hemorrhage represents a transfer of fetal blood to the maternal circulation. Although many etiologies have been described, most causes of fetomaternal hemorrhage remain unidentified. The differentiation between acute and chronic fetomaternal hemorrhage may be accomplished antenatally and may influence perinatal management. Case. A 36-year-old gravida 6 para 3 presented at 37 and 5/7 completed gestational weeks with ultrasound findings suggestive of chronic fetal anemia such as right ventricular enlargement, diminished cerebral vascular resistance, and elevated middle cerebral artery end-diastolic velocity. On the other hand, signs of acute fetal decompensation such as deterioration of the fetal heart tracing, diminished biophysical score, decreased cord pH, and increased cord base deficit were noted. Following delivery, the neonate's initial hemoglobin was 4.0 g/dL and the maternal KB ratio was 0.015 indicative of a significant fetomaternal hemorrhage. Discussion. One should consider FMH as part of the differential diagnosis for fetal or immediate neonatal anemia. We describe a unique case of FMH that demonstrated both acute and chronic clinical features. It is our hope that this case will assist practitioners in differentiating acute FMH that may require emergent delivery from chronic FMH which may be able to be expectantly managed.

  9. Acute hydrocephalus in nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic hemorrhage: evidence of CSF block at the tentorial hiatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, G. J.; Wijdicks, E. F.; Vermeulen, M.; Tans, J. T.; Hasan, D.; van Gijn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The acute hydrocephalus in patients with nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic hemorrhage suggests an extraventricular obstruction of CSF flow. We studied the occurrence of acute hydrocephalus and the site of cisternal blood in 40 consecutive patients with perimesencephalic hemorrhage. In all 11 patients

  10. Dual-energy bone removal computed tomography (BRCT): preliminary report of efficacy of acute intracranial hemorrhage detection.

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    Naruto, Norihito; Tannai, Hidenori; Nishikawa, Kazuma; Yamagishi, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Kawabe, Hideto; Kamisaki, Yuichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Kuroda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Kyo

    2018-02-01

    One of the major applications of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is automated bone removal (BR). We hypothesized that the visualization of acute intracranial hemorrhage could be improved on BRCT by removing bone as it has the highest density tissue in the head. This preliminary study evaluated the efficacy of a DE BR algorithm for the head CT of trauma patients. Sixteen patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage within 1 day after head trauma were enrolled in this study. All CT examinations were performed on a dual-source dual-energy CT scanner. BRCT images were generated using the Bone Removal Application. Simulated standard CT and BRCT images were visually reviewed in terms of detectability (presence or absence) of acute hemorrhagic lesions. DECT depicted 28 epidural/subdural hemorrhages, 17 contusional hemorrhages, and 7 subarachnoid hemorrhages. In detecting epidural/subdural hemorrhage, BRCT [28/28 (100%)] was significantly superior to simulated standard CT [17/28 (61%)] (p = .001). In detecting contusional hemorrhage, BRCT [17/17 (100%)] was also significantly superior to simulated standard CT [11/17 (65%)] (p = .0092). BRCT was superior to simulated standard CT in detecting acute intracranial hemorrhage. BRCT could improve the detection of small intracranial hemorrhages, particularly those adjacent to bone, by removing bone that can interfere with the visualization of small acute hemorrhage. In an emergency such as head trauma, BRCT can be used as support imaging in combination with simulated standard CT and bone scale CT, although BRCT cannot replace a simulated standard CT.

  11. Subdural Hemorrhage after Scoliosis and Detethering of Cord Surgery

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    Rohan Bhimani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial hypotension may occur when CSF leaks from the subarachnoid space. Formation of intracranial, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhage has been observed after significant CSF leak as seen in lumbar puncture or ventricular shunt placement. However, very few cases, referring to these remote complications following spine surgery, have been described in literature. We present a case of a 10-year-old male child operated for idiopathic scoliosis with low-lying conus medullaris who postoperatively developed subdural hemorrhage. Case Report. A case of a 10-year-old male operated for idiopathic scoliosis with low-lying conus medullaris is presented. To correct this, detethering was done at the L3 level, laminectomy was done from L2 to L3 with pedicular screw fixation from T3 to L2, and bone grafting with right costoplasty was done from the 3rd to the 6th ribs. On the 5th day postoperatively, the patient developed convulsions and drowsiness and recovered subsequently by postoperative day 7. Conclusion. We report a rare case of an acute intracranial subdural hemorrhage caused by intracranial hypotension following scoliosis and detethering of cord surgery. This report highlights the potential morbidity associated with CSF leak occurring after this surgery.

  12. Acute Paraplegia due to Thoracic Hematomyelia

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    Aykut Akpınar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraspinal intramedullary hemorrhage is a rare entity with the acute onset of neurologic symptoms. The etiology of idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia (ISH is unknown, and there are few published case reports. Hematomyelia is mostly associated with trauma, but the other nontraumatic etiologies are vascular malformations, tumors, bleeding disorders, syphilis, syrinx, and myelitis. MRI is a good choice for early diagnosis. Hematomyelia usually causes acute spinal cord syndrome due to the compression and destruction of the spinal cord. A high-dose steroid treatment and surgical decompression and evacuation of hematoma are the urgent solution methods. We present idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia of a previously healthy 80-year-old male with a sudden onset of back pain and paraplegia.

  13. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Differentiation of Idiopathic Acute Transverse Myelitis and Acute Spinal Cord Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeo Goon; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Kyung Seok

    2011-01-01

    To compare the diffusion characteristics of idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (ATM) and acute spinal cord infarction (SCI). Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map were prospectively obtained from patients diagnosed with myelopathy between February 2006 and April 2009. Inclusion criteria included 1) the presence of an intramedullary T2-high signal intensity and 2) a final diagnosis of idiopathic ATM or SCI established by one neurologist. In total, 13 patients (M : F = 8 : 5; mean age, 39.5 years; range, 29-50 years) with idiopathic ATM and seven patients (M : F = 2 : 5; mean age, 58 years; range, 48-75 years) with SCI were included in this study. Two radiologists evaluated the DWIs and ADC map in consensus. The extent of the cord signal change was also evaluated on T2-weighted sagittal images. Among the 16 patients with ATM, 14 patients showed iso-signal on an ADC map, but one case showed restricted diffusion and another showed increased diffusion on the ADC map. Among the seven patients with SCI, five patients showed restricted diffusion. Idiopathic ATM usually does not demonstrate restricted diffusion, which can be a clue to differentiate it from SCI. However, idiopathic ATM with larger segment involvement can show focal diffusion restriction.

  14. Acute and Chronic Fetal Anemia as a Result of Fetomaternal Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Paul; Swanson, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Fetomaternal hemorrhage represents a transfer of fetal blood to the maternal circulation. Although many etiologies have been described, most causes of fetomaternal hemorrhage remain unidentified. The differentiation between acute and chronic fetomaternal hemorrhage may be accomplished antenatally and may influence perinatal management. Case. A 36-year-old gravida 6 para 3 presented at 37 and 5/7 completed gestational weeks with ultrasound findings suggestive of chronic fetal ane...

  15. A case of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after proton beam therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tatsuya; Kotani, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    There have been no reports describing acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after particle radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The present study describes the case of a 76-year-old Japanese man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung that relapsed in the left upper lobe 1 year after right upper lobectomy. He had been treated with oral prednisolone 20 mg/day every 2 days for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and the relapsed lung cancer was treated by proton beam therapy, which was expected to cause the least adverse effects on the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fifteen days after the initiation of proton beam therapy, the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exacerbated, centered on the left upper lobe, for which intensive steroid therapy was given. About 3 months later, the acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had improved, and the relapsed lung cancer became undetectable. Clinicians should be aware that an acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may occur even in proton beam therapy, although proton beam therapy appears to be an effective treatment option for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  16. Emergent management of postpartum hemorrhage for the general and acute care surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankenship Charles L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum hemorrhage is one of the rare occasions when a general or acute care surgeon may be emergently called to labor and delivery, a situation in which time is limited and the stakes high. Unfortunately, there is generally a paucity of exposure and information available to surgeons regarding this topic: obstetric training is rarely found in contemporary surgical residency curricula and is omitted nearly completely from general and acute care surgery literature and continuing medical education. Methods The purpose of this manuscript is to serve as a topic specific review for surgeons and to present a surgeon oriented management algorithm. Medline and Ovid databases were utilized in a comprehensive literature review regarding the management of postpartum hemorrhage and a management algorithm for surgeons developed based upon a collaborative panel of general, acute care, trauma and obstetrical surgeons' review of the literature and expert opinion. Results A stepwise approach for surgeons of the medical and surgical interventions utilized to manage and treat postpartum hemorrhage is presented and organized into a basic algorithm. Conclusion The manuscript should promote and facilitate a more educated, systematic and effective surgeon response and participation in the management of postpartum hemorrhage.

  17. Serum tenascin-C predicts severity and outcome of acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Guo; Huangfu, Xue-Qin; Tao, Bo; Zhong, Guan-Jin; Le, Zhou-Di

    2018-06-01

    Tenascin-C is a matricellular protein related to brain injury. We studied serum tenascin-C in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and examined the associations with severity and outcome following the acute event. Tenascin-C samples were obtained from 162 patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke and 162 healthy controls. Poor 90-day functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score > 2. Early neurological deterioration (END) and hematoma growth (HG) were recorded at 24 h. Patients had higher tenascin-C levels than controls. Tenascin-C levels were positively correlated with hematoma volume or National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at baseline. Elevated tenascin-C levels were independently associated with END, HG, 90-day mortality and poor functional outcome. Moreover, tenascin-C levels significantly predicted END, HG and 90-day outcomes under receiver operating characteristic curves. An increase in serum tenascin-C level is associated with an adverse outcome in ICH patients, supporting the potential role of serum tenascin-C as a prognostic biomarker for hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, E B; Llinas, R H; Hillis, A E; Gottesman, R F

    2013-06-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can occur in patients following acute ischaemic stroke in the form of hemorrhagic transformation, and results in significant long-term morbidity and mortality. Anticoagulation theoretically increases risk. We evaluated stroke patients with an indication for anticoagulation to determine the factors associated with hemorrhagic transformation. Three-hundred and forty-five patients with ICD-9 codes indicating: (i) acute ischaemic stroke; and (ii) an indication for anticoagulation were screened. One-hundred and twenty-three met inclusion criteria. Data were collected retrospectively. Neuroimaging was reviewed for infarct volume and evidence of ICH. Hemorrhages were classified as: hemorrhagic conversion (petechiae) versus intracerebral hematoma (a space occupying lesion); symptomatic versus asymptomatic. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the hypothesized factors associated with intracerebral bleeding. Age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50 per 10-year increment, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.08], infarct volume (OR = 1.10 per 10 ccs, 95% CI 1.06-1.18) and worsening category of renal impairment by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.66) were predictors of hemorrhagic transformation. Ninety- nine out of 123 patients were anticoagulated. Hemorrhage rates of patients on and off anticoagulation did not differ (25.3% vs. 20.8%; P = 0.79); however, all intracerebral hematomas (n = 7) and symptomatic bleeds (n = 8) occurred in the anticoagulated group. The risk of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation is multifactorial, and most closely associated with an individual's age, infarct volume and eGFR. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  19. Methylprednisolone therapy in acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risikesan, Jeyanthini; Koppelhus, Uffe; Steiniche, Torben

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who showed severe clinical signs indicative of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) with painful purpuric skin affection primarily of the face and marked edema of the ears. The histological findings were diagnostic for leukocytoclastic vasculitis...

  20. Effect of edaravone torasemide treatment on elderly patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of edaravone torasemide treatment on acute cerebral hemorrhage in elderly patients. Methods: A total of 100 patient with acute intracerebral hemorrhage senile patient were selected and randomly divided into groups: the combined group (50 people and the control group (50 people. The senile patients in the control group were treated with conventional therapy and the senile patients in the combined group were treated with edaravone combined with torasemide and conventional therapy. Inflammatory, coagulation function and hemorheology were compared before and after seven days therapy. Results: Before treatment, inflammatory, coagulation function and hemorheology of two groups showed no statistically significant difference. Inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α and hemorheology (WLV, WMV, WHV, PV, and PCV of two groups decreased significantly than before treatment (P<0.05, coagulation function (PT, APPT of two groups increased significantly than before treatment (P<0.05; Coagulation function (PT, APPT and hemorheology (WLV, WMV, WHV, PV, and PCV of the combined groups after treatment increased significantly than control group after treatment (P<0.05, inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α and FIB of the combined groups after treatment decreased significantly than control group after treatment (P<0.05. Conclusions: Edaravone combined with torasemide can perfect effectively inflammatory, coagulation function and hemorheology on senile patient acute intracerebral hemorrhage, it has important clinical significance for senile patient acute intracerebral hemorrhage treatment.

  1. A comparison of acute hemorrhagic stroke outcomes in 2 populations: the Crete-Boston study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganas, Ioannis; Halpin, Amy P; Oleinik, Alexandra; Alegakis, Athanasios; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zafiris, Spiros; Chlapoutaki, Chryssanthi; Tsimoulis, Dimitris; Giannakoudakis, Emmanouil; Chochlidakis, Nikolaos; Ntailiani, Aikaterini; Valatsou, Christina; Papadaki, Efrosini; Vakis, Antonios; Furie, Karen L; Greenberg, Steven M; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Although corticosteroid use in acute hemorrhagic stroke is not widely adopted, management with intravenous dexamethasone has been standard of care at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete with observed outcomes superior to those reported in the literature. To explore this further, we conducted a retrospective, multivariable-adjusted 2-center study. We studied 391 acute hemorrhagic stroke cases admitted to the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete between January 1997 and July 2010 and compared them with 510 acute hemorrhagic stroke cases admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, from January 2003 to September 2009. Of the Cretan cases, 340 received a tapering scheme of intravenous dexamethasone, starting with 16 to 32 mg/day, whereas the Boston patients were managed without steroids. The 2 cohorts had comparable demographics and stroke severity on admission, although anticoagulation was more frequent in Boston. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower on Crete (23.8%, n=340) than in Boston (38.0%, n=510; Pmortality (Crete: 25.4%, n=307; Boston: 39.4%, n=510; Pmortality: Crete 20.8%; n=259; Boston 37.0%; n=359; Phemorrhages. After adjusting for acute hemorrhagic stroke volume/location, Glasgow Coma Scale, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, coronary artery disease and statin, antiplatelet, and anticoagulant use, intravenous dexamethasone treatment was associated with better functional outcomes and significantly lower risk of death at 30 days (OR, 0.357; 95% CI, 0.174-0.732). This study suggests that intravenous dexamethasone improves outcome in acute hemorrhagic stroke and supports a randomized clinical trial using this approach.

  2. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made

  3. [The association between plasma neurotransmitters levels and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huai-wu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chun-xue; Shi, Yu-zhi; Qi, Dong; Luo, Ben-yan; Wang, Yong-jun

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relation between plasma neurotransmitters (Glutamic acid, GAA; γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA; 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT; and noradrenaline, NE) and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke. Objectives were screened from consecutive hospitalized patients with acute stroke. Fasting blood samples were taken on the day next to hospital admission, and neurotransmitters were examined by the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) was used to diagnose depression at two weeks after onset of stroke. The modified Ranking Scale (mRS) was followed up at 1 year. Pearson test was used to analyse the correlation between serum concentration of neurotransmitters and the Hamilton Depression scale-17-items (HAMD-17) score. Logistic regression was used to analyse the relation of serum concentration of neurotransmitters and depression and outcome of stroke. One hundred and eighty-one patients were included in this study. GABA significantly decreased [6.1(5.0-8.2) µg/L vs 8.1(6.3-14.7) µg/L, P depression in hemorrhagic stroke, and there was no significant difference in GAA, 5-HT, or NE. GABA concentration was negatively correlated with HAMD-17 score (r = -0.131, P depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke was reduced by 5.6% (OR 0.944, 95%CI 0.893-0.997). While concentration of serum GAA rose by 1 µg/L, risk of worse outcome at 1 year was raised by 0.1%, although a statistic level was on marginal status (OR 1.001, 95%CI 1.000-1.002). In patients with depression in the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke, there was a significant reduction in plasma GABA concentration. GABA may have a protective effect on depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke. Increased concentrations of serum GAA may increase the risk of worse outcomes at 1 year after stroke.

  4. Acute traumatic brain-stem hemorrhage produced by sudden caudal displacement of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Wolf, A.L.; Thompson, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines in an experimental canine study and a clinical review, whether acute caudal displacement of the brain following blunt trauma produces hemorrhage in the rostral anterior midline of the brain stem by tethering the basilar to the fixed carotid arteries. In four dogs, a balloon catheter was suddenly inflated over the frontal lobe; in two, the carotid-basilar vascular connections were severed prior to balloon inflation. ICP was monitored during and after balloon inflation. Hemorrhage was verified by MR imaging and direct inspection of the fixed brain specimens. Admission CT scans demonstrating acute traumatic brain stem hemorrhage (TBH) in human patients were reviewed to determine the site of TBH, predominant site of impact, and neurologic outcome

  5. Curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xing SUN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. A total of 120 cases with acute cerebral hemorrhage were treated with Xingnaojing injection monotherapy (control group, N = 60 or monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection (combined treatment group, N = 60. Bleeding amount and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores of 2 groups were both significantly reduced on the 21th day after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but bleeding amount and NIHSS scores in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.000, for all. After 21 d treatment, total effective rate of combined treatment group was 86.67% (52/60, which was significantly higher than that of control group [66.67% (40/60; χ2 = 1.493, P = 0.024]. For patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection can significantly improve the neurological function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.014

  6. Analysis of multi-factors affecting symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in intraarterial thrombolysis with urokinase for acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qianlin; Zhou Shi; Wang Xuejian; Wu Qinghua; Song Jie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the causes and preventive measures of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 217 patients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke treated with local intra-arterial urokinase. Methods: From February 1999 to June 2004, 217 patients were treated for acute ischemic stroke with local intra-arterial urokinase in our hospital. Factors associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage of intra-arterial thrombolysis were analyzed by Stepwise logistic regression to identify some factors relating the prediction symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Results: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 8 cases (3.7%). Predictors of the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were the elevated systolic blood pressure before therapy (odds ratio, 1.096; 95% CI, 1.006 to 1.194) and urokinase (UK) treatment (odds ratio, 1.068 ; 95% CL, 1.053 to 1.247). Risk of secondary symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was increased with elevated systolic blood pressure. Other factors like age, initial treating time, NIHSS, diabetes and collateral circulation did not predict the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage respectively. Conclusions: Predictors of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after local intra-arterial infusion of urokinase for acute ischemic stroke were the elevated systolic blood pressure before therapy and urokinase (UK) treatment. (authors)

  7. Atypical presentation of acute idiopathic megacolon in a 14-year-old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barakat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice the term “megacolon” is used to indicate a marked dilatation of the cecum and the sigmoid colon (>12 and 6.5 cm, respectively (1. From a clinical standpoint, a megacolon can be classified as chronic or acute depending on its clinical presentation. Chronic megacolon typically refers to a congenital disorder in which the enteric nervous system (ENS supplying the colon does not develop properly, thereby leaving the distal segments of the viscus without myenteric and submucosal ganglia (i.e. Hirschsprung’s disease (2. Other cases of non-aganglionic chronic megacolon can be secondary to variety of conditions such as Chagas’ disease and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, leading to or associated with ENS abnormalities (3. The acute form of megacolon, also referred to as Ogilvie’s syndrome, is characterized by a predominant involvement of the cecum and right colon usually affecting elderly patients undergoing surgery (e.g. orthopedic procedures or taking medications altering gut motility (e.g. opioids or antidepressants (4. Some forms of acute megacolon, however, can be idiopathic in origin since no underlying etiology can be identified. Patients with acute idiopathic megacolon usually have a longstanding history of constipation, often accompanied by laxative abuse, and their clinical presentation is characterized by abdominal distension and severe pain with radiological evidence of stool impacted in the colon and rectum (1, 4. The case herein reported represents an unusual form of acute idiopathic megacolon characterized by massive descending and sigmoid colon distension complicated with a volvulus in a 14-year-old boy with no Hirschsprung’s disease. In addition, just to increase the peculiarity of this case report, the patient had an unremarkable clinical record, and never suffered from chronic constipation in the past.

  8. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ecer Menteş

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is a rare form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Mostly it appears under three years of age and is characterized by purpuric skin lesions, fever and edema. A three years-old boy, who has cough and coryzea was admitted to our clinic for fever and red spots on legs and arms. In physical examination; ecimotic skin lesions on right ear, face, arms, dorsal of the hands, buttocks, legs and dorsal of the feet were found. In the laboratory tests acute phase reactants were elevated and blood coagulation tests were in normal range. Hepatit A,B,C and TORCH markers were negative. Punch biopsy obtained from gluteal area showed leukositoclastic vasculity. Focal fibrinogen accumulation was detected by immun fluorescent microscopy. Regression on lesions was not observed despite supportive therapy, so prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day therapy was started. On the third day of the steroid therapy, complete recovery was achived.

  9. Endovascular Management of Patients with Head and Neck Cancers Presenting with Acute Hemorrhage: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilas Boas, P. P.; Castro-Afonso, L. H. de; Monsignore, L. M.; Nakiri, G. S. [University of São Paulo, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School (Brazil); Mello-Filho, F. V. de [University of São Paulo, Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Ribeirão Preto Medical School (Brazil); Abud, D. G., E-mail: dgabud@fmrp.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeAcute hemorrhage associated with cancers of the head and neck is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate action. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of endovascular embolization for acute hemorrhage in patients with head and neck cancers.Materials and MethodsData were retrospectively collected from patients with head and neck cancers who underwent endovascular embolization to treat acute hemorrhage. The primary endpoint was the rate of immediate control of hemorrhage during the first 24 h after embolization. The secondary endpoints were technical or clinical complications, rate of re-hemorrhage 24 h after the procedure, time from embolization to re-hemorrhage, hospitalization time, mortality rate, and time from embolization to death.ResultsFifty-one patients underwent endovascular embolization. The primary endpoint was achieved in 94% of patients. The rate of technical complications was 5.8%, and no clinical complication was observed. Twelve patients (23.5%) had hemorrhage recurrence after an average time of 127.5 days. The average hospitalization time was 7.4 days, the mortality rate during the follow-up period was 66.6%, and the average time from embolization to death was 132.5 days.ConclusionEndovascular embolization to treat acute hemorrhage in patients with head and neck cancers is a safe and effective method for the immediate control of hemorrhage and results in a high rate of hemorrhage control. Larger studies are necessary to determine which treatment strategy is best for improving patient outcomes.

  10. Endovascular Management of Patients with Head and Neck Cancers Presenting with Acute Hemorrhage: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, P. P.; Castro-Afonso, L. H. de; Monsignore, L. M.; Nakiri, G. S.; Mello-Filho, F. V. de; Abud, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    PurposeAcute hemorrhage associated with cancers of the head and neck is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate action. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of endovascular embolization for acute hemorrhage in patients with head and neck cancers.Materials and MethodsData were retrospectively collected from patients with head and neck cancers who underwent endovascular embolization to treat acute hemorrhage. The primary endpoint was the rate of immediate control of hemorrhage during the first 24 h after embolization. The secondary endpoints were technical or clinical complications, rate of re-hemorrhage 24 h after the procedure, time from embolization to re-hemorrhage, hospitalization time, mortality rate, and time from embolization to death.ResultsFifty-one patients underwent endovascular embolization. The primary endpoint was achieved in 94% of patients. The rate of technical complications was 5.8%, and no clinical complication was observed. Twelve patients (23.5%) had hemorrhage recurrence after an average time of 127.5 days. The average hospitalization time was 7.4 days, the mortality rate during the follow-up period was 66.6%, and the average time from embolization to death was 132.5 days.ConclusionEndovascular embolization to treat acute hemorrhage in patients with head and neck cancers is a safe and effective method for the immediate control of hemorrhage and results in a high rate of hemorrhage control. Larger studies are necessary to determine which treatment strategy is best for improving patient outcomes.

  11. Chronic resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement improves hepatocellular function and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether prolonged (chronic) resuscitation has any beneficial effects on cardiac output and hepatocellular function after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement. Acute fluid resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage restores but does not maintain the depressed hepatocellular function and cardiac output. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-cm laparotomy (i.e., trauma was induced) and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of maximal bleed-out volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate (RL). The animals were acutely resuscitated with RL using 4 times the volume of maximum bleed-out over 60 minutes, followed by chronic resuscitation of 0, 5, or 10 mL/kg/hr RL for 20 hours. Hepatocellular function was determined by an in vivo indocyanine green clearance technique. Hepatic microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by bioassay. Chronic resuscitation with 5 mL/kg/hr RL, but not with 0 or 10 mL/kg/hr RL, restored cardiac output, hepatocellular function, and hepatic microvascular blood flow at 20 hours after hemorrhage. The regimen above also reduced plasma IL-6 levels. Because chronic resuscitation with 5 mL/kg/hr RL after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement restored hepatocellular function and hepatic microvascular blood flow and decreased plasma levels of IL-6, we propose that chronic fluid resuscitation in addition to acute fluid replacement should be routinely used in experimental studies of trauma-hemorrhage.

  12. Predicting Hemorrhagic Transformation of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Prospective Validation of the HeRS Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elisabeth B; Llinas, Rafael H; Schneider, Andrea L C; Hillis, Argye E; Lawrence, Erin; Dziedzic, Peter; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) increases the morbidity and mortality of ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation is often indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, or mechanical valves who are hospitalized with acute stroke, but increases the risk of HT. Risk quantification would be useful. Prior studies have investigated risk of systemic hemorrhage in anticoagulated patients, but none looked specifically at HT. In our previously published work, age, infarct volume, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) significantly predicted HT. We created the hemorrhage risk stratification (HeRS) score based on regression coefficients in multivariable modeling and now determine its validity in a prospectively followed inpatient cohort.A total of 241 consecutive patients presenting to 2 academic stroke centers with acute ischemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation over a 2.75-year period were included. Neuroimaging was evaluated for infarct volume and HT. Hemorrhages were classified as symptomatic versus asymptomatic, and by severity. HeRS scores were calculated for each patient and compared to actual hemorrhage status using receiver operating curve analysis.Area under the curve (AUC) comparing predicted odds of hemorrhage (HeRS score) to actual hemorrhage status was 0.701. Serum glucose (P hemorrhages were more likely to be symptomatic and more severe.The HeRS score is a valid predictor of HT in patients with ischemic stroke and indication for anticoagulation.

  13. Risk of rebleeding after treatment of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, Catharine A.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Beijer, Inge S.; van Dijk, Gert W.; Algra, Ale; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriël J. E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid drainage is often indicated in patients with acute hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but is believed to increase the risk of rebleeding. We studied the risk of rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage during treatment for

  14. Idiopathic Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Rupture as an Uncommon Cause of Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Schatz MD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are infrequently encountered but critical to recognize. Limited literature to date describes associations with pancreatitis, trauma, and rarely peptic ulcer disease. Hemorrhage and abdominal pain are the most common manifestations. There is typically overt gastrointestinal blood loss but bleeding can also extend into the peritoneum, retroperitoneum, adjacent organs, or even a pseudocyst. Most patients with ruptured splenic artery pseudoaneurysms present with hemodynamic instability. Here, we describe a patient recovering from acute illness in the intensive care unit but with otherwise no obvious risk factors or precipitants for visceral pseudoaneurysm. He presented with acute onset altered mental status, nausea, and worsening back and abdominal pain and was found to be in hypovolemic shock. The patient was urgently stabilized until more detailed imaging could be performed, which ultimately revealed the source of blood loss and explained his rapid decompensation. He was successfully treated with arterial coiling and embolization. Thus, we herein emphasize the importance of prompt recognition of hemorrhagic shock and of aggressive hemodynamic stabilization, as well as a focused diagnostic approach to this problem with specific treatment for splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. Finally, we recommend that multidisciplinary management should be the standard approach in all patients with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm.

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  16. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2004-12-01

    Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  17. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Horta Veloso

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  18. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  19. Clinical significance of the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were measured with RIA at 24:00 and 8:00 right after admission in 68 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and the tests were repeated in 61 patients one week later 40 controls entered this study. Results: The plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the patients than the corresponding readings in controls (P<0.001) with obliteration of the normal diurnal rhythm of secretion. The increase of the cortisol levels was positively correlated with the severity of the disease. As the condition of the patients improved, the cortisol levels dropped gradually. Conclusion: The plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were closely related to the severity of the disease and were of prognostic value. (authors)

  20. A case of acute liver failure in dengue hemorrhagic fever

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    Rama Biswas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an arboviral disease endemic in many parts of the world. The clinical presentation of dengue viral infection ranges from asymptomatic illness to fatal dengue shock syndrome. Although, it is known to cause hepatic involvement, it occasionally results in acute hepatic failure. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever presenting with acute liver failure. The case recovered completely after treatment. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(2: 41-42

  1. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients After ATACH-2 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Shahram; Suarez, Jose I; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-10-01

    Acute hypertensive response is elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the first 24 h after symptom onset which is highly prevalent in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Observational studies suggested association between acute hypertensive response and hematoma expansion, peri-hematoma edema and death and disability, and possible reduction in these adverse outcomes with treatment of acute hypertensive response. Recent clinical trials have focused on determining the clinical efficacy of early intensive SBP reduction in ICH patients. The Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH-2) trial was the latest phase 3 randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial aimed to study the efficacy of early intensive reduction of SBP in ICH patients. In this review article, we summarize the results of recent clinical trials, treatment principles based on the latest guidelines, and the anticipated interpretation and incorporation of ATACH-2 trial results in clinical practice.

  2. Nonaneurysmal "Pseudo-Subarachnoid Hemorrhage" Computed Tomography Patterns: Challenges in an Acute Decision-Making Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tasneem F; Duarte, Walter; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Goldstein, Eric D; Hurst, Rebecca; Haranhalli, Neil; Miller, David A; Wharen, Robert E; Tawk, Rabih G; Freeman, William D

    2018-06-05

    Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical and neurosurgical emergency from ruptured brain aneurysm. Aneurysmal SAH is identified on brain computed tomography (CT) as increased density of basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces from acute blood products. Aneurysmal SAH-like pattern on CT appears as an optical illusion effect of hypodense brain parenchyma and/or hyperdense surrounding cerebral cisterns and blood vessels termed as "pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage" (pseudo-SAH). We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data of all SAH diagnoses between January 2013 and January 2018, and found subsets of nonaneurysmal SAH, originally suspected to be aneurysmal in origin. We performed a National Library of Medicine search methodology using terms "subarachnoid hemorrhage," "pseudo," and "non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage" singly and in combination to understand the sensitivity, specificity, and precision of pseudo-SAH. Over 5 years, 230 SAH cases were referred to our tertiary academic center and only 7 (3%) met the definition of pseudo-SAH. Searching the National Library of Medicine using subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded 27,402 results. When subarachnoid hemorrhage and pseudo were combined, this yielded 70 results and sensitivity was 50% (n = 35). Similarly, search precision was relatively low (26%) as only 18 results fit the clinical description similar to the 7 cases discussed in our series. Aneurysmal SAH pattern on CT is distinct from nonaneurysmal and pseudo-SAH patterns. The origin of pseudo-SAH terminology appears mostly tied to comatose cardiac arrest patients with diffuse dark brain Hounsfield units and cerebral edema, and is a potential imaging pitfall in acute medical decision-making. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Superselective embolization with microcoil in acute gastronitestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Hye; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jang, Nam Kyu

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of superselective arterial embolization using the microcoil in acute gastrointerstinal hemorrhage. We evaluated 11 of 42 patients who had undergone diagnostic angiography and transcatheter arterial embolization due to acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage and subsequently underwent superselective arterial embolization using the microcoil. Nine were males and two were females, and their age ranged from 33 to 70 (mean, 51) years. The etiologies were bleeding ulcer (n=3D5), pseudoaneurysm from pancreatitis (n=3D3), and postoperative bleeding (n=3D3). The symptoms were melena, hematemesis, and hematochzia, and the critical signs were cecreased hemoglobin and worsening of vital signs. All patients underwent superselective embolization using the microcatheter and microcoil. Bleeding occurred in the gastroduodenal artery (n=3D5), inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n=3D2), left gastric artery (n=3D2), right hepatic artery (n=3D1), and ileal branch of the superior mesenteric artery (n=3D1). All cases were treated succesfully, without complications. In one case in which there was bleeding in the right hepatic artery, reembolization with a microcoil was needed because of persistent melena. During follow up, three patients died from complications arising underlying diseases, namely disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, chronic renal failure, and adult resiratory distress syndrome. (author)=20

  4. [Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

    2010-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation

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    Creticus P. Marak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH.

  6. Spot Sign in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Dynamic T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Santaella, Anna; Galinovic, Ivana; Krause, Thomas; Rocco, Andrea; Nolte, Christian H; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2016-02-01

    In computed tomographic imaging of acute intracerebral hemorrhage spot sign on computed tomographic angiography has been established as a marker for hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcome. Although, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately visualize acute intracerebral hemorrhage, a corresponding MRI marker is lacking to date. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage within 24 hours of symptom onset. The MRI protocol consisted of a standard stroke protocol and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging with a time resolution of 7.07 s/batch. Stroke scores were assessed at admission and at time of discharge. Volume measurements of hematoma size and spot sign were performed with MRIcron. Contrast extravasation within sites of the hemorrhage (MRI spot sign) was seen in 46% of the patients. Patients with an MRI spot sign had a significantly shorter time to imaging than those without (Pspot sign compared with those without (P≤0.001). Hematoma expansion was observed in the spot sign group compared with the nonspot sign group, although the differences were not significant. Spot sign can be detected using MRI on postcontrast T1-weighted and dynamic T1-weighted images. It is associated with worse clinical outcome. The time course of contrast extravasation in dynamic T1 images indicates that these spots represent ongoing bleeding. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Electrocardiographic findings in acute cerebrovascular hemorrhage a prospective study of 70 patients

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    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy patients with hemorrhagic stroke were prospectively evaluated regarding the electrocardiographic abnormalities observed within the first 48 hours of the ictus. Group I comprised 55 patients with spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, and group II 15 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients taking cardiac drugs (beta blockers, calcium-channel blockers, inotropic drugs or with severe metabolic/electrolyte disturbances were excluded. The most common ECG abnormality was a prolonged Q-Tc interval: group I, 37 (67.2%; group II, 8 (53.3%. Only 4 (7.2% patients of group I and no patient of group II had a normal ECG. No relation was found between the site of the intracerebral hematoma and the occurrence of any particular ECG change. A prolonged Q-Tc may be related to the development of severe cardiac arrhythmias observed in some patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Sonographic findings of ovarian hemorrhage presenting acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Joo Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kang, Hae Jin; Suh, Jung Ho

    2000-01-01

    To obtain the characteristic sonographic findings of ovarian hemorrhage and investigate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis. Forty-nine cases presenting acute abdomen diagnosed as ovarian hemorrhage by ultrasonography or surgicopathological confirmation. We observed the size and margin of the ovary, size, pattern, shape, wall and internal echogenecity of the masses and the amount of hemoperitoneum. We also performed a color Doppler study to evaluate the blood flow pattern and resistive index (RI). The age of patients were between 21-41. Most symptoms occurred from days 14 to 30 of her menstrual cycle and were presented for less than 24 hours. Twenty patients had a history of intercourse shortly before the onset of the symptom. Thirty two cases involved the right ovary while the other 17 cases involved the left. All patients had a negative urine or serum hCG test except for 4 pregnant women. The size of the ovary was measured as mean 5.1 cm and marginal irregularly was noted in 36 cases. Mixed echoic solid masses were observed in 6 cases and variable echogenecity of cystic masses were seen in 43 cases. Maximal diameter of adnexal masses were measured as mean 3.95 cm. Internal echogenecity of cystic masses appeared as mainly heterogeneous (21). Twenty two cystic masses had a thick irregular wall and 17 had a thin smooth wall. Hypoechoic rim like halo surrounding was noted in 17 cystic masses. 17 cases seemed to have a small amount of hemoperitoneum, a moderate amount in 22 cases and a large amount in 9 cases. The blood flow pattern of cystic masses showed a rim (29) and spotty (8) pattern in the color Doppler study. Measured RI was 0.41 (mean). Fertile women with the complaint of acute abdominal pain, who has the laboratory data of negative hCG test, ultrasonographic findings of enlargement of ovary with irregular margin, heterogeneous echoic cystic mass, peripheral halo surrounding the mass, hemoperitoneum and low resistance index of peripheral blood

  9. CT findings of fulminant subarachnoid hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Isayama, Kazuo; Yajima, Kouzo; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yano, Masami; Otsuka, Toshibumi

    1985-01-01

    We studied the clinical features and CT findings of 20 cases with fulminant subarachonid hemorrhages in the acute stage. They were admitted to our hospital within 3 hours after the attack as DOA (dead on arrival) or near DOA. CT-visualized subarachnoid hemorrhages were located in the basal cisterns surrounding the brain stem in all cases. In 90 % of the cases, the subarachnoid hemorrhage formed a clot or a thick layer. Massive intracerebral hematomas were observed in 10 % of the cases. Acute intraventricular hemorrhages were seen in 80 % of the cases. The mechanism of intraventricular hemorrhage in 70 % of the cases was of the reflux type, which was characterized by a reflux of the severe subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cistern. Acute and diffuse brain swelling on CT scan was observed in several cases, which also showed initial increased intracranial pressures. The major mechanisms leading to acute death or a very severe state soon after subarachnoid hemorrhage might be caused by acute brain-stem failure due to severe subarachnoid hemorrhages in the basal cisterns surrounding the brain-stem and an acute increase in intracranial pressure by cerebral edema following subarachnoid hemorrhage and secondary cerebral ischemia due to cardiac and respiratory arrest. (author)

  10. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

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    Saif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history.

  11. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  12. Cerebral Microbleeds are an Independent Predictor of Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Intravenous Alteplase Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Nandakumar; Tasneem, Nudrat; Shaban, Amir; Dandapat, Sudeepta; Ahmed, Uzair; Policeni, Bruno; Olalde, Heena; Shim, Hyungsub; Samaniego, Edgar A; Pieper, Connie; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Leira, Enrique C; Adams, Harold P

    2018-05-01

    Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke. The objective of our study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, and imaging predictors on forecasting the risk of hemorrhagic transformation following treatment with rt-PA. We also evaluated the factors associated with cerebral microbleeds that increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 were included in the study if they received IV rt-PA, had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain on admission, and computed tomography or MRI of the brain at 24 (18-36) hours later to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic transformation. The clinical data, lipid levels, platelet count, MRI, and computed tomography images were retrospectively reviewed. The study included 366 patients, with mean age 67 ± 15 years; 46% were women and 88% were white. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 6 (interquartile range 3-15). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 87 (23.8%) patients and cerebral microbleeds were noted in 95 (25.9%). Patients with hemorrhagic transformation tended to be older, nonwhite, have atrial fibrillation, higher baseline NIHSS score, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and cerebral microbleeds and nonlacunar infarcts. Patients with cerebral microbleeds were more likely to be older, have hypertension, hyperlipidemia, previous history of stroke, and prior use of antithrombotics. On multivariate analysis race, NIHSS score, nonlacunar infarct, and presence of cerebral microbleeds were independently associated with hemorrhagic transformation following treatment with rt-PA. Presence of cerebral microbleeds is an independent predictor of hemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke following treatment with rt-PA. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Acute Hemorrhagic Flexor Tenosynovitis due to Vincula Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A 20-year-old previously well woman presented to the emergency department with classical signs of acute flexor tenosynovitis, 4 hours after a minor puncture wound over the volar aspect of her right middle finger distal interphalangeal joint. Exploration of the flexor sheath in theatre revealed frank blood within the sheath and extension of the puncture wound through the profundus tendon into the short vincula beneath. The blood was irrigated from the sheath, and the patient made a complete recovery by 2 weeks postoperatively. Although rare, irritation and distension of the flexor sheath caused by vincular hemorrhage can be an alternative mechanism for the development of acute flexor tenosynovitis, and as with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis, prompt surgical treatment can minimize the risk of long-term functional impairment. PMID:26301147

  14. Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis in Children: A Case Report

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    Gholam Reza Khademi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE is a rare demyelinating disease characterized by an acute rapidly progressive fulminant inflammation of the white matter. In this case report, we introduce a case of AHLE in children with an interesting and lengthy process and successful treatment. A previously healthy 13-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital because of fever and loss of consciousness. After 4 days, she was referred to our pediatric intensive care unit in Mashhad, Iran. On admission, she had right-sided parotiditis. With a diagnosis of AHLE, our patient was treated with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir, and plasmapheresis. AHLE is a rare and severe demyelinating disease, the mortality and morbidity of which can be decreased by early detection and treatment with steroid therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir, and plasmapheresis.

  15. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Ruptured due to Acute Intracystic Hemorrhage

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    Kunishige Okamura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst is one of the rare complications and usually results in high mortality. The present case was a rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst that could be treated by surgical intervention. A 74-year-old man developed abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, and he was diagnosed with cholecystitis and pneumonia. Three days later, acute pancreatitis occurred and computed tomography (CT showed slight hemorrhage in the cyst of the pancreatic tail. After another 10 days, CT showed pancreatic cyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed leakage of contrast agent from pancreatic tail cyst to enclosed abdominal cavity. His left hypochondrial pain was increasing, and CT showed rupture of the cyst of the pancreatic tail into the peritoneal cavity was increased in 10 days. CT showed also two left renal tumors. Therefore we performed distal pancreatectomy with concomitant resection of transverse colon and left kidney. We histopathologically diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage and renal cell carcinoma. Despite postoperative paralytic ileus and fluid collection at pancreatic stump, they improved by conservative management and he could be discharged on postoperative day 29. He has achieved relapse-free survival for 6 months postoperatively. The mortality of pancreatic pseudocyst rupture is very high if some effective medical interventions cannot be performed. It should be necessary to plan appropriate treatment strategy depending on each patient.

  16. Specific features of the hemorrhagic syndrome manifestation under chronic, prolonged and acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlashchenko, N.I.; Gorlov, V.G.; Maksimova, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    To make the hemorrhagic syndrome manifest itself, two phenomena are necessary to coincide in time, they are: a fall in the elasticity of the vascular wall and reduction in the amount of thrombocytes in blood. Depending upon the radiation dose, the vascular wall and the thrombocytic function may be either simultaneously impaired after acute exposure) or dissociated (following prolonged irradiation). Chronic irradiation at small (subliminal) dose rates fails to induce hemorrhagic disorders and death of rats caused by pathologic hemophilia

  17. Successful treatment of idiopathic pulmonary capillaritis with intravenous cyclophosphamide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flanagan, Frances

    2013-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), a subtype of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare condition, first described by Virchow in 1864. Historically, it manifests in children in the first decade of life with the combination of hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia, and alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph. More recently, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has been classified by the absence or presence of pulmonary capillaritis (PC), the latter carrying a potential for a poorer outcome. While systemic corticosteroids remain the first line treatment option, other immune modulators have been trailed including hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, and cyclophosphamide with varying results. Our case demonstrates for the first time, the successful use of intravenous cyclophosphamide in the management of chronic idiopathic PC.

  18. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Atul; Adhe, Vijay; Kothari, Dimple; Kardekar, Suchitra; Khopkar, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is one of the clinical forms of leukocytoclastic vasculitis seen in children. The condition runs a benign course. We report two male children who presented with upper respiratory tract infection followed by limb swelling and purpuric and ecchymotic lesions on the skin. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis in both patients. In both cases, the lesions resolved completely without any sequelae.

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus flare up as acute spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage with bilateral lower limb paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is an uncommon complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Solitary association of fatal spinal SAH as a complication of SLE, has not been encountered much in literature although coexisting acute cerebral and spinal SAH have been associated with SLE. We present a 39-year old female with initial diagnosis of SLE eight years ago who suddenly developed a productive cough, acute abdomen and paralysis of the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed thoracic spinal SAH with varying degrees of thoracic spinal cord compression. The hemorrhage was total evacuated via surgery. She regained normal function of her lower limbers after the operation with no further neurological complications. One of the rare but fatal complications of SLE is solitary spinal SAH without cranial involvement. The best and most appropriate management of this kind of presentation is surgical decompression of the hematoma with total hemostasis. The cause of hemorrhage should be identified intra-operatively and treated appropriately.

  20. Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated With Neonatal Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lauran; Dewey, Deborah; Letourneau, Nicole; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Chaput, Kathleen; Gallagher, Clare; Hodge, Jacquie; Floer, Amalia; Kirton, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Hemorrhage into the brain of term newborns often results in major injury and lifelong disability. The clinical epidemiology of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) remains undefined, hindering the development of strategies to improve outcomes. To characterize the incidence, types, presentations, associated factors, and outcomes of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke. Population-based, nested case-control study. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project, a provincial registry, ascertained NHS cases using exhaustive diagnostic code searching (1992-2010, >2500 medical record reviews). Prospective cases were captured through the Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program (2007-2014). Participants included term neonates with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed NHS including primary and secondary intracerebral hemorrhage, hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic injury, and presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Control infants with common data were recruited from a population-based study (4 to 1 ratio). Infants with NHS underwent structured medical record review using data-capture forms and blinded scoring of neuroimaging. Clinical risk factor common data elements were explored using logistic regression. Provincial live births were obtained from Statistics Canada. Outcomes were extrapolated to the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure. We identified 86 cases: 51 infants (59%) with NHS, of which 32 (67%) were idiopathic, 30 (35%) were hemorrhagic transformation of primary ischemic injuries (14 with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, 11 with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and 5 with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke), and 5 were presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Sixty-two percent were male. Incidence of pure NHS was 1 in 9500 live births and 1 in 6300 for all forms. Most presented in the first week of life with seizures and encephalopathy. Acute neurosurgical intervention was rare (3 of 86 total cases; 3.5%). Temporal lobe was the most common NHS location (16 of 51 pure NHS cases; 31%). A

  1. Case report of massive fetomaternal hemorrhage and a guideline for acute neonatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Lori A; Charsha, Dianne S; Perelmuter, Bezalel

    2006-08-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage resulting in profound anemia and shock is associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although diagnosis before delivery is difficult, the clinical index of suspicion rises when a woman presents with history of decreased or absent fetal movements and antenatal monitoring shows a sinusoidal rhythm strip. The diagnosis can be made quickly by demonstration of fetal red blood cells in the maternal circulation and there is consistent recommendation in the literature to immediately order a Kleihauer-Betke test. Clinical manifestations of a fetomaternal hemorrhage depend on the volume of blood lost and the rate with which it occurred. The severely compromised anemic infant indicative of acute hemorrhage will be pale with gasping respirations and signs of circulatory shock. Immediate intervention with volume resuscitation is crucial for optimal outcome. This article describes a patient with massive fetomaternal hemorrhage and subsequent devastating neonatal complications. The focus of this article is to provide clinical guidance for the management and care of the infant affected by profound anemia.

  2. Idiopathic subvalvular aortic aneurysm masquerading as acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Balaji; Ramanathan, Sundar; Subramaniam, Natarajan; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2016-09-02

    Subvalvular aneurysms are the least common type of left ventricular (LV) aneurysms and can be fatal. Subaortic LV aneurysms are much rarer than submitral LV aneurysms and mostly reported in infancy. They can be congenital or acquired secondary to infections, cardiac surgery or trauma. Here, we report a unique presentation of a large, idiopathic subaortic aneurysm in an adult masquerading as an acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis was made with the help of a CT aortography. Aneurysm was surgically resected with good results. This case highlights the clinical presentation and management of subaortic aneurysms, an important differential for congenital aortic malformations. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Acute onset of intracranial subdural hemorrhage five days after spinal anesthesia for knee arthroscopic surgery: a case report

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    Hagino Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Spinal anesthesia is a widely used general purpose anesthesia. However, serious complications, such as intracranial subdural hemorrhage, can rarely occur. Case presentation We report the case of a 73-year-old Japanese woman who had acute onset of intracranial subdural hemorrhage five days after spinal anesthesia for knee arthroscopic surgery. Conclusion This case highlights the need to pay attention to acute intracranial subdural hemorrhage as a complication after spinal anesthesia. If the headache persists even in a supine position or nausea occurs abruptly, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be conducted. An intracranial subdural hematoma may have a serious outcome and is an important differential diagnosis for headache after spinal anesthesia.

  4. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage manifesting as acute scrotum: timely diagnosis prevents unnecessary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Luigi; Fusillo, Mario; Ferrari, Giovanna; Chiara, Alberto; Bragheri, Romano

    2002-04-01

    Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as scrotal swelling has been reported in 17 cases, with unnecessary surgical exploration in 7. We report 2 new cases, emphasizing the knowledge of this clinical association and the role of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis for this specific condition and in all cases of neonatal acute scrotum.

  5. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  6. Diagnosis of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage at 1.5 Tesla using proton-density weighted FSE and FLAIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, M.; Mayer, T.E.; Brueckmann, H.; Medele, R.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging at 1.5 Tesla in patients suffering from acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using proton-density weighted (PDW) fast spin echo (FSE) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Methods: 19 patients suffering from acute SAH as diagnosed by CT were studied 6 h to 3 days after hemorrhage. 10 patients without SAH were studied as a control group. The presence of subarachnoid blood as well as possible artifacts was recorded. Results: In all 19 patients subarachnoid hemorrhage was detected on both FLAIR and PDW images (100%). On the FLAIR images, the cerebral ventricles were partially obscured by flow artifacts in 7 of 19 patients, the basal cisterns in 6 of 19 patients. In 4 of these 13 regions blood was diagnosed on both PDW and CT images, while in the other 9 regions both PDW and CT were unremarkable. Conclusion: The sensitivity of MRI at 1.5 Tesla in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is comparable to CT. The combination of FLAIR and PDW FSE sequences helps to avoid false-positive results caused by flow artifacts. (orig.) [de

  7. Factors Associated with Acute and Chronic Hydrocephalus in Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter; Raya, Amanda; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dhar, Rajat

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocephalus requiring external ventricular drain (EVD) or shunt placement commonly complicates aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but its frequency is not as well known for nonaneurysmal SAH (NA-SAH). Those with diffuse bleeding may have greater risk of hydrocephalus compared to those with a perimesencephalic pattern. We evaluated the frequency of hydrocephalus in NA-SAH and whether imaging factors could predict the need for EVD and shunting. We collected admission clinical and imaging variables for 105 NA-SAH patients, including bicaudate index (BI), Hijdra sum score (HSS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score, modified Fisher scale (mFS), and bleeding pattern. Hydrocephalus was categorized as acute (need for EVD) or chronic (shunt). We applied logistic regression to determine whether hydrocephalus risk was independently related to bleeding pattern or mediated through blood volume or ventriculomegaly. Acute hydrocephalus was seen in 26 (25%) patients but was more common with diffuse (15/28, 54%) versus perimesencephalic (10/59, 17%, p hydrocephalus had worse clinical grade and higher BI, HSS, and IVH scores. Adjusting the relationship between hydrocephalus and diffuse bleeding for HSS (but not BI) nullified this association. Nine (35%) patients requiring EVD eventually required shunting for chronic hydrocephalus, which was associated with greater blood burden but not poor clinical grade. Acute hydrocephalus occurs in one-quarter of NA-SAH patients. The greater risk in diffuse bleeding appears to be mediated by greater cisternal blood volume but not by greater ventriculomegaly. Imaging characteristics may aid in anticipatory management of hydrocephalus in NA-SAH.

  8. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

  9. Medulla Oblongata Hemorrhage and Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeske, Kevin T; Sarano, Maurice E; Fugate, Jennifer E; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-12-19

    Acute brain injury with strong surges of adrenergic outflow has resulted in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, but there are surprisingly few reports of takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage, and none have been described from hemorrhage within the brainstem. We describe a patient with reverse and reversible cardiomyopathy following a hemorrhage in the lateral medulla oblongata. While it is limited in size, the location of the hemorrhage caused acute systolic failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27% and vasopressor requirement for cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. There was full recovery after 7 days. Detailed case report. Hemorrhage into medulla oblongata pressor centers may result in acute, reversible, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, affirming the adrenergic origin of this condition.

  10. Glioblastoma multiforme subterfuge as acute cerebral hemorrhage: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu A. Richard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic related Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are rare and characterizes with severe clinical scuffle. The etiology of this presentation although not well known is believed to be multifactorial. We present a case as well as review on the pathogenesis of evolution of the hematoma into ring enhancing features of GBM on imaging studies. We present a case of 28 years old man who suddenly went into coma for 9 hours preceded with seizures that latest for 10 minutes. He had no focal neurological signs. CT-Scans images indicated acute cerebral hemorrhage near the frontal horn of the left ventricle with brain edema about the hemorrhagic lesion and MRI done a week later revealed a cerebral ring enhancing lesion. The lesion was partially resected during surgery and immunohistochemical staining confirmed GBM (WHO, grade 4. The diagnosis of intratumoral hemorrhage in GBM was very challenging at the initial stages but with time the hematoma evolved into ring enhancing images typical of GBM. It’s not every intracranial hematoma that is of pure vascular origin.

  11. Treatments for Reversing Warfarin Anticoagulation in Patients with Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    available soon. Treatments for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: a structured literature review...DATE 08 JUL 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treatments For Reversing Warfarin ...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES International Journal of Emergency Medicine 2011 14. ABSTRACT The acute management of patients on warfarin

  12. Curative effect of surgery combined with nerve growth factor preparation treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Luo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgery combined with nerve growth factor preparation treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage can improve neural nutritional status and reduce nerve injury degree, and it is beneficial to the recovery of neural function.

  13. Acute Ethanol Gavage Attenuates Hemorrhage/Resuscitation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rats

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    B. Relja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.. Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30±2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.. Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.

  14. Pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage: acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslow, Lauren A; Abend, Nicholas S; Gindville, Melissa C; Bastian, Rachel A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Hillis, Argye E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2013-04-01

    Seizures are believed to be common presenting symptoms in neonates and children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, few data are available on the epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures or the risk for later epilepsy. To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous ICH. Our a priori hypotheses were that younger age at presentation, cortical involvement of ICH, acute symptomatic seizures after presentation, ICH due to vascular malformation, and elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent intervention would predict remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy. Prospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2007, and January 1, 2012. Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (≥37 weeks' gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only seizures within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 perinatal (60%) and 19 childhood (36%) subjects (P = .07). Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9 of 32 subjects (28%) with continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. One-year and 2-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival rates were 82% (95% CI, 68-90) and 67% (95% CI, 46-82), respectively. One-year and 2-year epilepsy-free survival rates were 96% (95% CI, 83-99) and 87% (95% CI, 65-95), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for seizures after presentation (P = .01; Fisher exact test), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P = .03, and P = .04, respectively; log-rank test). Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous

  15. Differentiating intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payabvash, Seyedmehdi [Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Khan, Shayaan M.; Khan, Mahnoor; Majidi, Shahram; Pawar, Swaroop; Qureshi, Adnan I. [Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to identify the imaging characteristics that can help differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from benign contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. We reviewed the clinical and imaging records of all acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent endovascular treatment in two hospitals over a 3.5-year period. The immediate post-procedural CT scan was evaluated for the presence of hyperdense lesion(s). The average attenuation of the lesion(s) was measured. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was defined as a persistent hyperdensity visualized on follow-up CT scan, 24 h or greater after the procedure. Of the 135 patients studied, 74 (55 %) patients had hyperdense lesion(s) on immediate post-procedural CT scan. Follow-up scans confirmed the diagnosis of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 20 of these 74 patients. A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the average attenuation of the most hyperdense lesion can differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation with an area under the curve of 0.78 (p = 0.001). An average attenuation of <50 Hounsfield units (HU) in the most visually hyperattenuating hyperdense lesion had 100 % specificity and 56 % sensitivity for identification of contrast extravasations. Petechial hyperdensity was seen in 46/54 (85 %) patients with contrast extravasation versus 9/20 (45 %) patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhage on the immediate post-procedural CT scan (p < 0.001). An average attenuation <50 HU of the most hyperattenuating hyperdense parenchymal lesion on immediate post-procedural CT scan was very specific for differentiating contrast extravasation from intraparenchymal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. (orig.)

  16. Differentiating intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Khan, Shayaan M.; Khan, Mahnoor; Majidi, Shahram; Pawar, Swaroop; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the imaging characteristics that can help differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from benign contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. We reviewed the clinical and imaging records of all acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent endovascular treatment in two hospitals over a 3.5-year period. The immediate post-procedural CT scan was evaluated for the presence of hyperdense lesion(s). The average attenuation of the lesion(s) was measured. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was defined as a persistent hyperdensity visualized on follow-up CT scan, 24 h or greater after the procedure. Of the 135 patients studied, 74 (55 %) patients had hyperdense lesion(s) on immediate post-procedural CT scan. Follow-up scans confirmed the diagnosis of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 20 of these 74 patients. A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the average attenuation of the most hyperdense lesion can differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation with an area under the curve of 0.78 (p = 0.001). An average attenuation of <50 Hounsfield units (HU) in the most visually hyperattenuating hyperdense lesion had 100 % specificity and 56 % sensitivity for identification of contrast extravasations. Petechial hyperdensity was seen in 46/54 (85 %) patients with contrast extravasation versus 9/20 (45 %) patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhage on the immediate post-procedural CT scan (p < 0.001). An average attenuation <50 HU of the most hyperattenuating hyperdense parenchymal lesion on immediate post-procedural CT scan was very specific for differentiating contrast extravasation from intraparenchymal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. (orig.)

  17. Volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64 multidetector-row CT during aortography: utility for catheterization in transcatheter arterial embolization for acute arterial bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Nakai, Motoki; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Murotani, Kazuhiro; Hosokawa, Seiki; Nishioku, Tadayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aortography for detecting hemorrhage is limited when determining the catheter treatment strategy because the artery responsible for hemorrhage commonly overlaps organs and non-responsible arteries. Selective catheterization of untargeted arteries would result in repeated arteriography, large volumes of contrast medium, and extended time. A volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created with 64 multidetector-row CT (64MDCT) during aortography (MDCTAo) can be used both for hemorrhage mapping and catheter navigation. The MDCTAo depicted hemorrhage in 61 of 71 cases of suspected acute arterial bleeding treated at our institute in the last 3 years. Complete hemostasis by embolization was achieved in all cases. The hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram was used for navigation during catheterization, thus assisting successful embolization. Hemorrhage was not visualized in the remaining 10 patients, of whom 6 had a pseudoaneurysm in a visceral artery; 1 with urinary bladder bleeding and 1 with chest wall hemorrhage had gaze tamponade; and 1 with urinary bladder hemorrhage and 1 with uterine hemorrhage had spastic arteries. Six patients with pseudoaneurysm underwent preventive embolization and the other 4 patients were managed by watchful observation. MDCTAo has the advantage of depicting the arteries responsible for hemoptysis, whether from the bronchial arteries or other systemic arteries, in a single scan. MDCTAo is particularly useful for identifying the source of acute arterial bleeding in the pancreatic arcade area, which is supplied by both the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In a case of pelvic hemorrhage, MDCTAo identified the responsible artery from among numerous overlapping visceral arteries that branched from the internal iliac arteries. In conclusion, a hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64MDCT immediately before catheterization is useful for deciding the catheter treatment strategy for acute arterial bleeding.

  18. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin

    2010-01-01

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  19. Evaluation and Treatment of the Acute Cerebral Infarction with Convexal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Sang Uk; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Chul Bum; Yang, Seung Ho; Kim, Il Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Won

    2016-09-01

    Non-traumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (CSAH) is a comparatively infrequent with various vascular and nonvascular causes, it rarely occurs concomitant to acute ischemic stroke. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman, visited emergency room with right side subjective weakness spontaneously. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images revealed an acute infarction of anterior cerebral arterial territory. Computed tomographic angiography showed a left frontal CSAH without any vascular lesions. And other laboratory studies were non-specific. We treated with dual antiplatelet drugs (cilostazole [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. tokyo, Japan] and Aspirin [Bayer Pharma AG., Leverkusen, Germany]). She has done well for a follow-up period. (5 months) This case demonstrates the CSAH with acute infarction is rare but need to work up to identify the etiology and antiplatelet dugs are taken into account for treatments.

  20. A case of thalamic hemorrhage presenting high density on CT in a long time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio; Umetsu, Akemi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    We presented a thalamic hemorrhage in a 29-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy showing a high density lesion at least for 50 days on CT. From beginning of the illness, this condition was considered to continue for 3 months by chronic bleeding or recurrent hemorrhage. (author)

  1. Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH...... remains unclear, a question that was addressed in the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial. METHODS: ENOS was an international multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded endpoint trial. Among 629 patients with ICH and systolic blood pressure between 140 and 220 mmHg, 246 patients who were...... taking antihypertensive drugs were assigned to continue (n = 119) or to stop (n = 127) taking drugs temporarily for 7 days. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Score at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included death, length of stay in hospital, discharge destination, activities of daily living, mood...

  2. Effect of Emergency Medical Services Use on Hospital Outcomes of Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sola; Shin, Sang Do; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Eui Jung; Ahn, Ki Ok; Kim, Taeyun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Kim, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the use of emergency medical services (EMS) is associated with enhanced survival and decreased disability after hemorrhagic stroke and whether the effect size of EMS use differs according to the length of stay (LOS) in emergency department (ED). Adult patients (19 years and older) with acute hemorrhagic stroke who survived to admission at 29 hospitals between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, excluding those who had symptom-to-ED arrival time of 3 h or greater, received thrombolysis or craniotomy before inter-hospital transfer, or had experienced cardiac arrest, had unknown information about ambulance use and outcomes. Exposure variable was EMS use. Endpoints were survival at discharge and worsened modified Rankin Scale (W-MRS) defined as 3 or greater points difference between pre- and post-event MRS. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the outcomes were calculated, including potential confounders (demographic, socioeconomic status, clinical parameter, comorbidity, behavior, and time of event) in the final model and stratifying patients by inter-hospital transfer and by time interval from symptom to ED arrival (S2D). ED LOS, classified into short (hemorrhagic strokes were analyzed in which 75.6% were transported by EMS. For outcome measures, 17.4% and 41.4% were dead and had worsened MRS, respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of EMS were 0.67 (0.51-0.89) for death and 0.74 (0.59-0.92) for W-MRS in all patients. The effect size of EMS, however, was different according to LOS in ED. AORs (95% CIs) for death were 0.74 (0.54-1.01) in short LOS and 0.60 (0.44-0.83) in long LOS group. AORs (95% CIs) for W-MRS were 0.76 (0.60-0.97) in short LOS and 0.68 (0.52-0.88) in long LOS group. EMS transport was associated with lower hospital mortality and disability after acute hemorrhagic stroke. Effect size of EMS use for mortality was significant in patients with long ED LOS. Key  words: emergency medical service; hemorrhagic

  3. Legionella pneumonia associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage - A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a common, usually underreported and undiagnosed cause of community acquired pneumonia which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage rarely have been associated with legionella infection. We present a 61-year-old man with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity admitted with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. He was found to have Legionella pneumonia with associated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage diagnosed with bronchoscopic sequential bronchoalveolar lavage. He was successfully managed with antibiotics, lung protective strategies and intravenous pulse dose steroids. This patient highlights the unusual association of Legionella infection and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Additionally, the case re-enforces the need for early and aggressive evaluation and management of patients presenting with pneumonia and progressive hypoxia despite adequate treatment.

  4. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.

    2013-01-01

    also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities......, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher......Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...

  5. MR imaging at 0.5 Tesla with FLAIR sequence in the diagnosis of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsa, W.; Leitner, H.; Tscholakoff, D.; Perneczky, G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of MR imaging in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at 0.5 Tesla using the FLAIR (Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) sequenze. Additionally, the value of MR angiographie (MRA) in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms was assessed. Materials and Methods: 19 patients with suspected acute SAH were included in this study. MR imaging was performed using an axial FLAIR sequence and axial T 1 , T 2 and PD weighted sequences. In 16 patients an additional MRA (3D-TOF) was performed. 10 patients without SAH were examined as a control group. At the end of the study the 29 MR examinations were randomised and the images were read by two experienced radiologists; subsequently a consensus interpretation was made. Results: In 16 patients an acute SAH was verified with the FLAIR sequence, in 13 cases the origin of hemorrhage was found during surgery. In the consensus interpretation of the MR images all cases were diagnosed properly. 12 of the 16 MRA studies were of diagnostic quality, but only 6 cases were interpreted correctly. Conclusion: The FLAIR sequence at 0.5 Tesla proved effective in the diagnosis of acute SAH. MRA at 0.5 Tesla failed in the detection of intracranial aneurysms. (orig.) [de

  6. Hemorrhagic syndrome and Acute renal failure in a pregnant woman after contact with Lonomia caterpillars: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Hui Wen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 37-week pregnant woman who developed a hemorrhagic syndrome and acute renal failure after contact with Lonomia caterpillars is reported. The accident also initiated labour and the patient gave birth to an alive child. Some pathophysiological aspects of the genital bleeding and of the acute renal failure are discussed.

  7. Relationship of cerebral microbleeds with hematoma growth in elderly patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs can predict hematoma growth in elderly patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.  Methods The clinical records of 98 elderly patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent initial CT within 6 h and repeated CT and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI within 24 h of onset were analyzed. Based on the performance of SWI, patients were divided into microbleeds group and non-microbleeds group. Forward multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the predicting value of CMBs on the growth of intracerebral hematoma.  Results Among 98 patients, hematoma growth was found in 25 cases in the second CT scan. The ratio in microbleeds group was significantly higher than that in non-microbleeds group (43.75% vs 16.67%; χ2 = 8.319, P = 0.004. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that CMBs was independent risk factor for intracerebral hematoma (OR = 0.241, 95%CI: 0.065-0.861; P = 0.017.  Conclusions CMBs in patients with acute intracerebral hematoma can predict high risk of hemotoma growth, and effective treatment should be taken to improve the prognosis of patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.012

  8. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo; Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele; Azzini, Cristiano; Chieregato, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p 20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  9. Aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect due to acute thalamic hemorrhage: clinical correlations and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro

    2016-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL.

  10. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Idiopathic Isolated Cecal Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Özer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic isolated cecal necrosis is a clinical problem characterized by right-sided inferior abdominal pain. It is rarely seen, develops due to decreased blood flow to the colon and, imitates acute appendicitis. Its clinical signs are similar to many illnesses causing sensitivity in the right inferior quadrant and, the diagnosis is generally determined during surgery. An 86-year-old male patient presented with the complaints of abdominal pain, trichiniasis, nausea and vomiting. Surgical intervention was decided when physical examination and laboratory results were taken into consideration. After diagnostic laparoscopy, right hemicolectomy was performed because of cecal necrosis. While the mortality and morbidity rates for ischemic bowel disease are high, prognosis for early diagnosed patients with isolated cecal necrosis is better, provided that timely surgical treatment is decided.

  11. Management of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with diffusion-weighted imaging in acute stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Tominaga, Teiji

    2007-01-01

    Determining the treatment strategy of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (Hunt and Kosnik Grade 4 and 5) requires objective evaluation to represent severity. In the present study, we investigated the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the acute stage as an objective tool. DWI was performed within 48 hours after the onset and preoperatively in 36 patients who fulfilled following the inclusion criteria: admission Hunt and Kosnik Grade 4 or 5, and Fischer Group 3. Twelve of 14 patients without abnormal findings in DWI underwent surgery in the acute stage. Although 2 of 14 patients with high age were supposed to undergo surgery in the chronic stage, 1 patient died in aneurysmal re-rupture. Glasgow outcome scales (GOS) were good recovery (GR) in 5, moderate disability (MD) in 6, standard deviation (SD) in 1 and D in 2 patients. Thirteen of 22 patients with DWI abnormality had small lesions less than 10 mm in diameter. Twelve of 13 patients underwent surgery in the acute stage, and 1 died of aneurysmal re-rupture while waiting for surgery in the chronic stage. GOS were GR in 3, MD in 4, SD in 3 and D in 3 patients. Although 5 patients with diffuse DWI lesions underwent surgery in the acute stage, 2 were SD and 3 were D. Four patients were supposed to undergo delayed surgery. However, 2 of them died of recurrent hemorrhage while waiting. GOS were SD in 2 and D in 2 patients. The present study indicates that DWI may provide objective evaluation of brain damage in severe SAH. However, since there were varieties of DWI findings and clinical courses, careful decisions must be taken in management of severe SAH patients. (author)

  12. Diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia from intracerebral hemorrhage and blast crisis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Nahed, Brian V; Walcott, Brian P; Kahle, Kristopher T; Soupir, Chad P; Cahill, Daniel P; Borges, Lawrence F

    2010-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from acute leukemia. While ICH is often identified in autopsy studies of leukemic patients, it is rare for ICH to be the presenting sign that ultimately leads to the diagnosis of leukemia. We report a patient with previously undiagnosed acute precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who presented with diffuse encephalopathy due to ICH in the setting of an acute blast crisis. The diagnosis of ALL was initially suspected, because of the hyperleukocytosis observed on presentation, then confirmed with a bone marrow biopsy and flow cytometry study of the peripheral blood. Furthermore, detection of the BCR/ABL Philadelphia translocation t(9:22)(q34:q11) in this leukemic patient by fluorescent in situ hybridization permitted targeted therapy of the blast crisis with imatinib (Gleevec). Understanding the underlying etiology of ICH is pivotal in its management. This case demonstrates that the presence of hyperleukocytosis in a patient with intracerebral hemorrhage should raise clinical suspicion for acute leukemia as the cause of the ICH.

  13. Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in the backyard chicken: a retrospective histopathologic case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, K A; Giannitti, F; Rimoldi, G; Hill, A; Woods, L; Barr, B; Anderson, M; Mete, A

    2014-07-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome, characterized by sudden death in overconditioned hens due to hepatic rupture and hemorrhage, is one of the leading noninfectious idiopathic causes of mortality in backyard chickens. Nutritional, genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors, or combinations of these, have been proposed yet not proven as the underlying cause. In an attempt to characterize the hepatic changes leading to the syndrome, this retrospective case study examined 76 backyard chickens that were diagnosed with fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome between January 2007 and September 2012 and presented for necropsy to the diagnostic laboratory of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System. A majority of the birds were female (99%), obese (97.5%), and in active lay (69.7%). Livers were examined histologically, and the degree of hepatocellular vacuolation (lipidosis), the reticular stromal architecture, the presence of collagenous connective tissue, and vascular wall changes were evaluated and graded using hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori's reticulin, oil red O, Masson's trichrome, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson stains. Interestingly, there was no correlation between lipidosis and reticulin grades; hepatocellular lipidosis was absent in 22% of the cases and mild in 26% of the cases. Additionally, there was evidence of repeated bouts of intraparenchymal hemorrhage before the acute "bleed-out" in 35.5% of the cases. These data are not supportive of the previously proposed causes and provide a framework for future studies to elucidate the pathogenesis of this condition. Furthermore, the data shown in this study support hemorrhagic liver syndrome as a more accurate name, as hepatic lipidosis is absent in a significant proportion of ruptured livers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. "ACUTE FATTY LIVER OF PREGNANCY AND PREECLAMPSIA IN A TRIPLET GESTATION "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarnejad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP is a rare entity and a potentially fatal disorder. It is reported to be more common in multiple than singleton pregnancies. Sometimes it coincides with preeclampsia but the exact etiology is not yet understood. A 31-year-old G2 P1 patient admitted at 33 weeks of pregnancy with signs and symptoms of jaundice, gastroenteritis, hypertension, malaise, urinary incontinence and preterm contractions. She had history of idiopathic hypothalamic amenorrhea and by a recent trial with gonadotropins, she had got triplet gestation. After admission her general condition deteriorated. She underwent Cesarean section at once and all fetuses survived. She had severe postpartum hemorrhage. The results of laboratory tests indicated coagulopathy and liver function abnormalities. The AFLP was diagnosed on the third day of hospital stay. She was discharged one week later. Again she returned with complaint of severe sustained headache. Computed tomography showed subdural hemorrhage and drainage of hematoma was performed immediately. Finally the patient recovered from all of these critical conditions. This is the first report of AFLP in a patient with history of idiopathic hypothalamic amenorrhea. AFLP should be suspected in every pregnant patient with preeclampsia and gastroenteritis symptoms in the third trimester of pregnancy.

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated with acute liver failure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalugama, Chamara; Gawarammana, Indika Bandara

    2017-12-08

    Dengue is a common arboviral infection with a clinically diverse spectrum of presentations. Although hepatic dysfunction is commonly identified in patients will dengue illness, acute liver failure is rare. The etiopathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction is multifactorial and related to direct viral invasion of hepatocytes, immunological factors and hypoxia particularly in cases of shock in dengue hemorrhagic fever. Ideal management of dengue-related hepatic dysfunction and acute liver failure is still debated. We report a 53-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhalese male with serologically confirmed dengue fever presenting with evidence of plasma leakage developing acute liver failure evidenced by deranged liver functions, coagulopathy and altered sensorium. In addition to the 'standard care', the patient was managed with intravenous N-acetyl cysteine and blood transfusions even in the absence of bleeding or dropping packed cell volume (PCV), targeting a higher PCV in anticipation of better oxygenation at tissue level. He made a full recovery with no sequential infections. N-acetyl cysteine and packed cell transfusion aiming at a higher PCV to maintain adequate tissue perfusion during shock may be beneficial in acute liver failure due to dengue virus. Large randomized trials should be carried out to establish the efficacy of these treatment strategies to support these observations and change the current practice.

  16. Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) Rehabilitation in Patients with Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Abe, Hiroshi; Samura, Kazuhiro; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Higashi, Toshio; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Etsuji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) rehabilitation in the acute phase of stroke remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) who were treated with or without HAL rehabilitation. Among 270 patients with acute ICH from 2009 to 2014, 91 patients with supratentorial ICH were included in this retrospective study. Of these, 14 patients (HAL group) received HAL rehabilitation at approximately 1 week after ICH occurrence, while the remaining 77 patients received usual rehabilitation without HAL (N-HAL group). We obtained various patient data from the hospitals where the patients were moved to for further rehabilitation. Statistical comparisons were performed for the characteristics of the ICH patients, and outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. There were no differences in outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. However, patients with right ICH in the HAL group exhibited a significant association with a functional independence measure (FIM) score of ≥ 110 compared with patients in the N-HAL group (HAL group: 81.8%, N-HAL group: 43.9%, P = 0.04). In patients with right ICH, HAL rehabilitation was associated with improved outcomes as evaluated by the FIM score. Thus, HAL rehabilitation may improve outcomes of acute ICH in appropriately selected patients.

  17. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.

  18. A Prospective, Randomized Investigation of Plasma First Resuscitation for Traumatic Hemorrhage and Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    COMBAT study staff was made aware of a code 10 trauma return of a male patient who sustained an anterior left- chest stab wound. Paramedics enrolled the...Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ernest E. Moore, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Colorado Denver...Randomized Investigation of “Plasma First Resuscitation” for Traumatic Hemorrhage and Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma . 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  19. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. In newborns, adrenal hemorrhage is not an uncommon event. The large size of the adrenal cortex contributes to an increased vulnerability to trauma during a difficult delivery [1]. However, the neonatal adrenal hemorrhage may rarely present as inguinoscrotal swelling [2,3]. This condition can simulate torsion of ...

  20. Evolution of blood pressure management in acute intracerebral hemorrhage [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH remains a prevalent and severe cause of death and disability worldwide. Control of the hypertensive response in acute ICH has been a mainstay of ICH management, yet the optimal approaches and the yield of recommended strategies have been difficult to establish despite a large body of literature. Over the years, theoretical and observed risks and benefits of intensive blood pressure reduction in ICH have been studied in the form of animal models, radiographic studies, and two recent large, randomized patient trials. In this article, we review the historical and developing data and discuss remaining questions surrounding blood pressure management in acute ICH.

  1. Curative effect of minimally invasive puncture and drainage assisted with alteplase on treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Lin Hu

    2017-01-01

    >Conclusions: As for the effect on evacuation of hematoma and also the ameliorative effect on nerve injury, inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress response in treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive puncture and drainage assisted with alteplase was superior to adjuvant therapy with urokinase.

  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage mimicking an acute scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, O; Mattei, R; Ciardini, E; Centonze, N; Noccioli, B

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-two cases of scrotal hematoma caused by neonatal adrenal hemorrhage are reported in the literature and unnecessary surgical exploration was performed in nine (41%), suspecting testicular torsion. In this paper, we present a newborn male with right adrenal gland hemorrhage causing right scrotal swelling and discoloration of groin managed conservatively.

  3. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during...... infusion while hyperthermic. Primary dependent variables were mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean), serving as an index of cerebral perfusion; mean arterial pressure (MAP); and cardiac output (thermodilution). During baseline, hyperthermia reduced MCAvmean (P = 0.001) by 12 ± 9% relative...

  4. Treatment of Nonvariceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Tanveer; Salam, Basit; Beg, Madiha; Sayani, Raza; Azeemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% postembolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention

  5. Acute Korsakoff-like amnestic syndrome resulting from left thalamic infarction following a right hippocampal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, R; Moussa, R; Awada, A; Ibrahim, I; Ali, Y; Maarrawi, J; Rizk, T; Nohra, G; Okais, N; Samaha, E

    2007-04-01

    Korsakoff-like amnestic syndromes have been rarely described following structural lesions of the central nervous system. In this report, we describe a case of acute Korsakoff-like syndrome resulting from the combination of a left anteromedian thalamic infarct and a right hippocampal hemorrhage. We also review the literature relevant to the neuropathology and pathophysiology of Korsakoff syndrome and anterograde amnesia.

  6. The Use of Limited Fluid Resuscitation and Blood Pressure-Controlling Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Concomitant with Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Li, Mao-Qin; Li, Jia-Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the limited fluid resuscitation regimen combined with blood pressure-controlling drugs in treating acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage concomitant with hemorrhagic shock. A total of 51 patients were enrolled and divided into a group that received traditional fluid resuscitation group (conventional group, 24 patients) and a limited fluid resuscitation group (study group, 27 patients). Before and after resuscitation, the blood lactate, base excess, and hemoglobin values, as well as the volume of fluid resuscitation and resuscitation time were examined. Compared with conventional group, study group had significantly better values of blood lactate, base excess, and hemoglobin (all p controlling drugs effectivelyxxx maintains blood perfusion of vital organs, improves whole body perfusion indicators, reduces the volume of fluid resuscitation, and achieves better bleeding control and resuscitation effectiveness.

  7. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm with fundal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kida, Shinya; Nitta, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Shinjiro

    1985-01-01

    CT scan and fundus oculi of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm were investigated in 42 patients who were admitted between January, 1980, and August, 1984. Fundal hemorrhage (FH) was observed in 22 patients. The patients with FH showed a worse clinical grade (Hunt Kosnik) on admission than those without FH. The mortality rate of patients with FH was 64 %, much higher than the 5 % rate of those without FH. Moreover, the patients with FH showed more trouble in daily living than those without FH. CT scans of patients with FH usually showed severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), whereas those of patients without FH showed only mild hemorrhage. These findings suggest that fundal hemorrhage is caused by acute intracranial hypertension following subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. However, no significant correlation between the laterality of FH and the hemispheric dominancy of SAH could be demonstrated. (author)

  8. Clinical benefits of probiotic canine-derived Bifidobacterium animalis strain AHC7 in dogs with acute idiopathic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R L; Minikhiem, Debbie; Kiely, Barry; O'Mahony, Liam; O'Sullivan, David; Boileau, Tom; Park, Jean Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplementation with canine-derived probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis strain AHC7 (lams Prostora, Procter & Gamble Pet Care) on the resolution rate of acute idiopathic diarrhea in dogs randomly assigned to receive a placebo (n=18) or the probiotic (n=13). Nutritional management with the probiotic fed at 2 x 10(10) CFU/day significantly reduced the time to resolution (3.9 +/- 2.3 versus 6.6 +/- 2.7 days; P dogs that were administered metronidazole (38.5% versus 50.0%) compared with placebo. Probiotic B. animalis AHC7 may provide veterinarians another tool for management of acute diarrhea in dogs.

  9. Acute Lung Injury Complicating Blood Transfusion in Post-Partum Hemorrhage: Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A.; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background. We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).  Methods. We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet (PLT) transfusion. Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. Accor...

  10. Systemic thrombolysis increases hemorrhagic stroke risk without survival benefit compared with catheter-directed intervention for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nathan L; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Singh, Michael J; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-03-01

    Systemic thrombolysis (ST) and catheter-directed intervention (CDI) are both used in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the comparative outcomes of these two therapies remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare short-term mortality and safety outcomes between the two treatments using a large national database. Patients presenting with acute PE were identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2012. Comorbidities, clinical characteristics, and invasive procedures were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD) codes and the Elixhauser comorbidity index. To adjust for anticipated baseline differences between the two treatment groups, propensity score matching was used to create a matched ST cohort with clinical and comorbid characteristics similar to those of the CDI cohort. Subgroups of patients with and without hemodynamic shock were analyzed separately. Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, overall bleeding risk, and hemorrhagic stroke risk. Of 263,955 subjects with acute PE, 1.63% (n = 4272) received ST and 0.55% (n = 1455) received CDI. ST subjects were older, had more chronic comorbidities, and had higher rates of respiratory failure (ST, 27.9% [n = 1192]; CDI, 21.2% [n = 308]; P mortality (ST, 16.7% [n = 714]; CDI, 9.4% [n = 136]; P hemorrhagic stroke rates (ST, 2.2% [n = 96]; CDI, 1.4% [n = 20]; P = .041). After propensity matching, 1430 patients remained in each cohort; baseline characteristics of the matched cohorts did not differ significantly using standardized difference comparisons. Analysis of the matched cohorts did not demonstrate a significant effect of CDI on in-hospital mortality or overall bleeding risk but did show a significant protective effect against hemorrhagic stroke compared with ST (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.82; P = .01). Subgroup analysis showed decreased odds of hemorrhagic stroke for CDI in the nonshock

  11. Idiopathic Scrotal Hematoma in Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bioku Muftau Jimoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal scrotal hematoma is a rare genitourinary emergency. Some cases have underlining aetiologic factors such as testicular torsion, adrenal hemorrhage, or birth trauma, and others are idiopathic. Previously, immediate scrotal exploration was considered imperative for diagnosis and treatment. With good imaging techniques, some patients are managed nonoperatively. We report a case of idiopathic scrotal hematoma in a neonate. He was managed conservatively with clinical and radiological follow-up. There was complete resolution of hematoma within two months, thus, avoiding unnecessary exploration.

  12. Treatment of Non variceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ul Haq, T.; Salam, B.; Beg, M.; Sayani, R.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% post embolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention.

  13. Pressor and hemodilution responses compensate for acute hemorrhage in bluefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, C S; Tremml, P G; DuBois, A B

    1988-01-01

    1. After hemorrhage of 21% blood volume (0.9% body weight) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (H.R.) of unanesthetized bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) recovered within 5 min. 2. Phentolamine blocked this recovery. 3. Atropine increased control H.R. from 48 to 87 per min, and to 108 after hemorrhage, with delay of BP recovery to 10 min. 4. With small, repeated hemorrhages every 20 min, hemodilution and recovery of BP occurred between hemorrhages. Removal of 27% blood volume resulted in only temporary recovery. 5. Thirty min after hemorrhage, plasma epinephrine was 5 x and norepinephrine 8 x control. 6. Thus, bluefish tolerate hemorrhage with initial vasoconstriction via alpha-adrenergic pathways, and hemodilution.

  14. Eleven cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Asao, Toyohiko; Shibata, Takeo

    1981-01-01

    Eleven cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage were diagnosed and followed up by CT scanning. By CT, hemorrhagic lesions were shown as high density areas in an acute stage and imaged as low density areas after the hemorrhage was absorbed. The time of absorption varies depending upon the site and the severity of hemorrhage. Intraventricular hemorrhage, petechial hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were absorbed rapidly in more than 70% of the exanimed cases, CT scanning 1 - 2 weeks after the onset revealed absorption of hemorrhage. However, the absorption delayed in intracerebral hematoma; CT scan taken after one month showed hemorrhagic lesions remaining in 75% of the cases. In nine cases who survived, following the absorption of the hemorrhagic lesions, cerebral atrophy was observed in 4 cases (44%), ventricular enlargement in 3 cases (33%), and complete recovery in 2 cases (22%). From these results, CT scanning for diagnosis of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage should be done before the hemorrhagic lesion is absorbed (within 7 days of the onset). Follow-up study by CT is important for observing changes and predicting prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage. (Ueda, J.)

  15. Predictors of intracerebral hemorrhage severity and its outcome in Japanese stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Naohisa; Naya, Takayuki; Ohkita, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Mao; Nakamura, Takehiro; Ueno, Masaki; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Murao, Koji; Masugata, Hisashi; Miki, Takanori; Kohno, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koziol, James A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the factors influencing acute intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission and clinical outcomes at discharge. Sixty acute stroke hospitals throughout Japan participated in the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study (JSSRS), documenting the in-hospital course of 16,630 consecutive patients with acute stroke from January 2001 to March 2004. We identified 2,840 adult patients from the JSSRS who had intracerebral hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission was strongly related to age, previous stroke history, and hemorrhage size in a monotone fashion [chi(2)(9) = 374.5, p < 0.0001]. Drinking history was also predictive of intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission, but the association was not monotone. Interestingly, intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission was increased in nondrinking and heavy drinking compared to mild drinking (p < 0.05). Unsuccessful outcome (modified Rankin scale score = 3-6) was related to age, previous stroke history, hemorrhage size, and intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission [chi(2)(9) = 830.4, p < 0.0001]. Mortality was related to hemorrhage size, intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission, and surgical operation [chi(2)(7) = 540.4, p < 0.0001]. We could find four varied factors associated with intracerebral hemorrhage severity and its outcomes. Interestingly, intracerebral hemorrhage severity tended to be greater in nondrinking and heavy drinking than mild drinking. Additionally, surgical operation decreased intracerebral hemorrhage mortality. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The influence of a fentanyl and dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay G. Vengerovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl is widely used for prophylaxis and therapy of traumatic shock associated with massive bleeding. Its side effects – skeletal muscle rigidity and respiratory center depression – are especially pronounced with repeated administration. It is rational to apply fentanyl in diminished doses in combination with non-opioid analgesics in order to reduce respiratory disturbances risk.Aim. The aim of the work is to justify the influence of opioid analgesic fentanyl and α2 -adrenomimetic dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model.Materials and methods. Acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume was modeled in experiments on 75 white mongrel male rats. The external respiratory functions (respiratory rate, respiratory volume, breath volume per minute were estimated in animals of 5 groups: 1 – rats without analgesic help (controls; 2–3 – rats receiving a single fentanyl intramuscular injection (ED99 98,96 mcg/kg or fentanyl together with dexme detomidine (ED99 of combination 67,94 mcg/kg 15 min after acute blood loss; 4–5 – rats receiving the same drugs 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min later.Results. In experimental acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume, 15 min later a secondary acute respiratory failure developed with a drop of respiratory rate, respiratory volume and volume of breath per minute by 30%, 21 and 47% (p < 0,05. The external respiratory functions recoverеd after 4 h mainly due to the increase of respiratory volume. A single intramuscular injection of fentanyl caused respiratory depression 15 min after experimental blood loss which resulted in the decrease of breath volume per minute to 30–61% (p < 0,05 for 90 min. Four intramuscular injections of fentanyl 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min after hemorrhage caused a severe respiratory dysfunction, accompanied by apnea periods and Biot’s respiration. Respiratory rate was reduced

  17. Pattern not volume of bleeding predicts angiographic vasospasm in nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Amanda; Zipfel, Gregory J; Diringer, Michael N; Dacey, Ralph G; Derdeyn, Colin P; Rich, Keith M; Chicoine, Michael R; Dhar, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern is usually associated with a benign course, whereas a diffuse bleeding pattern has been associated with a higher risk of vasospasm and disability. We evaluated whether volume of bleeding explains this disparity. Pattern and amount of bleeding (by Hijdra and intraventricular hemorrhage scores) were assessed in 89 patients with nonaneurysmal SAH. Outcomes included angiographic vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and functional outcome at 1 year. Diffuse bleeding was associated with significantly higher Hijdra and intraventricular hemorrhage scores than perimesencephalic SAH, P≤0.003. Angiographic vasospasm was more likely in diffuse versus perimesencephalic SAH (45% versus 27%; odds ratio, 2.9; P=0.08), but adjustment for greater blood burden only partially attenuated this trend (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-7.2; P=0.18); delayed cerebral ischemia was only seen in those with diffuse bleeding. Patients with diffuse bleeding were less likely to be discharged home (68% versus 90%; P=0.01) and tended to have more residual disability (modified Rankin scale, 3-6; 20% versus 6%; P=0.18). Nonaneurysmal SAH can still result in vasospasm and residual disability, especially in those with diffuse bleeding. This disparity is only partially accounted for by greater cisternal or intraventricular blood, suggesting that the mechanism and distribution of bleeding may be as important as the amount of hemorrhage in patients with idiopathic SAH.

  18. Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition, the outcome of which can be improved by intensive care. Intracranial hemorrhage may be spontaneous, precipitated by an underlying vascular malformation, induced by trauma, or related to therapeutic anticoagulation. The goals of critical care are to assess the proximate cause, minimize the risks of hemorrhage expansion through blood pressure control and correction of coagulopathy, and obliterate vascular lesions with a high risk of acute rebleeding. Simple bedside scales and interpretation of computed tomography scans assess the severity of neurological injury. Myocardial stunning and pulmonary edema related to neurological injury should be anticipated, and can usually be managed. Fever (often not from infection) is common and can be effectively treated, although therapeutic cooling has not been shown to improve outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Most functional and cognitive recovery takes place weeks to months after discharge; expected levels of functional independence (no disability, disability but independence with a device, dependence) may guide conversations with patient representatives. Goals of care impact mortality, with do-not-resuscitate status increasing the predicted mortality for any level of severity of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Future directions include refining the use of bedside neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram, invasive monitors), novel approaches to reduce intracranial hemorrhage expansion, minimizing vasospasm, and refining the assessment of quality of life to guide rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:22167847

  19. A case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever complicated with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Aliye; Kayaaslan, Bircan; But, Ayse; Aslaner, Halide; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Akinci, Esragul; Onguru, Pinar; Yetkin, Meltem Arzu; Bodur, Hurrem

    2014-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease characterized by nonspecific symptoms like fever, myalgia, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can result in various complications during the course of the disease due to the diffuse endothelial injury involved in the pathogenesis of CCHF. Here we present a patient with CCHF complicated by acute pancreatitis, including pleural and intra-abdominal effusions. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our hospital from an endemic area with the suspicion of CCHF. The physical examination of the patient revealed high fever (38°C), somnolence, and petechial eruption. The diagnosis of case was confirmed with positive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The viral load of the patient was 4×10(9) copies/mL. On the fifth day of admission, upper abdominal pain, scleral ichter, and abdominal distention developed. The patient had abdominal tenderness with guarding. The laboratory tests revealed an amylase level of 1740 U/L (28-100), lipase level of 583 U/L (13-60), and total bilirubin level of 3.75 mg/dL (<0.3). The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed with radiological findings. Until now, atypical presentations of CCHF have been reported in some case reports, but not acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of acute pancreatitis in the literature seen in the course of CCHF.

  20. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Idiopathic multiple aneurysm of external carotid artery

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    Saravanan Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of external carotid artery are rare. Treatments for these are undertaken for the prevention of complications like hemorrhage or rupture, and embolism. We present a 71-year-old male with idiopathic multiple aneurysm for the past 34 years on conservative management and regular follow up for the past 4 years. This case was discussed for the rarity of idiopathic multiple aneurysm of the external carotid artery and the need for individualized treatment protocol to be followed as in this case, only watchful observation considering the age and patient compliance. In this world of evolving surgical techniques and newer treatment modalities, conservative treatment still has a role to play. Primary care physicians at the community level have a major role in following these patients and referring them as and when the need arises.

  2. Physiological Effects of Early Incremental Mobilization of a Patient with Acute Intracerebral and Intraventricular Hemorrhage Requiring Dual External Ventricular Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumble, Sowmya; Zink, Elizabeth K; Burch, Mackenzie; Deluzio, Sandra; Stevens, Robert D; Bahouth, Mona N

    2017-08-01

    Recent trials have challenged the notion that very early mobility benefits patients with acute stroke. It is unclear how cerebral autoregulatory impairments, prevalent in this population, could be affected by mobilization. The safety of mobilizing patients who have external ventricular drainage (EVD) devices for cerebrospinal fluid diversion and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is another concern due to risk of device dislodgment and potential elevation in ICP. We report hemodynamic and ICP responses during progressive, device-assisted mobility interventions performed in a critically ill patient with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) requiring two EVDs. A 55-year-old man was admitted to the Neuroscience Critical Care Unit with an acute thalamic ICH and complex intraventricular hemorrhage requiring placement of two EVDs. Progressive mobilization was achieved using mobility technology devices. Range of motion exercises were performed initially, progressing to supine cycle ergometry followed by incremental verticalization using a tilt table. Physiological parameters were recorded before and after the interventions. All mobility interventions were completed without any adverse event or clinically detectable change in the patient's neurological state. Physiological parameters including hemodynamic variables and ICP remained within prescribed goals throughout. Progressive, device-assisted early mobilization was feasible and safe in this critically ill patient with hemorrhagic stroke when titrated by an interdisciplinary team of skilled healthcare professionals. Studies are needed to gain insight into the hemodynamic and neurophysiological responses associated with early mobility in acute stroke to identify subsets of patients who are most likely to benefit from this intervention.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

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    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  4. A study of acute expired cases with intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yajima, Kouzo

    1981-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of the CT scan, the diagnosis of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was very difficult. The CT scan has, though, been recognized to be extremely informative in the evaluation of IVH. During the first three years we have had experience with 91 cases of IVH diagnosed by the CT scan. Acute death within seven days occurred in 42 of these cases. Hypertension was the most common Acute death within seven days occurred in 42 of these cases. Hypertension was the most common etiological factor, accounting for 18 cases. Cerebral aneurysm was the second most common cause, accounting for 10 cases. Head injury was seen in 8 cases, while the causes of 4 deaths were unknown. 31 cases were distributed over all ventricles. 30 cases revealed over two cast formations. The presence of IVH in the third and/or the fourth ventricle, which can easily affect the function of the hypothalamus and the brain stem anatomically, was closely correlated with the high mortality rate. The analysis of the CT findings regarding the mechanisms of IVH reveals three types: the direct type, which bleeds directly into ventricles without forming definite intracerebral hematomas; the extension type, which is characterized by extension and rupture from massive intracerebral hematoma, and the reflux type, which is characterized by a reflux of the subarachnoid blood. The prognosis depends on the differences in these mechanisms. (author)

  5. Benign Sphenoid Wing Meningioma Presenting with an Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage – A Case Report

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    Radek Frič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Object We report an unusual case of a benign lateral sphenoid wing meningioma that presented with, and was masked by, an acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Case Report A 68-year-old woman was admitted after sudden onset of coma. Computed tomography (CT revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage, without any underlying vascular pathology on CT angiography. During the surgery, we found a lateral sphenoid wing meningioma with intratumoral bleeding that extended into the surrounding brain parenchyma. Results We removed the hematoma and resected the tumor completely in the same session. The histopathological classification of the tumor was a WHO grade I meningothelial meningioma. The patient recovered very well after surgery, without significant neurological sequelae. Conclusions Having reviewed the relevant references from the medical literature, we consider this event as an extremely rare presentation of a benign sphenoid wing meningioma in a patient without any predisposing medical factors. The possible mechanisms of bleeding from this tumor type are discussed.

  6. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy: a troubling cutaneous presentation with a self-limiting course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Lupica, Maria M; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Viola, Serena; di Montezemolo, Luca C; Coppo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) is an unusual form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis with dramatic distinguishing skin lesions that occurs in infants ages 4 to 24 months old. The disease presents with skin eruptions that usually start with large (1-5 cm), symmetrically distributed, hemorrhagic lesions in a characteristic cockade pattern. The lesions are typically located on the lower extremities, face (in particular the ears, cheeks, and eyelids), and gluteal area. Fever may accompany skin eruptions. Clinical presentation at onset requires clinical and laboratory examination to distinguish it from more serious diseases and other vasculitis. The main differential diagnosis of AHEI is Henoch-Schönlein purpura. AHEI is generally a self-limiting disease, so a conservative approach should be considered. Topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy has been reported to be beneficial, as well as antihistamines and dapsone, although AHEI usually resolves completely with or without treatment. We report two cases of AHEI and an update of the literature. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acute Spontaneous Posterior Fossa Subdural Hematoma

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    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute posterior fossa subdural hematomas are rare and most of them are trauma-related. Non-traumatic ones have been reported in patients who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or those who had been receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report on the case of 57-year-old Iranian man who developed sudden severe occipital headache, drowsiness, repeated vomiting, and instability of stance and gait. He was neither hypertensive nor diabetic. No history of head trauma was obtained and he denied illicit drug or alcohol ingestion. A preliminary diagnosis of acute intra-cerebellar hemorrhage was made. His CT brain scan revealed an acute right-sided, extra-axial, crescent-shaped hyperdense area at the posterior fossa. His routine blood tests, platelets count, bleeding time, and coagulation profile were unremarkable. The patient had spontaneous acute infratentorial subdural hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged home well after 5 days. Since then, we could not follow-up him, clinically and radiologically because he went back to Iran. Our patient’s presentation, clinical course, and imaging study have called for conservative management, as the overall presentation was relatively benign. Unless the diagnosis is entertained and the CT brain scan is well-interpreted, the diagnosis may easily escape detection.

  8. Peritoneal dialysis in the neonatal intensive care unit. Management of acute renal failure after a severe subgaleal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kristi; Lail, Candace

    2007-08-01

    Acute renal failure is common in the neonatal intensive care unit but is often not recognized in its early phases, when it is potentially reversible. The typical patient with acute renal failure is premature, but many term infants are also at risk. One such group is those with severe bleeding, such as a subgaleal hemorrhage. In these cases, hypovolemia can quickly progress to ischemia, which affects many organs but has profound effects on the kidney. In term infants, acute renal failure is most commonly diagnosed in those with perinatal depression. This article presents a unique case of an infant with subgaleal and intracranial bleeding that resulted in acute renal failure requiring peritoneal dialysis in the hopes of the eventual restoration of kidney function.

  9. Rapid Blood Pressure Lowering According to Recovery at Different Time Intervals after Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the INTERACT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Woodward, Mark; Heeley, Emma; Stapf, Christian; Lavados, Pablo M; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has been shown to improve functional outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the treatment effect is modest and without a clearly defined underlying explanatory mechanism. We aimed at more reliably quantifying the benefits of this treatment according to different time periods in the recovery of participants in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) studies. Pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2,839) involving patients with spontaneous ICH (patient characteristic subgroups, with trends favoring those randomized early, and with higher SBP and milder neurological severity at baseline. Intensive BP lowering provides beneficial effects on physical functioning that manifests consistently through the early and later phases of recovery from ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Asymmetry in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Akihiko Sokai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF results in poor survival. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the impact of asymmetrical ground-glass opacity (GGO and/or consolidation on outcomes in patients with AE-IPF. The cases of 59 consecutive patients with AE-IPF were retrospectively reviewed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT at diagnosis of an AE was assessed to determine the disease extent and asymmetry. Asymmetrical AE was defined as a right-to-left ratio of GGO and consolidation ≥2.0 or ≤0.5. The impacts of HRCT indices and other clinical parameters on 180-day mortality were analysed. The overall 180-day mortality rate was 59.2%, and asymmetrical AE was observed in 13 patients (22.0%. A multivariate analysis revealed that asymmetrical AE was a significant predictor of 180-day mortality (hazard ratio=0.36, p=0.047, long-term oxygen therapy before AE and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The 180-day mortality of patients with asymmetrical AE was significantly lower than that of patients with symmetrical AE (asymmetrical AE 30.8% versus symmetrical AE 68.2%, p=0.03. An asymmetrical distribution of GGO and/or consolidation is a predictor of survival in patients with AE-IPF.

  11. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yong Suk; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sub; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is an inflammation and necrosis of fat at distant foci in patients with pancreatic disorders, most frequently, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. Clinically, pancreatic panniculitis is manifested by painless or painful subcutaneous nodules on the legs, buttocks, or trunk. The usual sites are the distal parts of the lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been many reports for the radiologic findings of pancreatic panniculitis. In this article, we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis, including radiologic findings of CT and ultrasonography. The patient was presented with painful subcutaneous nodules on the trunk, and had underlying acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts

  12. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yong Suk; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sub; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck [Kwandong Univ., Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Pancreatic panniculitis is an inflammation and necrosis of fat at distant foci in patients with pancreatic disorders, most frequently, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. Clinically, pancreatic panniculitis is manifested by painless or painful subcutaneous nodules on the legs, buttocks, or trunk. The usual sites are the distal parts of the lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been many reports for the radiologic findings of pancreatic panniculitis. In this article, we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis, including radiologic findings of CT and ultrasonography. The patient was presented with painful subcutaneous nodules on the trunk, and had underlying acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts.

  13. Acute Hemorrhagic Encephalitis Responding to Combined Decompressive Craniectomy, Intravenous Immunoglobulin, and Corticosteroid Therapies: Association with Novel RANBP2 Variant

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    Abdulla Alawadhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (AHEM is considered as a rare form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis characterized by fulminant encephalopathy with hemorrhagic necrosis and most often fatal outcome.ObjectiveTo report the association with Ran Binding Protein (RANBP2 gene variant and the response to decompressive craniectomy and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP in life-threatening AHEM.DesignSingle case study.Case reportA 6-year-old girl known to have sickle cell disease (SCD presented an acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS with diplopia due to sudden unilateral fourth nerve palsy. She received five pulses of IVMP (30 mg/kg/day. Two weeks after steroid weaning, she developed right hemiplegia and coma. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left frontal necrotico-hemorrhagic lesion and new multifocal areas of demyelination. She underwent decompressive craniotomy and evacuation of an ongoing left frontoparietal hemorrhage. Comprehensive investigations ruled out vascular and infectious process. The neurological deterioration stopped concomitantly with combined neurosurgical drainage of the hematoma, decompressive craniotomy, IVMP, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG. She developed during the following months Crohn disease and sclerosing cholangitis. After 2-year follow-up, there was no new neurological manifestation. The patient still suffered right hemiplegia and aphasia, but was able to walk. Cognitive/behavioral abilities significantly recovered. A heterozygous novel rare missense variant (c.4993A>G, p.Lys1665Glu was identified in RANBP2, a gene associated with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. RANBP2 is a protein playing an important role in the energy homeostasis of neuronal cells.ConclusionIn any ADS occurring in the context of SCD and/or autoimmune condition, we recommend to slowly wean steroids and to closely monitor the patient after weaning to quickly treat any recurrence of neurological symptom

  14. Addison's disease presenting with idiopathic intracranial hypertension in 24-year-old woman: a case report

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    Moore Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Idiopathic intracranial hypertension can rarely be associated with an underlying endocrine disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, or with administration of thyroxine or growth hormone. Though cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with Addison's disease in children have been reported, there is only one documented case report of this association in adults. We describe a case of an acute adrenal insufficiency precipitated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension in a Caucasian female. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian woman was acutely unwell with a background of several months of generalised fatigue and intermittent headaches. She had unremarkable neurological and systemic examination with a normal computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Normal cerebrospinal fluid but increased opening pressure at lumbar puncture suggested intracranial hypertension. A flat short synacthen test and raised level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone were consistent with primary adrenal failure. Conclusion Addison's disease can remain unrecognised until precipitated by acute stress. This case suggests that idiopathic intracranial hypertension can rarely be associated with Addison's disease and present as an acute illness. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is possibly related to an increase in the levels of arginine vasopressin peptide in serum and cerebrospinal fluid secondary to a glucocorticoid deficient state.

  15. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a patient with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis caused by impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamakawa, Hideaki; Yabe, Masami; Ishikawa, Takeo; Takagi, Masamichi; Matsumoto, Kei; Hamaguchi, Akihiko; Ogura, Makoto; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a case of pulmonary renal syndrome with nephritis in a 17-year-old boy with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). The patient exhibited hemoptysis two weeks after developing impetigo, and DAH was diagnosed on bronchoscopy. Respiratory failure progressed, and high-dose methylprednisolone therapy was administered; the respiratory failure regressed immediately after the onset of therapy. Streptococcus pyogenes was detected in an impetigo culture, and, together with the results of the renal biopsy, a diagnosis of APSGN was made. This case demonstrates the effects of high-dose methylprednisolone therapy in improving respiratory failure.

  16. AICAR Administration Attenuates Hemorrhagic Hyperglycemia and Lowers Oxygen Debt in Anesthetized Male Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Ratz, Paul H; Miner, Amy S; Locke, Victoria A; Chen, Grace; Chen, Yang; Barbee, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been utilized to treat traumatic shock via improved oxygen delivery (DO 2 ), while fewer have been used to in an attempt to reduce oxygen demand (VO 2 ). The cellular energy sensor 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has the potential to modulate both whole-body DO 2 and VO 2 . Therefore, we determined the effect of the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside) given acutely or chronically on key metabolites, hemodynamics, and oxygen consumption/delivery before and during hemorrhage in anesthetized male rabbits. Methods: Chronically treated animals received AICAR (40 mg/kg/day, IV) for 10 days prior to hemorrhage, while rabbits in the acute study were infused with AICAR (7.5 mg/kg bolus, 2 mg/kg/min infusion) or vehicle (0.3 ml/kg saline bolus, 0.03 ml/kg/min infusion) IV for 2 h prior to severe hemorrhage. Both acutely and chronically treated animals were sedated (ketamine/xylazine cocktail) the morning of the terminal experiment and surgically prepared for hemorrhage, including the implantation of arterial and venous catheters (for blood removal/sampling and drug/vehicle administration) and thoracotomy for implantation of transit-time flow transducers (for cardiac output determination). Results: AICAR given acutely lowered arterial blood glucose and increased blood lactate levels before hemorrhage, and abolished the well-documented hemorrhage-induced hyperglycemia seen in vehicle treated animals. Animals given AICAR chronically had blunted hemorrhage-induced hyperglycemia without prior baseline changes. Chronically treated AICAR animals showed significantly lower lactate levels during hemorrhage. Rabbits receiving AICAR both acutely and chronically experienced similar falls in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and hence DO 2 to their vehicle counterparts throughout the hemorrhage period. However, rabbits treated either acutely or chronically with AICAR accumulated lower

  17. AICAR Administration Attenuates Hemorrhagic Hyperglycemia and Lowers Oxygen Debt in Anesthetized Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many strategies have been utilized to treat traumatic shock via improved oxygen delivery (DO2, while fewer have been used to in an attempt to reduce oxygen demand (VO2. The cellular energy sensor 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK has the potential to modulate both whole-body DO2 and VO2. Therefore, we determined the effect of the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside given acutely or chronically on key metabolites, hemodynamics, and oxygen consumption/delivery before and during hemorrhage in anesthetized male rabbits.Methods: Chronically treated animals received AICAR (40 mg/kg/day, IV for 10 days prior to hemorrhage, while rabbits in the acute study were infused with AICAR (7.5 mg/kg bolus, 2 mg/kg/min infusion or vehicle (0.3 ml/kg saline bolus, 0.03 ml/kg/min infusion IV for 2 h prior to severe hemorrhage. Both acutely and chronically treated animals were sedated (ketamine/xylazine cocktail the morning of the terminal experiment and surgically prepared for hemorrhage, including the implantation of arterial and venous catheters (for blood removal/sampling and drug/vehicle administration and thoracotomy for implantation of transit-time flow transducers (for cardiac output determination.Results: AICAR given acutely lowered arterial blood glucose and increased blood lactate levels before hemorrhage, and abolished the well-documented hemorrhage-induced hyperglycemia seen in vehicle treated animals. Animals given AICAR chronically had blunted hemorrhage-induced hyperglycemia without prior baseline changes. Chronically treated AICAR animals showed significantly lower lactate levels during hemorrhage. Rabbits receiving AICAR both acutely and chronically experienced similar falls in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and hence DO2 to their vehicle counterparts throughout the hemorrhage period. However, rabbits treated either acutely or chronically with AICAR accumulated

  18. Optimal achieved blood pressure in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: INTERACT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Wang, Xia; Woodward, Mark; Robinson, Thompson; Stapf, Christian; Parsons, Mark; Lavados, Pablo M; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-02-03

    To investigate the effects of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering according to baseline BP levels and optimal achieved BP levels in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). INTERACT2 was an open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial in 2,839 patients with ICH within 6 hours of onset and elevated systolic BP (SBP) (150-220 mm Hg) who were allocated to receive intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg within 1 hour, with lower limit of 130 mm Hg for treatment cessation) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mm Hg) BP-lowering treatment. Outcome was physical function across all 7 levels of the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Analysis of the randomized comparisons showed that intensive BP lowering produced comparable benefits on physical function at 90 days in 5 subgroups defined by baseline SBP of <160, 160-169, 170-179, 180-189, and ≥190 mm Hg (p homogeneity = 0.790). Analyses of achieved BP showed linear increases in the risk of physical dysfunction for achieved SBP above 130 mm Hg for both hyperacute (1-24 hours) and acute (2-7 days) phases while modest increases were also observed for achieved SBP below 130 mm Hg. Intensive BP lowering appears beneficial across a wide range of baseline SBP levels, and target SBP level of 130-139 mm Hg is likely to provide maximum benefit in acute ICH. This study provides Class I evidence that the effect of intensive BP lowering on physical function is not influenced by baseline BP. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Wille, R.; Heiss, P.; Herold, T.; Jung, E. M.; Schreyer, A. G.; Hamer, O. W.; Rennert, J.; Hoffstetter, P.; Stroszczynski, C.; Zorger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4–63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  20. Military Working Dogs and Canine Ehrlichiosis (Tropical Canine Pancytopenia) in the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-05

    anemia, dermatitis, edema of the limbs and scrotum, and petechial hemorrhages on the penis (116). Hematologic findings included a leucopenia with...idiopathic hemorrhagic disease, and canine hemorrhagic fever (116). Attempts to identity the cause of tropical canine pancytopenia continued in 1969...Following inoculation with infective blood, signs of acute disease appear within 7-10 days and consfst of fever , serous nasal and ocular discharges

  1. Acute-onset severe gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage in a postoperative patient taking rivaroxaban after total hip arthroplasty: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boland, Michael

    2012-05-14

    AbstractIntroductionRivaroxaban, a new oral anticoagulant, is currently licensed for use in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. It is more efficacious than other anticoagulants such as low molecular weight heparin and does not require daily monitoring. It has also been shown to be efficacious in patients with venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. Although hemorrhage is a known side effect of this new anticoagulant, we could find no case reports in the literature of patients suffering severe hemorrhage whilst taking rivaroxaban. Thus, we describe the first case of potentially fatal hemorrhage in a patient taking rivaroxaban.Case presentationWe report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man with acute-onset severe per rectal bleeding who had undergone total hip arthroplasty four weeks prior to the onset of symptoms and was taking rivaroxaban in the postoperative period. Rivaroxaban was discontinued immediately but, having required nine units of packed red blood cells in a peripheral hospital due to a rapidly decreasing hemoglobin level, our patient was transferred to our tertiary referral center where he required a further eight units of packed red blood cells over a 48-hour period to manage his ongoing hemorrhage and maintain hemodynamic stability. No source of bleeding was found on computed tomography angiography and our patient’s condition improved over the following 48 hours with cessation of the hemorrhage. Our patient was discharged home well several days later. A follow-up colonoscopy one week after his discharge was normal.ConclusionAlthough advantageous with regard to its oral availability and ongoing use without the need for daily monitoring, rivaroxaban does not come without rare but severe side effects. When severe per rectal bleeding occurs in a patient taking rivaroxaban, discontinuation of the offending agent and aggressive hematological replacement are the mainstays of treatment, especially when no source of bleeding can be found

  2. Long-term projections of temperature-related mortality risks for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute ischemic heart disease under changing climate in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Liu, Fangchao; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    Changing climates have been causing variations in the number of global ischemic heart disease and stroke incidences, and will continue to affect disease occurrence in the future. To project temperature-related mortality for acute ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with concomitant climate warming. We estimated the exposure-response relationship between daily cause-specific mortality and daily mean temperature in Beijing. We utilized outputs from 31 downscaled climate models and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. This strategy was used to estimate future net temperature along with heat- and cold-related deaths. The results for predicted temperature-related deaths were subsequently contrasted with the baseline period. In the 2080s, using the RCP8.5 and no population variation scenarios, the net total number of annual temperature-related deaths exhibited a median value of 637 (with a range across models of 434-874) for ischemic stroke; this is an increase of approximately 100% compared with the 1980s. The median number of projected annual temperature-related deaths was 660 (with a range across models of 580-745) for hemorrhagic stroke (virtually no change compared with the 1980s), and 1683 (with a range across models of 1351-2002) for acute ischemic heart disease (a slight increase of approximately 20% compared with the 1980s). In the 2080s, the monthly death projection for hemorrhagic stroke and acute ischemic heart disease showed that the largest absolute changes occurred in summer and winter while the largest absolute changes for ischemic stroke occurred in summer. We projected that the temperature-related mortality associated with ischemic stroke will increase dramatically due to climate warming. However, projected temperature-related mortality pertaining to acute ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke should remain relatively stable over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Kalnin, A.J.; Holodny, A.I. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Schulder, M.; Grigorian, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Sharer, L.R. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1998-11-01

    We describe a hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma involving the sella turcica with suprasellar extension. The CT and MRI appearances mimiked a hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Chondroid chordoma is a variant composed of elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. An uncommon bone neoplasm, located almost exclusively in the spheno-occipital region, it is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of a tumor with acute hemorrhage in the sellar region. We discuss the clinical and radiological characteristics which may allow one to differentiate chondroid chordoma from other tumors of this area. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Splenic rupture following idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder presenting as acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurisic D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon condition and represents less than 1% of all bladder rupture cases. In most of the cases the main etiological factor was heavy alcohol ingestion. A combined injury of the spleen and bladder is a very rare condition that is almost often associated with trauma and foreign bodies. In this paper we present the extremely rare clinical course of acute abdomen caused by a combined spontaneous intraperitoneal injury; spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder and spleen. According to our opinion, spontaneous bladder rupture caused by bladder distension due to alcohol ingestion led to urinary ascites and abdominal distension. Finally, repeated minor abdominal blunt trauma during everyday life, to a moderately distended abdomen caused a spontaneous splenic rupture in the patient with abnormal coagulation studies.

  5. Hemorrhage and vascular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    While many brain lesions have a similar appearance on MRI and CT, this is not true of hemorrhage. On CT, acute hemorrhage becomes hyperdense within an hour as the clot forms. This lasts for several days and then fades to isodensity and eventually hypodensity. On MRI, hemorrhage less than 12 to 24 hours old may not be distinguishable from vasogenic edema. Its appearance subsequently is an evolving pattern of variable signal intensity which depends on the specific form of hemoglobin which is present, or whether the red cells are intact or lysed, on the operating field strength, on the type of signal (that is, spin echo or gradient echo), and on contrast (that is, T 1 - or T 2 -weighing). The appearance of hemorrhage also depends on the compartment of the brain involved---subarachnoid, subdural, or intraparenchymal. Finally, for parenchymal hematomas, different zones may be defined from the inner core to the outer rim which all vary in appearance depending on field strength and imaging technique

  6. Selective angiographic diagnosis of unknown reason gastrointestinal hemorrhage: correlation with pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Jiayuan; Lu Liang; Deng Gang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of selective angiography for unknown reason gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods: 32 patients with acute or chronic gastrointestinal recurrent hemorrhage were examined. Among them, 26 patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 6 with inferior gastrointestinal hemorrhage. All patients were under gone DSA and/or Puck angiography with Seldinger's technique. Results: The accuracy of localization was 84.38% (27/32) and the coincident rates with the operation or pathology was 78.95%(15/19). In all of patients, tumor of 9 case were shown and 15 cases of vascular diseases, namely, 9 with vascular malformation, 2 with small intestinal aneurysm, 3 with arteriosclerosis and 1 with broken gallbladder aneurysm; 3 cases of ulcer or nonspecific inflammation and 5 cases were negative. 23 cases (71.87%) showed the direct hemorrhagic sign, namely the contrast media extra vacation. Conclusions: Selective angiography is very helpful for determining the location and the character of unknown reasoned acute or chronic gastrointestinal hemorrhage, especially for the hemorrhage of the small intestine and biliary tracts

  7. Differences in Neuropeptide Y Secretion Between Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, Karl-M; Bründl, Elisabeth; Schödel, Petra; Hochreiter, Andreas; Scheitzach, Judith; Bele, Sylvia; Brawanski, Alexander; Störr, Eva-M; Lohmeier, Anette; Proescholdt, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors, and its contribution to the multifactorial cascade of cerebral vasospasm due to nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not yet fully understood. This experimental study compared the hemorrhage-specific course of NPY secretion into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and into plasma between 2 groups: patients with SAH and patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) or cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) over the first 10 days after hemorrhage. Seventy-nine patients were prospectively included: SAH patients (n=66) (historic population) and intracerebral hemorrhage patients (n=13). All patients received an external ventricular drain within 24 hours of the onset of bleeding. CSF and plasma were drawn daily from day 1 to day 10. The levels of NPY were determined by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The CSF samples of 29 patients (historic population) who had undergone spinal anesthesia due to orthopedic surgery served as the control group. NPY levels in CSF were significantly higher in the 2 hemorrhage groups than in the control group. However, the 2 hemorrhage groups showed significant differences in NPY levels in CSF (SAH mean, 0.842 ng/mL vs. BGH/CH mean, 0.250 ng/mL; P<0.001) as well as in the course of NPY secretion into CSF over the 10-day period. NPY levels in plasma did not differ significantly among SAH, BGH/CH, and controls. Our findings support the hypothesis that excessive release of NPY into CSF but not into plasma is specific to aneurysmal SAH in the acute period of 10 days after hemorrhage. In BGH/CH, CSF levels of NPY were also increased, but the range was much lower.

  8. Fast FLAIR MR images of intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Hye Young; Cho, Young A; Kim, Wha Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging according to various stages, and to compare FLAIR imaging with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images along with spin-echo T1- and T2 weighted MR images of 32 lesions in 25 patients (12 males and 14 females, aged 3 - 84 yrs) with intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. For imaging, 1.5 T unit was used, and the nature of the lesions was found to be as follows : intracranial hemorrhage (n=15); tumor (n=9); infarction (n=4); arteriovenous malformation (n=3); and arachnoid cyst with hemorrhage (n=1). On the basis of spin-echo MR imaging, lesions were classified as acute, early subacute, late subacute, early chronic, or late chronic stage. The signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage were analysed in accordance with each staging, as seen on MR FLAIR imaging, and compared to the staging seen on spin-echo T1- and T-2 weighted MR imaging. The signal intensity of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on FLAIR imaging, was not characteristic; it was similar to that of T2WI during the acute and subacute stages, and similiar to that of T1WI during the chronic stage. When used together with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging, however, FLAIR imaging may be useful for the classification of chronic intracranial hemorrhage as either early or late stage. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer, caused by treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Okano, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    1999-01-01

    In 64 patients with lung cancer complicated by idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), we retrospectively studied the outcome of the treatment for lung cancer and clinical features of acute exacerbation of IIP after treatment for lung cancer. The incidence of acute exacerbation of IIP was 8.7% (2 of 23 patients) after anticancer chemotherapy, 14.3% (2 of 14 patients) after operation, and 25% (2 of 8 patients) after radiation therapy. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP than in those who did not (CRP=5.12±2.27, 2.26±2.29, respectively). On the contrary, there were no differences in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PaO 2 , and %VC between the two groups. Pathologic presentations of surgically resected lungs did not show significant differences in the activity of IIP between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP died within 3 months after the treatment for lung cancer. We conclude that we should evaluate the activity of IIP more precisely using new markers for activity of IIP and on that basis select patients to be treated for lung cancer. (author)

  10. Rodent neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage mimics the human brain injury, neurological consequences, and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Krafft, Paul R.; Peters, Regina; Hartman, Richard E.; Altay, Orhan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns. GMH causes neurological sequelae such as cerebral palsy, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Despite this, there is no standardized animal model of spontaneous GMH using newborn rats to depict the condition. We asked whether stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.3 U) into the ganglionic eminence of neonatal rats would reproduce the acute brain injury, gliosis, hydroc...

  11. Liver cirrhosis is a risk factor of repeat acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Kai Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU can be found in patients with severe comorbid illness, who are bedridden for a long time. Per anal suturing is a quick and feasible treatment. However, recurrent bleeding occurs frequently after suture ligation of a bleeder and can be life-threatening. However, the risk factor for recurrent bleeding is not well known. Our study tries to clarify the risk factor of repeat AHRU in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2009, the medical records of 32 patients, who were admitted to the ICU of the Tri-Service General Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Taiwan, and who underwent per anal suturing of acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 96 patients who received emergency treatment for acute massive hematochezia, 32 patients were diagnosed with AHRU. Eight (25% patients had recurrent bleeding following suture ligation of AHRU and underwent a reoperation; no patient had recurrent bleeding after the second operation. The duration from the first hematochezia attack to surgery (P = 0.04, liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002, and coagulopathy (P = 0.01 were the risk factors of recurrent bleeding after suture ligation of a bleeder. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that liver cirrhosis (OR = 37.77, P = 0.014 was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Conclusion: AHRU could be a major cause of acute massive hematochezia in patients with severe illness. Our data showed that per anal suturing could quickly and effectively control bleeding. We found that liver cirrhosis was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Therefore, treatment of a liver cirrhosis patient with AHUR should be more aggressive, such as, early detection and proper suture ligation.

  12. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months

  13. Myocardial Hemorrhage After Acute Reperfused ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Ahmed, Nadeem; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, M. Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Mordi, Ify; Rauhalammi, Samuli; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ford, Ian; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The success of coronary reperfusion therapy in ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly limited by failure to restore microvascular perfusion. Methods and Results— We performed a prospective cohort study in patients with reperfused ST-segment–elevation MI who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance 2 days (n=286) and 6 months (n=228) post MI. A serial imaging time-course study was also performed (n=30 participants; 4 cardiac magnetic resonance scans): 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. Myocardial hemorrhage was taken to represent a hypointense infarct core with a T2* value of hemorrhage 2 days post MI was associated with clinical characteristics indicative of MI severity and inflammation. Myocardial hemorrhage was a multivariable associate of adverse remodeling (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.64 [1.07–6.49]; P=0.035). Ten (4%) patients had a cardiovascular cause of death or experienced a heart failure event post discharge, and myocardial hemorrhage, but not microvascular obstruction, was associated with this composite adverse outcome (hazard ratio, 5.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–27.74; P=0.025), including after adjustment for baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume. In the serial imaging time-course study, myocardial hemorrhage occurred in 7 (23%), 13 (43%), 11 (33%), and 4 (13%) patients 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. The amount of hemorrhage (median [interquartile range], 7.0 [4.9–7.5]; % left ventricular mass) peaked on day 2 (Phemorrhage and microvascular obstruction follow distinct time courses post ST-segment–elevation MI. Myocardial hemorrhage was more closely associated with adverse outcomes than microvascular obstruction. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02072850. PMID:26763281

  14. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, T; Maki, Y; Ono, Y; Yoshizawa, T; Tsuboi, K [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1981-11-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the hematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation together with the ventricular drainage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases.

  15. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Tadao; Maki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukio; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Tsuboi, Kohji

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the mematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation togather with the ventricular dranage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases. (author)

  16. High Efficacy of Methotrexate in Patients with Recurrent Idiopathic Acute Anterior Uveitis: a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachta, Artur; Kisiel, Bartłomiej; Tłustochowicz, Mateusz; Raczkiewicz, Anna; Rękas, Marek; Tłustochowicz, Witold

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of recurrent idiopathic acute anterior uveitis (RIAAU). Nineteen out of 22 RIAAU patients completed the study (two patients withdrew their consent shortly after study initiation, one patient discontinued after 4 weeks because of the adverse effects). All patients were treated with MTX in a starting dose of 15 mg/week, increased to target dose of 25 mg/week after 4 weeks. In patients taking systemic corticosteroids (CS) the dose was gradually tapered (by 2.5 mg every week) until discontinuation. The mean follow-up period was 3.3 years (19-59 months). Sixteen patients (84 %) remained flare-free on MTX therapy. In the remaining three patients the mean interval between flares increased from 4.8 to 18.3 months. Systemic CS were tapered off in all patients. The number of acute anterior uveitis flares in the whole cohort decreased from 2.12 to 0.11/patient-year (p treatment of RIAAU.

  17. Acute vocal fold hemorrhage caught on video during office exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L; Smith, Libby J

    2009-03-01

    This article presents a unique video of a laryngeal exam during which a vocal fold hemorrhage occurs. This patient had likely been suffering from intermittent vocal fold hemorrhages for the last decade due to a persistent vascular lesion and an underlying chronic cough.

  18. Nuclear scan of pulmonary hemorrhage in radiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.; Tanaka, T.

    1979-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, a disease of unknown etiology most often occuring in children, is characterized by recurring episodes of alveolar consolidation. Exacerbations of pulmonary hemorrhage coincide with episodes of alveolar filling; repeated episodes lead to progressive interstitial fibrosis and eventually to corpulmonale. Serial nuclear scans of the lungs after injection of radiolabeled red blood cells should parallel the pathologic and radiographic findings. We observed the accumulation of radiolabeled red blood cells in the lungs on scan images, a finding not previously reported

  19. Influence of Bleeding Pattern on Ischemic Lesions After Spontaneous Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Lara, Lucia; Murthy, Santosh B; Nekoovaght-Tak, Saman; Ali, Hasan; McBee, Nichol; Dlugash, Rachel; Ram, Malathi; Thompson, Richard; Awad, Issam A; Hanley, Daniel F; Ziai, Wendy C

    2018-03-27

    Concomitant acute ischemic lesions are detected in up to a quarter of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Influence of bleeding pattern and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) on risk of ischemic lesions has not been investigated. Retrospective study of all 500 patients enrolled in the CLEAR III randomized controlled trial of thrombolytic removal of obstructive IVH using external ventricular drainage. The primary outcome measure was radiologically confirmed ischemic lesions, as reported by the Safety Event Committee and confirmed by two neurologists. We assessed predictors of ischemic lesions including analysis of bleeding patterns (ICH, IVH and subarachnoid hemorrhage) on computed tomography scans (CT). Secondary outcomes were blinded assessment of mortality and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 30 and 180 days. Ischemic lesions occurred in 23 (4.6%) during first 30 days after ICH. Independent risk factors associated with ischemic lesions in logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were higher IVH volume (p = 0.004) and persistent subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT scan (p = 0.03). Patients with initial IVH volume ≥ 15 ml had five times the odds of concomitant ischemic lesions compared to IVH volume < 15 ml. Patients with ischemic lesions had significantly higher odds of death at 1 and 6 months (but not poor outcome; mRS 4-6) compared to patients without concurrent ischemic lesions. Occurrence of ischemic lesions in the acute phase of IVH is not uncommon and is significantly associated with increased early and late mortality. Extra-parenchymal blood (larger IVH and visible subarachnoid hemorrhage) is a strong predictor for development of concomitant ischemic lesions after ICH.

  20. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack...

  1. Acute and delayed deferoxamine treatment attenuates long-term sequelae after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebe, Damon; Krafft, Paul R; Hoffmann, Clotilde; Lekic, Tim; Flores, Jerry J; Rolland, William; Zhang, John H

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated if acute and delayed deferoxamine treatment attenuates long-term sequelae after germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). Bacterial collagenase (0.3 U) was infused intraparenchymally into the right hemispheric ganglionic eminence in P7 rat pups to induce GMH. GMH animals received either deferoxamine or vehicle twice a day for 7 consecutive days. Deferoxamine administration was initiated at either 1 hour or 72 hours post-GMH. Long-term neurocognitive deficits and motor coordination were assessed using Morris water maze, rotarod, and foot fault tests between day 21 to 28 post-GMH. At 28 days post-GMH, brain morphology was assessed and extracellular matrix protein (fibronectin and vitronectin) expression was determined. Acute and delayed deferoxamine treatment improved long-term motor and cognitive function at 21 to 28 days post-GMH. Attenuated neurofunction was paralleled with improved overall brain morphology at 28 days post-GMH, reducing white matter loss, basal ganglia loss, posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation, and cortical loss. GMH resulted in significantly increased expression of fibronectin and vitronectin, which was reversed by acute and delayed deferoxamine treatment. Acute and delayed deferoxamine administration ameliorated long-term sequelae after GMH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Imaging-documented repeated intratumoral hemorrhage in vestibular schwannoma: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandl, E. S.; Vandertop, W. P.; Meijer, O. W. M.; Peerdeman, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Intratumoral hemorrhage in vestibular schwannomas is rare. Symptoms often have an acute onset and include headache, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and depressed consciousness. Intratumoral hemorrhage is probably caused by vascular fragility associated with tumor characteristics and growth. With

  3. Gastroprotection studies of Schiff base zinc (II) derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hadi, A Hamid A; Majid, Nazia Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v), orally. Ethanol (95% v/v) was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10(-5) M/kg) was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II) complex (2.181×10(-5) and 4.362×10(-5) M/kg) protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10(-5) M/kg). The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism.

  4. Study on effect of Nimodepine on the changes of serum NSE levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunying; Li Zuoxiao; Gan Xilun; Li Xiaohong; Tan Hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum NSE levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and the effect of nimodepine treatment. Methods: Serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels were measured with CLIA in 60 patients with cerebral hemorrhage both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Half of the patients (n=30) were treated with nimodepine and the their half were not. Results: In all the 60 patients, serum NSE levels were significantly higher than those in Controls (P<0.01). After treatment, the NSE levels dropped markedly in all the patients. However, the decrease in the patient group treated with nimodepine was significantly higher than that in the patient group treated without nimodepine (P<0.01). Conclusion: Nimodepine treatment is efficient for reducing the serum NSE levels, which may be related to the residual hematoma size. (authors)

  5. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.; Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI

    1988-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography. (orig.)

  6. Imaging of Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Ryan; Garg, Ankur

    2016-10-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke comprises approximately 15% to 20% of all strokes. This article provides readers with an understanding of the indications and significance of various neuroimaging techniques available for patients presenting with hemorrhagic strokes of distinct causes. The most common initial neuroimaging study is a noncontrast head CT, which allows for the identification of hemorrhage. Once an intracranial hemorrhage has been identified, the pattern of blood and the patient's medical history, neurologic examination, and laboratory studies lead the practitioner to pursue further neuroimaging studies to guide the medical, surgical, and interventional management. Given that hemorrhagic stroke constitutes a heterogeneous collection of diagnoses, the subsequent neuroimaging pathway necessary to better evaluate and care for these patients is variable based on the etiology.With an increasing incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation associated with the aging population and the introduction of three new direct factor Xa inhibitors and one direct thrombin inhibitor to complement vitamin K antagonists, oral anticoagulant use continues to increase. Patients on oral anticoagulants have a sevenfold to tenfold increased risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Furthermore, patients who have an ICH associated with oral anticoagulant use have a higher mortality rate than those with primary ICH. Despite the reduced incidence of hypertension-related ICH over the past decade, it is expected that the incidence of ICH will continue to increase. Neuroimaging studies are integral to the identification of hemorrhagic stroke, determination of the underlying etiology, prevention of hematoma expansion, treatment of acute complications, and treatment of the underlying etiology, if indicated. Neuroimaging is essential for prognostication and thus directly impacts patient care.

  7. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui [Pudong New Area People' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  8. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  9. Neurosurgical outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage: results of the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke Trial (FAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Vincent, Catherine; Morris, Stephen; Davis, Stephen; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Christensen, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The value of neurosurgical interventions after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is uncertain. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with SICH within 3 hours of symptom onset who underwent hematoma evacuation or external ventricular drainage (EVD) of the hematoma in the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke Trial (FAST). FAST was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between May 2005 and February 2007 at 122 sites in 22 countries. Neurosurgical procedures (hematoma evacuation and external ventricular drainage) performed at any point after hospital admission were prospectively recorded. Clinical outcomes evaluated were post-SICH disability, as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale; neurologic impairment, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; and mortality at 90 days after SICH onset. The impact of neurosurgical procedures on clinical outcomes was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for relevant baseline characteristics. Fifty-five of 821 patients underwent neurosurgery. Patients who underwent hematoma evacuation or EVD were on average younger, had greater baseline neurologic impairment, and lower levels of consciousness compared with patients who did not undergo neurosurgery. After adjusting for these differences and other relevant baseline characteristics, we found that neurosurgery was generally associated with unfavorable outcomes at day 90. Among the patients who underwent hematoma evacuation, those with lobar ICH had less ICH expansion than those with deep gray matter ICH, and the smaller expansion was associated with lower mortality. ICH volume was substantially decreased in patients who underwent hematoma evacuation between 24 and 72 hours after hospital admission, and this was associated with better clinical outcome. In conclusion, a small number of patients who underwent neurosurgery in FAST exhibited no overall clinical benefit

  10. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p hemorrhage after 72 h, overall mortality, mortality from pulmonary hemorrhage, surfactant use, intubation time, hospitalization duration, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), severe IVH, patent ductus arteriosus rates, or short-term complication rates. rFVIIa administration was observed to be effective in stopping pulmonary hemorrhage, reducing blood product requirement, and improving coagulation test parameters. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and long-term results of rFVIIa in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants.

  12. Experimental acute intracerebral hemorrhage: Value of MR sequences for a safe diagnosis at 1.5 and 0.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueker, W.; Thron, A.; Thiex, R.; Rohde, I.; Rohde, V.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the detectability of intracerebral hematomas with MR imaging at 1.5 T and 0.5 T with fluid attenuated inversion recovery turbo spin-echo (FLAIR) and gradient-echo sequences. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven intracerebral hematomas were created in 25 piglets by injection of venous blood into the brain through a burr hole. All were imaged with T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences (fast field echo, FFE), T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery turbo spin-echo sequences (FLAIR), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and T1-weighted spin-echo sequences. Follow-up was performed on the 2nd, 4th and 10th postoperative days. Ten animals were additionally investigated with similar sequences at 0.5 T. Histologic correlation was obtained in all cases. Results: T2* FFE sequences detected all acute intracerebral hematomas and demonstrated the size correctly at 1.5 T and 0.5 T. The conspicuity was better at 1.5 T. FLAIR sequences were unreliable in the hyperacute phase at 1.5 T. However, subarachnoid and intraventricular extension was best appreciated with FLAIR images. T2 TSE images were incapable of detecting para ventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhages, but clearly demonstrated intracerebral blood in other locations. T1-weighted images were insensitive to hemorrhage in the acute state but very useful in subacute and chronic hematomas. Conclusion: The safe and reliable diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage is probably possible with MR imaging at 1.5 T and 0.5 T even of hematomas less than 90 min old, but requires the application of at least FLAIR, T2* FFE and T1 sequences and is therefore time consuming

  13. [Application of antihelicobacter therapy in patients, suffering pyloroduodenal zone ulcers, complicated by hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaroshenko, K O

    2012-02-01

    There were examined 113 patients, suffering pyloroduodenal zone ulcers, complicated by an acute hemorrhage. H. pylori was revealed in 108 (96%) patients. To escape a false-negative results a serological method was applied, which was used to determine a content of IgG antibodies to H. pylori with the help of diagnostic panel GastroPanel (Biohit PLc firm, Finland). The H. pylori presence in patients must be considered as a risk factor for the early recurrent hemorrhage occurrence. A timely conducted examination, determination of H. pylori and timely prescription of antihelicobacter therapy promote the improvement of the treatment results in patients, suffering gastroduodenal ulcers, complicated by an acute hemorrhage due to reduction of the occurrence rate of early recurrence of hemorrhage.

  14. Idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy in a poodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Aparicio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A seven years old, male poodle is examined presenting acute mandible paralysis (dropped jaw, drooling and difficulty for the apprehension and chewing; not evidence of an other alteration of cranial nerves. The muscular biopsy rules out a myositisof masticatory muscles. The disorder is resolved completely in 3 weeks confirming diagnosis of idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy.

  15. QUANTITATIVE PCR ANALYSIS OF FUNGI IN DUST FROM HOMES OF INFANTS WHO DEVELOPED IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HEMORRHAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal concentrations were measured in the dust of six homes in Cleveland, OH, where a child developed pulmonary hemorrhage (pulmonary hemorrhage homes, i.e. PHH), and 26 reference homes (RH) with no known fungal contamination. QPCR assays for 82 species (or assay groups) were u...

  16. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  17. Hemorrhagic Transformation of Scrub Typhus Encephalitis: A Rare Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-C; Yoon, K-W; Yoo, D-S; Cho, C-S

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of scrub typhus infection is well known. Most CNS involvement of scrub typhus infection present as meningitis or encephalitis. We report on a patient suffering from hemorrhagic transformation of intracranial lesions caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. A 53-year-old female farmer who was infected by scrub typhus was treated with doxycycline and recovered from the systemic illness. However, headache persisted. Brain radiologic studies revealed acute intracranial hemorrhage and enhancing lesion, which implied a CNS involvement. Hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis by scrub typhus is very rare complication and to our best knowledge, this is the first report of hemorrhagic transformation of scrub typhus encephalitis. Clinician should consider the possibility of hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis in cases of scrub typhus infection.

  18. Putaminal hemorrhage: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Elliott, D.; Shamsnia, M.; Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of 100 patients with putaminal hemorrhage were hypertensive. Of the eight normotensive patients, seven were substance abusers or had bilateral putaminal hemorrhages. The one other normotensive patient was less than 40 years old. The 100 hemorrhages had the following locations: 1. Medial putaminal (17 cases; six were normotensive and less than 40 years old and five were substance abusers); 2. lateral putaminal extending through the external capsule (eleven cases); 3. putaminal-capsular and subcortical white matter (32 cases); 4. putaminal cerebral hemispheric (19 cases); 5. putaminal-thalamic (19 cases); 6. bilateral (two cases). A disproportionate number of black patients suffered hematoma extension to the cerebral hemispheres or thalamus (46%) compared to Caucasians (23%). Overall mortality was 20% (17 blacks and three Caucasians) and occurred in patients with hematoma extension to the thalamus or cerebral hemispheres. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in all 100 patients and provided no additional diagnostic yield. This indicates limited use for enhanced CT in hypertensive patients with putaminal hemorrhage who have a characteristic appearance of the acute hemorrhage on the nonenhanced CT. (orig.)

  19. Acute dysphonia secondary to vocal fold hemorrhage after vardenafil use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikas; Cohen, Seth M; Rousseau, Bernard; Noordzij, J Pieter; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Ossoff, Robert H

    2010-06-01

    Owing to their vasodilatory effects, the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have become widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Among the reported adverse events of these agents are epistaxis, variceal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and hemorrhoidal bleeding. We report a case of vocal fold hemorrhage that occurred after vardenafil use in a 31-year-old man who was a professional singer.

  20. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Cheol; Suh, Gee Young; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are at present classified as one of four types: usual, nonspecific, acute, or desquamative. The acute form has the worst prognosis, followed by the usual and the nonspecific form; it is in desquamative cases that prognosis is best. At high-resolution CT, usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequent type, manifests as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing, which the nonspecific type, the second most frequent, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity. Acute interstitial pneumonia demonstrates extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones

  1. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage during pregnancy: a case with horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Amini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is an acute hemorrhage during pregnancy, which can be tragic for the mother and the baby. We report a unique spontaneous hemorrhage during pregnancy in a case with horseshoe kidney with separated adrenal, presented for the first time in the world. Computed tomography scan showed a horseshoe kidney fused with left normal kidney. Interestingly the adrenal gland was remained in right flank and separated from the horseshoe kidney, which prepares a probable physical stress for the hemorrhage. Diagnosis and surgery were done successfully and the case was fully recovered after several days.

  2. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and ... for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. ... Hemorrhagic Shock, Traumatic Brain Injury, Inflammation, Systems Biology ...

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Computed tomography in intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1984-01-01

    In tracranial hemorrhage in leukemia was clinicopathologically studied in 62 cases of autopsy materials, with special attention paid to a morphological comparison of CT images with pathological findings. Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 32 of the 62 leukemic patients (51.6%), and in 13 of these patients (21.0%) it was responsible for death. Leukemic intracranial hemorrhage occurred more often in the acute leukemic type than in the chronic type, and even more often in younger leukemic patinents; it was pathologically characterized by multiple lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere, prone to combination with SAH or SDH. The hemorrhages could be divided into five types: (1) scattered small hemorrhagic type, (2) hematoma type, (3) fusion type (large hemorrhage composed of assembled small hemorrhages), (4) SAH type, and (5) SDH type. Among these types, the fusion type was considered to be characteristic of leukemia. CT was undertaken in 5 pathologically proven cases, with findings of the scattered small hemorrhagic type in 1, of the SDH type in 3, and of the fusion type in 1. Yet, one case with scattered small hemorrhages and two cases with SDH failed to be detected by CT. However, one case with a typical fusion hemorrhage was found to have multiple, irregular, high-density areas with surrounding edema and a mass effect as well as pathological findings. Therefore, a large-fusion hemorrhage, which is one of the most characteristic types of leukemic intracranial hemorrhage, could be demonstrated as distinctive CT images which reflected neuropathological findings. On the other hand, small parenchymal hemorrhages and relatively thin subdural hemorrhages could not be detected by CT. In conclusion, it seems that CT has value in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  5. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki [Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Yakushiji, Yusuke [Saga University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou [Saga University, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  6. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Kawashima, Masatou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  7. Hemorrhagic intra splenic pseudocyst as a complication of chronic pancreatitis in acute phase - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabiola Assuncao de; Marchiori, Edson; Mello, Walter de Assis; Nogueira, Aline Silva; Sales, Anderson Ribeiro; Martins, Renata Romano; Santos, Tereza Cristina C.R.S. dos

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of hemorrhagic intra splenic pseudocyst as a complication of chronic pancreatitis in acute phase. A 43-year-old woman, chronic alcoholic, who had pancreatitis 5 years ago, with symptoms of strong abdominal pain in the epigastrium, nausea and fever. Abdominal sonography showed a lesion contiguous to the spleen and computed tomography demonstrated an heterogeneous lesion of not well defined limits, in the lateral and posterior parts of the spleen. The patient was submitted to Roux-Y cystojejunostomy, he does not present any symptoms at the moment, and is undergoing clinical control. (author)

  8. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time.

  9. Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hvid-Jensen, Helene S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with anabolic agent abuse has not been described previously in the literature. Both patients developed acute dyspnea and hemoptysis with consistent radiological findings. In both cases symptoms promptly resolved with cessatio...

  10. Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy: an unusual diagnosis for the general pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diego Fontana Siqueira; Darcie, Ana Letícia Fornazieri; Benevides, Gabriel Nuncio; Ferronato, Angela Espósito; Hein, Noely; Lo, Denise Swei; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Hirose, Maki; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-01-01

    Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy (AHEI) is a rare leukocytoclastic vasculitis, clinically characterized by the classical triad: palpable purpuric skin lesions, edema and fever, and is commonly misdiagnosed as Henoch-Schönlein purpura. In addition to its sudden onset, AHEI is also characterized by its self-limited course with complete and spontaneous recovery occurring between 1 and 3 weeks. Because of the scarcity of studies on therapy with corticosteroids, the conservative approach is usually recommended. The authors report an unusual case of an one-year-old boy who presented with typical cutaneous rash of AHEI and orchitis, the latter showing complete resolution after less than 24 hours of prednisolone therapy. The authors call attention to this entity mainly as a differential diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and to the importance of new studies to establish the benefits of corticosteroid therapy for AHEI.

  11. Conservative treatment of idiopathic spontaneous pneumoperitoneum in a bedridden patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sakata, Jun; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic spontaneous pneumoperitoneum is a rare condition that is characterized by intraperitoneal gas for which no clear etiology has been identified. We report here a case of idiopathic spontaneous pneumoperitoneum, which was successfully managed by conservative treatment. A 77-year-old woman who was bedridden with speech disability as a sequela of brain hemorrhage presented at our hospital with a 1-day history of abdominal distention. On physical examination, she had stable vital signs and slight epigastric tenderness on deep palpation without any other signs of peritonitis. A chest radiograph and computed tomography showed that a large amount of free gas extended into the upper abdominal cavity. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed no perforation of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic spontaneous pneumoperitoneum, and conservative treatment was selected. The abdominal distension rapidly disappeared, and the patient resumed oral intake on the 5th hospital day without deterioration of symptoms. Knowledge of this rare disease and accurate diagnosis with findings of clinical imaging might contribute towards refraining from unnecessary laparotomy.

  12. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to

  13. Splenectomy Versus Sham Splenectomy in a Swine Model of Controlled Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Søren R; Caulkett, Nigel A; Brookfield, Caroline E; Warren, Amy; Pang, Jessica M

    2016-10-01

    Splenectomy is controversial in acute hemorrhagic shock models. To compare splenectomized (SP) versus sham-splenectomized (SSP) swine during acute controlled hemorrhage. Twenty-six male Landrace White swine (mean body weight ± standard deviation, 33.8 ± 2.9 kg) were used. Ethics approval was obtained. Landrace swine underwent splenectomy (n = 13) or sham-splenectomy (n = 13), were bled to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg, which was held for 60 min, given 125 mL IV RescueFlow, held for a further 60 min, given whole blood, and held for a final 60 min. Tissue oxygen saturation, thromboelastography, oncotic pressure, urine volume and specific gravity, complete blood count, serum chemistry, body temperature, hematocrit, total solids, arterial and mixed venous blood gas, bispectral index, SAP, MAP, DAP, cardiac index, total blood volume (TBV) removed and returned, rate of hemorrhage and transfusion, spleen weight, heart rate (HR), arterial pH, lactate, PaO2, PaCO2, respiratory rate, cranial mesenteric and renal artery blood flow were recorded. Groups were compared using two-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni (P splenectomy for the duration of the experiment (P splenectomy (P Splenectomy likely accounts for the transient increase in hematocrit and the higher HR in SP swine prior to hemorrhage, and the differences in TBV removed between the two groups during hemorrhage. With a fixed end point model using a moderate rate of acute hemorrhage and an MAP of 40 mm Hg, splenectomy is not necessary and may confound results.

  14. Development of a vaccine for the prevention of hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, van den J.V.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) in turkeys is an acute infectious disease characterized by depression, intestinal bleeding, and death. HE occurs worldwide affecting 6 to 12 week-old turkeys and lasting 4 to 6 days. This economically important disease is caused by hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), a

  15. Hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications in patients with myeloproliferative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Valladares Vignal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To correlate the incidence of hemorrhage and thrombosis to bleeding time (BT and platelet aggregation in 27 consecutive patients with myeloproliferative diseases (MPD. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Public tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, 5 with polycytemia vera (PV, 2 with essential thrombocytemia (ET and 2 with idiopathic myelofibrosis (MF. Duke's BT and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation were performed on the patients and on 10 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Eleven patients presented symptoms (41 %: 9 with hemorrhage (33% and 5 with thrombosis (19%.There were less symptomatic patients in the CML group (28% than in the other MPD (67%, without statistical significance (Fisher, p=0.06. Duke's BT was longer in symptomatic patients (Mann-Whitney, p<0.05. Platelet aggregation was abnormal in 7 patients (26% and 71% of them were symptomatic (Fisher, p = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of bleeding and thrombosis in patients with MPD was related to prolonged BT, but not to platelet aggregation abnormalities.

  16. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffroy, Romaric; Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  17. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Liang; Dong, Longchun; Liu, Zhenxing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun; Dong, Zhengchao; Khursheed, Aiman

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  18. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Liang; Dong, Longchun; Liu, Zhenxing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, Department of Radiology, Tianjin (China); Dong, Zhengchao [Columbia University, Translational Imaging and MRI Unit, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (United States); Khursheed, Aiman [Tianjin Medical University, International Medical School, Tianjin (China)

    2015-11-15

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  19. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  20. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  1. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, although the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are largely unknown. Human infection occurs either by direct contact with infected animals or indirectly, through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine, as the spirochetes easily penetrate human skin. The present report exposes the case of a female patient, diagnosed with leptospirosis after having had contact with a dog infected by Leptospira sp. that developed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure.

  2. Hemorrhage into a choledochal cyst in a hemophiliac child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, M.; Oates, E. (Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    A hemophiliac child presented with acute abdominal pain due to hemorrhage into an unsuspected choledochal cyst. Sonography delineated the cystic mass; hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirmed the diagnosis. (orig.).

  3. Hemorrhage into a choledochal cyst in a hemophiliac child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.; Oates, E.

    1989-01-01

    A hemophiliac child presented with acute abdominal pain due to hemorrhage into an unsuspected choledochal cyst. Sonography delineated the cystic mass; hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirmed the diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Rehabilitation outcome in hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke: a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic transformation (HT may occur as a part of the natural history of acute ischemic stroke, with incidence between 13-43% in computer-tomography (CT studies. Detection of HT in a patient with ischemic stroke is important in establishing treatment in the acute phase in assessing prognosis and in taking therapeutical decisions for secondary stroke prevention. There were controversies regarding optimal treatment in acute ischemic stroke with HT, especially if the patient needs further anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment. Rehabilitation treatment needs to be continued for post-stroke patients who developed HT, because HT does not decrease rehabilitation outcome. We present rehabilitation treatment and prognosis in a case of hemorrhagic transformation after an embolic ischemic stroke treated with anticoagulants, which required reinitiation of anticoagulant treatment.

  5. Prospective evaluation of yield of endoscopic ultrasonography in the etiological diagnosis of "idiopathic" acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra S Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Etiology of acute pancreatitis (AP remains idiopathic in 30% of patients. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield in patients with idiopathic AP (IAP. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EUS in achieving etiological diagnosis in patients with IAP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 192 patients with IAP were evaluated prospectively with EUS over a period of 2 years. Patients who had no etiological diagnosis for AP after detailed history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography were included in the study. Results: The mean age of patients was 34.6 ± 12 and male:female ratio was 2.1:1. Of these, 135 patients had gallbladder intact (Group A and 57 patients had undergone cholecystectomy (Group B. In Group A, EUS identified a possible cause in 79 (58.5% patients; microlithiasis (n = 48, chronic pancreatitis (CP (n = 23, common bile duct (CBD and gallbladder stone (n = 3, pancreatic divisum (n = 3, small pancreatic tumor (n = 1, and anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (n = 1. In Group B, EUS yielded diagnosis in 28 (49.1% patients; CP (n = 22, ascariasis (n = 3, CBD stone (n = 2, and pancreatic divisum (n = 1. Overall EUS helped in achieving etiological diagnosis in 107 (55.1% of patients with IAP. The presence of intact gallbladder showed a tendency for increased diagnostic yield (P = 0.06. Conclusion: EUS is a useful modality to establish the diagnosis in IAP and this technique should be incorporated in the evaluation of IAP.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates acute brain injury after porcine intracerebral hemorrhage at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-tao; Bian, Chen; Yuan, Ji-chao; Liao, Xiao-jun; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiang-kai

    2015-06-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at high altitude is not well understood to date. This study investigates the effects of high altitude on ICH, and examines the acute neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy against high-altitude ICH. Minipigs were placed in a hypobaric chamber for 72 h before the operation. ICH was induced by an infusion of autologous arterial blood (3 ml) into the right basal ganglia. Animals in the high-altitude ICH group received HBO therapy (2.5 ATA for 60 min) 30 min after ICH. Blood gas, blood glucose and brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PbtO2) were monitored continuously for animals from all groups, as were microdialysis products including glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate in perihematomal tissue from 3 to 12 h post-ICH. High-altitude ICH animals showed significantly lower PbtO2, higher lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) and glutamate levels than low-altitude ICH animals. More severe neurological deficits, brain edema and neuronal damage were also observed in high-altitude ICH. After HBO therapy, PbtO2 was significantly increased and LPR and glutamate levels were significantly decreased. Brain edema, neurological deficits and neuronal damage were also ameliorated. The data suggested a more serious disturbance of tissue oxygenation and cerebral metabolism in the acute stage after ICH at high altitude. Early HBO treatment reduced acute brain injury, perhaps through a mechanism involving the amelioration of the derangement of cerebral oxygenation and metabolism following high-altitude ICH.

  7. Relation between reperfusion and hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, Alexander D. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Radiology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Niesten, Joris M.; Seeters, Tom van; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kappelle, L.J. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Utrecht Stroke Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: DUST investigators

    2015-12-15

    Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) is given in acute ischemic stroke patients to achieve reperfusion. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious complication of IV-rtPA treatment and related to blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury. It is unclear whether HT occurs secondary to reperfusion in combination with ischemic BBB injury or is caused by the negative effect of IV-rtPA on BBB integrity. The aim of this study was to establish the association between reperfusion and the occurrence of HT. From the DUST study, patients were selected with admission and follow-up non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging, and a perfusion deficit in the middle cerebral artery territory on admission. Reperfusion was categorized qualitatively as reperfusion or no-reperfusion by visual comparison of admission and follow-up CTP. Occurrence of HT was assessed on follow-up NCCT. The association between reperfusion and occurrence of HT on follow-up was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) with additional stratification for IV-rtPA treatment. Inclusion criteria were met in 299 patients. There was no significant association between reperfusion and HT (OR 1.2 95%CI 0.5-3.1). In patients treated with IV-rtPA (n = 203), the OR was 1.3 (95%CI 0.4-4.0), and in patients not treated with IV-rtPA (n = 96), the OR was 0.8 (95%CI 0.1-4.5). HT occurred in 14 % of the IV-rtPA patients and in 7 % of patients without IV-rtPA (95%CI of difference -1 to 14 %). Our results suggest that the increased risk of HT after acute ischemic stroke treatment is not dependent on the reperfusion status. (orig.)

  8. A study of the intracranial hemorrhagic lesions by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Kazuyoshi

    1983-01-01

    Changes in X-ray density corresponding to intracranial hemorrhagic lesions were follwed in fourteen patients. In addition, X-ray density of solutions with oxyhemoglobin, CO-hemoglobin and methehemoglobin as well as suspension of blood corpuscles, hemolysate, calcium, sodium, iron, copper, magnesium and phosphate was measured. The following results were obtained: 1) The average X-ray density of hemorrhagic lesions within 48 hours after intracranial hemorrhage was 73.80 H.N.: 55.81 H.N. between 48 hours and three weeks : 49.5 H.N. between three and four weeks: 26.81 H.N. over four weeks. In all cases, the intracranial hemorrhage in its acute stage revealed a high X-ray density as compared to the surrounding cerebral tissue. This was helpful for the detection of hemorrhagic lesions. 2) X-ray density of the lesion decreased 1.68 H.N./day after the hemorrhage. 3) Among various constituents of blood, the solution of sodium showed the highest X-ray density, followed by hemoglobin, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, copper and iron. 4) However, when the concentration of each blood constituent was taken into consideration, hemoglobin showed the highest X-ray density, followed by calcium, copper, sodium, magnesium, phosphate and iron. 5) There was no significant difference in X-ray density between the suspension of blood corpuscles and hemolysate. The findings were the same whether hemoglobin was oxyhemoglobin, CO-hemoglobin or methehemoglobin. 6) Oxyhemoglobin showed the highest X-ray density, followed by CO-hemoglobin and methehemoglobin. These findings suggested that hemoglobin in the intracranial hemorrhagic lesion seems to be a major factor producing a high X-ray density particularly in its acute stage. (author)

  9. FLAIR images of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Takeshi; Saito, Koji; Okuyama, Tohru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Akira; Shibata, Kazunori [Kushiro Neurosurgical Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We studied MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences in 37 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysmal rupture. FLAIR sequence suppressed the CSF signal and produced very heavy T{sub 2} weighted images. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was able to be demonstrated as high signal intensity on FLAIR sequences in all patients clear visualization of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was able to be obtained by MR FLAIR sequences in not only Fisher`s group 3 or 4, but also Fisher`s group 2. Moreover it was suited for the detection of intraaxial hematoma, Sylvian hematoma, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the posterior fossa and interhemispheric fissure. Especially, it was useful for detecting intraventricular hemorrhage. Therefore, if patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage present slight headache or atypical symptoms, sometimes it may be more suitable to perform MRI FLAIR pulse sequences first. Aneurysms were found in 21 cases (56.8%). When the aneurysmal size is more than 7 mm, the rate of detection becomes 100%. Aneurysms present various MR appearances because of flow characteristics. Aneurysms were demonstrated as low signal intensity except in 3 cases. In one out of 3 cases, aneurysms were revealed as high signal intensity and in the other two cases, it was revealed as mixed signal intensity. According to the previous studies, rapid flow was demonstrated as low signal intensity by vascular flow void, and delayed flow was demonstrated as high or mixed signal intensity by flow related enhancement and even echo rephasing. MR clearly delineates the size, the lumen, the flow, and the extraaxial location of aneurysms. (K.H.)

  10. Outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenbo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC occurred in Yunnan Province, China between August and September in 2007. A total of 3,597 cases were officially reported and the incidence rate reached 1390.94/100,000. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was conducted using the data from National Disease Supervision Information Management System (NDSIMS. To determine the causative agent for this outbreak and to analyze their genetic features, 30 conjunctival swabs and 19 paired serum specimens of acute and convalescent phase were collected from 30 patients with AHC, and viral isolation, molecular typing, antibody assay and phylogenetic analysis were performed. 11 virus strains were isolated from 30 conjunctival swabs. Amplification and sequencing of the VP4 region of these strains identified that coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v could be the causative agent of the AHC outbreak and this was further confirmed by subsequent virus neutralizing antibody test on 19 paired serum specimens. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 3C regions showed that the Yunnan CA24v strains belonged to Group 3 and clustered with the strains isolated from worldwide AHC outbreaks after 2002. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial VP1 revealed that the Yunnan strains differed from the strains isolated from AHC outbreak in Guangdong of China in 2007 with 2.8 - 3.0% nucleotide divergence, suggesting that two different lineages of CA24v caused the independent AHC outbreaks in Yunnan and Guangdong, respectively.

  11. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  12. Hemorrhagic myocardial infarction after reperfusion detected by X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Tsutomu; Toyoki, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Tomoko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether computed tomography (CT) can detect hemorrhagic infarction occurring after intracoronary thrombolytic therapy (ICT) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In an experimental study, 12 dogs underwent 2-4 h of left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion, followed by reperfusion, and infusion of contrast material into the LAD. After CT examination, the heart was cut into transverse sections. A good correlation was obtained between the CT-enhanced area and the hemorrhagic area in the sliced heart section (r=0.895, p 0.1). The SPECT defect areas were consistently smaller than the CT enhancement areas. These results indicate that CT can detect hemorrhage into the myocardium after ICT, and that after ICT half the AMI patients showed hemorrhagic infarction. However, hemorrhage did not cause complete deterioration of the myocardium. (author)

  13. Indices of anti-dengue immunoglobulin G subclasses in adult Mexican patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Mondragón, Araceli; Aguilar-Faisal, José Leopoldo; Chávez-Negrete, Adolfo; Guillén-Salomón, Edith; Alcántara-Farfán, Verónica; Luna-Rojas, Lucero; Ávila-Trejo, Amanda Marineth; Del Carmen Pacheco-Yépez, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Heterologous secondary infections are at increased risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) because of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). IgG subclasses can fix and activate complement and bind to Fcɣ receptors. These factors may also play an important role in the development of ADE and thus in the pathogenesis of DHF. The aim of this study was to analyze the indices of anti-dengue IgG subclasses in adult patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase. In 2013, 129 patients with dengue fever (DF) and 57 with DHF in Veracruz, Mexico were recruited for this study and anti-dengue IgM and IgG determined by capture ELISA. Anti-dengue IgG subclasses were detected by indirect ELISA. Anti-dengue IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses were detected in patients with dengue. IgG1 increased significantly in the sera of patients with both primary and secondary infections and DHF, but was higher in patients with secondary infections. The IgG4 subclass index was significantly higher in the sera of patients with DHF than in that of those with DF, who were in the early and late acute phase of both primary and secondary infection. In conclusion, indices of subclasses IgG1 and IgG4 were higher in patients with DHF. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Risk factors for medical complications of acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangala Mohan Sidhartha

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.

  15. Idiopathic diaphragmatic paralysis: Bell's palsy of the diaphragm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausman, Robert S; Summerhill, Eleanor M; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic diaphragm paralysis is probably more common and responsible for more morbidity than generally appreciated. Bell's palsy, or idiopathic paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, may be seen as an analogous condition. The roles of zoster sine herpete and herpes simplex have increasingly been recognized in Bell's palsy, and there are some data to suggest that antiviral therapy is a useful adjunct to steroid therapy. Thus, we postulated that antiviral therapy might have a positive impact on the course of acute idiopathic diaphragm paralysis which is likely related to viral infection. Three consecutive patients with subacute onset of symptomatic idiopathic hemidiaphragm paralysis were empirically treated with valacyclovir, 1,000 mg twice daily for 1 week. Prior to therapy, diaphragmatic function was assessed via pulmonary function testing and two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound, with testing repeated 1 month later. Diaphragmatic function pre- and post-treatment was compared to that of a historical control group of 16 untreated patients. All three subjects demonstrated ultrasound recovery of diaphragm function 4-6 weeks following treatment with valacyclovir. This recovery was accompanied by improvements in maximum inspiratory pressure (PI(max)) and vital capacity (VC). In contrast, in the untreated cohort, diaphragm recovery occurred in only 11 subjects, taking an average of 14.9 +/- 6.1 months (mean +/- SD). The results of this small, preliminary study suggest that antiviral therapy with valacyclovir may be helpful in the treatment of idiopathic diaphragm paralysis induced by a viral infection.

  16. MRI Diagnosis of Intracranial Hemorrhage : Experimental and Clinical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemany Ripoll, Montserrat

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage with MRI, and add knowledge about the newer sequences increasing in use to depict intra parenchymal bleeds, especially T2*-w GE sequences. We also compared the effect of magnetic field strengths. The sequences and field strengths were tested in animals. Then, the most effective technique was applied to patients with hematomas of different ages and with hematoma residuals. Occurrence of residuals of earlier, clinically silent, haemorrhages in patients with acute spontaneous hematoma or with suspected ischemic stroke were compared. Experimental studies: The MR detectability of small experimental haematomas in the brain and of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces of 30 rabbits was evaluated. MRI examinations were performed at determined intervals using different pulse sequences at two field strengths. The last MR images were compared to the formalin fixed brain sections and, in 16 rabbits, also to the histological findings. T2*-weighted GE sequences revealed all the intra parenchymal haematomas at 1.5 T: they were strongly hypointense. Their sizes became smaller but the signal patterns remained unchanged during the follow-up. The haematoma sizes and shapes corresponded well to gross pathology at acute and subacute stages. At chronic stage, the signal changes were larger than iron deposits. Blood in the CSF spaces was best detected at 1.5T with T2*-weighted GE sequences during the first 2 days. The FLAIR sequence often revealed blood in CSF spaces but not in the brain. SE sequences were rather insensitive. Imaging at 0.5 T was less effective than at 1.5 T. Clinical studies: All MR examinations on patients were performed at 1.5T, including T1- and T2-w SE, FLAIR, T2*-w GE sequences, and, occasionally, diffusion-w sequences. Sixty-six intra parenchymal hematomas were examined in the first clinical study. The hematomas were of different sizes and the ages varied from 8 hours to 3

  17. Preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Ueba, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Motohiro; Iwata, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Kohsuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement was investigated in patients with ultra-acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Retrospective review of 248 patients (145 males, 103 females) with spontaneous ICH treated in our hospital between 2005 and 2008 identified patients with ultra-acute ICH who were directly taken to our institute by ambulance within 3 hours after onset. Patients who could not be assessed twice by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after arrival were excluded. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was aggressively controlled in all patients using intravenous nicardipine to below 140 mmHg as soon as possible after diagnosis of ICH with CT. Hematoma enlargement was defined as increase in volume of more than 33% or more than 12.5 ml in the first 24 hours. Hematoma enlargement was observed in 11 of the 73 patients (15.0%). The time course of SBP change was not significantly different in patients with and without hematoma enlargement. The incidence of hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH in this study was 15.0%, which was lower than that in other series in which blood pressure was not reduced aggressively. This finding suggests that aggressive SBP lowering to below 140 mmHg has a preventive effect on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH. (author)

  18. Bio-Hemostat-Acute Treatment Modality for High Pressure Hemorrhage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    Bleeding from an artery is difficult to control due to the high pressures found in the arterial system Hemorrhage is especially problematic in penetrating wounds where the bleeding source may not be...

  19. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-six (57%) had intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (22%) had pure intraventricular hemorrhage, and 10 (22%) had both. There were 2 deaths, both with intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume. Presence of intraventricular hemorrhage was not associated with poor outcome, but hydrocephalus showed a trend (p=0.09) toward poor outcome. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, combined intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume also showed a trend toward better outcome prediction than intraparenchymal hemorrhage volume alone. Although not an independent outcome predictor, future studies should assess intraventricular hemorrhage qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:22068828

  20. Prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Sugita, Kyoichi; Kuwayama, Naoya

    1984-01-01

    The present authors have analyzed the correlation between the clinical features and the CT findings in 66 cases of thalamic hemorrhage. Hitachi CT-H and CT-HF apparatuses (256 x 256 matrix) were used at an angle parallel to the OM line. Of the 48 patients with hematoma less than 20 ml, only four died; however, of the 18 patients with hematoma larger than 20 ml, five died. An analysis has been made of the correlation between the occurrence of brain edema in the acute stage and high density in the subthalamic area. The hematoma extending to the subthalamic area was diagnosed by means of high density at the level of 35 mm above the OM line. Of the 13 cases with hematoma in the subthalamic area, acute brain edema occurred in 9 cases. On the other hand, of the 53 cases without hematoma at the subthalamic area, brain edema occurred in only one case. It was concluded that high density in the subthalamic area is a significant index for the occurrence of acute brain edema in a thalamic hemorrhage. (author)

  1. Hematoma Locations Predicting Delirium Symptoms After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Polnaszek, Kelly L; Berman, Michael D; Voss, Joel L

    2016-06-01

    Delirium symptoms are associated with later worse functional outcomes and long-term cognitive impairments, but the neuroanatomical basis for delirium symptoms in patients with acute brain injury is currently uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that hematoma location is predictive of delirium symptoms in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, a model disease where patients are typically not sedated or bacteremic. We prospectively identified 90 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent routine twice-daily screening for delirium symptoms with a validated examination. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping with acute computed tomography was used to identify hematoma locations associated with delirium symptoms (N = 89). Acute delirium symptoms were predicted by hematoma of right-hemisphere subcortical white matter (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and parahippocampal gyrus. Hematoma including these locations had an odds ratio for delirium of 13 (95 % CI 3.9-43.3, P delirium symptoms. Higher odds ratio for delirium was increased due to hematoma location. The location of neurological injury could be of high prognostic value for predicting delirium symptoms.

  2. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  3. Platelet antibody in prolonged remission of childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, R.; Kinney, T.R.; Rosse, W.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluations were performed in 20 patients with childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who remained in remission longer than 12 months. The mean duration of follow-up from diagnosis was 39 months (range 17 to 87 months). Eleven patients (four girls) in group 1 had an acute course of ITP, defined as platelet count greater than 150 X 10(9)/L within 6 months of diagnosis. Nine patients (five girls) in group 2 had a chronic course, defined as platelet count less than 150 X 10(9)/L for greater than or equal to 1 year or requiring splenectomy in an attempt to control hemorrhagic symptoms. Platelet count and serum (indirect) platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) levels were normal in all 20 patients at follow-up. Both direct and indirect PAIgG levels were measured using a 125 I-monoclonal anti-IgG antiglobulin assay. All had normal direct PAIgG levels, except for one patient in group 1 who had a borderline elevated value of 1209 molecules per platelet. These data suggest that the prevalence of elevated platelet antibodies is low during sustained remission without medication in patients with a history of childhood ITP. These data may be relevant for pregnant women with a history of childhood ITP, with regard to the risk of delivering an infant with thrombocytopenia secondary to transplacental passage of maternal platelet antibody

  4. Effect of Dan seven soft capsule adjuvant therapy on serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes in patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Gui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Dan seven soft capsule on the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease and the influence of serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes. Methods: A total of 112 cases of patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=57 and observation group (n=55, the patients in the control group received routine treatment combined with edaravone, on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the observation group was treated with Dan seven soft capsule. The serum levels of inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference in the inflammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, blood coagulation function (FIB, PT and APTT and hemorheology (high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity levels between the control group and observation group. Compared with the levels of the same group before treatment, two groups of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, FIB, high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity level after treatment were significantly decreased, and levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of PT and APTT in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Dan seven soft capsule in the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease can effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, improve coagulation function and blood rheology index, it has an important clinical value.

  5. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  6. Renal Artery Embolization of Perirenal Hematoma in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yoon, Yup; Hwang, Jae Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute infectious disease caused by hantavirus. HFRS is clinically characterized by fever, renal failure and hemorrhage in organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and the pituitary gland. Renal medullary hemorrhage is a well-known complication in the kidney, but spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma in HFRS is rare, and patients showing continuous bleeding and massive perirenal hematoma have often been surgically treated. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and the patient was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. In summary, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma is a rare complication of HFRS. We report here on a case of HFRS that caused massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with superselective renal artery embolization

  7. Renal Artery Embolization of Perirenal Hematoma in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yoon, Yup [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute infectious disease caused by hantavirus. HFRS is clinically characterized by fever, renal failure and hemorrhage in organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and the pituitary gland. Renal medullary hemorrhage is a well-known complication in the kidney, but spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma in HFRS is rare, and patients showing continuous bleeding and massive perirenal hematoma have often been surgically treated. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and the patient was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. In summary, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma is a rare complication of HFRS. We report here on a case of HFRS that caused massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with superselective renal artery embolization.

  8. Minocycline in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage: An Early Phase Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Newsome, Andrea S; Spellicy, Samantha; Waller, Jennifer L; Zhi, Wenbo; Hess, David C; Ergul, Adviye; Edwards, David J; Fagan, Susan C; Switzer, Jeffrey A

    2017-10-01

    Minocycline is under investigation as a neurovascular protective agent for stroke. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic, anti-inflammatory, and safety profile of minocycline after intracerebral hemorrhage. This study was a single-site, randomized controlled trial of minocycline conducted from 2013 to 2016. Adults ≥18 years with primary intracerebral hemorrhage who could have study drug administered within 24 hours of onset were included. Patients received 400 mg of intravenous minocycline, followed by 400 mg minocycline oral daily for 4 days. Serum concentrations of minocycline after the last oral dose and biomarkers were sampled to determine the peak concentration, half-life, and anti-inflammatory profile. A total of 16 consecutive eligible patients were enrolled, with 8 randomized to minocycline. Although the literature supports a time to peak concentration (T max ) of 1 hour for oral minocycline, the T max was estimated to be at least 6 hours in this cohort. The elimination half-life (available on 7 patients) was 17.5 hours (SD±3.5). No differences were observed in inflammatory biomarkers, hematoma volume, or perihematomal edema. Concentrations remained at neuroprotective levels (>3 mg/L) throughout the dosing interval in 5 of 7 patients. In intracerebral hemorrhage, a 400 mg dose of minocycline was safe and achieved neuroprotective serum concentrations. However, oral administration led to delayed absorption in these critically ill patients and should not be used when rapid, high concentrations are desired. Given the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of minocycline in intracerebral hemorrhage and promising data in the treatment of ischemic stroke, intravenous minocycline is an excellent candidate for a prehospital treatment trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01805895. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Efficacy of transcatheter uterine artery embolization for treating emergency hemorrhage obstetrics and gynecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of selective iliac artery embolization (TAE) or uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treatment of emergency hemorrhage in obstetrics and gynecology. Methods: Selective bilateral TAE or UAE were performed on 59 patients with acute cervical hemorrhage from postpartum hemorrhage (30), cervical cancer (16), endometrial cancer (8), and choriocarcinoma (5). Gelfoam particles were used in postpartum hemorrhage; chemotherapeutics and Iodipin suspension were used in malignancy. Results: Bleeding was stopped completely in all 59 patients with TAE or UAE procedure time of 30-50 minutes (mean: 42.17±4.78 minutes). There were no serious complications. Conclusion: TAE or UAE are effective for treating emergency hemorrhage in obstetrics and gynecology. (authors)

  10. Localization of the acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, E.; Mothe, G.; Wyse, E.

    1984-01-01

    For the detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid has been sugested. The procedure for labeling RBC with sup(99m)Tc consisted in injecting IV 1 mg of ClSn; 20 minutes after injection of tin 10 cc of blood were withdrawn in a syringe containing 20 mCi of sup(99m)Tc; this was incubated for 10 minutes and then injected IV. Scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity was done in supine position and performed with a large field gamma camera with a parallel hole-low energy colimator. Computer adquisition of images was started 5 minutes after RBC injection and made at the rate of one enery 5 minutes for 45 minutes. 14 patients were studied divided in: a) control: 6 patients. b) with active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 4 patients had positive scintigraphy. The hemorrhage was documented with superior mesenteric arteriography, endoscopy and/or necropsy. The sensitivity was 100%. In 4 out of 14 patients scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC compared with simultaneous sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that all patients with positive sup(99m)Tc RBC had also positive sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy. c) without active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: all of them had negative scintigraphy (specificity 100%). Abdominal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC or sulfur colloid are both sensitive for detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and the negative study suggests the absence of active hemorrhage. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy should be the initial procedure to study these patients and abdominal arteriography should be performed only in patients with positive abdominal scintigraphy. (M.E.L.) [es

  11. Evaluation of a computer-aided detection algorithm for timely diagnosis of small acute intracranial hemorrhage on computed tomography in a critical care environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    Detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) is a primary task in the interpretation of computed tomography (CT) brain scans of patients suffering from acute neurological disturbances or after head trauma. Interpretation can be difficult especially when the lesion is inconspicuous or the reader is inexperienced. We have previously developed a computeraided detection (CAD) algorithm to detect small AIH. One hundred and thirty five small AIH CT studies from the Los Angeles County (LAC) + USC Hospital were identified and matched by age and sex with one hundred and thirty five normal studies. These cases were then processed using our AIH CAD system to evaluate the efficacy and constraints of the algorithm.

  12. Brain hemorrhage associated with maintenance hemodialysis. CT analysis of 19 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya

    1994-01-01

    The CT findings of 19 hemodialyzed patients with brain hemorrhage (BH) were evaluated. The 30-day mortality rate was 78.9%. The lesion locations in the 19 cases with BH were putaminal hemorrhage in 8 patients, putaminothalamic (mixed) hemorrhage in 7, thalamic hemorrhage in one, subcortical hemorrhage in one, and cerebellar hemorrhage in one. In the remaining patient, the bleeding was confined to the ventricular system. One remarkable CT finding was the formation of a massive hematoma in most cases. In some cases, the hematoma occupied the greater part of one cerebral hemisphere. Oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet drugs, and intravenous heparinization could produce massive accumulations of blood in the brain parenchyma. The second major finding was the low CT absorption values of the hematoma at the acute stage, as compared to that of hypertensive BH. This decreased absorption density resulted from a low hemoglobin concentration in the hematoma itself due to the severe anemia occurring in patients on long-term maintenance hemodialysis. (author)

  13. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Idiopathic intraparenchymal hematoma of the liver in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, John; Fefferman, Nancy; Rivera, Rafael; Pinkney, Lynne; Strubel, Naomi [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, New York University Medical Center, 560 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Hepatic hematomas in newborn infants are not frequently detected clinically, but are often found at perinatal autopsies. These hematomas of the liver are usually subcapsular in location. A variety of etiologies for such hematomas has been implicated, such as trauma, sepsis, and coagulopathies. We present a neonate who presented with jaundice and abdominal distention. Initial imaging studies revealed a large intraparenchymal lesion of the liver, which was at first thought to be suspicious for neoplasm; however, MRI showed the lesion to be hemorrhagic and follow-up sonographic studies showed total resolution of this lesion, compatible with hematoma. The intraparenchymal location and the idiopathic nature of this lesion distinguish this case from others previously reported. (orig.)

  15. Computed Tomography--Verified Leukoaraiosis Is a Risk Factor for Post-thrombolytic Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, Lasse; Havsteen, Inger; Ovesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    PA)-treated patients within 4.5 hours from symptom onset. Standard work-up included baseline noncontrast CT and CT angiography and next day follow-up noncontrast CT. Baseline noncontrast CT LA was graded using Fazekas' score and dichotomized as the absence (Fazekas, 0) or the presence (Fazekas, 1-3). Hemorrhagic...... transformation was rated using European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) criteria. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as hemorrhage and deterioration of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of 4 or greater within 36 hours from symptom onset. Endovascularly treated patients were...

  16. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  17. Effect of panax notoginseng saponins on efficacy and hemorrhagic transformation of rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-sheng LI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS on the efficacy and hemorrhagic transformation (HT of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.  Methods A total of 200 patients with early acute ischemic stroke (the length of time between attack and hospital admission < 4.50 h were divided into 2 groups according to random number table method: treatment group (N = 100 and control group (N = 100. The control group was treated with routine rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis treatment, and the treatment group was treated with rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis plus PNS injection. The ischemia-reperfusion injury index [malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD], hemorrhagic transformation prediction index [matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and fibronectin (FN] and nerve function index [National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and Barthel Index (BI] were measured and compared before treatment, 24 h after thrombolysis and 14 d after thrombolysis. Adverse drug reactions and hemorrhagic transformation rate were observed 14 d after thrombolysis, and the prognosis (mortality and BI was evaluated 12 months after thrombolysis.  Results Compared with control group, serum SOD (P = 0.000 and BI (P = 0.000 in treatment group were significantly higher, while serum MDA (P = 0.001, MMP-9 (P = 0.001, plasma FN (P = 0.000 and NIHSS score (P = 0.006 were significantly lower. In treatment group, 24 h after rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis plus PNS injection, serum MDA (P = 0.000, MMP-9 (P = 0.000 and BI (P = 0.000 were significantly increased, while NIHSS score (P = 0.000 was significantly decreased; 14 d after treatment, serum MDA (P = 0.000 and MMP-9 (P = 0.000 were decreased, serum SOD (P = 0.000 and BI (P = 0.000 were continuously increased, plasma FN (P = 0.000 and NIHSS score (P = 0.000 were continuously decreased. On the 14th day after thrombolysis

  18. Glyceryl Trinitrate for Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    if patients were randomized within 6 hours of stroke onset. METHODS: In this prespecified subgroup analysis, the effect of GTN (5 mg/d for 7 days) versus no GTN was studied in 629 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage presenting within 48 hours and with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg. The primary outcome...... was the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. RESULTS: Mean blood pressure at baseline was 172/93 mm Hg and significantly lower (difference -7.5/-4.2 mm Hg; both P≤0.05) on day 1 in 310 patients allocated to GTN when compared with 319 randomized to no GTN. No difference in the modified Rankin Scale was observed...

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila as cause of hemorrhagic septicemia in a ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocholi, R A; Kalejaiye, J O

    1990-01-01

    An acute hemorrhagic septicemia in a captive ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus) is reported. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from lungs, liver, kidney, and intestines. Postmortem lesions were characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs. Microscopically, necrotic lesions were found in the liver, lungs, and kidney. Factors that might have contributed to the clinical disease condition are discussed.

  20. MR imaging of intracerebral hemorrhage lesions: Comparison of 2.0 T and 0.5 T images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen patients with intracerebral hemorrhage lesions were examined with magnetic resonance imaging at both 2.0 T and 0.5 T, in order to evaluate the capability of detecting and characterizing the hemorrhagic lesions at each field strength and to compare the signal intensities of the hemorrhages between both field strengths. The intervals between two imagings were within 2 hours in all patients except for 4 patients with subacute hematoma and occult cerebrovascular malformations in whom the intervals were 1 to 4 days. At each field strength, both T1 and T2-weighted spin echo(SE) images were obtained in all patients. All the hemorrhagic lesions were readily detected and characterized as hemorrhagic lesions at 2.0 T, whereas one lesion of chronic hemorrhage was not detected, and three lesions(one acute hemorrhage, one chronic hemorrhage and one occult cerebrovascular malformation) could not be characterized as hemorrhagic lesions at 0.5 T. There were statistically significant differences in signal intensity of the hematomas between 2.0 T and 0.5 T on proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images in cases of acute intracerebral hematomas: the hematomas seen as low intensity at 2.0 T appeared iso-or slightly high at 0.5 T. In conclusion, the intracerebral hematomas may be difficult to detect and to characterize with SE technique at 0.5 T, and then the gradient echo technique may be useful at 0.5 T

  1. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-si...

  2. Visual Impairment Caused by Periorbital Edema in an Infant with Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Priscila; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) is a cutaneous vasculitis seen in children. Many consider it to be a clinical variant of Schönlein-Henoch purpura, but others regard it as a separate entity because of its benign nature, age of onset, lack of visceral involvement, and frequent absence...... of vascular immunoglobulin A deposition. It is clinically characterized by large "cockade" or rosette-shaped, annular, purpuric lesions involving the face and extremities; erythematous edema; and mild fever. It seems to appear secondary to a history of viral or bacterial infection, course of antibiotics......-old boy who manifested massive periorbital edema along with all of the clinical characteristics of this entity and showed clear improvement of the symptoms after a 24-hour administration of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Given the positive effect of this therapy, we propose that systemic corticosteroids...

  3. Idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Kyun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Heung Chul; Hur, Hun; Eom, Kyeung Tae; Namkung, Sook; Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Chul; Lee, Kwan Seop

    1996-01-01

    To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis

  4. Edema agudo hemorrágico da infância: relato de três casos Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy: report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Emerich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Edema Agudo Hemorrágico da Infância é uma vasculite leucocitoclástica pouco frequente, que ocorre, quase exclusivamente, em crianças entre 4 meses e 2 anos de idade. Caracteriza-se, clinicamente, pela tríade febre, lesões purpúricas na face, pavilhões auriculares e extremidades e edema. Embora os achados cutâneos sejam dramáticos e de surgimento rápido, o prognóstico é favorável, com resolução espontânea dentro de 1 a 3 semanas. Descrevem-se três casos cujos achados clínicos e histopatológicos são característicos de edema agudo hemorrágico da infância.Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy is an infrequent leukocytoclastic vasculitis which occurs almost exclusively in children between 4 months and 2 years of age. It is clinically characterized by the triad fever, purpuric lesions on the face, auricular pinna and extremities, and edema. Although the cutaneous findings are dramatic and of rapid onset, the prognosis is favorable, with spontaneous resolution within 1 to 3 weeks. Three cases are described in which clinical and histopathological findings are characteristic of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy.

  5. Idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Nana; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes have been thoroughly evaluated and excluded. The pathogenesis of idiopathic anaphylaxis remains uncertain, although increased numbers of activated lymphocytes and circulating histamine-releasing factors have been implicated. Signs and symptoms of patients diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis are indistinguishable from the manifestations of other forms of anaphylaxis. Treatment regimens are implemented based on the frequency and severity of patient symptoms and generally include the use of epinephrine autoinjectors, antihistamines, and steroids. The prognosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is generally favorable with well-established treatment regimens and effective patient education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage: Clinical characteristics, hematoma features, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Miyashita, Fumio; Koga, Masatoshi; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose Although unclear-onset ischemic stroke, including wake-up ischemic stroke, is drawing attention as a potential target for reperfusion therapy, acute unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage has been understudied. Clinical characteristics, hematoma features, and outcomes of patients who developed intracerebral hemorrhage during sleep or those with intracerebral hemorrhage who were unconscious when witnessed were determined. Methods Consecutive intracerebral hemorrhage patients admitted within 24 hours after onset or last-known normal time were classified into clear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage and unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage groups. Outcomes included initial hematoma volume, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, hematoma growth on 24-hour follow-up computed tomography, and vital and functional prognoses at 30 days. Results Of 377 studied patients (122 women, 69 ± 11 years old), 147 (39.0%) had unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage had larger hematoma volumes (p = 0.044) and higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (p Hematoma growth was similarly common between the two groups (p = 0.176). There were fewer patients with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0-2 (p = 0.033) and more patients with mRS scores of 5-6 (p = 0.009) and with fatal outcomes (p = 0.049) in unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage group compared with clear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage as crude values, but not after adjustment. Conclusions Patients with unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage presented with larger hematomas and higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at emergent visits than those with clear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage, independent of underlying characteristics. Unclear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage patients showed poorer 30-day vital and functional outcomes than clear-onset intracerebral hemorrhage patients

  7. Volumetric Integral Phase-shift Spectroscopy for Noninvasive Detection of Hemispheric Bioimpedance Asymmetry in Acute Brain Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-10

    Stroke; Stroke, Acute; Ischemic Stroke; Hemorrhage; Clot (Blood); Brain; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Cerebral Infarction; Cerebral Hemorrhage; Cerebral Stroke; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Intracerebral Injury

  8. Anterior pituitary lobe atrophy as late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is acute infective multisystemic disease followed by febrility, hemorrhages and acute renal insufficiency. Bleeding in the anterior pituitary lobe leading to tissue necrosis occurs in acute stage of severe clinical forms of HFRS, while atrophy of the anterior pituitary lobe with diminution of the gland function occurs after recovery stage. Case report. We presented a patient with the development of chronic renal insufficiency and hypopituitarism as complication that had been diagnosed six years after Hantavirus infection. Magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland revealed atrophy and empty sella turcica. Conclusion. Regarding frequency of this viral infection and its endemic character in some parts of our country partial and/or complete loss of pituitary function should be considered during the late stage of HFRS.

  9. Grey Turner's and Cullen's signs induced by spontaneous hemorrhage of the abdominal wall after coughing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-08-01

    Grey Turner's and Cullen's signs are rare clinical signs, which most appear in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The present patient complained of abdominal pain after coughing. However, contrast-enhanced CT revealed a hemorrhage of the abdominal wall. Therefore, spontaneous hemorrhage of the abdominal wall was diagnosed. The patient recovered through immobilization and hemostasis therapy. This case report and literature review aims to remind clinicians of manifestations and treatment of spontaneous hemorrhage.

  10. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J.; Sanchez, Leon D.; Wolfe, Richard E.; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W.; Cocchi, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. Methods In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47–63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p < 0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. Conclusion In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. PMID:28460805

  11. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J; Sanchez, Leon D; Wolfe, Richard E; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W; Cocchi, Michael N

    2017-10-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47-63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p<0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DSA diagnosis and embolization therapy of gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruming; Qiu Shuibo; Liu Minhua; Yang Huijun; Zhuang Shaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of digital subtraction angiography and transcatheter embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage received celiac arteries, superior mesenteric arteries and inferior mesenteric arteries angiography. Superselective angiography were performed when the arteries were suspicious by clinic or angiogrraphy. Ten patients with definite diagnosis and manifestation of hemorrhagic arteries by angiography were embolized after superselective catheterization with gelfoam particles, gelfoam particles and coils, polyvinyl alcohol particles. Results: The positive signs were observed in 13 cases. The DSA features including contrast medium accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract outside vascular, aneurysm, tumorous vascularization and staining, artery affect and local vasospasm. The bleedings were stopped immediately in 8 patients. No rebleeding and intestinal ischaemia or necrosis were observed in 30 days. One patient died in the second day after embolization from multiple organ failure. Rebleeding occurred 3 days after embolization in another patient, and was recovered after surgical operation. Conclusion: DSA is more effective for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal vascular malformation and tumors complicating acute bleeding. Transcatheter embolization is effective and safe to control the hemorrhage. (authors)

  13. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: high-resolution CT scores predict mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiminori; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Johkoh, Takeshi; Ichikado, Kazuya; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Takashi; Endo, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Mueller, Nestor L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings helpful in predicting mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEx-IPF). Sixty patients with diagnosis of AEx-IPF were reviewed retrospectively. Two groups (two observers each) independently evaluated pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT findings at presentation and calculated an HRCT score at AEx based on normal attenuation areas and extent of abnormalities, such as areas of ground-glass attenuation and/or consolidation with or without traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis and areas of honeycombing. The correlation between the clinical data including the HRCT score and mortality (cause-specific survival) was evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. Serum KL-6 level, PaCO 2 , and the HRCT score were statistically significant predictors on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the HRCT score was an independently significant predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19, P = 0.0002). The area under receiver operating characteristics curve for the HRCT score was statistically significant in the classification of survivors or nonsurvivors (0.944; P < 0.0001). Survival in patients with HRCT score ≥245 was worse than those with lower score (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). The HRCT score at AEx is independently related to prognosis in patients with AEx-IPF. (orig.)

  14. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: high-resolution CT scores predict mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kiminori [Kurume University School of Medicine, and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke [Tosei General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Department of Radiology, Itami (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Takashi; Endo, Takahiro [Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Kawaguchi, Atsushi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Biostatistics Center, Kurume (Japan); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia and Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    To determine high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings helpful in predicting mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEx-IPF). Sixty patients with diagnosis of AEx-IPF were reviewed retrospectively. Two groups (two observers each) independently evaluated pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT findings at presentation and calculated an HRCT score at AEx based on normal attenuation areas and extent of abnormalities, such as areas of ground-glass attenuation and/or consolidation with or without traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis and areas of honeycombing. The correlation between the clinical data including the HRCT score and mortality (cause-specific survival) was evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. Serum KL-6 level, PaCO{sub 2}, and the HRCT score were statistically significant predictors on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the HRCT score was an independently significant predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19, P = 0.0002). The area under receiver operating characteristics curve for the HRCT score was statistically significant in the classification of survivors or nonsurvivors (0.944; P < 0.0001). Survival in patients with HRCT score {>=}245 was worse than those with lower score (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). The HRCT score at AEx is independently related to prognosis in patients with AEx-IPF. (orig.)

  15. Determinants of myocardial hemorrhage after coronary reperfusion in the anesthetized dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, L.A.J.; White, F.; Heggtveit, H.A.; Sanders, T.M.; Bloor, C.M.; Covell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Intramyocardial hemorrhage often occurs with reperfusion in experimental acute myocardial infarction and is thought to be associated with extension of necrosis. To determine if hemorrhage was associated with extension of necrosis, 10 anesthetized dogs were reperfused after 6 hours of circumflex coronary artery occlusion and 10 others had control occlusion with no reperfusion. Fifteen of the 20 reperfused dogs had gross hemorrhage and none of the control dogs did. In 12 reperfused and 10 control dogs, radioactive microspheres were injected after coronary occlusion to quantitate collateral flow and in the reperfusion group microspheres were injected to quantitate reflow. Complete flow data were available in eight reperfused and 10 analyzed for hemorrhage, collateral flow and creatine kinase activity. Serial microscopic examination was performed in eight additional dogs reperfused after 6 hours to determine if hemorrhage occurs into otherwise microscopically normal myocardium. Pathologic examination indicatd that hemorrhage did not occur into otherwise microscopically normal myocardium. These studies indicate that hemorrhage or reperfusion is associated with severe myocardial necrosis and markedly depressed flow before reperfusion and this occurs only into myocardium already markedly compromised at the time of reperfusion

  16. Prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and their relationship with outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktheeswaran Mahesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiographic (ECG alterations occurring after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH have been described frequently, but the prognostic significance of these changes has not been well characterized. Aim and Objectives: To report the prevalence and patterns of ECG alterations in patients with acute aneurysmal SAH and to study the relationship between ECG alterations and the neurological outcome, if any. Materials and Methods: Records of consecutive patients admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit of the SCTIMST, Trivandrum between January 1999 and January 2011 with acute aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 321 patients with SAH, 190 (59.2% had abnormal ECGs. Repolarization abnormalities were the most common, with T wave inversion in the anterolateral leads occurring in 155 (48.3% patients. By univariate analysis, female sex, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS at admission of I, ST segment depression or T inversion in anterolateral leads, prolonged corrected QT interval, and sinus bradycardia were associated with increased risk of death. By multivariate analysis, only GCS and WFNS grade independently predicted mortality and none of the ECG changes predicted the same. Presence of tall T waves in anterior leads, T inversion in anterolateral leads, sinus bradycardia, and WFNS grade >1 were independently associated with GCS <15 and poor outcome at discharge. Conclusions: In patients with acute aneurysmal SAH, repolarization abnormalities are the commonest ECG alterations. ECG alterations do not independently predict death, but independently predict poor discharge neurological status.

  17. Perioperative Management of Pregnant Women With Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: An Observational Case Series Study From China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglan; Lu, Jiakai; Zhou, Xiaorui; Xu, Xuefeng; Ye, Qing; Ou, Qitan; Li, Yanna; Huang, Jiapeng

    2018-03-07

    The mortality of pregnant women with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is very high. There are limited data on the management of idiopathic PAH during pregnancy. The authors aimed to examine systematically the characteristics of parturient women with idiopathic PAH, to explore the adverse effects of idiopathic PAH on pregnancy outcomes, and to report the multidisciplinary perioperative management strategy from the largest comprehensive cardiac hospital in China. Observational case series study. Tertiary referral acute care hospital in Beijing, China. The cases of 17 consecutive pregnant idiopathic PAH patients undergoing abortion or parturition at Anzhen Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative characteristics, anesthesia method, intensive care management, PAH-specific therapy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed in this case series study. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were the main measures. The mean ages of the 17 parturient women with idiopathic PAH were 28.3 ± 5.4 years, and the mean systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 97.9 ± 18.6 mmHg. Fifteen patients (88.2%) received PAH-specific therapy before delivery, including sildenafil, iloprost, and treprostinil. All except 1 parturient received epidural anesthesia for surgery due to an emergency Caesarean section. Three patients experienced pulmonary hypertension crisis that necessitated conversion to general anesthesia. Ten parturients underwent Caesarean delivery at a median gestational age of 31 weeks. Three patients developed acute pulmonary hypertensive crisis intraoperatively. Two patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The maternal mortality was 17.6% (3/17). Of the 10 delivered neonates, 9 (90.0%) survived. The maternal mortality of the idiopathic PAH parturient was high in this case series from China. The authors applied epidural anesthesia, early management with multidisciplinary approaches, PAH

  18. Overexpression of IL-38 protein in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Masaki; Okamoto, Masaki; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Matsuoka, Masanobu; Kaieda, Shinjiro; Sakazaki, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke; Inoue, Akira; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38, a member of the IL-1 family, shows high homology to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Its function in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is still unknown. To determine the expression pattern of IL-38 mRNA, a panel of cDNAs derived from various tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-human IL-38 monoclonal antibody (clone H127C) was evaluated semi-quantitatively in lung tissue samples from 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP), 5 with acute exacerbation of IPF, and 10 with anticancer drug-induced ILD (bleomycin in 5 and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in 5). Control lung tissues were obtained from areas of normal lung in 22 lung cancer patients who underwent extirpation surgery. IL-38 transcripts were strongly expressed in the lung, spleen, synoviocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at a lower level in pancreas and muscle. IL-38 protein was not strongly expressed in normal pulmonary alveolar tissues in all 22 control lungs. In contrast, IL-38 was overexpressed in the lungs of 4 of 5 (80%) patients with acute IPF exacerbation and 100% (10/10) of the patients with drug-induced ILD. IL-38 overexpression was limited to hyperplastic type II pneumocytes, which are considered to reflect regenerative change following diffuse alveolar damage in ILD. IL-38 may play an important role in acute and/or chronic inflammation in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of computer tomography and magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, S.; Elste, V.; Sartor, K.; Reith, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Muenchen Univ.

    1999-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Stroke symptoms are caused in 10 to 15% by intracerebral hemorrhage. From the clinical examination it is often impossible to differentiate intracerebralhemorrhage from cerebral ischemia. To exclude intracerebral hemorrhage as the cause of clinical symptoms a CT is usually performed. The aim of our study was a direct comparison of the sensitivity of Computed Tomography and MRI using different MR sequences for the detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: In 8 male Wistar rats intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by infusion of collagenase into the caudate nucleus. After 1 hour the brains were subsequently imaged with CT and MRI using T2- and T1-weighted Spin Echo sequences, diffusion-weighted sequences, T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences and FLAIR-sequences. Visibility of the intracerebral hemorrhage was examined using a scoring system for 1=not visible to 5=excellent visible. Finally, the intracerebral hemorrhage was verified by histological staining. Results: In all animals, intracerebral hemorrhage was visible in T2*-weighted gradient echo and diffusion weighted MR images 1 h after infusion of collagenase. T2- and PD-weighted SE images were positive in 7/8 rats. T1-weighted images revealed signal changes in 5/8 rats, and FLAIR sequence was positive in 8/8 rats. In CT intracerebral hemorrhage was only visible in 3/8 rats. When measuring the increase of Hounsfield units within the suspected hemisphere we saw a mean increase of 7% compared to the normal hemisphere in 3/8 rats. Conclusions: In this animal model, T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging proved to be the most sensitive imaging modality in the detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage and is by far more sensitive than CT. (orig.) [de

  20. IDIOPATHIC SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS CAUSING ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION AND GANGRENE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction resulting from encasement of variable lengths of bowel by dense fibro-collagenous membrane. It is more common in young females, and shows tropical and sub-tropical distribution. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable cause from clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the descriptive term “abdominal cocoon syndrome”. SEP presents with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. In the era of laparoscopic surgery, inadvertent damage to the small bowel at insertion of the trocar and cannula can occur by being unaware of this condition resulting in unnecessary bowel resection. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to bowel gangrene or intestinal perforation, representing life threatening conditions. We report the clinical presentation of a 75-year-old female presenting with signs of intestinal obstruction whose imaging findings revealed abdominal cocoon with bowel gangrene leading to perforation and the same confirmed at surgery. Surgical excision of the fibrotic sac encasing the bowel, resection of gangrenous bowel segment and end ileostomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised membrane confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. To our knowledge, only a few cases of abdominal cocoon with perforation have been reported in literature so far. Radiologists should be aware of this relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction, its imaging findings and complications, as preoperative diagnosis will prevent delay and aid in treatment planning to the surgeon. Identification of soft tissue density membrane encasing congregated small bowel loops into a single area on computed-tomography gives diagnostic clue. Surgical excision of sac, release of bowel loops and adhesions with partial intestinal resection when necessary is the treatment.

  1. MicroRNA Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Søren; Rasmussen, Rune; Rossing, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) accounts for a major part of the morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pathophysiologically involved in acute cerebral ischemia. This study compared miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid...

  2. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in a newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zessis, Nicholas R; Nicholas, Jennifer L; Stone, Stephen I

    2018-01-01

    Summary Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with a...

  3. Rodent neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage mimics the human brain injury, neurological consequences, and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Krafft, Paul R; Peters, Regina; Hartman, Richard E; Altay, Orhan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2012-07-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns. GMH causes neurological sequelae such as cerebral palsy, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Despite this, there is no standardized animal model of spontaneous GMH using newborn rats to depict the condition. We asked whether stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.3 U) into the ganglionic eminence of neonatal rats would reproduce the acute brain injury, gliosis, hydrocephalus, periventricular leukomalacia, and attendant neurological consequences found in humans. To test this hypothesis, we used our neonatal rat model of collagenase-induced GMH in P7 pups, and found that the levels of free-radical adducts (nitrotyrosine and 4-hyroxynonenal), proliferation (mammalian target of rapamycin), inflammation (COX-2), blood components (hemoglobin and thrombin), and gliosis (vitronectin and GFAP) were higher in the forebrain of GMH pups, than in controls. Neurobehavioral testing showed that pups with GMH had developmental delay, and the juvenile animals had significant cognitive and motor disability, suggesting clinical relevance of the model. There was also evidence of white-matter reduction, ventricular dilation, and brain atrophy in the GMH animals. This study highlights an instructive animal model of the neurological consequences after germinal matrix hemorrhage, with evidence of brain injuries that can be used to evaluate strategies in the prevention and treatment of post-hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI in predication of early hemorrhagic transformation after acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Gang; Wu Renhua; Mikulis, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship among early parenchymal enhancement, post- gadolinium (Gd) hyperintense middle cerebral artery (HMCA), and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with hyperacute ischemic stroke. Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who underwent MRI within 6 h [(4.3±1.4) h] of symptom onset were retrospectively reviewed. All of these patients underwent at least one follow-up MRI or non-enhanced CT study at 2 to 7 days. Post-Gd T 1 WI were analyzed for parenchymal enhancement and hyperintense MCA. Gradient echo MRI and CT were used for assessment of HT. Results: Ten patients developed HT on follow-up imaging (hemorrhagic group). Early parenchymal enhancement was found in 6 patients with HT (P 1 WI after Gd-DTPA administration are independent predictors of subsequent HT. (authors)

  5. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kayal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP is defined as a hematologic disorder, characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia without a clinically apparent cause. The major causes of accelerated platelet consumption include immune thrombocytopenia, decreased bone marrow production, and increased splenic sequestration. The clinical presentation may be acute with severe bleeding, or insidious with slow development with mild or no symptoms. The initial laboratory tests useful at the first visit to predict future diagnosis were erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antibodies, reticulated platelets, plasma thrombopoietin level. Treatment should be restricted to those patients with moderate or severe thrombocytopenia who are bleeding or at risk of bleeding. We present a case report on ITP with clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.

  6. Dehydration is an independent predictor of discharge outcome and admission cost in acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-H; Lin, S-C; Lin, J-R; Yang, J-T; Chang, Y-J; Chang, C-H; Chang, T-Y; Huang, K-L; Ryu, S-J; Lee, T-H

    2014-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of admission dehydration on the discharge outcome in acute ischaemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 4311 ischaemic and 1371 hemorrhagic stroke patients from the stroke registry of Chang Gung healthcare system were analyzed. The eligible patients were identified according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. In total, 2570 acute ischaemic and 573 acute hemorrhagic stroke patients were finally recruited. According to the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to creatinine (Cr) ratio (BUN/Cr), these patients were divided into dehydrated (BUN/Cr ≥ 15) and non-dehydrated (BUN/Cr dehydration had higher infection rates (P = 0.006), worse discharge BI (62.8 ± 37.4 vs. 73.4 ± 32.4, P dehydration. However, acute hemorrhagic stroke with or without admission dehydration showd no difference in admission costs (P = 0.618) and discharge outcomes (BI, P = 0.058; mRS, P = 0.058). Admission dehydration is associated with worse discharge outcomes and higher admission costs in acute ischaemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  7. Idiopathic Ophthalmodynia and Idiopathic Rhinalgia: A Prospective Series of 16 New Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Guerrero, Ángel L; Álvarez, Mónica; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Cuadrado, María L

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia were described a few years ago. These conditions seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location in the eye or in the nose. We aimed to present a new prospective series in order to verify the consistency of these syndromes. We performed a descriptive study of all patients referred to our regional neurologic clinics from 2010 to 2014 because of facial pain exclusively felt in the eye or in the nose fulfilling the proposed diagnostic criteria for idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia. There were 9 patients with idiopathic ophthalmodynia and 7 patients with idiopathic rhinalgia, with a clear female preponderance, and a mean age at onset in the fifth decade. The pain was usually moderate and the temporal pattern was generally chronic. Only one patient reported accompaniments (hypersensitivity to the light and to the flow of air in the symptomatic eye). Preventive treatment with amitriptyline, pregabalin, or gabapentin was partially or totally effective. The clinical features of this new series parallels those of the original description, thus indicating that both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia have clear-cut clinical pictures with excellent consistency both inter- and intra-individually. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  8. Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Intracerebral Hemorrhage Intracerebral Hemorrhage What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Warning Signs Stroke Statistics ...

  9. Colonic arteriovenous malformation in a child misinterpreted as an idiopathic colonic varicosis on angiography: remarks on current classification of childhood intestinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, L.; Meersschaut, V.; Damme, S. van; Praet, M.; Berrevoet, F.; Robberecht, E.

    2003-01-01

    A case of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a child caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the colon is presented. On diagnostic angiography, the lesion was misinterpretated as an idiopathic colonic varicosis because none of the characteristic features of an AVM were present. The role of angiography and shortcomings in nomenclature and classification of intestinal vascular anomalies in childhood are discussed. (orig.)

  10. The Inflammatory Sequelae of Aortic Balloon Occlusion in Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    respectively. There was a trend toward greater vasopressor use (P ¼ 0.183) and increased incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (P ¼ 0.052) across the...Jansen JO. Intra operative correction of acidosis , coagulopathy and hypothermia in combat casualties with severe haemorrhagic shock. Anaesthesia...noncompressible torso hemorrhage. J Trauma 2011;71:S131. [19] Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the

  11. Idiopathic Non-traumatic Facial Nerve Palsy (Bell’s Palsy) in Neonates; An Atypical Age and Management Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Ibrahim, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic (Bell’s) palsy is the commonest cause of unilateral facial paralysis in children. Although being idiopathic by definition, possible infectious, inflammatory, and ischemic triggers have been suggested. Bell’s palsy is thought to be responsible for up to three-fourths of cases of acute unilateral facial paralysis worldwide. The diagnosis has to be reached after other causes of acute peripheral palsy have been excluded. However, it is rarely described in neonates and young infants. Steroids may have some role in treatment, but antiviral therapies have doubtful evidence of benefit. Prognosis is good, though residual dysfunction is occasionally encountered. We report the case of a two-week-old neonate with no prior illnesses who presented with acute left facial palsy. Clinical findings and normal brain imaging were consistent with the diagnosis of Bell’s palsy. The patient had a good response to oral steroids. PMID:29468002

  12. Idiopathic Non-traumatic Facial Nerve Palsy (Bell’s Palsy in Neonates; An Atypical Age and Management Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhafeez M. Khair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic (Bell’s palsy is the commonest cause of unilateral facial paralysis in children. Although being idiopathic by definition, possible infectious, inflammatory, and ischemic triggers have been suggested. Bell’s palsy is thought to be responsible for up to three-fourths of cases of acute unilateral facial paralysis worldwide. The diagnosis has to be reached after other causes of acute peripheral palsy have been excluded. However, it is rarely described in neonates and young infants. Steroids may have some role in treatment, but antiviral therapies have doubtful evidence of benefit. Prognosis is good, though residual dysfunction is occasionally encountered. We report the case of a two-week-old neonate with no prior illnesses who presented with acute left facial palsy. Clinical findings and normal brain imaging were consistent with the diagnosis of Bell’s palsy. The patient had a good response to oral steroids.

  13. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paonessa, Amalia [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: apaonessa7@hotmail.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Tozzi, Elisabetta [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase.

  14. [A case of cutaneous extramedullary hematopoiesis associated with idiopathic myelofibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, F; Barnadas, M A; Bordes, R; Curell, R; Espinosa, I; Vergara, C; Alomar, A

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous extramedullary hematopoiesis is a rare manifestation of chronic myeloproliferative processes, mainly chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. In adults, it manifests as macules, papules, nodules, and ulcers on the trunk. The lesions usually appear soon after diagnosis and the possibility of a relationship between splenectomy and the appearance of extramedullary foci of hematopoiesis is still debated. Diagnosis is based on histopathology showing an infiltrate with different combinations of myeloid and erythroid cell precursors and megakaryocytes. Symptomatic treatment is provided alongside treatment of the underlying disease. We report a new case associated with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis in which foci of cutaneous extramedullary hematopoiesis were observed 9 years after initial diagnosis. The lesions were progressive and the patient went on to develop acute myeloid leukemia.

  15. Sequential changes of sodium magnetic resonance images after cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.; Naritomi, H.; Kuriyama, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1992-01-01

    Four patients with cerebral hemorrhage were examined serially from the acute to chronic phase by 1 H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 23 Na MRI and computed tomography (CT). At 1-2 days after bleeding, the 23 Na image revealed no visible signal change in the area of hemorrhage, although CT and 1 H images clearly demonstrated the existence of a hematoma in the thalamus or putamen. At 4-7 days after the hemorrhage, the 23 Na images began to exhibit a small increase in signal intensity at the hematoma site, while at 2-3 weeks, a marked increase in 23 Na signal intensity was observed. These findings suggest that the hematoma consisted mainly of a corpuscular component, with a low Na + concentration, with little serum component. 23 Na MRI appears to provide important information for understanding the evoluation of cerebral hemorrhage and for estimating the viability of cells, although its value for diagnosis may not be great. (orig./GDG)

  16. Impact of leukoaraiosis on parenchymal hemorrhage in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nighoghossian, Norbert; Cho, Tae-Hee; Cottaz, Vincent; Mechtouff, Laura; Derex, Laurent [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Stroke, Neurological Hospital, Lyon (France); Abbas, Fatima; Schott, Anne Marie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Janecek, Elie; Hermier, Marc; Tisserand, Louis Guy; Amelie, Roxana; Chamard, Leila; Berthezene, Yves [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Neuroradiology, Neurological Hospital, Bron, Lyon (France); Bischoff, Magali; El Khoury, Carlos [RESUVAL Stroke Network, Lyon (France)

    2016-10-15

    Severity of vascular damage of white matter may predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We assess the relationship between leukoaraiosis (LA) severity and the type of hemorrhagic transformation in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 180 consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged over 75 years. LA severity was graded according to the Fazekas scale, and acute diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) lesion volumes were semi-automatically outlined. Predictors of hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) were identified using logistic regression analysis and exact multinomial logistic analysis. HT occurred in 31 patients (17 %). Baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS; p = 0.008), severe LA (p = 0.02), and diffusion lesion volume (p = 0.02) were predictors of HT in univariable logistic regression. Adjusted to lesion volume and baseline NIHSS score, exact multinomial logistic analysis showed that severe LA was the only independent predictor of parenchymal hemorrhage (p = 0.03). In elderly patients, LA severity better predicts parenchymal hemorrhage than infarct size. (orig.)

  17. A Case of Hemorrhagic Necrosis of Ectopic Liver Tissue within the Gallbladder Wall.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagar, Sapna

    2012-02-01

    Ectopic liver tissue is a rare clinical entity that is mostly asymptomatic and found incidentally. In certain situations, however, patients may present with symptoms of abdominal pain secondary to torsion, compression, obstruction of adjacent organs, or rupture secondary to malignant transformation. Herein, we report a case of a 25-year-old female that presented with acute onset of epigastric pain found to have ectopic liver tissue near the gallbladder complicated by acute hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention in the way of laparoscopic excision and cholecystectomy. The patient\\'s postoperative course was uneventful. Gross pathology demonstrated a 1.2 x 2.8 x 4.5 cm firm purple ovoid structure that histologically revealed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of benign ectopic liver tissue.

  18. Traumatic Intraventricular Hemorrhage In Severe Blunt Head Trauma: A One Year Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Bahadorkhan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:High resolution CT scan has made early diagnosis of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH easier. Posttraumatic intraventricular hemorrhage has been reported to a greater extent because of the CT scan. Methods:904 patients were admitted in the NSICU from March 2001 to March 2002 with severe closed head injury, of those only 31 patients with intraventricular hemorrhage (GCS less than 8 are reported herein and the mechanism involved is discussed. Results: Nine cases had intracerebral hemorrhage (contusional group, four cases in the frontal lobe, three cases in the temporal lobe and two cases in the parietal lobe. Nine cases (basal ganglia hemorrhage group had hemorrhage in basal ganglia, six in the caudate nucleus and three in the thalamus, all spreading into the ventricles. In thirteen cases the original site of hemorrhage could not be determined. In this group six cases had accompanying peri-brain stem hemorrhage (peri-brain stem hemorrhage group and different brain stem injury signs. Four cases had IVH less than 5 mL with or without minor intracranial lesions (minor intracranial lesion group. Accompanying major intracranial hemorrhage was found in sixteen cases, six cases had epidural hematoma, four cases had subdural hematoma, and seven had a combination of ASDH, EDH and contusional prarenchymal hemorrhages, all requiring primary surgical evacuation, and seven cases had different degrees of minor abnormalities (i.e. minor epidural hemorrhage, minor subdural hemorrhage,sub-arachnoid hemorrhage, minor cortical contusions or subdural effusions which did not need surgical intervention.Two cases had acute hydrocephalus and needed ventricular external drainage. Conclusion:Acceleration-deceleration impact along the long axis of the skull might be the possible mechanism in shearing injury to perforating vessels of the basal ganglia for early appearance of hemorrhage in the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Hemorrhage in basal ganglia and brain

  19. Papel de la ecoendoscopia en el estudio etiológico de la pancreatitis aguda idiopática The role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the etiological evaluation of idiopathic acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vila

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el 30% de los pacientes con pancreatitis aguda son diagnosticados de una pancreatitis aguda idiopática tras un estudio inicial que debe incluir una anamnesis completa, exploración física, análisis con determinación de calcio y triglicéridos y al menos una ecografía abdominal. Esta situación representa un reto diagnóstico, aunque en la mayoría de los casos se encuentra una causa que justifique la pancreatitis tras realizar diferentes exploraciones diagnósticas. En los últimos años la ecoendoscopia está demostrando ser de gran utilidad en el estudio de estos pacientes, produciendo a cambio una baja morbilidad. En este artículo hacemos una revisión del papel de la ecoendoscopia en el estudio etiológico de la pancreatitis aguda idiopática.Up to 30% of patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed of idiopathic acute pancreatitis after an initial evaluation including a complete clinical history, physical examination, analysis with calcium and triglycerides determination, and at least one transabdominal ultrasonography. Unexplained pancreatitis represents a diagnostic challenge, although after different explorations a cause is found in the majority of these patients. During the last years endosonography has proved to be a low morbidity exploration very useful in the evaluation of patients with this entity. In this article we review the role of endosonography in the etiologic study of patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis.

  20. Reversal strategies for vitamin K antagonists in acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; Di Napoli, Mario; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Schreuder, Floris H B M; Tetri, Sami; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Yan, Bernard; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M.; Dequatre-Ponchelle, Nelly; Lee-Archer, Matthew; Horstmann, Solveig; Wilson, Duncan; Pomero, Fulvio; Masotti, Luca; Lerpiniere, Christine; Godoy, Daniel Agustin; Cohen, Abigail S.; Houben, Rik; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Pennati, Paolo; Fenoglio, Luigi; Werring, David; Veltkamp, Roland; Wood, Edith; Dewey, Helen M.; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Klijn, Catharina J M; Meligeni, Fabrizio; Davis, Stephen M.; Huhtakangas, Juha; Staals, Julie; Rosand, Jonathan; Meretoja, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence to guide treatment strategies for intracerebral hemorrhage on vitamin K antagonists (VKA-ICH). Treatments utilized in clinical practice include fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). Our aim was to compare case fatality with different

  1. Hemostatic resuscitation is neither hemostatic nor resuscitative in trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sirat; Brohi, Karim; Chana, Manik; Raza, Imran; Stanworth, Simon; Gaarder, Christine; Davenport, Ross

    2014-03-01

    Trauma hemorrhage continues to carry a high mortality rate despite changes in modern practice. Traditional approaches to the massively bleeding patient have been shown to result in persistent coagulopathy, bleeding, and poor outcomes. Hemostatic (or damage control) resuscitation developed from the discovery of acute traumatic coagulopathy and increased recognition of the negative consequences of dilutional coagulopathy. These strategies concentrate on early delivery of coagulation therapy combined with permissive hypotension. The efficacy of hemostatic resuscitation in correcting coagulopathy and restoring tissue perfusion during acute hemorrhage has not been studied. This is a prospective cohort study of ROTEM and lactate measurements taken from trauma patients recruited to the multicenter Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma (ACIT) study. A blood sample is taken on arrival and during the acute bleeding phase after administration of every 4 U of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), up to 12 U. The quantity of blood products administered within each interval is recorded. Of the 106 study patients receiving at least 4 U of PRBC, 27 received 8 U to 11 U of PRBC and 31 received more than 12 U of PRBC. Average admission lactate was 6.2 mEq/L. Patients with high lactate (≥5 mEq/L) on admission did not clear lactate until hemorrhage control was achieved, and no further PRBC units were required. On admission, 43% of the patients were coagulopathic (clot amplitude at 5 minutes ≤ 35 mm). This increased to 49% by PRBC 4; 62% by PRBC 8 and 68% at PRBC 12. The average fresh frozen plasma/PRBC ratio between intervals was 0.5 for 0 U to 4 U of PRBC, 0.9 for 5 U to 8 U of PRBC, 0.7 for 9 U to 12 U of PRBC. There was no improvement in any ROTEM parameter during ongoing bleeding. While hemostatic resuscitation offers several advantages over historical strategies, it still does not achieve correction of hypoperfusion or coagulopathy during the acute phase of trauma

  2. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a young woman with systemic lupus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage (DAH) is rarely reported complication of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). A young woman diagnosed SLE, with a previously normal plain chest radiograph, developed acute onset cough, dyspnoea and hemoptysis. The repeat urgent chest radiograph revealed alveolar opacities. The triad ...

  3. Acute Abdomen Due to Uncontrolled Use of Warfarin: Spontaneous Intra-abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Dal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant, which is commonly used in the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic conditions. Bleeding is the primary adverse effect associated with warfarin. The majority of warfarin-related bleedings are spontaneous minor hemorrhages occurring in the subcutaneous or intramuscular tissues and can be treated by decreasing the dose of oral anticoagulants. However, although rare, it is possible to encounter spontaneous major bleedings with increased risk of mortality. Conservative approach is the preferred initial therapy for hemodynamically stable patients with major intra-abdominal hemorrhages that we define as the intermediate group patients. Nevertheless, surgery is required for hemodynamically unstable patients with acute abdominal pain in cases of ongoing active hemorrhage, generalized peritonitis, obstruction, acute abdomen, intestinal ischemia, and perforation. In this article, we present a rare case of acute abdomen and spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage resulting from uncontrolled use of warfarin and a new classification requirement.

  4. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in a Young Adult Patient: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Agarwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is often an ignored and rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH. It is characterized by triad of hemoptysis, anemia, and alveolar opacity on radiology. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, established after ruling out other causes of DAH such as Goodpasture’s syndrome, large vessel vasculitis, small vessel vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA (Wegener’s granulomatosis, Churg–Strauss syndrome, microscopic polyangiitis, immune complex-related vasculitis (collagen vascular diseases, Henoch–Schönlein purpura, mixed cryoglobulinemia drug reactions, anticoagulation and thrombocytopenia. Though it is a disease primarily affecting children, we hereby report a case of IPH in an adult patient who responded dramatically to oral corticosteroid.

  5. Clinical significance of determination of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fujuan; Shen Airong; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY levels (with RIA) and serum lipid profile (with biochemistry) were determined in (1) 48 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (2) 46 patients with acute cerebral infarction and (3) controls.Results Plasma NPY levels in both patients with cerebral hemorrhage and patients with cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: NPY played important roles in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral vascular accidents. Lipid profile changes was the basic etiological factor. (authors)

  6. The Risk of Hemorrhagic Transformation After Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Versus North Americans: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Deren; Wang, Fang; Norton, Casey; Liu, Xinfeng; Selim, Magdy

    2018-05-16

    There is a widespread belief that Asians are more susceptible to hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after receiving recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, this has not been examined in clinical practice. This study aims to compare the incidence of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (SHT) among thrombolysis-treated AIS patients in China and in the United States. We compared 212 consecutive patients receiving thrombolysis within 4.5 hours of onset ± endovascular therapy from an American (n = 86) and a Chinese Stroke Center (n = 126). SHT was defined using various definitions based on the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (NINDS rt-PA) trials, European-Australian Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 2 (ECASS2), and a modified version of Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (mSITS-MOST) study criteria. We used Firth logistic regression to adjust for confounding variables and to identify potential predictors. American patients were older, and had higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and prestroke use of antithrombotics. They also had higher baseline serum glucose, shorter onset-to-treatment time, and fewer endovascular treatments. The rates of SHT were higher in the American cohort compared to the Chinese cohort: 18.6% versus 14.3% based on NINDS definition of SHT; 15.1% versus 12.7% based on ECASS2; and 11.6% versus 7.2% based on mSITS-MOST. However, none of these differences were significant (unadjusted and adjusted P values > .05). Fatal HT was comparable in Americans versus Chinese (8.1% versus 8.7%). Serum glucose emerged as an independent predictor of SHT (P = .024). In our cohorts, the rate of SHT after thrombolysis is equivalent between Chinese and North American stroke patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Kumawat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old child with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative retinopathy in both eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in both eyes to clear nonresolving vitreous hemorrhage after systemic stabilization. Visual recovery was limited by the disc drag in the right eye and subfoveal exudation in the left eye. Etiopathogenesis and management of proliferative retinopathy in acute leukemias are discussed.

  8. Detection of acute cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by magnetic induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH is an important clinical problem that is often monitored and studied with expensive devices such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. These devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions of the world, emergency departments, and emergency zones. We have developed a less expensive tool for non-contact monitoring of ACH. The system measures the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS between the electromagnetic signals on two coils. ACH was induced in 6 experimental rabbits and edema was induced in 4 control rabbits by stereotactic methods, and their intracranial pressure and heart rate were monitored for 1 h. Signals were continuously monitored for up to 1 h at an exciting frequency of 10.7 MHz. Autologous blood was administered to the experimental group, and saline to the control group (1 to 3 mL by injection of 1-mL every 5 min. The results showed a significant increase in MIPS as a function of the injection volume, but the heart rate was stable. In the experimental (ACH group, there was a statistically significant positive correlation of the intracranial pressure and MIPS. The change of MIPS was greater in the ACH group than in the control group. This high-sensitivity system could detect a 1-mL change in blood volume. The MIPS was significantly related to the intracranial pressure. This observation suggests that the method could be valuable for detecting early warning signs in emergency medicine and critical care units.

  9. Detection of acute cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by magnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Jin, G.; Qin, M.X.; Wan, Z.B.; Wang, J.B.; Wang, C.; Guo, W.Y.; Xu, L.; Ning, X.; Xu, J.; Pu, X.J.; Chen, M.S.; Zhao, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH) is an important clinical problem that is often monitored and studied with expensive devices such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. These devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions of the world, emergency departments, and emergency zones. We have developed a less expensive tool for non-contact monitoring of ACH. The system measures the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS) between the electromagnetic signals on two coils. ACH was induced in 6 experimental rabbits and edema was induced in 4 control rabbits by stereotactic methods, and their intracranial pressure and heart rate were monitored for 1 h. Signals were continuously monitored for up to 1 h at an exciting frequency of 10.7 MHz. Autologous blood was administered to the experimental group, and saline to the control group (1 to 3 mL) by injection of 1-mL every 5 min. The results showed a significant increase in MIPS as a function of the injection volume, but the heart rate was stable. In the experimental (ACH) group, there was a statistically significant positive correlation of the intracranial pressure and MIPS. The change of MIPS was greater in the ACH group than in the control group. This high-sensitivity system could detect a 1-mL change in blood volume. The MIPS was significantly related to the intracranial pressure. This observation suggests that the method could be valuable for detecting early warning signs in emergency medicine and critical care units

  10. Detection of acute cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by magnetic induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Jin, G.; Qin, M.X. [College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wan, Z.B. [Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wang, J.B.; Wang, C.; Guo, W.Y. [College of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an, China, College of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an (China); Xu, L.; Ning, X.; Xu, J.; Pu, X.J.; Chen, M.S. [College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhao, H.M. [Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2014-02-17

    Acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH) is an important clinical problem that is often monitored and studied with expensive devices such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. These devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions of the world, emergency departments, and emergency zones. We have developed a less expensive tool for non-contact monitoring of ACH. The system measures the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS) between the electromagnetic signals on two coils. ACH was induced in 6 experimental rabbits and edema was induced in 4 control rabbits by stereotactic methods, and their intracranial pressure and heart rate were monitored for 1 h. Signals were continuously monitored for up to 1 h at an exciting frequency of 10.7 MHz. Autologous blood was administered to the experimental group, and saline to the control group (1 to 3 mL) by injection of 1-mL every 5 min. The results showed a significant increase in MIPS as a function of the injection volume, but the heart rate was stable. In the experimental (ACH) group, there was a statistically significant positive correlation of the intracranial pressure and MIPS. The change of MIPS was greater in the ACH group than in the control group. This high-sensitivity system could detect a 1-mL change in blood volume. The MIPS was significantly related to the intracranial pressure. This observation suggests that the method could be valuable for detecting early warning signs in emergency medicine and critical care units.

  11. Hemorrhagic Stroke Associated with Pulmonary Edema and Catastrophic Cardiac Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Chang Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF is a vascular malformation that is rare in the pediatric population. Older children with cerebral AVF tend to present with neurologic problems related to intracranial venous hypertension or intracranial hemorrhage. Cardiac and pulmonary complications following acute neurologic injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage are common in adults, but are rarely reported in children. However, complications have been reported in cases of enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis in infants and children and can cause high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a 14-year-old boy who presented with cardiac failure associated with pulmonary edema following cerebral hemorrhagic stroke due to AVF. After aggressive investigation and management, we intervened before significant hypoxia and hypotension developed, potentially reducing the risk of long-term adverse neurologic consequences in this patient.

  12. Remote Hemorrhage after Burr Hole Drainage of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Hyeun; Song, Geun Sung; Kim, Young Ha; Kim, Young Soo; Sung, Soon Ki; Son, Dong Wuk; Lee, Sang Weon

    2017-10-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and symptomatic subdural hygroma are common diseases that require neurosurgical management. Burr hole trephination is the most popular surgical treatment for CSDH and subdural hygroma because of a low recurrence rate and low morbidity compared with craniotomy with membranectomy, and twist-drill craniotomy. Many reports suggest that placing a catheter in the subdural space for drainage can further reduce the rate of recurrence; however, complications associated with this type of drainage include acute subdural hematoma, cortical injury, and infection. Remote hemorrhage due to overdrainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is another possible complication of burr hole trephination with catheter drainage that has rarely been reported. Here, we present 2 cases of remote hemorrhages following burr hole trephination with catheter drainage for the treatment of CSDH and symptomatic subdural hygroma. One patient developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the contralateral hemisphere, while another patient developed remote hemorrhage 3 days after the procedure due to the sudden drainage of a large amount of subdural fluid over a 24-hour period. These findings suggest that catheter drainage should be carefully monitored to avoid overdrainage of CSF after burr hole trephination.

  13. Interventional therapy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage induced by Dieulafoy disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xiuqin; Yu Shiping; Zhang Jin; Zhang Caizhen; Yuan Wei; Meng Xiangwen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and assess the efficiency and clinical value of interventional therapy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage induced by Dieulafoy disease. Methods: Ten patients definitely diagnosed with Dieulafoy disease suffering from massive acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage received celiac arterial and left gastric arterial angiography, outcoming with 8 positively and 2 negative cases. Among them, 6 were embolized with gelfoam particles and the other two with aneurismal dilatation received gelfoam particles and spring steel coils; and one of the negtive cases was given hypophysin and without intervention to the other. Results: Among the 8 intra-arterial embolized cases, only 1 case rebleeded on the third day after gelfoam embolization, and then treated by surgical operation, and the rest 7 showed no rebleeding. One case with hypophysin treatment rehabilitated after one week. Conclusions: Interventional therapeutics is a safe and effective emergency management for gastrointestinal hemorrhage induced by Dieulafoy disease. (authors)

  14. Acute lung injury complicating blood transfusion in post-partum hemorrhage: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. According to the 2004 consensus definition, cases of new-onset hypoxemia, within 6 hours after transfusion, with bilateral pulmonary changes, in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were identified as TRALI. If an alternative risk factor for acute lung injury was present, possible TRALI was diagnosed. Thirteen cases of TRALI and 1 case of possible TRALI were identified (overall incidence 19.7%). At univariate analysis, patients with TRALI received higher number of RBC, PLT and FFP units and had a longer postpartum hospitalization. Among the diseases occurring in pregnancy- and various pre-existing comorbidities, only gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, significantly increased the risk to develop TRALI (p = 0.006). At multivariate analysis including both transfusion- and patient-related risk factors, pregnancy-related, hypertensive disorders were confirmed to be the only predictors for TRALI, with an odds ratio of 27.7 ( 95% CI 1.27-604.3, p=0.034). Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. The patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy, have the highest risk. Therefore, a careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is recommended.

  15. Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks: strategies for effective epidemic management, containment and control

    OpenAIRE

    Matua, Gerald Amandu; Wal, Dirk Mostert Van der; Locsin, Rozzano C.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever, caused by the highly virulent RNA virus of the filoviridae family, has become one of the world's most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, often associated with hemorrhagic symptoms in up to 90% of infected patients. The known sub-types of the virus are Zaire, Sudan, Taï Forest, Bundibugyo and Reston Ebola viruses. In the past, outbreaks were limited to the East and Central African tropical belt with the exception of Ebola Reston outbreaks that o...

  16. Severe Hemorrhage from the Umbilical Cord at Birth: A Preventable Cause of Neonatal Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe that umbilical cord bleeding from errors in cord clamping could be an important cause of acute blood loss in the delivery room and that it may result in significant clinical morbidity, especially in extremely premature infants.

  17. Severe hemorrhage from the umbilical cord at birth: a preventable cause of neonatal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Suresh, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe that umbilical cord bleeding from errors in cord clamping could be an important cause of acute blood loss in the delivery room and that it may result in significant clinical morbidity, especially in extremely premature infants.

  18. Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika P. Plata-Menchaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion.

  19. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H 2 O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, 15 O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

  1. Non-marfan idiopathic medionecrosis (cystic medial necrosis) presenting with multiple visceral artery aneurysms and diffuse connective tissue fragility: Two brothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Jun; Tsunemura, Mami; Amano, Shigeko; Tokizawa, Shigemi; Oowada, Susumu; Shinkai, Hiroko; Maehara, Yasunobu; Endo, Keigo

    1997-01-01

    Two brothers with multiple visceral artery aneurysms or dilatations and diffuse connective tissue fragility who did not have clinical features of Marfan syndrome are reported. One presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage during angiography, and idiopathic medionecrosis was proved by resection of the aneurysms. These cases belong to the heterogeneous group of Marfan syndrome. The angiographical features (multiple dilation of visceral arteries) suggests fragility of connective tissue and is predictive of hazards during and after a catheterization and operation

  2. Non-marfan idiopathic medionecrosis (cystic medial necrosis) presenting with multiple visceral artery aneurysms and diffuse connective tissue fragility: Two brothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Jun [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Japan); Tsunemura, Mami [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Amano, Shigeko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Japan); Tokizawa, Shigemi [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Virology (Japan); Oowada, Susumu [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Second Surgery (Japan); Shinkai, Hiroko [Gunma Health Foundation (Japan); Maehara, Yasunobu [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Endo, Keigo [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-15

    Two brothers with multiple visceral artery aneurysms or dilatations and diffuse connective tissue fragility who did not have clinical features of Marfan syndrome are reported. One presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage during angiography, and idiopathic medionecrosis was proved by resection of the aneurysms. These cases belong to the heterogeneous group of Marfan syndrome. The angiographical features (multiple dilation of visceral arteries) suggests fragility of connective tissue and is predictive of hazards during and after a catheterization and operation.

  3. Exacerbação aguda da fibrose pulmonar idiopática Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alguns doentes com fibrose pulmonar idiopática (FPI apresentam durante a sua evolução fases deagravamento clínico sem causa conhecida, designadas como “exacerbação aguda” ou “fase acelerada” da doença (EA. Caracterizam -se pelo agravamento marcado da dispneia, hipoxemia e pelo aparecimento de novas opacidades pulmonares ou pelo agravamento das já existentes no estudo imagiológico. Os achados histológicos típicos são o dano alveolar difuso (DAD sobreposto a alterações de pneumonia intersticial usual (UIP. Esta entidade clínica associa -se a uma mortalidade elevada, não havendo até ao momento nenhuma terapêutica de comprovada eficácia. Os autores descrevem os casos clínicos de cinco doentes que apresentaram alterações clínicas, funcionais e radiológicas sugestivas de EA-FPI, assim como o tratamento efectuado e a evolução observada, enquadrando-os na discussão das características normalmente apresentadas por esta entidade.Some patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF have disease accelerated deterioration without identifiable cause referred as “acute exacerbation” or “accelerated stage”. It is characterized by severe worsening of dyspnea, hypoxemia and new or progressive opacities on imaging studies. The typical histological findings are diffuse alveolar damage in addition to the features of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Mortality in this clinical entity is very high and no efficacious therapeutic have been described. The authors describe the clinical, functional and radiological features, treatment and evolution of five patients with IPF acute exacerbation. A discussion will be carry out concerning the IPF acute exacerbation usual features comparing with the alterations noticed in those patients.

  4. Rare idiopathic intestinal pneumonias (IIPs) and histologic patterns in new ATS/ERS multidisciplinary classification of the IIPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The new (ATS/ERS) update to the multidisciplinary classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defines both rare IIPs and rare histologic patterns of IIPs. •Rare IIPs; lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. •Rare histologic pattern, acute fibrionous organizing pneumonia, bronchocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia. -- Abstract: The new American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) update to the multidisciplinary classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defines both rare IIPs and rare histologic patterns of IIPs. Although these diseases are rare, each has some distinguishing imaging and pathologic characteristics. Common findings for IIPs in computed tomography (CT) include cysts in lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), upper lobe subpleural consolidation in pleuropulmonary fibroelastosis (PPFE), symmetrical consolidation in acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP), and peribronchovascular consolidation or centrilobular nodules in bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia

  5. Rare idiopathic intestinal pneumonias (IIPs) and histologic patterns in new ATS/ERS multidisciplinary classification of the IIPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: johkoht@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya, E-mail: fukuokaj@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan); Tanaka, Tomonori, E-mail: yotsudukayama@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •The new (ATS/ERS) update to the multidisciplinary classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defines both rare IIPs and rare histologic patterns of IIPs. •Rare IIPs; lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. •Rare histologic pattern, acute fibrionous organizing pneumonia, bronchocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia. -- Abstract: The new American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) update to the multidisciplinary classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defines both rare IIPs and rare histologic patterns of IIPs. Although these diseases are rare, each has some distinguishing imaging and pathologic characteristics. Common findings for IIPs in computed tomography (CT) include cysts in lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), upper lobe subpleural consolidation in pleuropulmonary fibroelastosis (PPFE), symmetrical consolidation in acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP), and peribronchovascular consolidation or centrilobular nodules in bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia.

  6. Tranexamic Acid Attenuates The Loss of Lung Barrier Function in a Rat Model of Polytrauma And Hemorrhage With Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaowu; Dubick, Michael A; Schwacha, Martin G; Cap, Andrew P; Darlington, Daniel N

    2017-04-01

    Severe trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation can lead to a trauma-related acute lung injury that involves rapid infiltration of immune cells and platelets. This infiltration involves exymatic degradation of matrix proteins, including plasmin, and causes loss of barrier function. Since tranexamic acid (TXA) inhibits plasminogen/ plasmin binding to target substrates, it may attenuate loss of barrier function after severe trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to polytrauma (laparotomy, and trauma to intestines, liver, right leg skeletal muscle, and right femur fracture), then bled 40% of their blood volume. One hour after completion of polytrauma and hemorrhage, resuscitation was begun with fresh whole blood (FWB) or FWB with prior bolus administration of TXA (10 mg/kg in 0.2 mL). Polytrauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation with FWB led to an elevation in lung water content that was significantly reduced with TXA administration. Polytrauma and hemorrhage led to rise in the number of neutrophils/monocytes and platelets in the lungs, and a rise in myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase and complement C5a content. While resuscitation with FWB significantly reduced the cellular infiltrate and MPO, FWB/TXA further reduced the levels of neutrophil/monocytes, neutrophil elastase, and complement C5a. Polytrauma and hemorrhage led to rise in lung plasmin activity that was significantly reduced with either FWB or FWB/TXA resuscitation. Severe trauma and hemorrhage leads to increases in lung water content, and immune cell, platelets, MPO, elastase, and C5a content in lung tissue, all markers of inflammation and acute lung injury. The addition of TXA to FWB resuscitation markedly attenuated the rise in these parameters suggesting its utility in treating acute lung injury.

  7. Examination of acute treatment strategies in 314 patients with putaminal hemorrhage from the view point of functional prognosis in kaifukuki rehabilitation wards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoh, Masaharu; Ohmura, Yuji; Fujii, Ryousuke; Horimi, Hirotsugu; Ishikawa, Makoto; Ishihara, Ken

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of acute treatment strategies for putaminal hemorrhage from the view point of the functional prognosis in Kaifukuki rehabilitation wards. Subjects were 314 patients with putaminal hemorrhage for inpatient rehabilitation in our hospital. For all patients, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Barthel Index (BI), Independence of Gait (IOG) was measured on admission and discharge, respectively. We examined the functional prognosis, according to method of treatment, age, volume of hematoma, CT classification, side of damage, sex, and hospitalization waiting period. A significant difference was admitted with FIM, BI, and IOG in the age, the volume of hematoma, the hospitalization waiting period, and the CT classification (p<0.05). The functional prognosis was excellent in the conservative treatment than in the surgical treatment. The hospitalization waiting period was significantly a long term in the surgical treatment (p<0.05). In the analysis where the age is arranged the volume of hematoma, the surgical treatment was more excellent than the conservative treatment, in the patients less than 70 years old and the volume of hematoma with 60 ml or more. The functional prognosis of putaminal hemorrhage was excellent in the conservative treatment, but the stereotactic hematoma evacuation is recommended to the limited case as a surgical treatment. Early rehabilitation is a pressing need for the improvement of the functional prognosis. Especially, it is indispensable to shorten the hospitalization waiting period in the surgical treatment. (author)

  8. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Presenting as Focal Neurologic Findings and Deteriorating Mental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Matthew; Ngaruiya, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare but particularly malignant form of acute leukemia that is characterized by a rapid progression to fatal hemorrhage. Survival rates of patients with APL have increased with the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), but early deaths caused by hemorrhage still persist. A man with undiagnosed APL presenting with focal neurologic findings and deteriorating altered mental status caused by an intracranial hemorrhage is discussed. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is important to consider APL when diagnosing etiologies for intracranial hemorrhage. In addition to standard care, early administration of ATRA is recommended upon clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraocular Hemorrhages and Retinopathy of Prematurity in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Siatkowski, R Michael; Pan, Wei; Smith, Eli; Quinn, Graham E

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of intraocular hemorrhages (IOHs) in infants in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study and to evaluate their potential use for prediction of disease severity. Secondary data analysis from a prospective study. Preterm infants with birth weight (BW) ≤1250 g. Infants underwent serial digital retinal imaging in both eyes starting at 32 weeks' postmenstrual age. Nonphysician trained readers (TRs) evaluated all image sets from eyes that ever had IOHs documented on image evaluation or eye examination for the presence, location, type, area, and relation of the IOH to the junction between vascularized and avascular retina. Associations of IOH with demographic and neonatal factors, and with the presence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Sensitivity and specificity of the telemedicine system for detecting referral-warranted ROP (RW-ROP) were calculated with and without incorporating hemorrhage into the standardized grading protocol. Retinal and vitreous hemorrhage. Among 1239 infants (mean [standard deviation] BW = 864 [212] g; gestational age [GA] = 27 [2.2] weeks) who underwent an average of 3.2 imaging sessions, 22% had an IOH in an eye on at least 1 of the e-ROP visits. Classification of IOH was preretinal (57%), blot (57%), dot (38%), flame-shaped (16%), and vitreous (8%); most IOHs were unilateral (70%). The IOH resolved in 35% of eyes by the next imaging session and in the majority (76%) of cases by 8 weeks after initial detection. Presence of IOH was inversely associated with BW and GA and significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the presence and severity of ROP (BW and GA adjusted odds ratios [ORs] of 2.46 for any ROP, 2.88 for stage 3, and 3.19 for RW-ROP). Incorporating IOH into the grading protocol minimally altered the sensitivity of the system (94% vs. 95%). Approximately 1 in 5 preterm

  10. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  11. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  12. Testicular hemorrhage, necrosis, and vasculopathy: likely manifestations of intermittent torsion that clinically mimic a neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    parenchyma in all 30 cases. Clinical follow-up in 20 patients (4 to 131 mo, mean 38 mo) showed no evidence of recurrence in the contralateral testis or later development of systemic vasculitis. The histologic findings were compared with those in 11 orchiectomies resected for clinical acute torsion. All clinical acute torsion cases showed both parenchymal and fibrinoid vascular necrosis, and 10 had hemorrhage/hematoma; they lacked vasculitis, interstitial inflammation, and chronic vascular changes. Testicular vasculopathy, characterized by acute and chronic vascular injury, commonly occurs in testes with parenchymal hemorrhage and necrosis that clinically mimic a tumor. It shares the acute features of recent torsion but also has findings indicative of chronic injury. Testicular vasculopathy is most likely a result of chronic intermittent torsion that leads to localized hemorrhage/necrosis and should be distinguished from cases of systemic vasculitis given the significantly different clinical implications.

  13. Filgrastim as a Rescue Therapy for Persistent Neutropenia in a Case of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of dengue involves suppression of immune system leading to development of characteristic presentation of haematological picture of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Sometimes, this suppression in immune response is responsible for deterioration in clinical status of the patient in spite of all specific and supportive therapy. Certain drugs like steroids are used for rescue therapy in conditions like sepsis. We present a novel use of filgrastim as a rescue therapy in a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, myocarditis, and febrile neutropenia and not responding to standard management.

  14. Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage correlates with preinjury brain atrophy, but not with antithrombotic agent use: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available The impact of antithrombotic agents (warfarin, clopidogrel, ASA on traumatic brain injury outcomes is highly controversial. Although cerebral atrophy is speculated as a risk for acute intracranial hemorrhage, there is no objective literature evidence.This is a retrospective, consecutive investigation of patients with signs of external head trauma and age ≥60 years. Outcomes were correlated with antithrombotic-agent status, coagulation test results, admission neurologic function, and CT-based cerebral atrophy dimensions.Of 198 consecutive patients, 36% were antithrombotic-negative and 64% antithrombotic-positive. ASA patients had higher arachidonic acid inhibition (p = 0.04 and warfarin patients had higher INR (p<0.001, compared to antithrombotic-negative patients. Antithrombotic-positive intracranial hemorrhage rate (38.9% was similar to the antithrombotic-negative rate (31.9%; p = 0.3285. Coagulopathy was not present on the ten standard coagulation, thromboelastography, and platelet mapping tests with intracranial hemorrhage and results were similar to those without hemorrhage (p≥0.1354. Hemorrhagic-neurologic complication (intracranial hemorrhage progression, need for craniotomy, neurologic deterioration, or death rates were similar for antithrombotic-negative (6.9% and antithrombotic-positive (8.7%; p = 0.6574 patients. The hemorrhagic-neurologic complication rate was increased when admission major neurologic dysfunction was present (63.2% versus 2.2%; RR = 28.3; p<0.001. Age correlated inversely with brain parenchymal width (p<0.001 and positively with lateral ventricular width (p = 0.047 and cortical atrophy (p<0.001. Intracranial hemorrhage correlated with cortical atrophy (p<0.001 and ventricular width (p<0.001.Intracranial hemorrhage is not associated with antithrombotic agent use. Intracranial hemorrhage patients have no demonstrable coagulopathy. The association of preinjury brain atrophy with acute intracranial

  15. Predictors of ischemic versus hemorrhagic strokes in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khealani, B.A.; Syed, N.A.; Maken, S.; Mapari, U.U.; Hameed, B.; Ali, S.; Qureshi, R.; Akhter, N.; Hassan, A.; Sonawalla, A.B.; Baig, S.M.; Wasay, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the factors that predispose to ischemic versus hemorrhagic stroke in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: All the hypertensive patients, who were registered in AKUH acute stroke outcome data base, over a period of 22 months, were identified and from this cohort the patients with first ever stroke were selected. The data regarding demographics, stroke type (ischemic vs. hemorrhagic), pre-existing medical problems, laboratory and radiological investigations was recorded and analyzed. Results: Five hundred and nineteen patients with either ischemic stroke or parenchymal hemorrhage were registered over a period of 22 months. Three hundred and forty-eight patients (67%) had hypertension and of these, 250 had first ever stroke at the time of admission. Presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.76; Cl:1.67-8.46) and ischemic heart disease (OR: 6.97; Cl:1.57-30.98) were found to be independent predictors of ischemic strokes. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease predict ischemic stroke in a patient with hypertension. (author)

  16. Computed Tomography Perfusion Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score Is Associated with Hemorrhagic Transformation after Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography (CT score (ASPECTS has been applied to CT perfusion (CTP with good interrater agreement to predict early ischemic stroke, and it can be useful in decision making in acute ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of CTP ASPECTS of hemorrhagic transformation (HT in acute cardioembolic stroke. This is a single-enter, retrospective study. All patients hospitalized with acute cardioembolic stroke from January 2008 to September 2013 were included. ASPECTS of baseline non-contrast CT, CTP maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time were collected from 52 consecutive patients with less than 12-h anterior circulation ischemic stroke. MRI scan was performed within 72 h of symptom onset after index stroke including T2*-weighted gradient echo to identify HT. For bleeding risk assessment, CTP and diffusion-weighted imaging ASPECTS were categorized into 0–7 or 8–10. Baseline characteristics, ASPCETS scores and HT were compared. Eighteen (34.6% patients had HT and four (7.7% developed symptomatic HT. On univariate analysis, the proportion of patients with CBV-ASPECTS 0–7 was significantly higher in HT patients as compared to patients without HT (44 versus 9%, P = 0.005. CBV ASPECTS 0–7 remained independent prognostic factors for HT after adjustment for clinical baseline variables. CBV ASPECTS could be of value to predict HT risk after acute cardioembolic stroke and may be a quick risk assessment approach before reperfusion therapy.

  17. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in  a  newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Zessis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4.2 μg/dL. On follow-up testing, this patient was unable to be weaned off of hydrocortisone or fludrocortisone despite resolution of hemorrhages on ultrasound. Providers should consider bilateral adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating critically ill neonates after a traumatic delivery. In extreme cases, this may be a persistent process.

  18. Rate of recurrence in Indian patients presenting with acute pancreatitis and identification of chronicity on follow up: Possible risk factors for progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Rishikesh; Abraham, Philip; Desai, Devendra C; Joshi, Anand; Gupta, Tarun

    2018-03-01

    To study the profile and long-term outcome of Indian patients presenting with acute pancreatitis and the possible risk factors for progression. Consecutive patients with acute or recurrent acute pancreatitis seen in our department during July 2013 to December 2014 were included. Details of past episodes were collected and patients were followed up till March 2015. In the 97 patients included (mean age 47.2 [SD 16.9] years; 74 men), gallstones (37 [38.1%]) and alcohol (19 [19.6%]) were the major identified etiologies; the idiopathic (31 [32%]) group constituted a third of patients. Recurrences were more common with idiopathic etiology (14 patients out of 30 had recurrences [46.7%]) as compared to alcoholic (5 out of 19 [26.3%]) and biliary (4 out of 37 [10.8%]) pancreatitis and with mild index episode. Following the episode of acute pancreatitis, identification of chronic pancreatitis was more common with alcoholic (6 out of 18 [33%]) and idiopathic (9 out of 30 [30%]) etiology as compared to other etiologies. Longer duration of follow up, but not number of recurrent episodes, was associated with identification of chronicity in patients presenting as acute pancreatitis. Out of 97 patients with acute pancreatitis, 27 (27.8%) developed recurrences with risk factors being idiopathic etiology and mild index episode. Eighteen of 97 (18.6%) patients had evidence of chronic pancreatitis on follow up, risk factors being the alcoholic and idiopathic varieties, and longer duration of follow up.

  19. Statins and risk of poststroke hemorrhagic complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Rachael L.; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Siegerink, Bob; Bath, Philip M.; Endres, Matthias; Lees, Kennedy R.; Nolte, Christian H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether statin treatment before or after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) affects the risk of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), postacute ICH, and mortality within 90 days. Methods: Data were sought from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive, an international repository of clinical trials data. Using propensity score matching, we retrospectively compared patients with prior statin treatment and newly initiated statin within 3 days after AIS to patients without statin exposure. Outcomes of interest were acute symptomatic ICH (sICH), any acute ICH, postacute ICH, and mortality during follow-up of 3 months. Results: A total of 8,535 patients (mean age 70 years, 54% male, median baseline NIH Stroke Scale score 13) were analyzed. After propensity score matching, prior statin use was not strongly associated with sICH (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–2.14) or any ICH (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.92–1.98). There was no evidence of an interaction between prior statin use and thrombolysis. New initiation of statins was not associated with postacute ICH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.60, 95% CI 0.70–3.65). There was a signal towards lower 90-day mortality in patients with prior statin use (adjusted HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70–1.00) and especially early initiation of statins (adjusted HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46–0.97). Conclusions: Statin use prior to AIS was not associated with early hemorrhagic complications, irrespective of treatment with thrombolysis. New initiation of statin treatment early after AIS did not affect risk of postacute ICH, but might be associated with reduced mortality. PMID:27016519

  20. Splinter hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingernail hemorrhage ... Splinter hemorrhages look like thin, red to reddish-brown lines of blood under the nails. They run in the direction of nail growth. They are named splinter hemorrhages because they look like a splinter under the ...

  1. MR imaging in follow-up of intracranial hemorrhage in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.; Steiner, R.E.; Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the time course of the MR imaging appearances of intracranial hemorrhage in 42 infants who underwent serial scanning. The infants primary diagnoses were peri/intraventricular hemorrhage (19 infants); periventricular leukomalacia (11 infants); and birth asphyxia (12 infants). Each group was divided into acute ( 4 wk). Age-corrected inversion recovery (IR) sequences were used with T2-weighted partial saturation sequences (PS 1660/193) at 0.15 T. Group 1: In 12 patients examined before 40 wk gestational age, increased signal intensity was seen in the cortical mantle, Rolandic fissure, and subependymal region with the IR sequence and decreased signal with the PS sequence

  2. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: the clinical neuroradiological view; Die spontane intrazerebrale Blutung aus klinisch-neuroradiologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinikum

    1999-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is a common cause of acute neurological deterioration and a frequent indication for emergency neuroimaging. Stroke symptoms are caused in 10 to 15% by intracerebral hemorrhage. It is often not possible to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from cerebral ischemia by clinical examination. The therapeutic decision between thrombolysis or conservative therapy is comprised by the etiology. To exclude intracerebral hemorrhage as the cause of clinical symptoms, a CT is usually performed. Localisation and extension of the acute intracerebral hemorrhage are easy to detect. Subacute and chronic intracerebral hemorrhage are better delineated with magnetic resonance imaging. The different signal of the hemorrhage can be used for the age of the intracerebral hemorrhage. The cause of a non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage is in over 60% hypertony, less frequent alcoholism, malformation, or amyloid angiopathy. Uncommon causes of hemorrhage are head trauma, blood dyscrasia, tumor or venous thrombosis. Non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage are most common in patients between 50 and 70 years. In younger patients a malformation should be excluded with a cerebral angiography. Intracerebral hemorrhages are usually conservatively treated, in some cases an operative decompression is performed. (orig.) [German] Die intrazerebrale Blutung ist eine haeufige Ursache akut auftretender neurologischer Symptome und fuehrt oft zu einer notfallmaessigen neuroradiologischen Untersuchung. Etwa 15% der 'Schlaganfaelle' sind auf eine intrazerebrale Blutung zurueckzufuehren. Intrazerebrale Blutungen sind klinisch oft nicht von ischaemischen Infarkten zu unterscheiden. Eine Computertomographie ist zur Zeit fuer die Diagnosesicherung - und damit auch zur weiterfuehrenden Therapie - unerlaesslich. Ausdehnung und Lokalisation der akuten intrazerebralen Blutung koennen damit schnell und sicher erfasst werden. Subakute und chronische Blutungen sind dagegen

  3. Hematoma Expansion Following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage, the most devastating form of stroke, has no specific therapy proven to improve outcome by randomized controlled trial. Location and baseline hematoma volume are strong predictors of mortality, but are non-modifiable by the time of diagnosis. Expansion of the initial hematoma is a further marker of poor prognosis that may be at least partly preventable. Several risk factors for hematoma expansion have been identified, including baseline ICH volume, early presentation after symptom onset, anticoagulation, and the CT angiography spot sign. Although the biological mechanisms of hematoma expansion remain unclear, accumulating evidence supports a model of ongoing secondary bleeding from ruptured adjacent vessels surrounding the initial bleeding site. Several large clinical trials testing therapies aimed at preventing hematoma expansion are in progress, including aggressive blood pressure reduction, treatment with recombinant factor VIIa guided by CT angiography findings, and surgical intervention for superficial hematomas without intraventricular extension. Hematoma expansion is so far the only marker of outcome that is amenable to treatment and thus a potentially important therapeutic target. PMID:23466430

  4. Diffusion weighted EPI in early cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Susumu; Cho, Keiichi; Hosaka, Sumio; Ito, Koichiro; Tajima, Natsuki; Kobayashi, Shiro [Nippon Medical School (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-11-01

    Fifteen cases of early cerebral infarction and 14 cases of cerebral hemorrhage underwent diffusion weighted echo planar imaging. Increased intensity area was detected only 2 in 5 cases less than 3 hours from ictus, whereas infarction was correctly diagnosed in all cases over 3 hours. Infarcted area was increased on the follow-up study in 2 cases. Hematoma showed mixed intensity in hyper acute phase, very hypo in acute, mixed in subacute and very hyper in the chronic stage. High intensity area surrounded the hematoma. (author)

  5. Acute respiratory failure as primary manifestation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Sourla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic vasculitides are multifocal diseases characterized by the presence of blood vessel inflammation in multiple organ systems. Their clinical presentation is variable extending from self-limited illness to critical complications including diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. Alveolar hemorrhage is a lifethreatening manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis that can rapidly progress into acute respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We present the case of a 74-year-old patient admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with severe hypoxic respiratory failure and diffuse alveolar infiltrates in chest imaging that was later diagnosed as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis. The report highlights the importance of differentiate between alveolar hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome of other etiology because alveolar hemorrhage is reversible with prompt initiation of treatment.

  6. Autoantibody-Targeted Treatments for Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Donahoe

    Full Text Available Severe acute exacerbations (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF are medically untreatable and often fatal within days. Recent evidence suggests autoantibodies may be involved in IPF progression. Autoantibody-mediated lung diseases are typically refractory to glucocorticoids and nonspecific medications, but frequently respond to focused autoantibody reduction treatments. We conducted a pilot trial to test the hypothesis that autoantibody-targeted therapies may also benefit AE-IPF patients.Eleven (11 critically-ill AE-IPF patients with no evidence of conventional autoimmune diseases were treated with therapeutic plasma exchanges (TPE and rituximab, supplemented in later cases with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG. Plasma anti-epithelial (HEp-2 autoantibodies and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7 were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. Outcomes among the trial subjects were compared to those of 20 historical control AE-IPF patients treated with conventional glucocorticoid therapy prior to this experimental trial.Nine (9 trial subjects (82% had improvements of pulmonary gas exchange after treatment, compared to one (5% historical control. Two of the three trial subjects who relapsed after only five TPE responded again with additional TPE. The three latest subjects who responded to an augmented regimen of nine TPE plus rituximab plus IVIG have had sustained responses without relapses after 96-to-237 days. Anti-HEp-2 autoantibodies were present in trial subjects prior to therapy, and were reduced by TPE among those who responded to treatment. Conversely, plasma MMP7 levels were not systematically affected by therapy nor correlated with clinical responses. One-year survival of trial subjects was 46+15% vs. 0% among historical controls. No serious adverse events were attributable to the experimental medications.This pilot trial indicates specific treatments that reduce autoantibodies might benefit some severely-ill AE

  7. Pancreatitis and myocarditis followed by pulmonary hemorrhage, a rare presentation of leptospirosis- A case report and literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranawaka Nuwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal disease which can cause multi-organ dysfunction. It can rarely present as acute pancreatitis. This is the first ever report of leptospirosis presenting with acute pancreatitis and myocarditis followed by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhages to the best of our knowledge. Case presentation A 15-year-old South Asian boy presented with high grade fever, epigastric discomfort and was anicteric on admission. He developed tachycardia, transient hypotension, changes of electro-cardiogram and positive troponin I suggestive of myocarditis. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed with 12 fold high serum amylase and with the evidence of computerized tomography. Then he developed diffuse pulmonary hemorrhages and later acute renal failure. Leptospirosis was confirmed by positive leptospira IgM, negative IgG and strongly positive Microscopic Agglutination Test. Other possible infective and autoimmune causes were excluded. Patient recovered completely with antibiotics and the supportive care. Conclusion This case illustrates diagnostic difficulties especially in resource poor settings where leptospirosis is common. Additionally it highlights the fact that leptospirosis should be considered in patients presenting with pancreatitis which can be complicated with myocarditis and diffuse pulmonary hemorrhages. We hypothesize that Toll like receptors may play a role in such systemic involvement.

  8. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ekinci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS's etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20 and deg; or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45 and deg; or more with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 174-182

  9. Severe Hemorrhage from the Umbilical Cord at Birth: A Preventable Cause of Neonatal Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neetu; Suresh, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe...

  10. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma H. Medina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6–26 (summer season versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24, based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.

  11. Fat deposition surrounding intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient suffering from Zieve-syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilz, M.J.; Druschky, K.F.; Erbguth, F.; Huk, W.

    1989-03-01

    In a 42-year-old man, admitted a few hours after an acute cerebrovascular event, CT demonstrated a hyperdense hemorrhage surrounded by a hypodense rim similar to perifocal edema or liquefying blood, thus raising doubts about the acuteness of the event. Laboratory findings revealed Zieve-syndrome (alcoholic hyperlipemia, hemolytic anemia, and alcoholic fatty liver) and negative Hounsfield Unit measurement of the hypodense rim finally identified it as a layer of fat around the clot.

  12. The initial time-course of headache in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čomić, Hata; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.

    2017-01-01

    Background If acute severe headache disappears early after its onset, the question arises whether subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) should still be ruled out. We studied the initial time-course and minimal duration of headache in a consecutive series of neurologically intact patients with spontaneous

  13. Putative role of prostaglandin receptor in intracerebral hemorrhage

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    Shekher eMohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 795,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Of all strokes, 84% are ischemic, 13% are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH strokes and 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH strokes. Despite the decreased incidence of ischemic stroke, there has been no change in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the last decade. ICH is a devastating disease 37-38% of patients between the ages of 45-64 die within 30 days. In an effort to prevent ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes we and others have been studying the role of prostaglandins and their receptors. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. They sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Most prostaglandins are produced from specific enzymes and act upon cells via distinct G-protein coupled receptors. The presence of multiple prostaglandin receptor’s cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways allow differentiated cells to respond to prostaglandins in a unique manner. Due to the number of prostaglandin receptors, prostaglandin-dependent signaling can function either to promote neuronal survival or injury following acute excitotoxicity, hypoxia, and stress induced by ICH. To better understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival and neurotoxicity mediated by prostaglandin receptors, it is essential to understand downstream signaling. Several groups including ours have discovered unique roles for prostaglandin receptors in rodent models of ischemic stroke, excitotoxicity, and Alzheimer disease, highlighting the emerging role of prostaglandin receptor signaling in hemorrhagic stroke with a focus on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and calcium (Ca2+ signaling. We review current ICH data and discuss future directions notably on prostaglandin receptors, which may lead to the development of unique therapeutic targets against hemorrhagic stroke and

  14. Transarterial embolotherapy in patients with duodenal hemorrhage using microcoils and gelfoam particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Tae Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Seong, Chang Kyu

    2004-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of arterial embolotherapy in patients with massive duodenal hemorrhage. Between January 1999 and June 2002, 25 patients (age: 34-81, mean 58, male: 19, female: 6) underwent arterial embolization for duodenal hemorrhage after failed endoscopic therapy. The hemorrhage originated from duodenal ulcer in sixteen patients, from cancer with duodenal invasion in five patients, from endoscopic sphincterectomy in two patients, and from pseudoaneurysm complicating acute pancreatitis in two patients. Hemorrhage was detected at endoscopy and an attempt was made to treat it endoscopically in all patients, but failed in each case. At angiography, direct bleeding signs such as contrast extravasation or pseudoaneurysm were demonstrated in nineteen patients. In the six patients without angiographic evidence of bleeding, blind embolization of the gastroduodenal artery was performed based on the endoscopic examination. Microcoil and gelfoam particles were used as embolic agents. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after embolotherapy in 21 patients (84%). Bleeding recurred in 4 patients (16%), and of these cases, one was successfully treated purely by endoscopic means, a second was reembolized three times due to bleeding from the collateral vessels of the tumor and the two others were treated by surgery. After the procedure, six patients died (24%). The causes of death were disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, multiorgan failure, sepsis and acute renal failure. The underlying diseases of the deceased patients were cancers with duodenal invasion (n=4) and abdominal aortic aneurysm with ischemic colitis (n=1). Transarterial embolotherapy in the case of massive duodenal hemorrhage is a safe and effective procedure. Even in the absence of angiographic evidence of bleeding, blind embolization of the gastroduodenal artery is effective for patients in the surgically high risk group

  15. Risk of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia after pulmonary resection for lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on preoperative high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidemi; Sekine, Yasuo; Yoshida, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-01

    In patients with lung cancer accompanied by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute exacerbation of the IPF often occurs after pulmonary resection; however, few studies have been done to identify its preexisting risk factors. We analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of IPF to identify the radiological characteristics of IPF susceptible to acute exacerbation after lung cancer surgery. We reviewed retrospectively 28 lung cancer patients with IPF who underwent pulmonary resection. Clinical data, respiratory function, HRCT findings, and historical features were compared between the acute exacerbation (n=9) and nonexacerbation (n=19) groups. The classification of radiological findings of IPF on HRCT was done using a scoring system of seven factors related to the interstitial shadow, including fibrosis, ground-glass opacity, and low-attenuation area. There were no significant differences in clinical background, respiratory function, composite physiologic index, or pathological features between the groups; however, the degree of fibrosis on preoperative HRCT was significantly higher in the exacerbation group (P<0.003). The fibrosis score was higher on the opposite side to the lung cancer in the exacerbation group (P<0.05). Although it is difficult to predict postoperative acute IPF exacerbation, the degree and laterality of co-existing fibrosis seem to be predictors. (author)

  16. Idiopathic multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy with acute photoreceptor loss or dysfunction out of proportion to clinically visible lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marion R.; Jung, Jesse J.; Biggee, Kristin; Tucker, William R.; Sen, H. Nida; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Fawzi, Amani A.; Jampol, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report acute/subacute vision loss and paracentral scotomata in patients with idiopathic multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy (MFC/PIC) due to large zones of acute photoreceptor attenuation surrounding the chorioretinal lesions. Methods Multimodal-imaging case-series Results Six females and 2 males were included (mean age 31.5±5.8 years). Vision ranged from 20/20-1 to hand motion (mean 20/364). SD-OCT demonstrated extensive attenuation of the external limiting membrane (ELM), ellipsoid and interdigitation zones, adjacent to the visible MFC/PIC lesions. The corresponding areas were hyperautofluorescent on fundus-autofluorescence (FAF), and were associated with corresponding visual field defects. Full-field ERG (available in 3 cases) showed markedly decreased cone/rod response and multifocal ERG revealed reduced amplitudes and increased implicit times in 2 cases. Three patients received no treatment, the remaining were treated with oral corticosteroids (n=4), oral acyclovir/valacyclovir (n=2), intravitreal/posterior subtenon triamcinolone-acetate (n=3) and anti-VEGF (n=2). Visual recovery occurred in only 3 cases, of whom 2 were treated. Varying morphological recovery was found in 6 cases, associated with decrease in hyperautofluorescence on FAF. Conclusions MFC/PIC can present with transient or permanent central photoreceptor attenuation/loss. This presentation is likely a variant of MFC/PIC with chorioretinal atrophy. Associated changes are best evaluated using multimodal imaging. PMID:25322466

  17. Cerebellar hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a patient with cerebral microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Yee; Liu, Jia-Shou; Lai, Shung-Lon; Wu, Hsiu-Shan; Lan, Min-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Nattokinase is used as a health-promoting medicine for preventing thrombosis due to its fibrinolytic activity. Cerebral microbleed is remnant of blood extravasations from the damaged vessels related to cerebral microangiopathies. We report a patient, having used aspirin for secondary stroke prevention, who had an acute cerebellar hemorrhage after taking nattokinase 400 mg daily for 7 consecutive days. In addition to the hemorrhagic lesion, multiple microbleeds were demonstrated on brain MR images. We suggest that nattokinase may increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients who have bleeding-prone cerebral microangiopathy and are receiving other antithrombotic agent at the same time.

  18. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Bhandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency.

  19. Computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bum Shin; Shin, Kyoung Hee; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a new non-invasive diagnostic imaging method, which has ability to differentiate C.S.F., hematoma, and even edematous brain from normal brain tissue. Prior to the introduction of the CT, the diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult and was confirmed by surgery of autopsy. Intracranial hemorrhages are visible on the CT with density higher than brain tissue in acute phase. CT is an accurate method for detecting of intraventricular hemorrhage including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. CT is also useful as a guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematomas by easily performable follow up studies. The causes of the intraventricular hemorrhages are hypertension, rupture of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, head trauma, brain tumor, and others. This study included evaluation of CT of 69 patients who show the high density in cerebral ventricular system during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 69 patient was broad ranging from 1 month to 80 years. 28% of patients were in the 6th decade. The mate to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The consciousness of patients at CT study: Those were conscious in 11 cases, stuporous in 41 cases and unconscious in 17 cases. 3. The causes of intraventricular hemorrhages were hypertension in 28 cases, head trauma in 12 cases, aneurysm in 4 cases, tumor in 2 cases and others in 23 cases. 4. 9 cases showed intraventricular hematomas only, other 60 cases showed associated intracranial hematomas: Those were intracerebral hematomas in 53 cases including 30 cases of basal ganglial and thalamic hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 17 cases, epidural hematomas in 3 cases, and subdural hematomas in 2 cases. 5. All cases of the intraventricular hematomas except one sowed hematoma in the lateral

  20. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohmer, Steven J.; Hoffer, Eric K.; Burchard, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  1. Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong Hoo; Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Dong Kyu; Jang, Kyoung Sool; Kim, Jong Tae; Han, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Minocycline and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J J; Kim-Tenser, M; Emanuel, B A; Jones, G M; Chapple, K; Alikhani, A; Sanossian, N; Mack, W J; Tsivgoulis, G; Alexandrov, A V; Pourmotabbed, T

    2017-11-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating cerebrovascular disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Minocycline is a matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor that may attenuate secondary mechanisms of injury in ICH. The feasibility and safety of minocycline in ICH patients were evaluated in a pilot, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Patients with acute onset (minocycline or placebo. The outcome events included adverse events, change in serial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score assessments, hematoma volume and MMP-9 measurements, 3-month functional outcome (modified Rankin score) and mortality. A total of 20 patients were randomized to minocycline (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). The two groups did not differ in terms of baseline characteristics. No serious adverse events or complications were noted with minocycline infusion. The two groups did not differ in any of the clinical and radiological outcomes. Day 5 serum MMP-9 levels tended to be lower in the minocycline group (372 ± 216 ng/ml vs. 472 ± 235 ng/ml; P = 0.052). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that minocycline was associated with a 217.65 (95% confidence interval -425.21 to -10.10, P = 0.041) decrease in MMP-9 levels between days 1 and 5. High-dose intravenous minocycline can be safely administered to patients with ICH. Larger randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of minocycline and MMP-9 inhibition in ICH patients are required. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Neurocardiac protection with milrinone for restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed ischemic injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Kazumasu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2017-02-15

    Acute cerebral hypoperfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is highly related to the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), but the therapeutic option is poorly available. This study aimed to clarify the effect of milrinone (MIL) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and related outcomes after experimental SAH. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham; n=6), SAH induced by endovascular perforation (control; n=10), or SAH followed by cardiac support with intravenous MIL (n=11) performed 1.5-h after SAH induction. CBF, neurobehavioral function, occurrence of DCI were assessed by MR-continuous arterial spin labeling, daily neurological score testing, and diffusion- and T2-weighted MR images on days 1 and 3, respectively. Initial global CBF depression was notable in mice of control and MIL groups as compared to the SAH-sham group (Pprotective agent against EBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A case of immune thrombocytopenic purpura presenting with intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Akbayram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is an acute, generally considered a self-limiting benign disorder with a 60%-80% change of spontaneous recovery occurring usually within a few months after onset. Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but life-threatening complication of childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We report a 4-year-old girl who admitted with headache, vomiting, bleeding from noise and bruises on the extremities. Her neurological examination was normal. Based on laboratory finding she was diagnosed immune thrombocytopenic purpura and intracranial hemorrhage. We suggest that cranial imaging should be perform in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura admitted with bleeding symptoms, vomiting and headache even if they had no abnormal neurological signs.

  5. Continued bleeding following acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this Ph.D. thesis, ‘Continued bleeding following acute intracerebral hemorrhage’, we have discussed the background literature, risk factors, and underlying biology of hematoma expansion, as well as the clinical applicability of the CT angiography (CTA) 'spot sign' as an imaging marker of this

  6. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)

  7. Clinical predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in non lacunar ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia R. Balian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic transformation is a complex phenomenon where brain tissue bleeds, which could be associated or not to an increase in the neurological deficit after the acute ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with non-lacunar ischemic stroke. We performed a prospective analysis of the clinical records and images of patients with non-lacunar ischemic stroke. Demographics, vascular risk factors, previous medications and the information of the event in patients with and without hemorrhagic transformation were here compared. We included in this study 747 patients with non-lacunar stroke, the mean age was 77 ± 11 years and 61% were females. In the univariate analysis, the age, a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease and the previous use of oral anticoagulation resulted statistically significant. In the multivariate analysis of logistic regression adjusted by age and vascular risk factors: the age > 80 years (OR 3.6, CI 95% 1.8-7.6, the pulse pressure > 60 mmHg at admission (OR 5.3, CI 95% 3.2-9.1, the chronic kidney disease (OR 3, CI 95% 2.5-3.8 and the presence of previous atrial fibrillation (OR 3.5, CI 95% 2.1-6.1 were associated with and increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation. The predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in our cohort showed a relationship with severe vascular illness. The identification of these patients could influence therapeutic decisions that could increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation

  8. An update on surgical and medical management strategies for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Natalie; Adeoye, Opeolu

    2013-11-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for ∼ 10 to 15% of all strokes and is one of the major causes of stroke-related death and disability. After the initial hemorrhage, further bleeding and edema contribute to secondary damage and worsened outcomes. As such, goals of previous and ongoing trials are to prevent continued bleeding, as well as mitigate the impact of cerebral edema. Although no trials have shown a definite functional outcome benefit with a given intervention, much progress has been made recently. This review focuses on recent developments that inform the acute management of ICH. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Antecedents of perinatal cerebral white matter damage with and without intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J Wells; Westra, Sjirk J; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Isolated periventricular leukomalacia, defined as periventricular leukomalacia unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage, is reportedly increased in newborns with systemic hypotension and in infants who received treatment for systemic hypotension or a patent ductus arteriosus. This study sought to determine if the risk profile of one or more hypoechoic lesions unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage, our surrogate for isolated periventricular leukomalacia, differs from that of one or more hypoechoic lesions preceded or accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage. We compared extremely preterm infants (i.e., gestation 23-27 weeks) with each of these entities to 885 extremely preterm infants who had neither an isolated hypoechoic lesion nor a hypoechoic lesion preceded or accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage. The risk of a hypoechoic lesion with intraventricular hemorrhage (N = 61) was associated with gestation Acute Neonatal Physiology, early recurrent or prolonged acidemia, analgesic exposure, and mechanical ventilation 1 week after birth. In this large, multicenter sample of extremely low gestational age newborns, the risk profile of a hypoechoic lesion unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage differed from that of a hypoechoic lesion with intraventricular hemorrhage. This suggests that hypoechoic lesions accompanied or preceded by intraventricular hemorrhage (our surrogate for periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) may have a different causal pathway than hypoechoic lesions without intraventricular hemorrhage, our surrogate for periventricular leukomalacia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. IDIOPATHIC OMENTAL INFARCTION : A RARE CAUSE OF ACUTE PAIN ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Omental torsion leading on to omental infarction is an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in adults. Often the condition mimics common causes of acute abdomen like acute cholecystitis, acute appendicitis or acute pancreatitis. A review of literature reveals that this enigmatic condition has been managed both non - operatively and by surgery in the past. We report the case of a 46 - year - old man who presented with a 4 - day history of severe right - sided abdominal pain mimicking acute cholecystitis. Abdominal CT scan revealed a right upper quadrant mass with a whirl - like appearance, suspicious for omental infarction. He was started on conservative management with analgesics and antibiotics. He improved symptomatically and was discharged

  11. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Thai patients with clinical and angiographic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomibunchoo C

    2017-02-01

    temporal to vascular arcades, ten eyes (9.35% in the peripapillary area and four eyes (3.74% in both macular and peripapillary areas. The clinical manifestations of IPCV at presentation were categorized into two patterns. There were 95 eyes (88.79% of a hemorrhagic pattern and 12 eyes (11.21% of an exudative pattern.Conclusion: IPCV is the most common macular disease in Thai patients with CNV. Most IPCVs have both BVNs and polypoidal lesions located in the macular area and present with a hemorrhagic pattern. Keywords: idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, prevalence, choroidal neovascularization, age-related macular degeneration

  12. Intracranial hemorrhage in infants due to vitamin K deficiency with special reference to the prognostic evaluation by CT and follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yoshifumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko; Kaku, Motoyuki

    1982-01-01

    The authors reported sixteen cases with intracranial hemorrhage due to Vitamin K deficiency and their follow-up studies. Intracranial hemorrhages were classified into four groups according to the CT findings. Eight cases were with hemorrhage of single location, whereas combined multiple hemorrhages were seen in also eight cases; four acute subdural hematomas (Group A), and four subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhages (Group B), four acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages (Group C), and four combined intracerebral hemorrhages (Group D). Clinical symptoms were almost identical in any group. Beside CT classification of hemorrhage it was characteristic to see extensive edema in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Follow-up studies were performed in fifteen children whose age ranged from nine months to five years old. In follow-up CT, ventricular dilatation was most frequently encountered in 53%, and cortical atrophy in 33%, leukomalacia in 27%. Chronic subdural hematomas and porencephaly were also seen. In the examination of mental development (Tsumori-Inage's). normal DQ were seen in 40%, and slight or severe mental disturbance were of 40%. In conclusion, the patients of Group A and B showed good recovery and normal development, although marked cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation were noted on follow-up CT, in which follow-up study in longer period should be indicated. In Group C and D, three cases showed severe mental disturbance and had leukomalacia on CT due to respiratory disturbance. Combined multiple hemorrhage in Vitamin K deficiency should be particularly emphasized as one of the poorest prognostic factors in mental development. (author)

  13. Necrostatin-1 Reduces Neurovascular Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    Melanie D. King

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is the most common form of hemorrhagic stroke, accounting for 15% of all strokes. ICH has the highest acute mortality and the worst long-term prognosis of all stroke subtypes. Unfortunately, the dearth of clinically effective treatment options makes ICH the least treatable form of stroke, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic targets. Recent work by our laboratory identified a novel role for the necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1, in limiting neurovascular injury in tissue culture models of hemorrhagic injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that necrostatin-1 reduces neurovascular injury after collagenase-induced ICH in mice. Necrostatin-1 significantly reduced hematoma volume by 54% at 72 h after-ICH, as compared to either sham-injured mice or mice administered an inactive, structural analogue of necrostatin-1. Necrostatin-1 also limited cell death by 48%, reduced blood-brain barrier opening by 51%, attenuated edema development to sham levels, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes after ICH. These data suggest a potential clinical utility for necrostatin-1 and/or novel necroptosis inhibitors as an adjunct therapy to reduce neurological injury and improve patient outcomes after ICH.

  14. HMGB1 Is a Potential Biomarker for Severe Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Resman Rus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF are common representatives of viral hemorrhagic fevers still often neglected in some parts of the world. Infection with Dobrava or Puumala virus (HFRS and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV can result in a mild, nonspecific febrile illness or as a severe disease with hemorrhaging and high fatality rate. An important factor in optimizing survival rate in patients with VHF is instant recognition of the severe form of the disease for which significant biomarkers need to be elucidated. To determine the prognostic value of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 as a biomarker for disease severity, we tested acute serum samples of patients with HFRS or CCHF. Our results showed that HMGB1 levels are increased in patients with CCHFV, DOBV or PUUV infection. Above that, concentration of HMGB1 is higher in patients with severe disease progression when compared to the mild clinical course of the disease. Our results indicate that HMGB1 could be a useful prognostic biomarker for disease severity in PUUV and CCHFV infection, where the difference between the mild and severe patients group was highly significant. Even in patients with severe DOBV infection concentrations of HMGB1 were 2.8-times higher than in the mild group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Our results indicated HMGB1 as a potential biomarker for severe hemorrhagic fevers.

  15. Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. Stewart BT, McLaughlin SJ, Thompson GA. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage:a general surgeon's perspective. Aust N. Z J Surg 1998;68:371-3. Monib, et al.: Idiopathic retroperitoneal hematoma. How to cite this article: Monib S, Ritchie A, Thabet E. Idiopathic retroperitoneal hematoma. J Surg Tech Case Report ...

  16. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage as manifestation of an acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, A.; Voigt, K.; Peiffer, J.; Rios Nogales Carces, L.

    1986-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) due to intracranial tumors are very rare. We report the clinical, neuroradiological and histological findings of an acoustic neurinoma, the initial and manifestating symptom of which was an acute SAH. In the literature we found only eight further cases of acoustic neurinomas with spontaneous SAH. The causes of the SAH are discussed; and we compare our findings to those in the literature. (orig.) [de

  17. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Koichi; Tsubokawa, Tamiji; Johshita, Hiroo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolysis due to acute ischemic stroke is associated with the risk of hemorrhagic infarction, especially after reperfusion. Recent experimental studies suggest that the main mechanism contributing to hemorrhagic infarction is oxidative stress caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing hemorrhagic infarction during ischemia and reperfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of edaravone on hemorrhagic infarction in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation. We used a previously established hemorrhagic transformation model of rats with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of glucose to all rats (n  =  20). The rats with hyperglycemia showed a high incidence of hemorrhagic infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1.5 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours was performed in edaravone-treated rats (n  =  10) and control rats (n  =  10). Upon completion of reperfusion, both groups were evaluated for infarct size and hemorrhage volume and the results obtained were compared. Edaravone significantly decreased infarct volume, with the average infarct volume in the edaravone-treated rats (227.6 mm(3)) being significantly lower than that in the control rats (264.0 mm(3)). Edaravone treatment also decreased the postischemic hemorrhage volumes (53.4 mm(3) in edaravone-treated rats vs 176.4 mm(3) in controls). In addition, the ratio of hemorrhage volume to infarct volume was lower in the edaravone-treated rats (23.5%) than in the untreated rats (63.2%). Edaravone attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

  18. Clinical efficacy and safety of ICS/LABA in patients with combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fushi; Zhang, Yimei; Chi, Fangzhou; Song, Qi; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Yupeng; Che, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) in combined with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. 45 patients with combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who were treated with ICS/LABA (Group A), 24 patients with CPFE who were treated without ICS/LABA (Group B) and 35 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (Group C) were enrolled into this study. Then, clinical efficacy and safety of ICS/LABA was analyzed through lung function scores and lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Compared with baseline levels, the FEV1%, FVC% and DLCO% levels were increased 11.2%, 13.53% and 12.8% respectively in group A, but declined 14.21%, 16.8% and 21.25% respectively in group B, meanwhile, lung HRCT score was declined 9.31 in group A but increased 14.87 in group B, and there was significant difference between group A and group B (P0.05). The incidence of adverse reaction was higher in group A than that in group B during this study, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). ICS/LABA therapy could improve lung function condition in patients with CPFE and declined acute out-break frequency and severity of diseases during acute episode period.

  19. Effect of neutrophil depletion on gelatinase expression, edema formation and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Livia S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity is increased after focal ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain, the relative contribution of neutrophils to the MMP activity and to the development of hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. Results Anti-PMN treatment caused successful depletion of neutrophils in treated animals. There was no difference in either infarct volume or hemorrhage between control and PMN depleted animals. While there were significant increases in gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity and edema formation associated with ischemia, neutrophil depletion failed to cause any change. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that, in the absence of circulating neutrophils, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity are still up-regulated following focal cerebral ischemia. Additionally, neutrophil depletion had no influence on indicators of ischemic brain damage including edema, hemorrhage, and infarct size. These findings indicate that, at least acutely, neutrophils are not a significant contributor of gelatinase activity associated with acute neurovascular damage after stroke.

  20. Preretinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Felippe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy treated with Nd:YAGlaser indescribed. The patient presented decreased visual acuityafter coughing, and a preretinal hemorrhage was diagnosed in theposterior pole; puncturing the posterior hyaloid face was performedwith Nd:Yag laser. Rapid hemorrhage absorption was observedafter the therapy proposed and visual acuity was recovered. Nd:Yaglaser proved to be safe and efficient in the management of preretinalhemorrhage.

  1. Incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage complicating acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaccadori, E; Maggiore, U; Clima, B; Melfa, L; Rotelli, C; Borghetti, A

    2001-04-01

    Few prospective data are currently available on acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage (AGIH) as a complication of acute renal failure (ARF). The aim of the present study was to define incidence, sources, risk factors, and outcome of AGIH in patients with ARF. We performed a prospective study on an inception cohort of 514 patients admitted for ARF to a nephrology intermediate care unit. Data on clinical risk factors for bleeding, frequency of occurrence of AGIH, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality were collected. Independent predictors of AGIH were identified. The relative odds of death and the relative increase in length of hospital stay associated with AGIH were calculated after adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Sixty-nine patients out of 514 [13.4% (95% CI, 10.6 to 16.7)] had AGIH as a complication of ARF; 59 were upper AGIH. Forty patients had clinically important bleeding. Erosions and/or ulcers accounted for 71% of cases of upper AGIH. Independent baseline predictors of AGIH were represented by severity of illness [odds ratio 1.45 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.01) for every 10 point increase in APACHE II score], low platelet count [<50,000 mm3; 3.71 (1.70 to 8.11)], noncirrhotic chronic hepatic disease [2.22 (1.09 to 4.55)], liver cirrhosis [3.38 (1.50 to 7.60)], de novo ARF [2.77 (1.30 to 5.90)], and severe ARF [2.07 (1.10 to 3.88)]. In-hospital mortality was 63.8% in patients with AGIH and 34.2% in the other patients; after adjusting for baseline confounders, AGIH remained significantly associated with an increase in both mortality [2.57 (1.30 to 5.09), P = 0.006] and length of hospital stay [37% (1 to 87%), P = 0.047]. AGIH and clinically important bleeding are frequent complications of ARF. In this clinical condition, AGIH is more often due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is associated with a significantly increased risk of death and length of hospital stay. Both renal and extrarenal risk factors are related to the occurrence of AGIH.

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF. PMID:27625576

  3. Microglial Cells Prevent Hemorrhage in Neonatal Focal Arterial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Klibanov, Alexander L; Derugin, Nikita; Blanchard, Elodie; Simon, Franziska; Leib, Stephen L; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2016-03-09

    Perinatal stroke leads to significant morbidity and long-term neurological and cognitive deficits. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain damage depend on brain maturation at the time of stroke. To understand whether microglial cells limit injury after neonatal stroke by preserving neurovascular integrity, we subjected postnatal day 7 (P7) rats depleted of microglial cells, rats with inhibited microglial TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling, and corresponding controls, to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Microglial depletion by intracerebral injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate at P5 significantly reduced vessel coverage and triggered hemorrhages in injured regions 24 h after tMCAO. Lack of microglia did not alter expression or intracellular redistribution of several tight junction proteins, did not affect degradation of collagen IV induced by the tMCAO, but altered cell types producing TGFβ1 and the phosphorylation and intracellular distribution of SMAD2/3. Selective inhibition of TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling in microglia via intracerebral liposome-encapsulated SB-431542 delivery triggered hemorrhages after tMCAO, demonstrating that TGFβ1/TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling in microglia protects from hemorrhages. Consistent with observations in neonatal rats, depletion of microglia before tMCAO in P9 Cx3cr1(GFP/+)/Ccr2(RFP/+) mice exacerbated injury and induced hemorrhages at 24 h. The effects were independent of infiltration of Ccr2(RFP/+) monocytes into injured regions. Cumulatively, in two species, we show that microglial cells protect neonatal brain from hemorrhage after acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362881-13$15.00/0.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the ...

  5. Study on the change and relationship between plasma D-dimer and homocysteine levels in patients with acute cerebral vascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ye; Pan Xiangtao; Yan Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the changes and the relationships between plasma D-dimer (D-D) and Homocysteine (Hcy) expression in patients with acute cerebral infarction and acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Plasma D-D (with ELISA) and Hcy (with CLIA) levels were measured in 397 patients with cerebral infarction, 122 patients with cerebral hemorrhage and 30 controls.Results 1) The mean level of the plasma D-D and Hcy in patients with acute cerebral infarction was 5.20±0.92μg/L and 21.23±13.54 μmol/L respectively, which was significant higher than that in controls and patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. 2) Higher expressing of D-D and Hcy was found in 101 (25.4%) and 140 (35.3%) cases of acute cerebral infarction patients. The data in acute cerebral hemorrhage group was 17 (13.9%) and 27 (22.1%) respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, P<0.01. 3) There was not correlations with the expression level of D-D and Hcy in patients with acute cerebral infarction and patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. 4) The expressing level of the Plasma D-D in acute cerebral infarction patients was not significant difference in both age and sex. The expressing level of Hcy in male was higher than that in female. There was not significant difference in the expressing level of Hcy in different age. Conclusion: The levels of plasma D-D and Hcy in patients with acute cerebral infarction significantly in creased, but there were not correlations between the levels of the two parameters. (authors)

  6. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Garbossa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is one of the major cause of mortality for stroke. The leading cause is the rupture of an intracrnial aneurym. Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a complex multifaceted disorder that plays out over days to weeks. The development of aneurysms is mainly due to a hemodynamic stress. Considerableadvances have been made in endovascular techniques, diagnostic methods, and surgical and perioperative management guidelines. Rebleeding remains the most imminent danger until the aneurysm is excluded from cerebral circulation. The only effective prevention of rebleeding is repair the aneurysm; choosing the right way with surgical or an endovascular approach. Outcome for patients with SAH remains poor, with population-based mortality rates as high as 45% and significant morbidity among survivors. In this work we analyzed the diagnostic-therapeutic course of patients presenting SAH. We analyzed the types and the occurrence of complications. We present two cases report to better demonstrate that treatments for specific patients need to be individualized.

  7. Clinical study of interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guangze; Xiao Yiming; Wen Zhilin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction. Method: Using urokinase, 35 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours were treated by intra-artery thrombolytic therapy. Europe stroke scale (ESS), Barthel index (BI) were used to evaluate the recovery of neurological functions. Result: ESS score increase rapidly after thrombolytisis, and there were significant difference between the two teams. Thirteen of 13 cases treated within 6 hours from onset showed complete/partial recanalization in cerebral angiography and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic rate were 0%, twenty-six of 35 cases treated within 24 hours showed complete/partial recanalization and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic rate were 5.71%. Conclusion: Interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction within 6h were safe and effective. (authors)

  8. Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Mortality and Hematoma Size in a Rat Intracerebral Hemorrhage Model in an Acute Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a critical disease, highly associated with mortality and morbidity. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on ICH, mostly focused on their mid-to-long-term effect. Acute hematoma expansion is one of the most important prognostic factors of ICH. We hypothesized that MSCs would decrease mortality and hematoma size in acute ICH, based on the findings of a few recent researches reporting their effect on blood-brain barrier and endothelial integrity. Rat ICH models were made using bacterial collagenase. One hour after ICH induction, the rats were randomly divided into MSC-treated and control groups. Mortality, hematoma volume, ventricular enlargement, brain edema, and degenerating neuron count were compared at 24 hours after ICH induction. Expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin and coagulation factor VII mRNA was also compared. Mortality rate (50% versus 8.3%, hematoma size, ventricular size, hemispheric enlargement, and degenerating neuron count were significantly lower in the MSC-treated group (p=0.034, 0.038, 0.001, 0.022, and <0.001, resp., while the expression of ZO-1 and occludin was higher (p=0.007 and 0.012. Administration of MSCs may prevent hematoma expansion in the hyperacute stage of ICH and decrease acute mortality by enhancing the endothelial integrity of cerebral vasculature.

  9. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jie; Wu, Lei; Yin, Jianyuan; Quan, Xiaojiao; Chen, Wei; Hu, Jie

    2018-03-27

    We describe a case of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. To our knowledge, only five cases of GBS associated with Hantavirus infection have been reported so far. A 62-year-old man presented intermittent fever, chill and oliguria. According to remarkable leukocytosis, atypical lymphocytes, thrombocytopenia and former dwelling in hemorrhagic fever-endemic area, he was suspected as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromeand certified with positive Hantavirus IgG. Later, the patient had symmetrical flaccid paralysis of all extremities. Electromyography showed peripheral nerve injury (mainly in axon). The patient was diagnosed as having acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN). After immunoglobulin infusion, patient showed progressive recovery and was transferred 3 weeks after his first admission to a rehabilitation center. Our case was the 6th reported case of GBS associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Moreover, we for the first time classified the subtype of GBS (AMSAN) based on the electrophysiology characteristics. GBS should be suspected in patients who are already diagnosed as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when delayed symmetrical limb paralysis occurs. Until recent now, GBS was only reported in hemorrhagic fever patients in Europe and Asia, which termed as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

  10. Statins in acute neurologic disease:which one, which dose, when to start, and when not to stop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bong-Su Kang; Gene Sung; May Kim-Tenser; Nerses Sanossian

    2016-01-01

    Statins could have physiologic properties that may beneift patients that have been diagnosed with various acute neurological diseases. This review aims tosummarize the literature pertaining to stain use in acute neurological disease such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral ischemia (CI), traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus and meningitis. The authors reviewed published abstracts and manuscripts pertaining to experimental and clinical trials relevant to statins in acute neurological disease. Although acute statin therapy in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage might reduce delayed cerebral ischemia and mortality, it should not be considered standard care at this time. Acute statins therapy has not demonstrated anybeneift yet folowing an ICH or CI. Acute statin withdrawal may worsen outcome in acute CI. Observational and case-control studies suggest that pretreatment with statin at time of onset may be associated with better outcomes. Even though preclinical studies have shown statins to have beneifcial effects, there has been no clinical evidence. In conclusion, current published studies have not shown that acute statin therapy has any beneifcal effects in acute neurologic diseases and therefore further large randomized clinical trials are needed.

  11. A study on hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naohisa

    1982-01-01

    We studied 235 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage by CT for about five years. An acute intracerebral hematoma is characterized by sharply delineated high density area. Repeated CT examinations demonstrate reduction in size of the high density hematoma after intervals of 20 - 40 days. And then, in general, the areas formerly occupied with hematoma show normal or reduced density. One or two days after hemorrhage, the high density is surrounded by a thin low density zone. After a few days the low density area is seen at the anterior and posterior pole of the high density in the white matter. These low density are produced by edema or resolving hematoma. About five days after hemorrhage, high density area is associated with wide surrounding low density zone of edema and then gradually diminishes in size. The wide low density zone surrounding the high density of hematoma persisting for over 15 days is probably composed not only of edema, but also of liquefied hematoma, necrotic brain tissue and so on. Enlarged hematoma and surrounding low density area extend to anterior, posterior, superior and inferior direction in the white matter. CT studies with i.v. contrast enhancement demonstrate from the 2nd to 4th weeks a ring-shaped high density around the hematoma. We classified each of the putaminal and thalamic hemorrhage into four types based on CT findings of hematoma advancement. In this study, a statistical method of Speareman's coefficients of rank correlation was utilized. According to this investigation, the important factors influencing prognosis and operative results were found to be the CT findings including the location and size of a hematoma, as well as the rapidity and the direction of its evolution. (J.P.N.)

  12. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiyah Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  13. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephan A; Brun, Nikolai C; Begtrup, Kamilla

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. METHODS: We randomly assigned 841...

  14. Intraventricular Hemorrhage Due to Coagulopathy After Vitamin K Administration in a Preterm Infant With Maternal Crohn Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kazumichi Fujioka; Sachiyo Fukushima; Kosuke Nishida; Kazumoto Iijima; Ichiro Morioka

    2017-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a devastating morbidity in preterm infants and can result in poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Intraventricular hemorrhage usually occurs within 72 hours after birth; post–acute-phase IVH (>1 week after birth) is uncommon. Development of the hemostatic system in fetuses and neonates is an age-dependent evolving process, and the neonatal hemostatic system is characterized by low levels of vitamin K–dependent factors, with further reduction caused by prematu...

  15. Intraventricular Hemorrhage Due to Coagulopathy After Vitamin K Administration in a Preterm Infant With Maternal Crohn Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Kazumichi; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Nishida, Kosuke; Iijima, Kazumoto; Morioka, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a devastating morbidity in preterm infants and can result in poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Intraventricular hemorrhage usually occurs within 72 hours after birth; post-acute-phase IVH (> 1 week after birth) is uncommon. Development of the hemostatic system in fetuses and neonates is an age-dependent evolving process, and the neonatal hemostatic system is characterized by low levels of vitamin K-dependent factors, with further reduction caused by premat...

  16. Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGerminal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is the most common variety of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and is characteristics of the premature infant. The importance of the lesion relates not only to its high incidence but to their attendant complications (IC: hydrocephalus. Brain sonography is the procedure of choice in diagnosis of germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study we have used brain sonography for detection of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and their incidences. The studied population was consisted of premature neonate (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks who admitted in Mofid Hospital NICU (Tehran, Iran during a one year period. For all neonate (including criteria brain sonography in first week of life was done and in presence of IVH, serial Brain sonography was done weekly for detection of hydrocephalus. A total of 57 neonate entered the study. Intraventicular-germinal matrix hemorrhage was seen in 64.4% (35 patients. Forty percent of patients with intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage had grade I, 11% grade II, 25.7% grade III, 2.8% grade VI. Hydrocephalus was detected in 20 percent of patients who had intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage. That incidence of IVH in our study in comparison with other area and situation is higher. Hydrocephaly had direct relation with severity of IVH. This shows that with control of risk factor of IVH, we can control Post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

  17. CT differential diagnosis between hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infarction localized in basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Masahiro; Kawase, Takeshi.

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms of hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage and of middle cerebral artery occlusion are sometimes similar to each other. Hemorrhage sometimes occurs following cerebral infarction. We experienced 7 patients with hemorrhages localized in the basal ganglia following cerebral infarction. The CT findings of 55 patients with putaminal hemorrhage and 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction localized at the basal ganglia were investigated retrospectively in order to discuss their characteristics. The high-density area (HD) of a putaminal hemorrhage was homogeneous on a plain CT within a week of the onset. There was a close correlation between the size of the HD and the timing of its disappearance. The HD with a maximum diameter of A cm generally disappeared A weeks after. On the other hand, the HD of a hemorrhagic infarction was lower in density than that of the putaminal hemorrhage. The HD of a hemorrhagic infarction generally disappeared earlier than that of a putaminal hemorrhage. Ring enhancement was visualized on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) from 2 or 3 weeks after the onset in patients with putaminal hemorrhages except in the case of small hemorrhages (less than 1 cm diameter). Ring enhancement was also visualized in 6 out of 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction; one of them was recognized within a week of the onset. Contrast enhancement of the cortex in the territory of the middle cerebral artery was visualized in 4 out of 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction. This finding seems to indicate one characteristic of hemorrhagic infarction. (author)

  18. Acute Subdural Hematoma and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Ruptured Cortical Artery Aneurysm: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchizadeh, Ahmad; Masih, Saburi; Reza, Pourkhalili; Seif, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    The present report describes an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), due to ruptured cortical aneurysm. To our knowledge, extremely rare cases of this sort have been reported so far. A 23-year-old male patient without previous trauma presented with severe headache and rapidly decreasing level of consciousness to decerebrate status. Computed tomography (CT) scan has demonstrated an ASDH together with SAH. Hematoma has immediately been evacuated without any evaluation by angiography. After evacuation of the thick subdural clot, a 10-mm aneurysm was revealed on a precentral artery of frontal cortex, which was ligated. However, after 35 days the patient discharged with left side hemiparesis and dysphasia, and just after several months of admission he got symptom free. Ruptured cortical aneurysm should be considered as one of the causes of spontaneous ASDH. Vascular anomaly investigations are suggested for these cases, thus CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography has to be considered if clinical condition allows. PMID:28503501

  19. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  20. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong

    1995-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults

  1. Microscopic polyangiitis: Atypical presentation with extensive small bowel necrosis, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Segraves, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic polyangiitis is an uncommon systemic vasculitis of varying severity that is associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic (p-ANCA antibodies. The most commonly affected organs are the lungs and kidneys. We report on a very unusual case of microscopic polyangiitis presenting with severe mesenteric ischemia in addition to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and acute renal failure. The patient was initially diagnosed with acute pancreatitis at an outside facility given his severe abdominal pain and elevated pancreatic enzymes. Further investigations after transfer to our facility determined that the patient was actually suffering from a severe exacerbation of previously diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis. He quickly developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH necessitating intubation and acute kidney injury (AKI requiring dialysis. He subsequently developed mesenteric ischemia and bowel necrosis resulting in emergent laparotomy and extensive small bowel resection. Physicians need to be aware that microscopic polyangiitis can very rarely present with severe involvement of the abdominal viscera and mesenteric vessels. Severe disease necessitates the use of high dose IV steroids, rituximab or cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange (PLEX.

  2. Microscopic polyangiitis: Atypical presentation with extensive small bowel necrosis, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Justin M; Iyer, Vivek N

    2017-01-01

    Microscopic polyangiitis is an uncommon systemic vasculitis of varying severity that is associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic (p-ANCA) antibodies. The most commonly affected organs are the lungs and kidneys. We report on a very unusual case of microscopic polyangiitis presenting with severe mesenteric ischemia in addition to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and acute renal failure. The patient was initially diagnosed with acute pancreatitis at an outside facility given his severe abdominal pain and elevated pancreatic enzymes. Further investigations after transfer to our facility determined that the patient was actually suffering from a severe exacerbation of previously diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis. He quickly developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) necessitating intubation and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis. He subsequently developed mesenteric ischemia and bowel necrosis resulting in emergent laparotomy and extensive small bowel resection. Physicians need to be aware that microscopic polyangiitis can very rarely present with severe involvement of the abdominal viscera and mesenteric vessels. Severe disease necessitates the use of high dose IV steroids, rituximab or cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange (PLEX).

  3. Emergent Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage for the General and Acute Care Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    preeclampsia . If the patient has contraindications to methylergonovine or if the hemorrhage is still non- responsive, 250 μg of 15-methylprostagandin F2α may...practiced surgical strategies in combination with a basic knowledge PPH specific etiologies , physiology and inter- ventions permits surgeons to efficiently

  4. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  5. Lung microbiome and disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an analysis of the COMET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, MeiLan K; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Tayob, Nabihah; Noth, Imre; Lama, Vibha N; Moore, Bethany B; White, Eric S; Flaherty, Kevin R; Huffnagle, Gary B; Martinez, Fernando J

    2014-07-01

    The role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. We investigated whether unique microbial signatures were associated with progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Patients (aged 35-80 years) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis within 4 years of diagnosis from the Correlating Outcomes with biochemical Markers to Estimate Time-progression (COMET) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis study were followed up for a maximum of 80 weeks. Progression-free survival was defined as time to death, acute exacerbation, lung transplant, or decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) of 10% or greater or decrease in diffusion capacity of the lung (DLCO) of 15% or greater. DNA was isolated from 55 samples of bronchoscopic alveolar lavage. 454 pyrosequencing was used to assign operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to bacteria based on a 3% sequence divergence. Adjusted Cox models were used to identify OTUs that were significantly associated with progression-free survival at a pidiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with the presence of specific members within the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Additional research will be needed to identify the specific bacterial species and to ascertain whether this is a causal association. National Institutes of Health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  7. Moyamoya disease associated with asymptomatic mosaic Turner syndrome: a rare cause of hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Benjamin R; Rao-Frisch, Anitha; Otvos, Balint; Mitchell, Anna; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; De Georgia, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly involving the intracranial carotid arteries that can present clinically with either ischemic or hemorrhagic disease. Moyamoya syndrome, indistinguishable from moyamoya disease at presentation, is associated with multiple clinical conditions including neurofibromatosis type 1, autoimmune disease, prior radiation therapy, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. We present the first reported case of an adult patient with previously unrecognized mosaic Turner syndrome with acute subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of moyamoya syndrome. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage with associated flame-shaped intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Physical examination revealed short stature, pectus excavatum, small fingers, micrognathia, and mild facial dysmorphism. Cerebral angiography showed features consistent with bilateral moyamoya disease, aberrant intrathoracic vessels, and an unruptured 4-mm right superior hypophyseal aneurysm. Genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome. Our case report is the first documented presentation of adult moyamoya syndrome with subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial presentation of mosaic Turner syndrome. It illustrates the utility of genetic evaluation in patients with cerebrovascular disease and dysmorphism. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microscopic polyangiitis: Atypical presentation with extensive small bowel necrosis, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Segraves, Justin M.; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2017-01-01

    Microscopic polyangiitis is an uncommon systemic vasculitis of varying severity that is associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic (p-ANCA) antibodies. The most commonly affected organs are the lungs and kidneys. We report on a very unusual case of microscopic polyangiitis presenting with severe mesenteric ischemia in addition to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and acute renal failure. The patient was initially diagnosed with acute pancreatitis at an outside ...

  9. Diagnosis of ruptured intracranial aneurysm in acute stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiyama, Masataka; Nakagawa, Toshifumi

    1980-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage at an acute stage within one day from the onset to the first CT scan was classified into subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to intracranial aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown origin and subarachnoid hemorrhage of which angiography could not be carried out, and the first CT findings, the severity, and the prognosis of these subarachnoid hemorrhage were compared and discussed. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to intracranial aneurysm showed various changes according to progress in the severity with time, and intracranial hematoma, intraventricular clots and ventricular dilatation increased according to progress in the severity. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm in middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery could be found easily by CT, but that in internal carotid artery and vertabral basilar artery was difficult to be detected by CT. When cerebral angiography was carried out repeatedly for ruptured intracranial aneurysm of unknown origin, the time of performance must be consifered with attention to angiospasms or hematoma. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  11. The value of contrast-enhanced CT scan in prediction of development of contusional hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kazuhiro; Kyoi, Kikuo; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Tetsuya

    1983-01-01

    It is often experienced that even if there are no significant findings on the initial plain CT scan in the patient with cerebral contusion, the patient has thereafter a serious clinical course and requires emergency operation for so-called contusional hemorrhage. In order to predict of the development of contusional hemorrhage we performed contrast-enhanced CT scan at the time of patient's arrival within 12 hours after injury, if there was cerebral contusion on the initial plain CT scan, and repeated plain CT scan 24 hours after the contrast-enhanced CT scan. If enhancement was demonstrated on the contrastenhanced CT scan, we predicted the development of contusional hemorrhage and if not demonstrated, we predicted no more development of contusional hemorrhage and then we studied the correlation between the prediction and the plain CT 24 hours after the contrast-enhanced CT scan. The results were as follows: 1) The prediction was correct in 13 cases out of 16 cases in which the development of contusional hemorrhage was observed. In 18 cases where no development of contusional hemorrhage was observed, the prediction was correct without exception. 2) Most of the cases in which enhancement was demonstrated were ones examined not before 3 hours after injury. 3) The extent of enhancement shown on contrastenhanced CT scan was well consistent with that of contusional hemorrhage on the plain CT scan 24 hours after the contrast-enhanced CT scan. From these results, the contrast-enhanced CT scan in acute stage of head injury was considered to by very useful in prediction of the development of contusional hemorrhage. (author)

  12. Early Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Duckwiler, Gary R; Jahan, Reza; Tateshima, Satoshi; Szeder, Viktor; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kim, Doojin; Sharma, Latisha K; Vespa, Paul M; Salamon, Noriko; Villablanca, J Pablo; Viñuela, Fernando; Feng, Lei; Loh, Yince; Liebeskind, David S

    2018-05-01

    The impact of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption can be detected by intraparenchymal hyperdense lesion on the computed tomography (CT) scan after endovascular stroke therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early BBB disruption predicts intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed patients with anterior circulation stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy and identified BBB disruption on the noncontrast CT images immediately after endovascular treatment. Follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed at 24 hours to assess intracranial hemorrhage. We dichotomized patients into those with moderate BBB disruption versus those with minor BBB disruption and no BBB disruption. We evaluated the association of moderate BBB disruption after mechanical thrombectomy with intracranial hemorrhage and clinical outcomes. Moderate BBB disruption after mechanical thrombectomy was found in 56 of 210 patients (26.7%). Moderate BBB disruption was independently associated with higher rates of hemorrhagic transformation (OR 25.33; 95% CI 9.93-64.65; P disruption with intracranial hemorrhage remained in patients with successful reperfusion after mechanical thrombectomy. The location of BBB disruption was not associated with intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcome. Moderate BBB disruption is common after mechanical thrombectomy in a quarter of patients with acute ischemic stroke and increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcome. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. End-stage Renal Failure as a Complication of Acute Tubulo-Interstitial Nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, G.; Ali, R.; Abdelrehman, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Ayman, K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an important cause of acute renal failure, where renal impairement tends to be variable but recovery is the rule. End-stage renal failure (ESRF) has been rarely reported as a complication of ATIN. We report here a case of idiopathic ATIN that resulted in severe acute renal failure. The patient developed ESRF, which required permanent renal replacement therapy. (author)

  14. [Brazilian guidelines for the manegement of intracerebral hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes-Neto, Octávio M; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Valiente, Raul; Friedrich, Maurício; Pedreira, Bruno; Rodrigues, Bruno Castelo Branco; Liberato, Bernardo; Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez de

    2009-09-01

    Among the stroke subtypes, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has the worst prognosis and still lacks a specific treatment. The present manuscript contains the Brazilian guidelines for the management of ICH. It was elaborated by the executive committee of the Brazilian Cerebrovascular Diseases Society and was based on a broad review of articles about the theme. The text aims to provide a rational for the management of patients with an acute ICH, with the diagnostic and therapeutic resources that are available in Brazil.

  15. Cerebrogenic tachyarrhythmia in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiac abnormalities following acute stroke are frequent and seen in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The changes seen in electrocardiogram (ECG consist of repolarization abnormalities such as ST elevation, ST depression, negative T waves, and QT prolongation. Among tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common and occurrence of focal atrial tachycardia is very rare though any cardiac arrhythmias can follow acute stroke. We report a case of focal atrial tachycardia following acute ischemic stroke in 50-year-old female without structural heart disease, and their mechanisms and clinical implications.

  16. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: using 64-slice multidetector CT angiography to ''triage'' patients' treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agid, R.; Lee, S.K.; Willinsky, R.A.; Farb, R.I.; TerBrugge, K.G. [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    To evaluate the clinical role of CT angiography (CTA) in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for treatment decision-making. Consecutive patients with acute SAH had CTA using a 64-slice scanner for initial clinical decision-making. Image processing included multiplanar volume reformatted (MPVR) maximum intensity projections (MIP) and 3D volume-rendered reconstructions. CTAs were used for (1) evaluating the cause of SAH, and (2) triaging aneurysm-bearing patients to the more appropriate management, either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. CTA findings were confirmed by neurosurgical exploration or catheter angiography (digital subtraction angiography, DSA). Successful coiling provided evidence that triaging to endovascular treatment was correct. Included in the study were 73 patients. CTA findings were confirmed by DSA or neurosurgical operation in 65 patients, and of these 65, 47 had aneurysmal SAH, 3 had vasculitis, 1 had arterial dissection and 14 had no underlying arterial abnormality. The cause of SAH was detected with CTA in 62 out of the 65 patients (95.4%, sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%). CTA revealed the aneurysm in 46 of 47 patients (98%, sensitivity 98%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 82.3%), 1 of 3 vasculitides and 1 of 1 dissection. Of the 46 patients with aneurysm, 44 (95.7%) were referred for treatment based on CTA. In 2 patients (2 of 46, 4.4%) CTA was not informative enough to choose treatment requiring DSA. Of the 44 patients, 27 (61.4%) were referred to endovascular treatment and successful coiling was achieved in 25 (25 of 27, 92.6%). CTA using a 64-slice scanner is an accurate tool for detecting and characterizing aneurysms in acute SAH. CTA is useful in the decision process whether to coil or clip an aneurysm. (orig.)

  17. Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

  18. CT manifestation of diffuse brain injury in cases of serious acute subdural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikaido, Yuji; Shimomura, Takahide; Fujita, Toyohisa; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Utsumi, Shozaburo

    1987-04-01

    Eighty-two adult cases of serious acute subdural hematoma (SDH) of Glasgow Coma Scale 9 or more severe (50 operated-on and 32 non-operated-on cases) were selected in order to study the relation between CT findings at the acute stage and the prognosis of SDH. The CT findings were analyzed in the following respects: size of SDH, midline shift, manifestation of perimesencephalic cisterns, and presence or absence of diffuse hemispheric swelling, diffuse cerebral swelling, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, epidural hematoma, hemorrhagic contusion, and dilatation of the contralateral temporal horn. As a result, the most important prognostic signs were found to be: (1) diffuse hemispheric swelling, (2) diffuse cerebral swelling, (3) subarachnoid hemorrhage of the basal-cistern type, (4) intraventricular hemorrhage, (5) deep-seated contusion, (6) complete effacement of the perimesencephalic cisterns, and (7) dilatation of the contralateral temporal horn. These findings, except for the last item, which indicates the final phase of tentorial herniation, were regarded as various patterns of the CT manifestation of diffuse brain injury; the positively associated diffuse brain injury seemed to determine the prognosis of SDH.

  19. Hemorrhagic brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Motoichiro; Takekawa, S.D.; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    Tumor hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) was found in 14 patients with brain metastases (7 % of two hundred patients with brain metastases), from April 1979 to July 1983. Primary foci of these lesions were the lung (6 patients), breast (2), kidney (2), uterus (2), colon (1) and adrenal gland (1). ''Stroke'' syndrome was the initial presenting symptom in 3 patients; neurological focal sign or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure in the remaining patients. CT demonstrated peritumoral hemorrhage in all patients with solid mass, intratumoral hemorrhage in a few patients and also cerebral or ventricular hemorrhage, which was fatal complication, in 2 patients (colon and breast cancers). A cystic mass with fluid-blood level was noted in a patient with breast cancer. Several predisposing factors including chemotherapy, thrombocytopenia, radiotherapy or combination of these were recognized in 8 patients. Of these, chemotherapy was the most causative factor of tumor hemorrhage. Brain irradiation for hemorrhagic brain metastases was effective for prolongation of mean survival time of these patients as follows; 10 months in irradiated group, whereas 1.5 months in non-irradiated group. (author)

  20. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  1. Comparison of histological lesions in mink with acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Anne Mette; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    based on histopathology. The study included material submitted for diagnostic investigation to the National Veterinary Institute in Denmark from 2006 to 2009. Altogether, 19 cases of hemorrhagic pneumonia with a pure lung culture of P. aeruginosa and 18 cases of hemorrhagic pneumonia with a pure lung...... frequency of alveolar edema and mild lymphoid cuffing in the lungs....

  2. Use of therapeutic surfactant lavage in a preterm infant with massive pulmonary hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Kanavaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a premature infant presenting with recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage in which we performed a therapeutic lavage with diluted surfactant after an acute episode of bleeding with severe intractable hypoxemia. Repeated small aliquots of diluted surfactant (10x2 mL allowed rapid improvement in oxygenation and reduction of required mean airway pressures during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. This observation may suggest that surfactant lavage could be beneficial in massive pulmonary hemorrhage in infants. A randomized controlled trial might be needed to clarify the potential benefit of this therapeutic intervention on outcome of infants suffering from this life-threatening complication.

  3. Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Arndt Petermann,2 Aikaterini Visouli,3 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Kaid Darwiche,5 Ioanna Kougioumtzi,6 Kosmas Tsakiridis,3 Nikolaos Machairiotis,6 Markus Ketteler,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Johannes Brachmann11II Medical Clinic, Coburg Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Division of Nephrology, Coburg Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 3Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, “Saint Luke” Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 6Surgery Department (National Health System, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s disease. We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO

  4. CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespear, Jonathan S; Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate the CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications. CT findings suggesting acute cholecystitis should be interpreted with caution and should probably serve as justification for further investigation with abdominal ultrasound. CT has a relatively high negative predictive value, and acute cholecystitis is unlikely in the setting of a negative CT. Complications of acute cholecystitis have a characteristic CT appearance and include necrosis, perforation, abscess formation, intraluminal hemorrhage, and wall emphysema.

  5. An Evaluation of Factors Associated With Pathogenic PRSS1, SPINK1, CTFR, and/or CTRC Genetic Variants in Patients With Idiopathic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaly, Niloofar Y; Moran, Robert A; Fargahi, Farshid; Khashab, Mouen A; Kamal, Ayesha; Lennon, Anne Marie; Walsh, Christi; Makary, Martin A; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Singh, Vikesh K

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated factors associated with pathogenic genetic variants in patients with idiopathic pancreatitis. Genetic testing (PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC) was performed in all eligible patients with idiopathic pancreatitis between 2010 to 2015. Patients were classified into the following groups based on a review of medical records: (1) acute recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis (ARIP) with or without underlying chronic pancreatitis; (2) idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) without a history of ARP; (3) an unexplained first episode of acute pancreatitis (AP)pancreatitis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with pathogenic genetic variants. Among 197 ARIP and/or ICP patients evaluated from 2010 to 2015, 134 underwent genetic testing. A total of 88 pathogenic genetic variants were found in 64 (47.8%) patients. Pathogenic genetic variants were identified in 58, 63, and 27% of patients with ARIP, an unexplained first episode of AP <35 years of age, and ICP without ARP, respectively. ARIP (OR: 18.12; 95% CI: 2.16-151.87; P=0.008) and an unexplained first episode of AP<35 years of age (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.18-5.15; P=0.017), but not ICP, were independently associated with pathogenic genetic variants in the adjusted analysis. Pathogenic genetic variants are most likely to be identified in patients with ARIP and an unexplained first episode of AP<35 years of age. Genetic testing in these patient populations may delineate an etiology and prevent unnecessary diagnostic testing and procedures.

  6. Hepatic artery stent-grafts for the emergency treatment of acute bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellemann, Nadine, E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Mokry, Theresa; Kortes, Nikolas; Gnutzmann, Daniel; Gockner, Theresa; Schmitz, Anne [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weitz, Jürgen [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department for Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery at the University Hospital, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Radeleff, Boris; Stampfl, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report our experiences with stent-grafts for the treatment of acute hemorrhage from the hepatic artery or the stump of the gastroduodenal artery. • The technical success of stent-graft implantation was 88%. • The bleeding ceased immediately after stent-graft implantation in 88%. • The complication rate was 21%. - Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated the technical success and clinical efficacy of stent-graft implantation for the emergency management of acute hepatic artery bleeding. Methods: Between January 2010 and July 2013, 24 patients with hemorrhage from the hepatic artery were scheduled for emergency implantation of balloon expandable stent-grafts. The primary study endpoints were technical and clinical success, which were defined as successful stent-graft implantation with sealing of the bleeding site at the end of the procedure, and cessation of clinical signs of hemorrhage. The secondary study endpoints were complications during the procedure or at follow-up and 30-day mortality rate. Results: In 23 patients, hemorrhage occurred after surgery, and in one patient hemorrhage occurred after trauma. Eight patients had sentinel bleeding. In most patients (n = 16), one stent-graft was implanted. In six patients, two overlapping stent-grafts were implanted. The stent-grafts had a target diameter between 4 mm and 7 mm. Overall technical success was 88%. The bleeding ceased after stent-graft implantation in 21 patients (88%). The mean follow-up was 137 ± 383 days. In two patients, re-bleeding from the hepatic artery occurred during follow-up after 4 and 29 days, respectively, which could be successfully treated by endovascular therapy. The complication rate was 21% (minor complication rate 4%, major complication rate 17%). The 30-day mortality rate was 21%. Conclusions: Implantation of stent-grafts in the hepatic artery is an effective emergency therapy and has a good technical success rate for patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  7. Submacular hemorrhage in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: A synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu-Segall, Dinu; Balta, Florian; Jackson, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Large submacular hemorrhage, an uncommon manifestation of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, may also occur with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Submacular hemorrhage damages photoreceptors owing to iron toxicity, fibrin meshwork contraction, and reduced nutrient flux, with subsequent macular scarring. Clinical and experimental studies support prompt treatment, as tissue damage can occur within 24 hours. Without treatment the natural history is poor, with a mean final visual acuity (VA) of 20/1600. Reported treatments include retinal pigment epithelial patch, macular translocation, pneumatic displacement, intravitreal or subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, and combinations thereof. In the absence of comparative studies, we combined eligible studies to assess the VA change before and after each treatment option. The greatest improvement occurred after combined pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, with VA improving from 20/1000 to 20/400. The best final VA occurred using combined intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator, gas, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, with VA improving from 20/200 to 20/100. Both treatments had an acceptable safety profile, but most studies were small, and larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine both safety and efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage – some epidemiological characteristics of patients in the period 1994–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a frequent medical problem and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this prospective, cohort study, which was carried out at our institution, was to establish the causes of hemorrhage from the digestive tract and mortality during a 10-year period.Patients and methods: The study includes patients with emergency endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract and other diagnostic procedures of the digestive tract due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %. The average age of our patients was 59.3 years (a 1–106 year span, SD ± 17.2. In 2142 patients (33.4 %, endoscopic investigation of the upper digestive tube revealed signs of acute or traces of previous hemorrhage. Different methods of endoscopic hemostasis were carried out in 1486 cases (23.2 %. Sequelae of ulcer disease were the cause of hemorrhage in 36.4 % of investigated patients. Frequent causes of hemorrhage were also inflammatory, hemorrhagically-erosive changes of the gastric and duodenal mucosa (16.6 %, esophageal reflux disease (11.2 %, ruptured esophageal varices (10.7 %. Less frequent causes of hemorrhage from the upper digestive tract were different tumors (3.8 %, Mallory-Weiss tear (2.9 %, polyps (1.4 % and Dieulafoy lesion (1.3 %. In 13.7 % of patients the cause of hemorrhage was in the large bowel and in 0.4 % in the small intestine. More than half of our patients (53.4 % were aged over 60, 11.4 % older than 80 years. The total mortality of our patients was 9.9 %, the majority of them (8.5 %, were older than 60 years, with concommitant diseases and complications during treatment.Conclusions: In the observed period, sequelae of ulcer disease were the most significant cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemorrhages are frequent in elderly patients who usually have significant medical conditions

  9. Idiopathic Atypical Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome presenting with acute dystonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maduemem, Rizwan K E

    2017-09-01

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. The atypical HUS (aHUS) results from over activation of complement system with formation of micro thrombi and damage to endothelial cells resulting in renal impairment in 50 % and death in 25 %, commonly in untreated patients. We report an intriguing case of aHUS presenting with acute onset of movement disorder and fluctuating delirium.

  10. CT in pontine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuo; Kinoshita, Masao; Ikeda, Ken; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical and CT findings in 10 patients with primary pontine hemorrhage were reviewed. All patients were hypertensive. Pontine hemorrhage can be divided into 3 groups from the viewpoint of location of hematomas. These are the tegmentobasilar type, tegmental type and basilar type. The tegmentobasilar type produces characteristic clinical features for pontine hemorrhage and poor prognosis, otherwise, another two types produce atypical clinical features for pontine hemorrhage and good prognosis. (author)

  11. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  12. Premature infant with a bilateral thalamostriatal hemorrhage. Brain imaging and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokazono, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Yoshiaki; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Yokochi, Kenji; Takashima, Sachio

    1987-12-01

    Hemorrhagic areas were seen on ultrasonography and computed tomography in both thalamostriatal regions in a preterm female infant with perinatal asphyxia due to abruptio placentae. At autopsy, marked perivascular bleeding in the thalamus and putamen and eosinophilic neuronal changes in the thalamus and pontine tegmentum were seen. These thalamostriatal and brain stem lesions are thought to have been caused by an acute process causing total asphyxia.

  13. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sport-Related Structural Brain Injury: 3 Cases of Subdural Hemorrhage in American High School Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (pstopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  16. Focal Low and Global High Permeability Predict the Possibility, Risk, and Location of Hemorrhagic Transformation following Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis Therapy in Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xia, Y; Chen, H; Liu, N; Jackson, A; Wintermark, M; Zhang, Y; Hu, J; Wu, B; Zhang, W; Tu, J; Su, Z; Zhu, G

    2017-09-01

    The contrast volume transfer coefficient ( K trans ), which reflects blood-brain barrier permeability, is influenced by circulation and measurement conditions. We hypothesized that focal low BBB permeability values can predict the spatial distribution of hemorrhagic transformation and global high BBB permeability values can predict the likelihood of hemorrhagic transformation. We retrospectively enrolled 106 patients with hemispheric stroke who received intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment. K trans maps were obtained with first-pass perfusion CT data. The K trans values at the region level, obtained with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score system, were compared to determine the differences between the hemorrhagic transformation and nonhemorrhagic transformation regions. The K trans values of the whole ischemic region based on baseline perfusion CT were obtained as a variable to hemorrhagic transformation possibility at the global level. Forty-eight (45.3%) patients had hemorrhagic transformation, and 21 (19.8%) had symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. At the region level, there were 82 ROIs with hemorrhagic transformation and parenchymal hemorrhage with a mean K trans , 0.5 ± 0.5/min, which was significantly lower than that in the nonhemorrhagic transformation regions ( P transformation ROIs was 0.7 ± 0.6/min. At the global level, there was a significant difference ( P = .01) between the mean K trans values of patients with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (1.3 ± 0.9) and those without symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (0.8 ± 0.4). Only a high K trans value at the global level could predict the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage ( P transformation or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at the patient level, whereas focal low K trans values can predict the spatial distributions of hemorrhagic transformation at the region level. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Human Albumin Improves Long-Term Behavioral Sequelae After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Through Neurovascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Xiaohao; Wang, Liumin; Xu, Lili; Xiong, Yunyun; Yang, Lian; Sang, Hongfei; Ye, Ruidong; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage results in significant long-lasting neurologic sequelae. Here, we investigated whether human albumin improves long-term outcomes in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and whether neurovascular remodeling is involved in the protection of albumin. Laboratory investigation. Hospital research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage by endovascular perforation. Albumin of either 0.63 or 1.25 g/kg was injected IV immediately after the surgery. Modified Garcia test, beam-walking test, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze were employed to determine the behavioral deficits. The effects of albumin on early neurovascular dysfunction and chronic synaptic plasticity were also studied. Both doses of albumin significantly improved the sensorimotor scores (F = 31.277; p = 0.001) and cognitive performance (F = 7.982; p = 0.001 in novel object recognition test; and F = 3.431; p = 0.026 in the latency analysis of Morris water maze test) for at least 40 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were remarkable microvasculature hypoperfusion, intracranial pressure rise, early vasoconstriction, neural apoptosis, and degeneration in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats, with albumin significantly attenuating such neurovascular dysfunction. Furthermore, albumin markedly prevented blood-brain barrier disruption, as indicated by less blood-brain barrier leakage, preserved blood-brain barrier-related proteins, and dampened gelatinase activities. The expressions of key synaptic elements were up-regulated with albumin supplementation in both acute and chronic phases. Accordingly, a higher dendritic spine density was observed in the prefrontal and hippocampal areas of albumin-treated subarachnoid hemorrhage animals. Albumin at low-to-moderate doses markedly improves long-term neurobehavioral sequelae after subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may involve an integrated process of neurovascular remodeling.

  18. Clinically silent subdural hemorrhage causes bilateral vocal fold paralysis in newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Jaber; Monnier, Yan; Monnier, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Bilateral congenital vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) may result from multiple etiologies or remain idiopathic when no real cause can be identified. If obstructive dyspnea is significant and requires urgent stabilization of the airway, then intubation is performed first and an MRI of the brain is conducted to rule out an Arnold-Chiari malformation that can benefit from a shunt procedure and thus alleviate the need for a tracheostomy. Clinically silent subdural hemorrhage without any birth trauma represents another cause of neonatal BVFP that resolves spontaneously within a month. It is of clinical relevance to recognize this potential cause of BVFP as its short duration may alleviate the need for a tracheostomy. In this article, we present such a case and review the literature to draw the otolaryngologist's attention to this possible etiology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gencer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH.

  20. Peritumoral hemorrhage immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Masafumi; Kitajima, Satoru; Miyazaki, Chikao; Otsuka, Takashi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with metastatic brain tumors who suffered peri-tumoral hemorrhage soon after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). She had been suffering from breast cancer with multiple systemic metastasis. She started to have headache, nausea, dizziness and speech disturbance 1 month before admission. There was no bleeding tendency in the hematological examination and the patient was normotensive. Neurological examination disclosed headache and slightly aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large round mass lesion in the left temporal lobe. It was a well-demarcated, highly enhanced mass, 45 mm in diameter. SRS was performed on four lesions in a single session (Main mass: maximum dose was 30 Gy in the center and 20 Gy in the margin of the tumor. Others: maximum 25 Gy margin 20 Gy). After radiosurgery, she had severe headache, nausea and vomiting and showed progression of aphasia. CT scan revealed a peritumoral hemorrhage. Conservative therapy was undertaken and the patient's symptoms improved. After 7 days, she was discharged, able to walk. The patient died of extensive distant metastasis 5 months after SRS. Acute transient swelling following conventional radiotherapy is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the present case indicates that such an occurrence is also possible in SRS. We have hypothesized that acute reactions such as brain swelling occur due to breakdown of the fragile vessels of the tumor or surrounding tissue. (author)

  1. Retroperitoneal aortic hemorrhage caused by penetration of an endovascular stent-graft anchoring barb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Christopher P; Winterbottom, Andrew; Shaida, Nadeem; Boyle, Jonathan R

    2013-08-01

    To report a rare case of acute intraoperative retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to aortic penetration by the suprarenal anchoring barb on a stent-graft. A 75-year-old patient on dual antiplatelet therapy for coronary stents and low-molecular-weight heparin for atrial thrombus underwent elective endovascular repair of a 6.7-cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. A device with suprarenal fixation and metal anchoring barbs was implanted, and a molding balloon was used that at no time covered the proximal bare metal stents or barbs. In recovery, the patient became tachycardic and hypotensive. After resuscitation, imaging identified an anterior barb penetrating the aortic wall, causing the acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage. A decision to treat conservatively rather than resort to open surgery was difficult but ultimately influenced by the patients' high risk for open surgery. The patient was treated by aggressive reversal of heparin and platelet transfusion, and the bleed settled spontaneously. Major surgery and subsequent morbidity may be avoided by medical management of what would appear to be a surgical problem.

  2. Contribution of placenta accreta to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K S

    2015-04-01

    To quantify the contribution of placenta accreta to the rate of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. All hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec) for the years 2009 and 2010 (N=570,637) were included in a retrospective cohort study using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Placenta accreta included placental adhesion to the uterine wall, musculature, and surrounding organs (accreta, increta, or percreta). Severe postpartum hemorrhage included postpartum hemorrhage with blood transfusion, hysterectomy, or other procedures to control bleeding (including uterine suturing and ligation or embolization of pelvic arteries). Rates, rate ratios, population-attributable fractions (ie, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage attributable to placenta accreta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between placenta accreta and risk factors. The incidence of placenta accreta was 14.4 (95% CI 13.4-15.4) per 10,000 deliveries (819 cases among 570,637 deliveries), whereas the incidence of placenta accreta with postpartum hemorrhage was 7.2 (95% CI 6.5-8.0) per 10,000 deliveries. Postpartum hemorrhage among women with placenta accreta was predominantly third-stage hemorrhage (41% of all cases). Although placenta accreta was strongly associated with postpartum hemorrhage (rate ratio 8.3, 95% CI 7.7-8.9), its low frequency resulted in a small population-attributable fraction (1.0%, 95% CI 0.93-1.16). However, the strong association between placenta accreta and postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy (rate ratio 286, 95% CI 226-361) resulted in a population-attributable fraction of 29.0% (95% CI 24.3-34.3). Placenta accreta is too infrequent to account for the recent temporal increase in postpartum hemorrhage but contributes substantially to the proportion of postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy.

  3. Delayed treatment with ADAMTS13 ameliorates cerebral ischemic injury without hemorrhagic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takafumi; Irie, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Sano, Kazunori; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Yuta; Satho, Tomomitsu; Fujioka, Masayuki; Muroi, Carl; Matsuo, Koichi; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Futagami, Kojiro; Mishima, Kenichi

    2015-10-22

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke. However, delayed tPA treatment increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage and can result in exacerbation of nerve injury. ADAMTS13, a von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, has a protective effect against ischemic brain injury and may reduce bleeding risk by cleaving VWF. We examined whether ADAMTS13 has a longer therapeutic time window in ischemic stroke than tPA in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). ADAMTS13 (0.1mg/kg) or tPA (10mg/kg) was administered i.v., immediately after reperfusion of after 2-h or 4-h MCAO for comparison of the therapeutic time windows in ischemic stroke. Infarct volume, hemorrhagic volume, plasma high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) levels and cerebral blood flow were measured 24h after MCAO. Both ADAMTS13 and tPA improved the infarct volume without hemorrhagic complications in 2-h MCAO mice. On the other hand, ADAMTS13 reduced the infarct volume and plasma HMGB1 levels, and improved cerebral blood flow without hemorrhagic complications in 4-h MCAO mice, but tPA was not effective and these animals showed massive intracerebral hemorrhage. These results indicated that ADAMTS13 has a longer therapeutic time window in ischemic stroke than tPA, and ADAMTS13 may be useful as a new therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Andexanet alfa effectively reverses edoxaban anticoagulation effects and associated bleeding in a rabbit acute hemorrhage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Genmin; Pine, Polly; Leeds, Janet M.; DeGuzman, Francis; Pratikhya, Pratikhya; Lin, Joyce; Malinowski, John; Hollenbach, Stanley J.; Curnutte, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing use of factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors necessitates effective reversal agents to manage bleeding. Andexanet alfa, a novel modified recombinant human FXa, rapidly reverses the anticoagulation effects of direct and indirect FXa inhibitors. Objective To evaluate the ability of andexanet to reverse anticoagulation in vitro and reduce bleeding in rabbits administered edoxaban. Materials and methods In vitro studies characterized the interaction of andexanet with edoxaban and its ability to reverse edoxaban-mediated anti-FXa activity. In a rabbit model of surgically induced, acute hemorrhage, animals received edoxaban vehicle+andexanet vehicle (control), edoxaban (1 mg/kg)+andexanet vehicle, edoxaban+andexanet (75 mg, 5-minute infusion, 20 minutes after edoxaban), or edoxaban vehicle+andexanet prior to injury. Results Andexanet bound edoxaban with high affinity similar to FXa. Andexanet rapidly and dose-dependently reversed the effects of edoxaban on FXa activity and coagulation pharmacodynamic parameters in vitro. In edoxaban-anticoagulated rabbits, andexanet reduced anti-FXa activity by 82% (from 548±87 to 100±41 ng/ml; P<0.0001), mean unbound edoxaban plasma concentration by ~80% (from 100±10 to 21±6 ng/ml; P<0.0001), and blood loss by 80% vs. vehicle (adjusted for control, 2.6 vs. 12.9 g; P = 0.003). The reduction in blood loss correlated with the decrease in anti-FXa activity (r = 0.6993, P<0.0001) and unbound edoxaban (r = 0.5951, P = 0.0035). Conclusion These data demonstrate that andexanet rapidly reversed the anticoagulant effects of edoxaban, suggesting it could be clinically valuable for the management of acute and surgery-related bleeding. Correlation of blood loss with anti-FXa activity supports the use of anti-FXa activity as a biomarker for assessing anticoagulation reversal in clinical trials. PMID:29590221

  5. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause is determined and is referred to as “secondary” intracranial hypertension. What are the risk factors for idiopathic intracranial ... clotting disorders, anemia and malnutrition. Can idiopathic intracranial ... to be “secondary” which affects males and females equally. The second ...

  6. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Beer, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    graduated compression stockings, using intermittent pneumatic compression in immobile patients, and using blood pressure lowering for secondary prevention. We found moderate-quality evidence to support weak recommendations for intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure to ...BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounted for 9% to 27% of all strokes worldwide in the last decade, with high early case fatality and poor functional outcome. In view of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the management of ICH, the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) has...... Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: We found moderate- to high-quality evidence to support strong recommendations for managing patients with acute ICH on an acute stroke unit, avoiding hemostatic therapy for acute ICH not associated with antithrombotic drug use, avoiding...

  7. Intraventricular Hemorrhage Due to Coagulopathy After Vitamin K Administration in a Preterm Infant With Maternal Crohn Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumichi Fujioka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a devastating morbidity in preterm infants and can result in poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Intraventricular hemorrhage usually occurs within 72 hours after birth; post–acute-phase IVH (>1 week after birth is uncommon. Development of the hemostatic system in fetuses and neonates is an age-dependent evolving process, and the neonatal hemostatic system is characterized by low levels of vitamin K–dependent factors, with further reduction caused by prematurity. Importantly, a severe coagulation deficiency can be a major contributing factor of IVH. Active maternal Crohn disease (CD during pregnancy causes malnutrition via enteral malabsorption; this may include vitamin K deficiency, resulting in fetal vitamin K deficiency. We herein describe a preterm infant who was born to a mother with CD and developed post–acute-phase IVH due to coagulopathy despite vitamin K administration.

  8. Effect of early rehabilitation training on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Shu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 56 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in Zigong Third People’s Hospital between July 2014 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into early rehabilitation group and routine rehabilitation group, the early rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 2 d after cerebral hemorrhage condition was stabilized, and routine rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 14 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Serum contents of oxygen free radicals, nerve injury markers and neurotrophic molecules were detected 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Results: 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage, serum MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, GFAP, NSE, Tf, Ft and S100B levels of early rehabilitation group were significantly lower than those of routine rehabilitation group while BDNF, NGF, NTF-α and IGF-I levels were significantly higher than those of routine rehabilitation group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone for cerebral hemorrhage can inhibit the oxygen free radical generation, reduce the degree of nerve injury and improve the neurotrophic state.

  9. Activated Protein C Drives the Hyperfibrinolysis of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ross A; Guerreiro, Maria; Frith, Daniel; Rourke, Claire; Platton, Sean; Cohen, Mitchell; Pearse, Rupert; Thiemermann, Chris; Brohi, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with hemorrhage accounting for 40% of deaths. Acute traumatic coagulopathy exacerbates bleeding, but controversy remains over the degree to which inhibition of procoagulant pathways (anticoagulation), fibrinogen loss, and fibrinolysis drive the pathologic process. Through a combination of experimental study in a murine model of trauma hemorrhage and human observation, the authors' objective was to determine the predominant pathophysiology of acute traumatic coagulopathy. First, a prospective cohort study of 300 trauma patients admitted to a single level 1 trauma center with blood samples collected on arrival was performed. Second, a murine model of acute traumatic coagulopathy with suppressed protein C activation via genetic mutation of thrombomodulin was used. In both studies, analysis for coagulation screen, activated protein C levels, and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. In patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy, the authors have demonstrated elevated activated protein C levels with profound fibrinolytic activity and early depletion of fibrinogen. Procoagulant pathways were only minimally inhibited with preservation of capacity to generate thrombin. Compared to factors V and VIII, proteases that do not undergo activated protein C-mediated cleavage were reduced but maintained within normal levels. In transgenic mice with reduced capacity to activate protein C, both fibrinolysis and fibrinogen depletion were significantly attenuated. Other recognized drivers of coagulopathy were associated with less significant perturbations of coagulation. Activated protein C-associated fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis, rather than inhibition of procoagulant pathways, predominate in acute traumatic coagulopathy. In combination, these findings suggest a central role for the protein C pathway in acute traumatic coagulopathy and provide new translational opportunities for management of

  10. Blood volume of nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats before and after acute hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznock, E.M.; Strack, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood volume (BV) was determined in awake, nonsplenectomized (NSPX) and splenectomized (SPX) cats before and after hemorrhage (6 ml/kg). Each NSPX cat had a determined BV at least 10 ml/kg greater than the same cat after splenectomy. The mean BV of SPX cats was 43.4 +/- 8.94. ml kg (4.3% of body weight). The calculated RBC masses of NSPX and SPX cats were 17.0 +/- 4.07 and 12.2 +/- 1.12 ml/kg, respectively. Each NSPX cat had apparent RBC masses of 5 ml/kg greater than that of the same cat after splenectomy was done. At 1 hour after a hemorrhage, the BV and RBC masses determined in SPX cats were 46.7 +/- 12.1 and 9.7 +/- 1.90 ml/kg, respectively. Extravascular-to-intravascular fluid flux (calculated from RBC masses and plasma protein dilution) was approximately 0.80% of body weight. The indirect method with 51 Cr-labeled RBC for BV determination was accurate and precise in awake, SPX cats; in awake, NSPX cats, the 51 Cr-labeled RBC dilution method was precise, but not accurate. The spleen in the cat resulted in marked overestimations of BV and RBC masses

  11. Risk of hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tapan; Hussain, Mohammed; Sheth, Khushboo; Ding, Yuchuan; McCullough, Louise D

    2017-06-01

    Several rheumatologic conditions including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody (APS) syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma are known risk factors for stroke. The risk of hemorrhagic transformation after an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in these patients is not known. We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data between 2010 and 2012 with ICD 9 diagnostic codes for AIS. The primary outcome was the development of hemorrhagic transformation. Multivariate predictors for hemorrhagic transformation were identified with a logistic regression model. Using SAS 9.2, Survey procedures were used to accommodate for hierarchical two stage cluster design of NIS. APS (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.14-5.81, p = 0.0228) independently predicted risk of hemorrhagic transformation in multivariate regression analysis. Similarly, in multivariate regression models for the outcome variables of total charges of the hospitalization and length of stay (LOS), patients with APS had the highest charges ($56,286, p = 0.0228) and LOS (3.87 days, p = 0.0164) compared to other co-variates. Univariate analysis showed increased mortality in the APS compared to the non-APS group (11.68% vs. 7.16%, p = 0.0024). APS is an independent risk factor for hemorrhagic transformation in both thrombolytic and non-thrombolytic treated patients. APS is also associated with longer length and cost of hospital stay. Further research is warranted to identify the unique risk factors in these patients to identify strategies to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic transformation in this subgroup of the population.

  12. Analysis of angiographic findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage: comparison between intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kwon, Jin Sook; Yoon, Soo Woong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the angioarchitectures of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and to determine whether there was correlation between angioarchitectures and patterns of intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral, intraventricular, and both) in cerebral AVM. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who between November 1989 and December 1994 suffered supratentorial AVM with intracranial hemorrhage were studied retrospectively. Among 128 patients, intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage were seen in 68(53%) and 24 patients(19%), respectively, while both types were seen in the remaining 36 (28%). We analyzed the angioarchitectual characteristics of AVM, namely nidi, feeding arteries and draining veins, in three hemorrhagic groups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and both. The X 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. A cortically located nidus was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while a periventricular location was most common in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001). Location in the corpus callosum, choroid plexus, or intraventricular area was more frequent in the intraventricular than the intracerebral hemorrhagic group (p<0.05). Superficial venous drainage was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.001), and deep venous drainage in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p=3D0.001). The angioarchitectual characteristics of cerebral arteriovenous malformation correlate significantly with patterns of intracranial hemorrhage, and awareness of the type of hemorrhage could help to manage patients and determine prognosis.=20

  13. Acute chest pain in a patient with a non-strangulated hiatal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander John Scumpia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute chest pain resulting in spontaneous idiopathic hemomediastinum is a rare, potentially life-threatening occurrence. Acute chest pain is a common chief complaint of patients, accounting for 2.4%–6.0% of adult emergency room visits. The clinician's differential diagnoses for acute chest pain rarely include complications of hiatal hernias. An 83-year-old male presented with acute chest pain and was emergently diagnosed with hemomediastinum secondary to spontaneous gastric mesenteric vessel rupture due to a non-strangulated hiatal hernia after physical exertion.

  14. Intracerebral hemorrhage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracerebral hemorrhage may be caused by trauma (brain injury) or abnormalities of the blood vessels (aneurysm or angioma), but it is most commonly associated with high blood pressure (hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage).

  15. Acute Cholecystitis as a Cause of Fever in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Rae Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a very common complication that has been related to poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. The incidence of acalculous cholecystitis is reportedly 0.5%–5% in critically ill patients, and cerebrovascular disease is a risk factor for acute cholecystitis (AC. However, abdominal evaluations are not typically performed for febrile patients who have recently undergone aSAH surgeries. In this study, we discuss our experiences with febrile aSAH patients who were eventually diagnosed with AC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 192 consecutive patients who underwent aSAH from January 2009 to December 2012. We evaluated their characteristics, vital signs, laboratory findings, radiologic images, and pathological data from hospitalization. We defined fever as a body temperature of >38.3°C, according to the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines. We categorized the causes of fever and compared them between patients with and without AC. Results Of the 192 enrolled patients, two had a history of cholecystectomy, and eight (4.2% were eventually diagnosed with AC. Among them, six patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In their pathological findings, two patients showed findings consistent with coexistent chronic cholecystitis, and two showed necrotic changes to the gall bladder. Patients with AC tended to have higher white blood cell counts, aspartame aminotransferase levels, and C-reactive protein levels than patients with fevers from other causes. Predictors of AC in the aSAH group were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 8.758; P = 0.033 and the initial consecutive fasting time (OR, 1.325; P = 0.024. Conclusions AC may cause fever in patients with aSAH. When patients with aSAH have a fever, diabetes mellitus and a long fasting time, AC should be suspected. A high degree of suspicion and a thorough abdominal examination of febrile aSAH patients allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment of this

  16. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system with a 3D algorithm for small acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Acute Intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) requires urgent diagnosis in the emergency setting to mitigate eventual sequelae. However, experienced radiologists may not always be available to make a timely diagnosis. This is especially true for small AIH, defined as lesion smaller than 10 mm in size. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of small AIH would facilitate timely diagnosis. A previously developed 2D algorithm shows high false positive rates in the evaluation based on LAC/USC cases, due to the limitation of setting up correct coordinate system for the knowledge-based classification system. To achieve a higher sensitivity and specificity, a new 3D algorithm is developed. The algorithm utilizes a top-hat transformation and dynamic threshold map to detect small AIH lesions. Several key structures of brain are detected and are used to set up a 3D anatomical coordinate system. A rule-based classification of the lesion detected is applied based on the anatomical coordinate system. For convenient evaluation in clinical environment, the CAD module is integrated with a stand-alone system. The CAD is evaluated by small AIH cases and matched normal collected in LAC/USC. The result of 3D CAD and the previous 2D CAD has been compared.

  17. Adult-onset photosensitivity: clinical significance and epilepsy syndromes including idiopathic (possibly genetic) photosensitive occipital epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Tsirka, Vasiliki; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical associations of adult-onset photosensitivity, we studied the clinical and EEG data of patients who were referred due to a possible first seizure and who had a photoparoxysmal response on their EEG. Patients with clinical evidence of photosensitivity before the age of 20 were excluded. Of a total of 30 patients, four had acute symptomatic seizures, two had vasovagal syncope, and 24 were diagnosed with epilepsy. Nine of the 24 patients had idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies and predominantly generalized photoparoxysmal response, but also rare photically-induced seizures, while 15 had exclusively, or almost exclusively, reflex photically-induced occipital seizures with frequent secondary generalization and posterior photoparoxysmal response. Other important differences included a significantly older age at seizure onset and paucity of spontaneous interictal epileptic discharges in patients with photically-induced occipital seizures; only a quarter of these had occasional occipital spikes, in contrast to the idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy patients with typically generalized epileptic discharges. On the other hand, both groups shared a positive family history of epilepsy, common seizure threshold modulators (such as tiredness and sleep deprivation), normal neurological examination and MRI, a generally benign course, and good response to valproic acid. We demonstrated that photosensitivity can first occur in adult life and manifest, either as idiopathic (possibly genetic) photosensitive occipital epilepsy with secondary generalization or as an EEG, and less often, a clinical/EEG feature of idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies. Identification of idiopathic photosensitive occipital epilepsy fills a diagnostic gap in adult first-seizure epileptology and is clinically important because of its good response to antiepileptic drug treatment and fair prognosis.

  18. Targets of vascular protection in acute ischemic stroke differ in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Cobbs, Aisha I.; Prakash, Roshini; Li, Weiguo; Pillai, Bindu; Hafez, Sherif; Coucha, Maha; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Ogbi, Safia N.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation is an important complication of acute ischemic stroke, particularly in diabetic patients receiving thrombolytic treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute manipulation of potential targets for vascular protection [i.e., NF-κB, peroxynitrite, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)] on vascular injury and functional outcome in a diabetic model of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment groups received a single dose of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron (III), the nonspecific NF-κB inhibitor curcumin, or the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor minocycline at reperfusion. Poststroke infarct volume, edema, hemorrhage, neurological deficits, and MMP-9 activity were evaluated. All acute treatments reduced MMP-9 and hemorrhagic transformation in diabetic groups. In addition, acute curcumin and minocycline therapy reduced edema in these animals. Improved neurological function was observed in varying degrees with treatment, as indicated by beam-walk performance, modified Bederson scores, and grip strength; however, infarct size was similar to untreated diabetic animals. In control animals, all treatments reduced MMP-9 activity, yet bleeding was not improved. Neuroprotection was only conferred by curcumin and minocycline. Uncovering the underlying mechanisms contributing to the success of acute therapy in diabetes will advance tailored stroke therapies. PMID:23335797

  19. Management of idiopathic recurrent pericarditis in adults and in children: a role for IL-1 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Antonio; Emmi, Giacomo; Cantarini, Luca; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Gattorno, Marco; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Marcolongo, Renzo; Imazio, Massimo; Martini, Alberto; Prisco, Domenico

    2018-06-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is one of the most frequent pericardial diseases, affecting up to 30% of the patients who have experienced acute pericarditis. While the diagnosis of acute pericarditis is sometime straight forward, its etiology and therapeutic management are still a challenge for physicians. In developed countries, the idiopathic form is the most frequent, and the search for an infectious etiology is almost invariably negative. Nevertheless, since standard treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine is not always able to neutralize pericardial inflammation in recurrent pericarditis, anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, has been proposed as a possible therapeutic alternative for refractory forms. IL-1 is a cytokine that exerts a pivotal role in innate immunity and in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in autoinflammatory disorders, as familial Mediterranean fever and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. The successful management of patients with acute idiopathic recurrent pericarditis (IRP) needs a teamwork approach, where cardiologists, rheumatologists, clinical immunologists and internists are involved. In this review, we will discuss the clinical and therapeutical challenges of IRP both in adults and children from a clinical practice standpoint. We will also briefly illustrate the main pathogenic mechanisms of IRP to provide internists and cardiologists with the rationale for approaching the use of anakinra in selected clinical cases.

  20. Idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog; the usefulness of a method of partial occlusion of the renal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, M; Watanabe, T; Yugeta, N; Maeda, H; Fujii, K; Wakao, Y; Takahashi, M; Yamamura, H

    1997-04-01

    Exploratory laparotomy was performed on a dog suspected of having idiopathic renal hematuria. Two catheters were inserted into the bilateral ureters, and hematuria from the left kidney was confirmed. The blood flow was occluded in the ventral and dorsal rami of the left renal artery in order to localize the site of hemorrhage. As hematuria disappeared when the dorsal ramus was occluded, the site of renal hematuria was localized to the area dominated by the dorsal ramus of the renal artery. As a result of ligating the dorsal ramus of the left renal artery in this dog, renal hematuria subsided, and the dog has shown a favorable course, to date, one year after surgery.

  1. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  2. Bilateral Occipital Lobe Hemorrhages Presenting as Denial of Blindness in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome- A Rare Combination of Anton Syndrome and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godasi, Raja; Rupareliya, Chintan; Bollu, Pradeep C

    2017-10-04

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) or reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL) is an acute neurological syndrome characterized by the development of radiological abnormalities on brain imaging along with clinical manifestations, such as a headache, seizures, encephalopathy, etc. We report the case of a middle-aged male who presented to the emergency department after he woke up with complete blindness and was found to have hemorrhagic PRES. Intracranial hemorrhages were seen in around 15% of patients who presented with this condition. In this article, we review the different types of hemorrhages seen in the setting of PRES and their associations.

  3. Emergency Department Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pneumoparotitis with Cervicofacial Subcutaneous Emphysema in a Pediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Pin Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pediatric pneumoparotitis, being rare, is often misdiagnosed in acute care settings, resulting in inappropriate initial management and emergency department (ED disposition. We report the case of a previously well 11-year-old boy who presented to our ED with acute left cheek swelling and pain. He was diagnosed with pneumoparotitis with cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema with the aid of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS and radiographs. Despite appropriate initial ED and inpatient management, he developed bilateral involvement and pneumomediastinum. After 72 hours, his condition improved and he was discharged well after five days of hospitalization. This case report highlights the use of POCUS and radiographs to facilitate an early diagnosis and appropriate ED disposition.

  4. Cranial computerized tomography in children suffering from acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cranial computerized (axial) tomography permits a more complete neurologic supervision of children with acute leukemia and a better knowledge of the frequency and varieties of cerebral complications in leukemia. Endocranial complications in acute leukemia are essentially infiltrative, hemorrhagic, infectious or iatrogenic. Cranial computerized tomography can demonstrate cerebral changes in meningeal leukemia, hemorrhages, calcifications, brain atrophy or leukencephalopathy. The preliminary results of cranial computerized tomography in childhood leukemia suggest that the iatrogenic main lesion of the brain due to combined radiation-chemotherapy is atrophy whereas that of the intrathecal cytostatic therapy is demyelination. Accurate diagnostics and control of possible cerebral complications in therapy of leukemia is essentially for appropriate therapeutic management. For that cranial computerized tomography is the best method to a effective supervision of the brain. (author)

  5. WE-EF-207-03: Design and Optimization of a CBCT Head Scanner for Detection of Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J; Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Dang, H; Stayman, J; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V; Siewerdsen, JH [Johns Hopkins University, Balitmore, MD (United States); Wang, X; Foos, DH [Carestream Health, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design a dedicated x-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) system suitable to deployment at the point-of-care and offering reliable detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and other head and neck injuries. Methods: A comprehensive task-based image quality model was developed to guide system design and optimization of a prototype head scanner suitable to imaging of acute TBI and ICH. Previously reported models were expanded to include the effects of x-ray scatter correction necessary for detection of low contrast ICH and the contribution of bit depth (digitization noise) to imaging performance. Task-based detectablity index provided the objective function for optimization of system geometry, x-ray source, detector type, anti-scatter grid, and technique at 10–25 mGy dose. Optimal characteristics were experimentally validated using a custom head phantom with 50 HU contrast ICH inserts imaged on a CBCT imaging bench allowing variation of system geometry, focal spot size, detector, grid selection, and x-ray technique. Results: The model guided selection of system geometry with a nominal source-detector distance 1100 mm and optimal magnification of 1.50. Focal spot size ∼0.6 mm was sufficient for spatial resolution requirements in ICH detection. Imaging at 90 kVp yielded the best tradeoff between noise and contrast. The model provided quantitation of tradeoffs between flat-panel and CMOS detectors with respect to electronic noise, field of view, and readout speed required for imaging of ICH. An anti-scatter grid was shown to provide modest benefit in conjunction with post-acquisition scatter correction. Images of the head phantom demonstrate visualization of millimeter-scale simulated ICH. Conclusions: Performance consistent with acute TBI and ICH detection is feasible with model-based system design and robust artifact correction in a dedicated head CBCT system. Further improvements can be achieved with incorporation of

  6. Ultraearly hematoma growth in active intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscojuela, Pilar; Rubiera, Marta; Hill, Michael D.; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Aviv, Richard I.; Silva, Yolanda; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Lum, Cheemun; Czlonkowska, Anna; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Kase, Carlos S.; Gubitz, Gord; Bhatia, Rohit; Padma, Vasantha; Roy, Jayanta; Tomasello, Alejandro; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Molina, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) with the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, hematoma expansion, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: We analyzed data from 231 patients enrolled in the multicenter Predicting Haematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Haemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT study. uHG was defined as baseline ICH volume/onset-to-CT time (mL/h). The spot sign was used as marker of active hemorrhage. Outcome parameters included significant hematoma expansion (>33% or >6 mL, primary outcome), rate of hematoma expansion, early neurologic deterioration, 90-day mortality, and poor outcome. Results: uHG was higher in spot sign patients (p 4.7 mL/h (p = 0.002) and the CTA spot sign (p = 0.030) showed effects on rate of hematoma expansion but not its interaction (2-way analysis of variance, p = 0.477). uHG >4.7 mL/h improved the sensitivity of the spot sign in the prediction of significant hematoma expansion (73.9% vs 46.4%), early neurologic deterioration (67.6% vs 35.3%), 90-day mortality (81.6% vs 44.9%), and poor outcome (72.8% vs 29.8%), respectively. uHG was independently related to significant hematoma expansion (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.10) and clinical outcomes. Conclusions: uHG is a useful predictor of hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcomes in patients with acute ICH. The combination of high uHG and the spot sign is associated with a higher rate of hematoma expansion, highlighting the need for very fast treatment in ICH patients. PMID:27343067

  7. Pseudoparasitic Liesegang structures in perirenal hemorrhagic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneige, N; Dekmezian, R H; Silva, E G; Cartwright, J; Ayala, A G

    1988-02-01

    Periodic structures with equally spaced radial striations identified as Liesegang-like rings were seen in two male patients' hemorrhagic perirenal cysts. The patients, one 48 and the other 60 years old, had acute right-flank pain and anemia; both had nephrectomy. The rings, initially believed to represent parasites (Dioctophyma renale), were from 8 to 500 micron in diameter and had uniform, pink-tan, radially striated double walls. Multiple small rings within a larger ring predominated in one case. Morphologically, the rings differed from D. renale when compared with specimens from animals infected naturally or experimentally with the giant kidney worm. Histochemical and immunoperoxidase tests for iron, calcium, mucopolysaccharides, amyloid, keratin, and hemoglobin had negative results. Energy-dispersive x-ray elemental analysis demonstrated no detectable elements; ultrastructurally, however, the rings displayed a fine fibrillary composition with a concentric and radial pattern. These rings are believed to be an end product of a phenomenon resembling or are, in fact, the Liesegang phenomenon. Because these Liesegang-like structures may be mistaken for parasites on fine-needle aspiration or surgical specimens of hemorrhagic areas, pathologists should be aware of them.

  8. Hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage caused by cryptic angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shinichi; Sano, Keiji; Kwak, Suyong; Saito, Isamu.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 44 patients with hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and nine patients with cerebellar hemorrhage caused by small angiomas is described. Hypertensive hemorrhage occurred most frequently in the patients in their seventies, whereas the onset of angioma-caused hemorrhage was often seen below the age of 40. Clinical syndromes of cerebellar hemorrhages can be categorized into three basic types: the vertigo syndrome, cerebellar dysfunction syndrome and brain stem compression syndrome. Patients with small (>= 2 cm in diameter in CT scans) and medium-sized (2 cm = 3 cm) hematomas deteriorated into unresponsive conditions and developed signs of brain stem compression. Surgical mortality was 32% in the hypertensive group, while it was 0% in the angioma group. Mortality as well as morbidity in both groups was strongly influenced by the preoperative status of consciousness. Our results suggest that substantial improvement could be obtained in the overall outcome of this disease by emergency craniectomy and removal of hematomas in all patients with large hematomas regardless of the levels of consciousness and regardless of the causes of bleeding. Furthermore, when clinical information and CT findings are suggestive of a ''cryptic'' angioma as the causative lesion, posterior fossa surgery may be indicated to extirpate the lesion, even if the hematoma is small. (author)

  9. Changes in the regional cerebral blood flow after drug-induced blood-pressure reduction in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwata, Noriyuki; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Naoya; Konno, Hiromu; Iwabuchi, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1993-01-01

    In patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages, changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after drug-induced blood-pressure reduction were examined by means of subtraction SPECT. The subjects were 38 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages; 22 were putaminal hemorrhages (mean age, 56.8 years; mean hematoma volume, 18.4 cc), while 16 were thalamic hemorrhages (mean age, 61.9 years; mean hematoma volume, 7.8 cc). The rCBF was measured by means of SPECT (Tomomatic 64) with 133 Xe inhalation. Trimethaphan (an autonomic ganglion blocker) and diltiazem hydrochloride (a calcium antagonist) were used for the reduction of the blood pressure. The results were as follows: In the acute stage, the mean CBF was reduced when the blood pressure fell by more than 20% in both the putaminal hemorrhages and the thalamic hemorrhages. A similar tendency was observed in the subacute stage, except that a greater reduction in the blood pressure was needed to induce mean CBF reduction. The subtraction of rCBF maps before and after hypotension treatment shows a reduction of the rCBF in the lateral region of hematoma and the contralateral hemisphere. (author)

  10. Cannabis can augment thrombolytic properties of rtPA: Intracranial hemorrhage in a heavy cannabis user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shere, Amar; Goyal, Hemant

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the United States and is considered to have several adverse health effects. There is evidence suggesting that its recreational use is associated with both increased cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Recently, multiple cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes associated with cannabis use were reported in the literature (Goyal et al., 2017). It has been suggested that cannabis can affect cerebral auto-regulation and vascular tone leading to vasoconstriction and acute ischemic stroke. However, hemorrhagic strokes, which are often seen with sympathomimetic illicit drugs (e.g. cocaine and amphetamines), have rarely been reported due to cannabis. Many cellular mechanisms within non-ischemic tissue post stroke may be augmented by heavy cannabis use. Here, we describe a rapid development of hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy in a patient with heavy cannabis use with an ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High syndecan-1 levels in acute myeloid leukemia are associated with bleeding, thrombocytopathy, endothelial cell damage, and leukocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Mette Vestskov; Leinøe, Eva Birgitte; Johansson, Pär I

    2013-01-01

    The risk of hemorrhage is influenced by multiple factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated whether hemorrhage in AML patients was associated with endothelial perturbation, potentially caused by thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction and leukocytosis. Biomarkers of endothelial...

  12. Neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadahiko; Ogata, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Nakao, Satoshi; Mizue, Hidenari; Kobayashi, Yutaka.

    1982-01-01

    1. We have reviewed 34 cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset, 23 mature and 11 premature infants) experienced in 10-year period from 1971 to 1980, with special reference to gestational age, birth weight, type of delivery, presence or absence of asphyxia, symptoms and cause of death. 2. Regarding 9 autopsied cases and 7 cases diagnosed by CT-scan, 10 mature infants composed of 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 2 intraventricular hemorrhages, 2 subdural hematomas, 2 intracerebral and 1 subependymal hemorrhage; 6 premature infants consisted of 4 subependymal hemorrhages with ventricular rupture and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages. Most of them presented with respiratory distress, vomiting and convulsive seizures which developed within 5 days after birth. 3. Poor outcome including death amounted 49% of mature and 63% of premature infants. Along with degree of intracranial hematoma, prematurity and pulmonary complication were felt to be important prognostic factors. 4. Introduction of CT-scan led to prompt diagnosis and treatment, thus lowering mortality rate of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. (author)

  13. Fatal hepatic hemorrhage by peliosis hepatis in X-linked myotubular myopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, T; Fukuda, M; Nakano, T; Matsukage, S; Fukui, A; Akiyoshi, S; Hayashi, Y K; Ishii, E; Nishino, I

    2013-11-01

    We report a 5-year-old boy with X-linked myotubular myopathy complicated by peliosis hepatis. At birth, he was affected with marked generalized muscle hypotonia and weakness, which required permanent ventilatory support, and was bedridden for life. He died of acute fatal hepatic hemorrhage after using a mechanical in-exsufflator. Peliosis hepatis, defined as multiple, variable-sized, cystic blood-filled spaces through the liver parenchyma, was confirmed by autopsy. To avoid fatal hepatic hemorrhage by peliosis hepatis, routine hepatic function tests and abdominal imaging tests should be performed for patients with X-linked myotubular myopathy, especially at the time of using artificial respiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary catecholamines in patients with acute stroke, in reference to CT scan findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kimiaki

    1985-01-01

    The amount of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) in the urine of 160 stroke patients were measured both at the acute stage and at the chronic stage (31 days or later) of the diseases and a CT scan was taken simultaneously. The urinary NE and E were separated by the high performance liquid chromatography and measured by trihydroxyindole method. Forty five healthy subjects were employed as a control group. The results were as follows: 1) In subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage the NE and E and in cerebral infarction the NE were significantly increased in the acute stage. But, when divided by CT scan findings, the group of intracerebral hemorrhage without perforation into the ventricles showed increases of NE only and those without deviation of midline showed no significant increase of the NE and E. In cases of large cerebral infarction, both NE and E were significantly increased. It is supposed that not only the type of the disease but also the facfors such as its size, perforation into the ventricles and deviation of the midline may change activities of secretion of NE and E. 2) The NE/E ratio was significantly low in the group of intracerebral hemorrhage with perforation into the ventricles (p < 0.001) and the ratio was significantly lower in the thalamic hemorrhage than in the putaminal hemorrhage (p < 0.02). The rate of perforation into the ventricles was significantly higher in the thalamic hemorrhage (78.6 %) than that of the putaminal hemorrhage (10.5 %). 3) In the chronic stage of the stroke, the NE and E (especially E) were decreased and showed a high NE/E. ratio. (author)

  15. Acute subdural hemorrhage while traveling by bus: a risk factor in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Suna; Topacoglu, Hakan; Acarbay, Sabiha; Ozbas, Kerem

    2005-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was delivered to our emergency department by an intercity bus. About 4 hours into a journey, he had complained of a headache to his wife. After one more hour, she noted a change in his level of alertness and notified the bus driver. A computed tomography scan of the head showed a subdural hemorrhage.

  16. Clinical application of magnetic resonance in acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Dionei F.; Gaia, Felipe F.P. [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia]. E-mail: centro@cerebroecoluna.com.br; Spotti, Antonio R.; Tognola, Waldir A. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Neurologicas; Andrade, Almir F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Neurocirurgia da Emergencia

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): to identify the type, quantity, severity; and improvement clinical-radiological correlation. Method: Assessment of 55 patients who were imaged using CT and MRI, 34 (61.8%) males and 21 (38.2%) females, with acute (0 to 5 days) and closed TBI. Results: Statistical significant differences (McNemar test): occurred fractures were detected by CT in 29.1% and by MRI in 3.6% of the patients; subdural hematoma by CT in 10.9% and MRI in 36.4 %; diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by CT in 1.8% and MRI in 50.9%; cortical contusions by CT in 9.1% and MRI in 41.8%; subarachnoid hemorrhage by CT in 18.2% and MRI in 41.8%. Conclusion: MRI was superior to the CT in the identification of DAI, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortical contusions, and acute subdural hematoma; however it was inferior in diagnosing fractures. The detection of DAI was associated with the severity of acute TBI. (author)

  17. Clinical application of magnetic resonance in acute traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Dionei F.; Gaia, Felipe F.P.; Spotti, Antonio R.; Tognola, Waldir A.; Andrade, Almir F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): to identify the type, quantity, severity; and improvement clinical-radiological correlation. Method: Assessment of 55 patients who were imaged using CT and MRI, 34 (61.8%) males and 21 (38.2%) females, with acute (0 to 5 days) and closed TBI. Results: Statistical significant differences (McNemar test): occurred fractures were detected by CT in 29.1% and by MRI in 3.6% of the patients; subdural hematoma by CT in 10.9% and MRI in 36.4 %; diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by CT in 1.8% and MRI in 50.9%; cortical contusions by CT in 9.1% and MRI in 41.8%; subarachnoid hemorrhage by CT in 18.2% and MRI in 41.8%. Conclusion: MRI was superior to the CT in the identification of DAI, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortical contusions, and acute subdural hematoma; however it was inferior in diagnosing fractures. The detection of DAI was associated with the severity of acute TBI. (author)

  18. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  19. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  20. Endovascular Treatment for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema in the Acute Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Toshinari; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Muraoka, Kenichiro; Terada, Kinya; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Severe neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) can occur in a variety of brain insults, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and severe case of NPE can cause devastating consequences. But the literature on the treatment strategy about aneurysmal SAH with NPE is very scant. We present that SAH patients with severe NPE, who were treated first by embolization of aneurysm followed by insertion of lumbar spinal drainage, had comparatively good outcome. We present 12 consecutive cases of aneurysmal SAH with NPE in the acute stage, which were treated by endovascular treatment between April 2002 and December 2012. We classified the patients according to the Hunt and Hess grading system as follows: grade-3 (1 patient), grade-4 (4 patients), and grade-5 (7 patients). All patients needed respiratory management, with the assistance of a ventilator, and underwent endovascular treatment for the ruptured aneurysms within 72 hours from onset. For all the patients, immediately after the endovascular treatment, we performed lumbar spinal drainage. The pulmonary edema disappeared rapidly after respiratory management and endovascular treatment. The outcomes were as follows: good recovery (GR; 3 patients), moderate disability (MD; 4 patients), severe disability (SD; 3 patients), and death (D; 2 patients). Five patients (42%) developed pneumonia, and we postponed extubation until recovery from pneumonia. The cause for severe disability and death was symptomatic vasospasm and primary brain damage. No patients had rebleeding from ruptured aneurysms. Endovascular treatment for ruptured aneurysm and placement of lumbar spinal drainage is an excellent treatment option for severe SAH with NPE.

  1. Perimesencephalic hemorrhage: a nonaneurysmal and benign form of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gijn, J.; van Dongen, K. J.; Vermeulen, M.; Hijdra, A.

    1985-01-01

    We studied 28 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and normal angiograms. On early CT (within 5 days) in 13 cases, blood was seen mainly or only in the cisterns around the midbrain. This pattern of hemorrhage was found in only 1 of 92 patients with a ruptured aneurysm. None of the unexplained

  2. Acute kidney injury in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is a major risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Afshan; Tresa, Vina; Lanewala, Ali Asghar; Hashmi, Seema; Ali, Irshad; Khatri, Sabeeta; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2017-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and is associated with adverse outcomes, especially the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to determine the clinical profile of children with INS who developed AKI and its short-term outcome. This prospective study was conducted from March 2014 to October 2015. A total of 119 children of INS (age: 2-18 years) fulfilling the pediatric RIFLE criteria for the diagnosis of AKI were enrolled and followed up for 3 months to determine the outcome. Factors predisposing to CKD were studied. The mean age at presentation was 8.8 ± 3.59 years and males were 74 (62.2%). At presentation, 61 (51.3%) children were in Risk category, 43 (36.1%) in Injury category, and 15 (12.6%) in Failure category. Most of them (41.2%) had steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on histopathology (33.6%). Infections were the major predisposing factor for AKI in 67 (56.3%) cases. Drug toxicity was the next common, found in 52 (43.7%) children. A total of 65 (54.6%) children recovered from AKI, while 54 (45.4%) did not. CKD developed in 49 (41.2%) non-recovered cases and 5 (4.2%) children succumbed to acute illness. SRNS, cyclosporine use, FSGS on histology, and drug toxicity were significant factors associated with the development of CKD. AKI associated with INS is a reversible condition in most cases but it can progress to CKD, especially among those who have SRNS, FSGS, and drug toxicity.

  3. Computed Tomography of Interacerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate and reliable method for the diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the nematoma, associated cerebral edema, ventricular deformity and displacement, and hydrocephalus are all readily assessed. Aside from head trauma, the principal cause of intracerebral hematoma is hypertensive vascular disease. Although hematomas from various causes may present similar CT appearances frequently the correct etiology may be suggested by consideration of patient's age, clinical history, and the location of the hematoma. The analytical study was performed in 180 cases of intracerebral hemorrhages by CT from October 1981 to January 1983. The results were as follows; 1. The most prevalent age group was 6th decade (37.2%). Male was prevalent to female at the ration of 1.6 to 1. 2. The most common symptom and sign was mental disturbance (48.7%), motor weakness (23%), headache (10.6%), nausea and vomiting (9.8%). 3. The causes of hemorrhage were hypertension (53.9%), head trauma (30.6%), aneurysm (6.1%) and A-V malformation (7.2%). 4. The frequent locations of hemorrhage were basal ganglia and thalamus (40.4%), lobes (35%), ventricles (21.8%). 5. The distribution of hemorrhage was intracerebral hemorrhage (65.6%), intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (30.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (4.4%).

  4. Retrospective Analyses Of The Acute Pancreatitis With Patients In The West Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAŞAR, Ali Kemal TAŞKIN, İsmet ÖZAYDIN, Yavuz DEMİRARAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In these study patients who were our clinic with an etiology, diagnosis andtreatment methods, morbidity, mortality and effect of Ranson criteria to prognosis wereexamined retrospectively. Material and Method: In the study 44 mild and 18 severe total 62 AP cases among 2003-2008at the General Surgery of Duzce University were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A etiologic factor was 40 (66,7 %, gallstone 11 (17, 7% idiopathic, 4 (6,4 %hyperlipidemia, 3 (4,8% alchol-hyperlipidemia, 2 (3,2 % alcohol, 2 (3,2 % after ERCPcomplications. Patients were followed up with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, the average ageof 59.6 (18 - 84 and 23 (37% were man, 39 (63% were woman. ERCP were performed to 14patients with billiary pancreatitis 2 patients for the persistent billiary pancreatitis and for the 6patients cholecystitis accompanied pancreatitis in the first 48 hours period, 23 patients followingthe acute pancreatitis attack were performed cholecystectomy. Acute pancreatitis patients first6 cases of biliary 3 reputations have been switched to laparoscopic open cholecystectomy isbeing performed. 3 patients peritoneal lavage under local anesthesia, 4 patients’ diagnosticlaparoscopy and 2 patients nerosectomy were performed. Mean hospitalization times were 9.8days for mild and 11.2 days severe. In the severe group idiopathic a etiology 3 (4.8 % patientswere exitus. Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is a disease that can watch a high mortality rate. Biliary factorswere the most common etiological factor. Idiopathic AP played a role in second place and wehave observed that the effect of alcohol is quite low. In biliary acute pancreatitis ERCP is auseful method in the first stage. Overall mortality in severe AP, as observed in patients with thediagnosis, treatment and follow-up was important in these patients.

  5. A Case of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhagic Anemia-Induced Fetal Hydrops, Maternal Mirror Syndrome, and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin–Induced Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT can be a cause of severe fetal thrombocytopenia, with the common presentation being intracranial hemorrhage in the fetus, usually in the third trimester. A very unusual case of fetal anemia progressed to hydrops. This was further complicated by maternal Mirror syndrome and human chorionic gonadotropin–induced thyrotoxicosis. Without knowledge of etiology, and possibly due to associated cardiac dysfunction, fetal transfusion resulted in fetal demise. Subsequent testing revealed FNAIT as the cause of severe hemorrhagic anemia. In cases with fetal anemia without presence of red blood cell antibodies, FNAIT must be ruled out as a cause prior to performing fetal transfusion. Fetal heart may adapt differently to acute hemorrhagic anemia compared with a more subacute hemolytic anemia.

  6. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A long term relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Gnanapandithan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a dreaded disease of uncertain etiology and no available cure. It is still unclear if a causal relationship exists between gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and IPF, but studies have shown an increased prevalence of acid reflux in patients with IPF. We describe a patient with achalasia and GER who went on to develop IPF. She underwent a rapidly worsening course punctuated by acute exacerbations of IPF, despite best efforts to manage the acid GER. We also reviewed the literature on the role of GER in the etiology and progression of IPF and the impact of antireflux measures on its course.

  8. Clinical study on the changes of plasma Hcy, β2-m, cortisol, NPY levels and NPY contents in CSF in patients with acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage as well as patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Wenhua; Yang Yongqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To invest/gate the clinical significance of the changes of plasma Hcy, β 2 -m, cortisol, NPY levels and NPY contents in CSF in patients with acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage as well as patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma β 2 -m, cortisol, NPY, NPY in CSF (with RIA) and plasma Hey (with CLIA ) contents were measured in 68 patients with acute traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (mild 33, severe 35) as well as 39 patients with cerebral infarction (plus 35 controls). Results: The plasma β 2 -m, Hcy and 8h, 24h cortisol levels in all these patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 -m, Hcy, cortisol levels and NPY contents in CSF were very prominent in all these patients studied. (authors)

  9. Differential Regulation of PAI-1 in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)–1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these health problems has idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Other respiratory diseases, some of which are less serious, can cause similar signs and symptoms. In people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , scarring of the lungs increases over time until the lungs can no longer ...

  11. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Tomonaga, Masanori; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hiroyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy was studied clinicopathologically, with special attention given to the CT images. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy is characterized, by a lobar-type hemorrhage involving the cortex, with direct extension into the subarachnoid space. Multiple hemorrhages are frequent, and cortical infarctions are present as complications in elderly patients without risk factors. CT scans taken in 5 cases demonstrated lobar hemorrhages in superficial locations, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently, with surrounding edema and mass effect. A subarachnoid extension of the hemorrhage through the superficial cortex, proven pathologically in all cases, was noted by CT in 4 of the 5 cases. However, cortical infarction was not detected by CT in any case. Therefore, CT is of value in the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy based on distinctive findings such as a lobar hemorrhage in superficial regions, with extension into the subarachnoid space, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently. (author)

  12. Modified GAP index for prediction of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Haruki; Omori, Shota; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Predicting the incidence rate of acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and its prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and IPF is difficult. The aim was to study the incidence of IPF-AE during the clinical course of the disease and its prognosis in patients with both NSCLC and IPF. In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence rate of AE during the clinical course of the disease as well as the 1-year survival rate and overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC and IPF using a modified gender, age and physiology (mGAP) staging system based on gender, age and percent predicted forced vital capacity. Of 43 patients with NSCLC and IPF included in the final analysis, 17 patients (40%; 95% CI: 26-54%) experienced AE during the clinical course of the disease. One-year survival and median OS were 41.9% (95% CI: 28-57%) and 9.4 months, respectively. Further analysis showed that the incidence of IPF-AE gradually increased and that the 1-year survival rate and median OS gradually decreased with increasing mGAP index score and stage. Our study suggested that mGAP index score and cancer stage may predict IPF-AE and its prognosis in patients with NSCLC and IPF. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. M5 segment aneurysm presenting as "pure acute SDH"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous "pure acute subdural hematoma (SDH" is arguably a rare condition. We report on a pregnant female patient presenting as spontaneous acute SDH without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH due to rupture of distal (M5 segment middle cerebral artery aneurysm. We hereby discuss the diagnostic dilemma of this rare condition, along with the need for watchful evaluation of acute SDH without preceding head injury presenting in emergency outpatient departments, especially when it is first encountered by a trainee resident.

  14. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of individuals die in the first month after hemorrhagic stroke, and patients younger than 50 years are more likely to die after ICH than SAH. Short-term case fatality has decreased over time. Patients who survive hemorrhagic stroke have a continuing elevated......, 54.6% for 80-89 years; SAH: 20.3% for 20-49 years, 56.7% for 80-89 years; both p-trend stroke patients...

  15. Modeling Acute Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Injury: Challenges and Guidelines for Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L; Watts, Sarah A; Reynolds, Penny S; Thiemermann, Christoph; Brohi, Karim

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is responsible for a large proportion of the world's burden of disease, and is by far the biggest killer of young adults. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death and its effects are directly correlated with the incidence multi-organ failure in survivors. Trauma research is challenging due to patient heterogeneity, limited randomized controlled trials, and in vitro studies that fail to mimic the systemic injury response. Preclinical research remains essential for mechanistic and therapeutic discovery. Yet modeling the multifaceted nature of traumatic injury poses important experimental and welfare challenges associated with the onset of injury and prehospital and intra-operative care, the limited inter-species validation of coagulation profiles, the use of anesthesia/analgesia, and its impact on the systemic response to trauma; and the challenge of sustaining intensive care in recovery models. Proper model selection depends on the purpose of a given model and the criteria by which the experimental readouts will be clinically relevant. Such complexity warrants further refinement of experimental methodology and outcome measures to improve its clinical efficacy, while ensuring animal well-being. We review the experimental methodologies currently used for modeling traumatic hemorrhagic shock and addressing their impact on clinical translation. The aim of the review is to improve transparency and form a consensus when reporting methodology in trauma modeling.

  16. CT findings of fundal hemorrhage in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munemoto, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Shuzo; Kimura, Akira; Futami, Kazuya; Kogure, Yuzaburo; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Demachi, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old man. He lost consciousness as a result of a third subarachnoid hemorrhage attack. On neurological examination, he was found to be comatose and to have no spontaneous respiration. A mydriasis was noticed on both eyes. Bilateral retinal bleeding was also observed, with the bleeding of the left side more severe than that of the right side. After his death, his brain and eyes were examined by means of a CT scan. The CT films showed a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage and ventricular hematoma. The thin-sliced CT films showed left retinal bleeding. Retinal bleeding may be caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Usually we make a sketch of the retinal bleeding on the basis of a doctor's report. A photo of an optic fundus is a good record; however, taking a photo is troublesome for severely ill patients. The CT finding of retinal bleeding is gross, but a CT image is one good way to record retinal bleeding. (author)

  17. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-12-16

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.

  18. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an al