WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute household accidental

  1. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accidental intoxication of the infant-juvenile population in households: profiles of emergency care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyzing profiles of intoxication and accidental poisoning of infant-juvenile population (0-24 years in the household, treated at a reference facility for Emergency and Primary Care, during the year 2013. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info, by way of simple and bivariate analyzes. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (protocol 405.578. RESULTS There were 45 intoxications, with a prevalence of males (60.0%, aged 1-4 years (71.1%. Among children under one, there was a higher frequency of pesticide poisoning (66.6%, between the ages of 1-4 by cleaning products (34.4%, and between 5-9 years of age by pharmacological substances (66.6%. The primary assistance was provided only at health institutions, with hospital admissions in 24.4% of the cases. CONCLUSION The importance of prevention through legislation is evident, in order to ensure greater safety in packaging of various products, and community awareness to eliminate risks in the household environment.

  3. ACUTE ACCIDENTAL POISONING IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL-BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameshore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute accidental poisoning in children is a big problem anywhere in the world. Studies done elsewhere in India showed a wide range of incidence of the problem. Hence, it was felt important to study its magnitude and associated characteristics as of now. OBJECTIVE: The current study was taken up to know the magnitude among children admitted in JNIMS, Imphal which is a newly established medical institute and also to study the characteristics like age, gender, type of poison, duration of hospital-stay and outcome of the cases. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective data of all acute accidental poisoning cases among children admitted in the Pediatrics Ward, JNIMS, Imphal during the period July 2008 - December 2013 were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. RESULT: Of all the 13,663 children admitted, 148 cases were because of acute accidental poisoning giving an incidence rate of 1.08%. The male is to female ratio was 1.31:1. The last three years of the study period showed a slightly increasing trend in the incidence. Children aged 1-4 years were the most commonly affected (65.54%. Kerosene oil was by far the commonest (42% of all the poisonous substances consumed. Food poisoning, poisoning with organic compounds, poisoning with medicinal drugs and poisoning with corrosives comprised 21%, 12%, 9% and 8% respectively of all the cases. There was no mortality. DISCUSSION: The incidence rate of 1.08% as found out from the current study was on the lower side as compared to reports of previous studies done in other parts of the country. Yet, it was two-fold of the incidence reported from RIMS which is situated in the same State. Parental negligence in storing poisonous substances in the household was implicated. They need to be made aware for keeping harmful poisonous substances in safe places out of the reach of children. CONCLUSION: Community-based studies are recommended for estimating more accurately the magnitude of the problem in the

  4. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider t

  5. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  6. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotanda, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Hanaoka, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimer's disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patient's clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patient's cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patient's 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  8. [Acute accidental poisoning in children: aspects of their epidemiology, aetiology, and outcome at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Yé, Diarra; Fayama, Zéinabou; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Accidents are a daily concern in the paediatric ward because of their frequency, diversity and severity. Acute accidental poisoning (AAP) accounts for an important portion of these. To help improvement management of AAP, we conducted a retrospective study covering a period of 2 years from January 2005 to December 2006 at Charles de Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou. Of 9390 admissions during the study period, 123 children, or 1.3%, were admitted for poisoning. A cumulative average of 11 were admitted monthly, with a peak of 16 patients in April 2005 and 2006, together. AAP was most common among children aged 1 to 4 years. Their mean age was 3 years and ranged from 6 days to 12 years. Boys outnumbered girls, with a sex ratio of 1.2. Mothers of more than half (61%) of the children poisoned worked in the home. Household products accounted for 44.7% of AAPs, followed by drug (22.7%) and food (22%) poisoning. Kerosene and other petroleum products topped the list of household products, with 54.5%. Tranquilizers (46.4%) and dairy products (37%) dominated the drug and food poisoning categories. Immediate outcome was fatal in 3% of cases, and three quarters of these deaths occurred during drug poisoning of children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean hospital stay was 2 days, and ranged from 0 to 9 days. Health officials, the media, and community outreach must all help to increase awareness about the dangers of poisoning and of preventive measures.

  9. Use of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to accidental chlorine inhalation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Adriano Medina; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Lippi, Mauro Martins; Takatani, Rodrigo Ryoji; de Oliveira Filho, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by diffuse inflammatory lung injury and is classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Clinically, hypoxemia, bilateral opacities in lung images, and decreased pulmonary compliance are observed. Sepsis is one of the most prevalent causes of this condition (30 - 50%). Among the direct causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chlorine inhalation is an uncommon cause, generating mucosal and airway irritation in most cases. We present a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after accidental inhalation of chlorine in a swimming pool, with noninvasive ventilation used as a treatment with good response in this case. We classified severe acute respiratory distress syndrome based on an oxygen partial pressure/oxygen inspired fraction ratio <100, although the Berlin classification is limited in considering patients with severe hypoxemia managed exclusively with noninvasive ventilation. The failure rate of noninvasive ventilation in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome is approximately 52% and is associated with higher mortality. The possible complications of using noninvasive positive-pressure mechanical ventilation in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome include delays in orotracheal intubation, which is performed in cases of poor clinical condition and with high support pressure levels, and deep inspiratory efforts, generating high tidal volumes and excessive transpulmonary pressures, which contribute to ventilation-related lung injury. Despite these complications, some studies have shown a decrease in the rates of orotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with low severity scores, hemodynamic stability, and the absence of other organ dysfunctions. PMID:28444079

  10. Transmission of acute infectious illness among cases of Kawasaki disease and their household members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Fan, Tsui-Yen; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Hu, Jen-Jan; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Chang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a disease of unknown cause and the causative agent is most likely to be infectious in nature. To investigate the household transmission pattern of infectious illness and etiology, we thus initiated a prospective case and household study. We enrolled KD cases and their household members from February 2004 to September 2008. The KD cases and their household members accepted questionnaire-based interviews of the contact history, signs of infection, and symptoms to check whether clusters of infectious illness occurred. A total of 142 KD cases and 561 household members were enrolled. Among the 142 KD cases, 136 cases (96%) were typical KD, and six (4%) were atypical KD. Of the 561 household members, 17% were siblings, 46% were parents, 18% were grandparents, and the others were cousins or babysitters. Prior to the onset of their KD illness, 66% (94/142) KD cases had contact with ill household members. On the same day of the onset of KD cases' illness, 4% (6/142) KD cases had household members with illness. After KD cases' disease onset, 70% (100/142) KD cases had at least one other family member with illness. Overall, 61% (343/561) of all the household members had acute infectious illness during KD cases' acute stage, and 92% (130/142) of the families had clusters of infectious illness. A total of 66% KD cases had positive contact with ill household members prior to their disease onset and 92% of families had clusters of infectious illness, so KD is strongly associated with infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Comparison of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments versus that in patients admitted to coronary care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Maria; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the clinical characteristics including symptoms and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments (NCDs). For comparison, similar observations in patients admitted...

  12. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  13. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  14. Factors Related to Acute Anxiety and Depression in Inpatients with Accidental Orthopedic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, Hui; ZHANG, Fang; CHENG, Wenhong; LIN, Ying; WANG, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Background Those injured in accidents commonly have strong emotional reactions to their situation. However, despite the large number of patients who are admitted to general hospitals each year for orthopedic injuries due to an accident, research focusing on psychological disorders due to these injuries is lacking. Objective To investigate the presentation and factors related to depression and acute anxiety among inpatients being treated for injury on a Trauma Orthopedics Unit. Methods 323 patients with orthopedic trauma were evaluated using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Results In this study, a total of 323 inpatients (213 males and 110 females) had a mean (sd) age of 44.3 (13.2) years old. Mean (sd) time in the hospital was 11.1 (5.7) days with a range of 2 to 40 days. Among these patients, 299 had mild trauma, 20 had moderate trauma, and 4 had severe trauma. Patients had a mean (sd) score of 8.1 (4.9) with a range of 1 to 38. The top three most reported symptoms from the HAMA were sleep disorder, gastrointestinal symptoms and anxiety. The top three most reported symptoms from the HAMD were sleep disorder, depression and anxiety. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that being female (anxiety: OR=2.738, 95%CI=1.511-4.962; depression: OR=2.622, 95%CI=1.504-4.570) and duration of hospitalization (anxiety: OR=1.091, 95%CI=1.040-1.145; depression: OR=1.093, 95%CI=1.044-1.144) were risk factors for anxiety and depression among these orthopedic trauma patients. Conclusion The main acute symptoms of anxiety and depression in these orthopedic trauma inpatients were sleep disorder, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxious mood and depressed mood. Female patients had stronger emotional reactions to injuries than males. Persistent anxiety and depression symptoms were associated with the duration of hospitalization. All these suggest the need for early psychological assessment and intervention for

  15. Accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is defined as an unintentional decrease of core body temperature below 35 °C. In this article we discuss pathophysiology, clinical aspects and treatment of hypothermic patients. The most important treatment of hypothermia is the identification of the most appropriate method of rewarming. We report a case of cardiac arrest secondary to severe accidental hypothermia, that occured in a young man, do to prolonged exposure to low temperature in river water, successfully treated with extracorporeal blood warming.

  16. Screening Household Members of Acute Brucellosis Cases in Endemic Areas and Risk Factors for Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Secil; Baykam, Nurcan; Celikbas, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sirin Menekse; Guzel, Tugba Cirkin; Dokuzoguz, Basak; Ergonul, Onder

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of acute brucellosis cases were targeted by screening the household members of the index cases. We also aimed to describe the causal relations of brucellosis in an endemic region. A cross-sectional study was performed among household members (29 index cases, 113 household members). Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings, serum agglutinin titer of ≥1/160 in standard tube agglutination test (STA), or a positive blood culture. Index cases were defined as patients who had been admitted to the clinic on suspicion of brucellosis and then confirmed as brucellosis cases. The people who lived in the same house as the index cases were defined as household members. The risk factors for seropositivity were studied by multivariate analysis. Independent variables of gender, consuming fresh cheese, blood groups, dealing with husbandry, and contact with the placenta of infected animals were included to the model. Backward and forward selections were performed. Nineteen out of 113 (17%) screened individuals had agglutination titers ≥1/160. The mean ages of index cases and household members were 43 years (standard deviation [SD] 18) and 29 years (SD 19), respectively. In multivariate analysis, consuming fresh cheese (odds ratio [OR]=3.1, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-9.68, p=0.049), blood group A (OR=2.6, CI 1.18-5.96, p=0.018), contact with the placenta of the infected animals (OR=3.7, CI 1.42-9.68, p=0.007), and age >30 years (OR=2.8, CI 1.25-6.51, p=0.13) were found to be associated with brucellosis. In univariate analysis, the individuals with blood group B were protected from brucella infection (p=0.013). In conclusion, screening of the people in brucellosis-endemic areas should be considered for early diagnosis and treatment. To our knowledge, blood groups were studied for the first time by this study. Higher prevalence of brucellosis among the individuals with blood group A and less prevalence among the individuals with

  17. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases.

  18. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  19. Acute lower respiratory infection in childhood and household fuel use in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael N; Chandyo, Ram K; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Pokhrel, Amod K; Mathisen, Maria; Basnet, Sudha; Shrestha, Prakash S; Strand, Tor A; Smith, Kirk R

    2013-05-01

    Globally, solid fuels are used by about 3 billion people for cooking. These fuels have been associated with many health effects, including acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children. Nepal has a high prevalence of use of biomass for cooking and heating. This case-control study was conducted among a population in the Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal, to investigate the relationship of cookfuel type to ALRI in young children. Cases with ALRI and age-matched controls were enrolled from an open cohort of children 2-35 months old, under active monthly surveillance for ALRI. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on family characteristics, including household cooking and heating appliances and fuels. The main analysis was carried out using conditional logistic regression. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) for stove types were calculated. A total of 917 children (452 cases and 465 controls) were recruited into the study. Relative to use of electricity for cooking, ALRI was increased in association with any use of biomass stoves [odds ratio (OR) = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.98], kerosene stoves (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.83), and gas stoves (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50). Use of wood, kerosene, or coal heating was also associated with ALRI (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.14), compared with no heating or electricity or gas heating. PAFs for ALRI were 18.0% (95% CI: 8.1, 26.9%) and 18.7% (95% CI: 8.4%-27.8%), for biomass and kerosene stoves, respectively. The study supports previous reports indicating that use of biomass as a household fuel is a risk factor for ALRI, and provides new evidence that use of kerosene for cooking may also be a risk factor for ALRI in young children.

  20. Prevalence of household drinking-water contamination and of acute diarrhoeal illness in a periurban community in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Latt Tun; Myint, Thuzar; Aung, Wah Wah; Wai, Khin Thet

    2015-01-01

    A major health consequence of rapid population growth in urban areas is the increased pressure on existing overstretched water and sanitation services. This study of an expanding periurban neighbourhood of Yangon Region, Myanmar, aimed to ascertain the prevalence of acute diarrhoea in children under 5 years; to identify household sources of drinking-water; to describe purification and storage practices; and to assess drinking-water contamination at point-of-use. A survey of the prevalence of acute diarrhoea in children under 5 years was done in 211 households in February 2013; demographic data were also collected, along with data and details of sources of drinking water, water purification, storage practices and waste disposal. During March-August, a subset of 112 households was revisited to collect drinking water samples. The samples were analysed by the multiple tube fermentation method to count thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms and there was a qualitative determination of the presence of Escherichia coli. Acute diarrhoea in children under 5 years was reported in 4.74% (10/211, 95% CI: 3.0-9.0) of households within the past two weeks. More than half of the households used insanitary pit latrines and 36% disposed of their waste into nearby streams and ponds. Improved sources of drinking water were used, mainly the unchlorinated ward reservoir, a chlorinated tube well or purified bottled water. Nearly a quarter of households never used any method for drinking-water purification. Ninety-four per cent (105/112) of water samples were contaminated with thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms, ranging from 2.2 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL (21.4%) to more than 1000 CFU/100 mL (60.7%). Of faecal (thermotolerant)-coliform-positive water samples, 70% (47/68) grew E. coli. The prevalence of acute diarrhoea reported for children under 5 years was high and a high level of drinking-water contamination was detected, though it was unclear whether this was due to contamination at

  1. Potential causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in households with preschool children : prevalence, risk factors, clinical relevance and household transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, M.; Mughini-Gras, L.; Pijnacker, R.; Vennema, H.; Scholts, R.; van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, K. W.; Kortbeek, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Pelt, W.

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) morbidity remains high amongst preschool children, posing a significant societal burden. Empirical data on AGE-causing agents is needed to gauge their clinical relevance and identify agent-specific targets for control. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors and associat

  2. Potential causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in households with preschool children : prevalence, risk factors, clinical relevance and household transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, M.; Mughini-Gras, L.; Pijnacker, R.; Vennema, H.; Scholts, R.; van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, K. W.; Kortbeek, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Pelt, W.

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) morbidity remains high amongst preschool children, posing a significant societal burden. Empirical data on AGE-causing agents is needed to gauge their clinical relevance and identify agent-specific targets for control. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors and

  3. Potential causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in households with preschool children : prevalence, risk factors, clinical relevance and household transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, M.; Mughini-Gras, L.; Pijnacker, R.; Vennema, H.; Scholts, R.; van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, K. W.; Kortbeek, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Pelt, W.

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) morbidity remains high amongst preschool children, posing a significant societal burden. Empirical data on AGE-causing agents is needed to gauge their clinical relevance and identify agent-specific targets for control. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors and associat

  4. [Accidental falls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  5. A household-based study of acute viral respiratory illnesses in Andean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Williams, John V; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Grijalva, Carlos G

    2014-05-01

    Few community studies have measured the incidence, severity and etiology of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among children living at high-altitude in remote rural settings. We conducted active, household-based ARI surveillance among children aged RESPIRA-PERU study). ARI (defined by fever or cough) were considered lower respiratory tract infections if tachypnea, wheezing, grunting, stridor or retractions were present. Nasal swabs collected during ARI episodes were tested for respiratory viruses by real-time, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. ARI incidence was calculated using Poisson regression. During 755.1 child-years of observation among 892 children in 58 communities, 4475 ARI were observed, yielding an adjusted incidence of 6.2 ARI/child-year (95% confidence interval: 5.9-6.5). Families sought medical care for 24% of ARI, 4% were classified as lower respiratory tract infections and 1% led to hospitalization. Of 5 deaths among cohort children, 2 were attributed to ARI. One or more respiratory viruses were detected in 67% of 3957 samples collected. Virus-specific incidence rates per 100 child-years were: rhinovirus, 236; adenovirus, 73; parainfluenza virus, 46; influenza, 37; respiratory syncytial virus, 30 and human metapneumovirus, 17. Respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus 1-3 comprised a disproportionate share of lower respiratory tract infections compared with other etiologies. In this high-altitude rural setting with low-population density, ARI in young children were common, frequently severe and associated with a number of different respiratory viruses. Effective strategies for prevention and control of these infections are needed.

  6. Acute Viral Respiratory Illnesses in Andean Children: a Household-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M.; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few community studies have measured the incidence, severity, and etiology of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among children living at high-altitude in remote rural settings. Methods We conducted active, household-based ARI surveillance among children aged RESPIRA-PERU study). ARI (defined by fever or cough) were considered lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) if tachypnea, wheezing, grunting, stridor, or retractions were present. Nasal swabs collected during ARI episodes were tested for respiratory viruses by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. ARI incidence was calculated using Poisson regression. Results During 755.1 child-years of observation among 892 children in 58 communities, 4,475 ARI were observed, yielding an adjusted incidence of 6.2 ARI/child-year (95% CI 5.9 – 6.5). Families sought medical care for 24% of ARI, 4% were classified as LRTI, and 1% led to hospitalization. Two of five deaths among cohort children were attributed to ARI. One or more respiratory virus was detected in 67% of 3957 samples collected. Virus-specific incidence rates per 100 child-years were: rhinovirus, 236; adenovirus, 73; parainfluenza virus, 46; influenza, 37; respiratory syncytial virus, 30; and human metapneumovirus, 17. Respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and parainfluenza virus 1-3 comprised a disproportionate share of LRTI compared to other etiologies. Conclusions In this high-altitude rural setting with low population density, ARI in young children were common, frequently severe, and associated with a number of different respiratory viruses. Effective strategies for prevention and control of these infections are needed. PMID:24378948

  7. Childhood Acute Respiratory Infections and Household Environment in an Eastern Indonesian Urban Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Shibata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study evaluated the potential effect of household environmental factors such as income, maternal characteristics, and indoor air pollution on children’s respiratory status in an Eastern Indonesian community. Household data were collected from cross-sectional (n = 461 participants and preliminary childhood case-control surveys (pneumonia cases = 31 diagnosed within three months at a local health clinic; controls = 30. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10 was measured in living rooms, kitchens, children’s bedrooms, and outside areas in close proximity once during the case-control household interviews (55 homes and once per hour from 6 a.m. to midnight in 11 homes. The household survey showed that children were 1.98 times (p = 0.02 more likely to have coughing symptoms indicating respiratory infection, if mothers were not the primary caregivers. More children exhibited coughing if they were not exclusively breastfed (OR = 2.18; p = 0.06 or there was a possibility that their mothers were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy (OR = 2.05; p = 0.08. This study suggests that household incomes and mother’s education have an indirect effect on childhood pneumonia and respiratory illness. The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 ranged from 0.5 to 35.7 µg/m3 and 7.7 to 575.7 µg/m3, respectively, based on grab samples. PM was significantly different between the case and control groups (p < 0.01. The study also suggests that ambient air may dilute indoor pollution, but also introduces pollution into the home from the community environment. Effective intervention programs need to be developed that consider multiple direct and indirect risk factors to protect children.

  8. Accidentes laborales viales

    OpenAIRE

    Corzo Suárez, Susana

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es dar a conocer la problemática de la aplicación del de la ley 31/1995, de 8 de noviembre, de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, en la evaluación y prevención de los riesgos de los accidentes laborales viales. Para poder llegar a este objetivo se han utilizado diversas vías de estudio: Intentar aclarar qué son accidentes de tráfico y qué son accidentes laborales viales; Cuáles son los diferentes tipos de accidentes laborales viales y sus principales ca...

  9. Terapéuticas intervencionistas para el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico Update on interventional treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra T. Rabadán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 20 años se han desarrollado nuevas opciones para el tratamiento y para la prevención del accidente cerebrovascular (ACV isquémico, muchas de ellas de carácter intervencionista, tales como la endarterectomía carotídea y la trombolisis intravenosa con activador tisular del plasminógeno. La evidencia científica ha llevado a su difusión y utilización en países desarrollados mientras que en naciones emergentes se observa un retraso en su adopción. Otras modalidades terapéuticas que parecen ser muy promisorias, aunque sin tanta evidencia científica que las avale, requieren la realización y conclusión de estudios randomizados. Dentro de la evolución del ACV isquémico existe una situación particular como es el infarto cerebral "maligno". Constituye un evento devastador, que se presenta en aproximadamente el 10 al 15% de los ACV carotídeos o silvianos, y está asociado con elevada morbimortalidad. Con la información disponible actualmente, es posible recomendar la craniectomía descompresiva (CD como un método efectivo y seguro para disminuir rápidamente la presión intracraneal y lograr un pronóstico favorable sobre una base racional. Aunque no hay estudios randomizados y controlados en la literatura, existe suficiente evidencia para recomendar la CD en casos especiales.New options have been developed for the prevention and treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the last 20 years, such as carotid endarterectomy and intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator. Scientific evidence has supported their use in developed countries, while there is an evident delay in their use among emerging countries. Other promising modalities require the conclusion of ongoing randomized, controlled trials. Malignant middle or carotid cerebral artery infarction accounts for 10 to 15% ischemic strokes and constitutes a devastating event associated with high morbidity and mortality. Decompressive craniectomy seems to be an

  10. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  11. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Factors Associated With the Risk of Acute Malnutrition Among Children Aged 6 to 36 Months in Households Targeted by an Emergency Cash Transfer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Jessica; Jensen, Nathan; Thiede, Brian; Shoham, Jeremy; Dolan, Carmel; Sibson, Victoria; Fenn, Bridget

    2016-07-11

    Assessing whether and how the expenditure of emergency cash transfer programs (CTPs) relates to child nutritional status is a necessary step for informed program design and targeting. We hypothesized that greater child food expenditures would have a protective effect against the risk of acute malnutrition in the context of a food crisis in Niger. We investigated the relationship between food and medical expenditures and acute malnutrition in children aged 6 to 36 months through an observational cohort study of 420 households enrolled in an emergency CTP in Niger. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of acute malnutrition while adjusting for relevant child and household characteristics. Seventy-four (18% of the cohort) children developed acute malnutrition. The risk was 1.79 times higher among ill children than healthy children (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-2.92; P .05). Our findings highlight the importance of the health-related determinants of child undernutrition and suggest that a potential role of emergency CTPs may be to enable and promote health service access where services exist. They also indicate a need for more sustained poverty reduction and undernutrition prevention activities in concert with well-timed and strategic use of emergency interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Luca [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Romanino, Andrea [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries.

  14. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  15. Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en mayores de 80 años Acute ischemic stroke in patients aged 80 or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Rojas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En los pacientes de edad avanzada, el perfil de factores de riesgo vascular y el subtipo de accidente cerebrovascular (ACV es diferente en comparación con pacientes más jóvenes. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir el perfil de factores de riesgo y subtipo de ACV isquémico en nuestra población de pacientes ancianos. Incluimos a pacientes mayores de 80 años con diagnóstico de ACV isquémico y ataque isquémico transitorio (AIT entre junio de 2003 y junio de 2006. De 535 pacientes con eventos cerebrovasculares isquémicos, en 366 casos el diagnóstico fue de ACV y 169 de AIT. El 33.5% (179 pacientes fueron mayores de 80 años. La edad media fue de 84.4 ± 4.4 años. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial 82.7%, dislipemia 40.2% y fibrilación auricular 24.6%. El subtipo de ACV que se presentó con mayor frecuencia fue la enfermedad de pequeñas arterias en un 41.7%, seguido por el evento cardioembólico en el 19.7%, enfermedad de gran arteria 6%, otras causas en el 0.8%. De los factores de riesgo vasculares tradicionales, los más significativos fueron hipertensión e hipercolesterolemia. Estos datos son coincidentes con estudios epidemiológicos previos y explican la mayor incidencia de infartos lacunares.Young and old age stroke groups have different vascular risk profiles for cerebral ischemic events. The objective of the study was to describe the risk factor profile and stroke subtype in this population of very elderly people. We included patients over 80 years old with diagnosis of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack registered between June 2003 and June 2006. We described the demographic data and subtype of ischemic stroke. Of 535 patients with cerebrovascular ischemic events, the final diagnosis was stroke in 366 cases and transient ischemic attack in 169. Of these patients 33.5% were over 80 years old (179. The mean age was 84.4 ± 4.4 years. The most frequent risk factors were

  16. The accidental technology trainer: a guide for libraries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerding, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Chapter 1: Being an Accidental Technology Trainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is an Accidental Technology Trainer...

  17. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  18. Accidente de Trabajo y Recargo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alonso, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad existen diferentes formas de Accidente de Trabajo. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer las distintas formas y la doctrina de los tribunales. Se aborda el recargo de prestaciones de Seguridad Social y el deber del empresario en cumplir la normativa de Seguridad Social

  19. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...

  20. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  1. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Piparo Caterina; Vitulo Patrizio; Maggio Maria; Collura Mirella; Matina Federico; Corsello Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the bene...

  2. Attack rate and household secondary attack rate of acute conjunctivitis during an outbreak in South India: A community-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkur, Pruthu; Reddy, Mahendra M; Naik, Bijaya Nanda; Subitha, L; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge on epidemiology of the disease in the contemporary world will help to develop appropriate strategies to curtail the transmission during an outbreak. This study was carried out during an outbreak of conjunctivitis in selected areas of Puducherry, South India, to assess the attack rate of conjunctivitis, identify factors associated with developing conjunctivitis and calculate household secondary attack rate (HSAR) of conjunctivitis and its correlates. Methodology: During December 2014, a community-based survey was conducted in a selected urban and rural area in Puducherry, South India. Simple random sampling was used to select primary sampling units and systematic sampling to select households. All individuals in the selected households were studied. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on sociodemographic characteristics, conjunctivitis during September-November, 2014, and number of household contacts who developed conjunctivitis within 7 days of index case. The attack rate and HSAR of conjunctivitis was expressed as percentage. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find factors independently associated with developing conjunctivitis and also 100% HSAR. Results: Of 3193 study participants from 772 households, 509 (15.9%, 95% confidence interval 14.7-17.2%) had an attack of conjunctivitis during the reference period. Of the 772 households, 218 (28.2%) had at least one case of conjunctivitis. Of 218 households, 33 (15.1%) households had 100% HSAR. Lower age, not being unemployed, low socioeconomic status, and residing in rural area were independently associated with developing conjunctivitis. Index case being male and living in a household with ≥5 members were independently associated with 100% HSAR. Conclusion: In the outbreak under study, more than one-fourth of households had at least one case of conjunctivitis and about one in every six individuals had an attack of conjunctivitis. PMID:27221677

  3. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  4. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  5. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  6. Accidental Inflation in the Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  7. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  8. Accidental methanol ingestion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Jan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of methanol (CH3OH intoxication differs enormously from country to country. Methanol intoxication is extremely rare in the Dutch population. Even a low dose can already be potentially lethal. Patients are conventionally treated with hemodialysis. Therefore we'd like to present a report of a foreign sailor in Rotterdam who accidentally caused himself severe methanol intoxication, with a maximum measured concentration of 4.4 g/L. Case presentation The patient presented with hemodynamic instability and severe metabolic acidosis with pH 6.69. The anion gap was 39 mmol/L and the osmol gap 73 mosmol/kg. Treatment with ethanol and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVH-DF was initiated. Despite the hemodynamic instability it is was possible to achieve rapid correction of pH and methanol concentration with CVVH-DF while maintaining a stable and therapeutic ethanol serum concentration. Despite hemodynamic and acid-base improvement, our patient developed massive cerebral edema leading to brain death. Permission for organ donation was unfortunately not ascertained. Conclusions We conclude that in a hemodynamic instable situation high methanol concentrations and methanol-induced derangements of homeostasis are safely and effectively treated with CVVH-DF and that severe cerebral edema is another possible cause of death rather than the classical bleeding in the putamen area.

  9. Superglue accidentally used as ear drops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anusha, Bala; Purushotman, R; Lina, L C; Avatar, S

    2012-01-01

    Superglue in the ear as a foreign body is an uncommon presentation. We report the case of a lady who accidentally instilled superglue directly onto her tympanic membrane and presented five days later...

  10. Accidental salinomycin intoxication in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Aslani, Mohammad R; Movassaghi, Ahmad R; Mohri, Mehrdad; Dadfar, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-four 10- to 16-week-old calves in a dairy herd in Birjand, Iran, inadvertently received an excessive dose of salinomycin mixed with barley grain. There was 58% mortality within 10 d. The calves had high serum AST, LDH, and CK activities; histopathologic lesions in myocardium, liver, and kidneys; and clinical signs associated with acute and congestive heart failure.

  11. Fire-eater's pneumonia: two case reports of accidentally aspirated paraffin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ozlem; Bektas, Fırat; Sayrac, Ali Vefa; Senay, Engin

    2012-04-01

    Fire-eater's pneumonia is a chemical pneumonitis that can develop after accidental aspiration of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuel during a flame-blowing or a fire-eating performance. Typical findings of the patient are similar with any infectious pneumonia: chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, fever, and hemoptysis can be seen. We report two cases of acute paraffin oil-induced pneumonia due to accidental aspiration during fire-eating performance. The symptoms and course of respiratory manifestations and the treatment strategies of fire-eater's pneumonia are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  13. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  14. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  15. Comparison of intracranial computed tomographic (CT) findings in pediatric abusive and accidental head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymel, K.P. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Rumack, C.M. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Hay, T.C. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Strain, J.D. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Jenny, C. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Child abuse specialists rely heavily on diagnostic neuroimaging. Objectives. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the frequencies of six specific intracranial CT abnormalities in accidental and non-accidental pediatric head trauma, and (2) to assess interobserver agreement regarding these CT findings. Materials and methods. Three pediatric radiologists blindly and independently reviewed cranial CT scans of pediatric patients who sustained closed head trauma between 1991 and 1994. All patients were less than 4 years of age. Study cases included thirty-nine (50 %) with non-accidental head trauma and thirty-nine (50 %) with accidental head trauma. Each scan was evaluated for the presence or absence of the following six intracranial findings: (1) interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, (2) subdural hemorrhage, (3) large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, (4) basal ganglia edema, (5) posterior fossa hemorrhage, and (6) frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interobserver agreement was calculated as the percentage of total cases in which all reviewers agreed a specific CT finding was present or absent. Diagnosis required independent agreement by all three pediatric radiologists. The frequencies of these six intracranial CT abnormalities were compared between the two study groups by Chi-square analysis and Fisher`s exact test. Results. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was greater than 80 % for all lesions evaluated, with the exception of frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, and basal ganglia edema were discovered significantly more frequently in non-accidental trauma (P {<=}.05). Conclusion. Although not specific for child abuse, discovery of these intracranial CT abnormalities in young patients should prompt careful evaluation of family and injury circumstances for indicators of non-accidental trauma. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Vivendo o acidente vascular encefálico agudo: significados da doença para pessoas hospitalizadas Viviendo el accidente cerebrovascular agudo: significado de la enfermedad para personas hospitalizadas Experiencing acute stroke: the meaning of the illness for hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Jardelle Costa de Freitas Maniva

    2013-04-01

    . Se aprendió que la experiencia del padecimiento de accidente cerebrovascular es compleja; en ella, los significados son elaborados en base a sentimientos, acciones y comportamientos de los sujetos.The aim was to understand the meaning of the experience of the acute stroke patient. This was a qualitative study, based on the conceptual theory of symbolic interaction. It was conducted in a unit specialized in the treatment of stroke at a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza-CE and the ethical aspects were respected. The study included ten patients and data were collected through open interviews. The data were organized and analyzed according to enunciation techniques. The meaning of the illness experience was constructed based on the perception of the feelings that arose during the hospitalization and was characterized by fear of death and the sequelae of the disease; sorrow for the distance from home; relief, when a patient perceived an improved clinical course; and a desire to change one´s lifestyle. The experience of illness due to stroke is complex, as meanings are elaborated ​​from the feelings, actions and behaviors of the subjects.

  17. Accidental and experimental Closantel intoxication in Uruguayan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rivero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An outbreak of Closantel intoxication in sheep in Uruguay is described. The outbreak occurred in a group of 1300 weaning lambs treated orally with a 10% solution of Closantel. One hundred forty eight lambs showed clinical signs of intoxication and 14 died. The clinical signs included mydriasis, nystagmus, and negative pupillary reflex, bilateral blindness, bump into objects, and lateral movement of the head. No macroscopic lesions were observed. The histological lesions of the retina were cytoplasmic vacuolization in ganglion cells and in cells of the inner and outer nuclear layers with different degrees of atrophy. Vacuolization and axonal degeneration were observed in the optic nerve, with multifocal areas of fibrosis and infiltration by lymphocytes and Gitter cells. To reproduce the intoxication, four sheep were given two, four and 10 times the therapeutic dose of Closantel (0.1g/kg of BW. Only the animals receiving 10 times the recommended dose showed clinical signs. The histological examination of the lesions in experimental sheep showed similar results to those described in the accidental outbreak, except for the absence of optic nerve fibrosis and inflammation, characterizing an acute phase. Axonal myelin sheaths loss, fibroblasts and collagen fibers were observed in the ultrastructural study of the optic nerve of accidental intoxicated animals. The optic nerve of experimentally intoxicated animals had vacuoles that separated the myelin sheaths of axons. To prevent outbreaks it is suggested to weigh the animals before Closantel administration to avoid errors in dose calculation.

  18. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...... vapors. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a typical type-1 BrS pattern that persisted after the acute event. Genetic investigations allowed the identification of a novel SCN5A mutation leading to a frame-shift and early termination of the channel protein. Biochemical and cellular electrophysiology...... experiments confirmed the loss-of-function of the mutant allele. The patient was implanted with a cardioverter/defibrillator....

  19. Accidental fire in the West Hall

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    On January 7 an accidental fire due to the failure of standard circuit-breakers, destroyed the coils of two spectrometer magnets and severely damaged the apparatus of two experiments. See also photos 7701582X, 7701581X, 7701580X. (Annual Report 1977, pg. 127-128)

  20. Accidental oxygen disconnection in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Guyon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental oxygen disconnection during rapid sequence intubation (RSI in the emergency department is a potentially catastrophic yet avoidable event. We report three cases of inadvertent oxygen disconnection during RSI, which resulted in significant oxygen desaturation. This error can potentially be prevented by thorough preparation, focusing on teamwork training, ensuring an ergonomic environment, and by making simple modifications to existing equipment.

  1. accidental injuries and cutaneous contaminations during general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... accidental injuries, blood and body fluids contaminations are becoming life ... glove with the skin of the hand or fingers establishing direct contact with blood ..... susceptible to skin breaks on the finger tips; the site of majority of ...

  2. Accidental Ingestion of Instruments in Pediatric Dental Patients: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey Panse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Very young children are at risk of swallowing or aspirating numerous household things. This risk is enhanced during dental procedures of these children as they tend to be very unco-operative due to their age and lack of maturity to understand the importance of the treatment. Use of physical barriers, sedation or general anesthesia is not practically possible in every child scheduled for dental treatment. Dentist must be able to manage emergency situations in which patients accidentally swallow dental instruments or materials during treatment and procedures. This article presents ingestion of dental objects in 3 children and attempts to discuss the management and prevention of such mishaps.

  3. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870..., accidental death benefits are equal to the amount of Option A. (c)(1) Under Basic insurance, accidental... automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  4. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilton Rodrigues Mendonça MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7% and male sex (53.4%, were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%, venomous animals (19.3%, nonvenomous animals (10%, household cleaning products (9.0%, and raticide agents (8.7% predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5% and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%.

  5. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  6. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial planni

  7. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  8. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  9. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  10. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...

  11. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  12. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  13. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  14. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  15. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  16. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  17. Accidental K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, Anshuman; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small K\\"ahler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  18. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad, UP 211019 (India); Rummel, Markus [Rudolph Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Sumitomo, Yoske [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  19. Accidental Ingestion of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizing agent with a variety of uses depending on its concentration. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide is not an uncommon source of poisoning, and results in morbidity through three main mechanisms: direct caustic injury, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. A case of a 39-year-old man who inadvertently ingested 250 mL of unlabelled 35% hydrogen peroxide intended for natural health use is presented. Hydrogen peroxide has purported benefits ranging from HIV treatment to cancer treatment. Its use in the natural health industry represents an emerging source for accidental poisonings.

  20. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  1. Tratamiento del virus de hepatitis B en el accidente laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Zamora-Barquero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La exposición accidental al virus B entraña alto riesgo de contagio de la enfermedad. Su manejo incluye: medidas preventivas en el manejo de los pacientes, vacunar y confirmar inmunidad de los trabajadores, uso de inmunoglobulinas y vacunación posterior al accidente y disponer de protocolos de reporte precoz y clínicas en el manejo de los accidentes.

  2. Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Michael; Agersnap, Lisbeth; Ravn, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation guidelines for the treatment of accidental hypothermia are based primarily on isolated cases. Mortality rates are high despite aggressive treatment aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and normothermia....

  3. El accidente de trabajo "in itinere": concepto legal y jurisprudencial

    OpenAIRE

    López Mejías, Ana

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo que voy a llevar a cabo trata sobre el accidente de trabajo, más en concreto el accidente de trabajo "in itinere", ya que es un hecho protegido que la ley general de la seguridad social le da una gran importancia. Trataré los requisitos necesarios para que se dé un accidente de trabajo "in itinere", basándome siempre en sentencias ya que es un trabajo básicamente jurisprudencial. En el trabajo también trato el accidente de trabajo in mision. A modo de conclusión expresaré mi opinió...

  4. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-12-31

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Although both transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success since the first treatments of patients, other therapeutic strategies are needed. New promising approaches of the treatment of aplasia have appeared with the development of experimental and clinical hematology. Some new trends for the treatment of the hematopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. The hematopoietic growth factors stimulate proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and possibly stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. They have now specific uses in hematology, related to their role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Some growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and follow-up. (author) 30 refs.

  5. Accidentes de tránsito terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ramírez Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito terrestres en Costa Rica se han convertido en un serio problema de salud pública, que derivan ya sea en lesiones graves o bien en muertes de personas de todas las edades. Estos eventos incluyen el atropellamiento, las colisiones y choques, y producen cuadros lesionológicos muy diversos de acuerdo a la participación de las personas, el tipo de vehículo y la forma en la que se produce el traumatismo. Así mismo, se debe tener en cuenta la participación de factores coadyuvantes como el uso del casco y el cinturón de seguridad, o bien el consumo de alcohol y el uso del teléfono móvil. La valoración médico legal de las víctimas, vivas o muertas de accidentes de tránsito, está a cargo del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, y se hace por solicitud de una Autoridad Judicial competente.

  6. Acute local radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1983-01-01

    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  7. Household food security, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetebo, R

    1997-12-01

    Two major projects incorporating household food security components have been implemented since the ICN. The first is a UNICEF-funded project that addresses community participation in development. The second is a FAO-funded project: "Promoting Household Food Security and Improving Nutrition through Nutrition Education and Training." This project examines the effects of processing and storage procedures on the nutrient quality of traditional and indigenous fruits and vegetables. It is a young project, but much is being learned from it. Other projects aim to minimize food wastage during processing and storage by developing new processing machinery for use by rural households. Women's issues have become central since the ICN and there is increased support from both government and nongovernment sources to help women with food production and processing.

  8. Reconstructing Pompeian Households

    CERN Document Server

    Mimno, David

    2012-01-01

    A database of objects discovered in houses in the Roman city of Pompeii provides a unique view of ordinary life in an ancient city. Experts have used this collection to study the structure of Roman households, exploring the distribution and variability of tasks in architectural spaces, but such approaches are necessarily affected by modern cultural assumptions. In this study we present a data-driven approach to household archeology, treating it as an unsupervised labeling problem. This approach scales to large data sets and provides a more objective complement to human interpretation.

  9. Tension pneumothorax following an accidental kerosene poisoning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Ashir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene poisioning that responded to needle thoracocentesis is presented.

  10. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  11. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products... the Director, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, all accidental radiation occurrences... radiation occurrence occurred; (3) The manufacturer, type, and model number of the electronic product...

  12. Tension pneumothorax following an accidental kerosene poisoning: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene poisioning that responded to needle thoracocentesis is presented.

  13. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  14. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; Del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery.

  15. Accidental injuries in agriculture in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, C

    2002-12-01

    The rate of occupational accidents in British agriculture is higher than in most other industries. The most common fatal accidents are those involving vehicles and machinery, falls from a height and electrocution. A substantial proportion of reported non-fatal injuries in agricultural employees is attributable to manual handling, but among self-employed farmers the contribution is much smaller. Few data are available on longer-term determinants of risk, but accidental deaths are most frequent in July, August and September. The main approaches to preventing agricultural accidents are through engineering improvements, and education and training of the workforce. The introduction of roll-over protection structures for tractors has been an important development in recent decades. Other engineering controls include guards for power take off shafts, guard rails to prevent falls, better handling facilities for animals and closed transfer systems for pesticides. Training on safety is available from several sources, but its effectiveness in reducing accidents is uncertain.

  16. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  17. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  18. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  19. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  20. Hipotermia accidental secundaria a brote de psoriasis generalizada Accidental hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agudo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La hipotermia accidental es una alteración de la termorregulación corporal, definida como una temperatura central igual o inferior a 35ºC. Según la intensidad se puede clasificar en ligera (35-32,2ºC, moderada (32,2-28ºC y grave (The accidental hypothermia is a disorder of corporal termoregulation, defined as a central temperature below 35ºC. According to the intensity may be classified in mild (35-32.2 ºC, moderate (32.2-28ºC and severe (below 28ºC. The most frequent causes are the exposure to cold, use of depressant drugs of central nervous system and hypoglycemia, although there are other less frequent. We present a case of moderate hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis which required admission in the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital García Orcoyen. The termoregulation, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of accidental hypothermia are reviewed.

  1. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discus

  2. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  3. Orofacial manifestations from accidental exposure to caesium 137 in Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M A; Wascheck, C de C; Scully, C; Almeida, O de P; Bozzo, L

    1990-08-01

    The accidental close exposure of over 200 adults and children to a caesium-137 (137Cs) source in Goiania, Brazil in 1987 produced significant short-term morbidity in about 50 patients, and four deaths within a few weeks. Some 57% of those maximally exposed to radiation, developed orofacial lesions, notably purpura, spontaneous bleeding, ulcers and/or acute candidiasis. These lesions were probably mainly the consequences of depression of bone marrow elements by the radionuclide. Though the oral lesions that may follow iatrogenic exposure to ionizing radiation are well recognized this appears to be the first report on the oral sequelae of a serious radiation accident.

  4. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  5. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  6. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  7. El accidente de trabajo. Concepto legal y jurisprudencia

    OpenAIRE

    García Romero, José Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo final de grado versa sobre el concepto de accidente de trabajo que da la jurisprudencia a través de las diferentes sentencias del Tribunal Supremo en la Sala de lo Social, y de los diferentes Tribunales Superiores de Justicia. Analizaremos en profundidad que características tienen que concurrir para que sea considerado como tal, analizando los diferentes supuestos de accidente de trabajo como el accidente in itinere, en misión, etc. También hemos tratado las diferentes contingencia...

  8. Household Characteristics That Influence Simple Household Demand on Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of households that affect the electric energy consumption of simple households. The second objective is to analyze the probability of each of the factors affecting the electricity energy consumption of small household. The research was conducted in Medan City in the period of March 2014 to November 2014 with samples of 143 small households, the customer of PT. PLN (Persero Medan, which use the power of electricity for TR-1 /450VA. Data were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. The estimation results indicated that (1 the higher the willingnes to pay (WTP of households, the higher the tendency to consume elec trical energy per month. (2 the closer the households residence to the city center, the higher the tendency to consume electrical energy than of the households residence in the suburbs, (3 increasingly unfavourable response to electrical quality, the higher the opportunity to consume a greater electric power monthly.

  9. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Two common reasons why people end up in personal financial problems are either because they have not learned to manage a budget, or because they have unrealistic expectations of what they can afford to buy. To assess potential level for risk-seeking behavior in daily life, we created a novel test...... - The Household Planning Game (HPG) - modelled upon the well-known Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The basic foundations of the HPG were largely the same as the IGT, however illustrations of consumer goods were positioned at the top of the cards, and the participant's task was to select a card as if it was a natural...... on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...

  10. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization......In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...

  11. Presentismo: potencialidad en accidentes de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettchen Flores-Sandí

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de salud ha sobrepasado el entorno propiamente sanitario y cada vez más, tiene otras implicaciones sociales, la institución de salud es hoy en día una actividad compleja donde no solamente se gestiona la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de los usuarios sino al recurso humano encargado de su atención. Asimismo en la actualidad se reconoce la importancia del recurso humano para la organización y surge el concepto de "presentismo", referido a aquellos trabajadores que sufren enfermedades que los obligarían a ausentarse del trabajo pero que se presentan a trabajar sin cumplir eficazmente sus funciones. Al respecto y en relación con el presentismo, se debe tomar en cuenta que los efectos adversos o accidentes durante la atención de servicios de salud se encuentran asociados a factores fisiológicos, psicológicos y ambientales e implican desde el punto de vista administrativo, una falla en la productividad, que afecta tanto al usuario del servicio como al trabajador. Se debe considerar que este grupo profesional se ubica entre los grupos de riesgo del presentismo y que con el fin de administrar y reducir el presentismo se requieren estrategias preventivas por parte de la gerencia de salud.

  12. The Artificial, the Accidental, the Aesthetic…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koltick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we define, discuss or assess aesthetics within a contemporary philosophical framework? The indefiniteness that accompanies attempts to formalize a definition of the aesthetic is a primary focus of this paper. This lack of a definition has occupied philosophers for hundreds of years in attempts to delineate the boundaries of an elusively formless concept. This formlessness speaks to the incredibly evasive character of such a pervasive feature recognized in both natural and artificial systems, agents and artefacts. With the rapid growth of artificially intelligent systems and an astounding diversity in computational creativity, in what ways may we approach aesthetics? How is the aesthetic recognized, determined and produced? This paper seeks to critically engage issues of non-human agency, inter-object relations, and aesthetic theory in relation to computational entities and autonomous systems. The ability of these systems to operate outside of human cognitive limitations including thought patterns and constructions which may preclude alternative aesthetic outcomes, afford them in some ways limitless potential in relation to aesthetics. The designation of the accidental or provisional is utilized as an alternative approach to the production and assessment of aesthetic occurrences of the non-human.

  13. Household costs of leprosy reactions (ENL in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL and borderline lepromatous (BL leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated.Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53 were identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38 had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies.The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13.2-52.6 of monthly household income for cases, and Rs 237 per month or 4.9% (IQR 1.7-13.4 of monthly household income for controls. Indirect costs accounted for 65% of total household costs for cases. Direct costs accounted for the remaining 35% of household costs, and resulted almost entirely from treatment-seeking in the private sector. Total household costs exceeded 40% of household income for 37.7% of cases (n = 20 and 2.6% of controls (n = 1 [1 USD = 59 INR].Households affected by ENL face significant economic burden and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty. Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity (indirect cost. Further work is needed to explore this area and identify solutions.

  14. Tuberculosis cutánea por inoculación accidental Cutaneous tuberculosis accidental inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ascensión Maestre Naranjo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico de una microbióloga con amplia experiencia, que sufre una inoculación accidental al manipular una cepa pura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se pincha en la cara lateral externa de la falange distal del dedo índice, atravesando el guante con la aguja contaminada. (Imagen 1. La trabajadora procede de forma inmediata a la limpieza de la herida. El Servicio de Prevención, registra la inoculación como accidente de trabajo. A las tres semanas del accidente, aparece en el lugar de la inoculación una pápula eritematosa levemente dolorosa a la presión que va creciendo hasta alcanzar un tamaño de 1,5-2 cm., sin adenopatías axilares, ni clínica general. (Imagen 2 Se procede a la exéresis y biopsia de la lesión. Informe anatomopatológico: Inflamación crónica granulomatosa tuberculoide muy sugestiva de tuberculosis cutánea. Microbiología: dudosos bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR Cultivo: positivo a Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ambas cepas presentan la misma identidad. Diagnóstico: tuberculosis cutánea. El SPRL realiza la comunicación de Enfermedad Profesional según el RD 1299/2006, de 10 de diciembre. Se realiza valoración y seguimiento en el Servicio de Medicina Interna, iniciando tratamiento de tuberculosis.Clinical case of a microbiologist with wide experience, which is inoculated accidental when Mycobacterium's pure strain manipulates tuberculosis; it (she pricks itself in the lateral external face of the phalanx distal of the forefinger, crossing the glove with the contaminated needle. Immediate treatment of the wound. The Service of Prevention, he registers the inoculation as accident of work. To three weeks a slightly painful pápula eritematosa appears in the place of the inoculation to the pressure that is growing until a size reaches 1,5-2 cm., without adenopatías axyllaris, not general clinic. Exéresis and biopsy of the same one, pathological anatomy: chronic inflammation very suggestive granulomatosa

  15. Serie temporal de los accidentes laborales atendidos en un hospital de agudos y su relación con la meteorología y la polución atmosférica Time series of industrial accidents attended in an acute hospital care and its relation to meteorology and atmospheric pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Brígido Pérez Bermúdez; Antonio Valdivia Pérez; Ana Belén Nieto Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: La siniestralidad es un proceso en muchas ocasiones complejo en el que entran diversos factores de riesgo, tanto inherentes al trabajo como a circunstancias exteriores (organización, climatología, etc.). Objetivos: Describir la tendencia y factores relacionados de los accidentes de trabajo (A.T.) atendidos en un hospital de agudos de Madrid durante el trienio 2005-07 y su relación con la meteorología y la polución atmosférica. Metodología: Estudio ecológico. Se analizaron los A....

  16. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-07-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  17. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    The excavation of six courtyard houses at Pella in the Jordan Valley, destroyed in a massive earthquake in the mid-eighth century AD, gives an exceptional opportunity to study a wide range of objectives from daily life within a secure archaeological context. The recovery of detailed information...... about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...

  18. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Tataounoff, Juliana; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to assess factors associated with non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma among adolescents in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. A total of 387 students from 12 to 15 years of age (mean = 14 SD = 0.9) were randomly selected. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, data were collected through dental examinations of permanent incisors. Secondly, a thorough interview was held with 85 adolescents who exhibited dental trauma in the dental examinations. The interview consisted of a detailed description of the incident and physical environment in which it occurred. Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test (P 3 mm (P = 0.007) and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.013). Analysis of the event revealed that 22.3% of the cases of dental trauma occurred because of non-accidental collision. Non-accidental collision followed by injury occurred mainly at school (P concrete, tiled or ceramic floor (P = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between non-accidental collision and gender, age or mother's schooling. It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor.

  19. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng

    2015-01-01

    -4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used......BACKGROUND: Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low......- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...

  20. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.

    1976-01-01

    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  1. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  2. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  3. Circumstances and factors associated with accidental deaths among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiaba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Analysis on accidents from the perspective of population segments shows there is higher incidence among children, adolescents and young adults. Since the characteristics and circunstances of the event are closely related to educational, economic, social and cultural issues, identifying them may contribute towards minimizing the causes, which are often fatal. The aim here was to identify the environmental, chemical, biological and cultural factors associated with deaths due to accidents among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, in 2009. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. RESULTS Thirty-nine accidental deaths of individuals aged 0 to 24 years were examined: 56.4% due to traffic accidents; 25.6%, drowning; 10.3%, aspiration of milk; 5.1%, falls; and 2.6%, accidentally triggering a firearm. Male victims predominated (82.1%. The presence of chemical, environmental and biological risk factors was observed in almost all of the homes. Regarding cultural factors and habits, a large proportion of the families had no idea whether accidents were foreseeable events and others did not believe that the family's habits might favor their occurrence. Delegation of household chores or care of younger siblings to children under the age of 10 was common among the families studied. CONCLUSION The results point towards the need to have safe and healthy behavioral patterns and environments, and to monitor occurrences of accidents, thereby structuring and consolidating the attendance provided for victims.

  4. Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

    2003-10-01

    A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time.

  5. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  6. Perfil del trauma maxilofacial en accidentes de bicicleta

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Asunción Ramírez Roa; María Guadalupe Suárez-Moreno; Florentino Puerto-Álvarez; Heber Félix Quiroga-Vía; Jesús Arenas-Osuna; Bertha Vivanco-Cedeño

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: conocer el perfil traumatológico maxilofacial, concomitante y manejo, de las personas que sufrieron accidentes de bicicleta. Se identificaron variables como edad, sexo, mecanismo, lugar, mes, patrones de lesiones, sintomatología, lapso de atención, turno, especialidad y tratamientos. Diseño: exploratorio, descriptivo, analítico, retrospectivo. Material y métodos: se censaron todos los pacientes con lesiones maxilofaciales por accidentes de bicicleta, de las notas médicas del Servici...

  7. ACCIDENTAL DEATHS DUE TO ELECTROCUTION DURING AMATEUR ELECTRO - FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Electro - fishing (passing electricity through water to catch fish requires sophisticated equipment. While this method is commonly employed b y scientists for survey and fisheries management, a crude and illegal form electro - fishing is employed in Kerala for catching fish from water bodies. This can result in accidental electrocution and even fatalities. Even though they are rare, forensic patho logists in Kerala do come across such deaths from time to time. 8 cases of accidental death which occurred during electro - fishing are discussed here.

  8. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  9. Accidentes laborales, medicamentos y hábitos de salud

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Martín, María Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio está dirigido a analizar la posible asociación con el accidente de trabajo del tipo y cantidad de medicamentos que consumen los trabajadores de forma crónica y/o aguda antes de acudir a nuestra consulta, de las enfermedades crónicas y/o agudas que padecen y de otros hábitos de consumo (alcohol y drogas). La salud laboral es un problema prioritario. El objetivo será promover la salud de los trabajadores y tratar de disminuir la incidencia de accidentes laborales. E...

  10. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  11. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food security status based on Dietary Energy Consumed (DEC) per Adult Equivalent (AE) per day, identifies ..... also conducted to supplement information collected through the ...... self-sufficient households to sustain their lives but not to make ...

  12. Hospital-based screening tools in the identification of non-accidental trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dani O; Deans, Katherine J

    2017-02-01

    Over 700,000 children are victims of abuse and neglect each year in the United States. Effective screening programs that entail broad capture of suspected non-accidental trauma (NAT) may help to identify sentinel injuries. This can facilitate earlier detection and psychosocial interventions in hopes of decreasing recurrent NAT, which confers a higher mortality rate. The purpose of this article is to outline essential components of hospital-based NAT screening tools and highlight existing programs. In general, these tools should include several components: education sessions for healthcare providers on how to identify signs of NAT, automated notes or checklists within the electronic medical record to prompt specialty referrals, and a multidisciplinary team of experts that can address the needs of these children in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  14. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  15. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  16. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  17. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  18. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  19. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  20. Non-accidental head injury - the evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Timothy J. [University of Manchester, Blackley, Department of Child Health, Booth Hall Children' s Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A postmortem examination and the CT scan documented the above injuries (neuropathology showed acute but with foci of older subdural bleeding) and indicated that in addition there were five recent rib fractures (left ribs 3-5 posteriorly and right ribs 6-7 posteriorly), a large perimacular retinal fold in the left retina, and subscalp bruising in the area of the anterior fontanelle and the occipital area. Family proceedings were commenced in order to protect the 2-year-old girl. Expert forensic, neuro- and eye pathologists instructed on behalf of the girl's father were of the view that the baby's injuries were likely to have resulted from the fall from the bed to the carpet, or alternatively from the step-father's efforts to revive the infant; other possibilities being apnoea and cerebral anoxia and cardiac arrest resulting from gastrooesophageal reflux or overly rough rocking of the baby in a baby rocker by the 2-year-old girl, the scalp bruising allegedly being the result of palpation of the baby's fontanelle by the treating paediatricians. The rib fractures were attributed to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. This short review looks at the type of evidence that might help one to distinguish between the differing opinions offered as to the cause of this child's injuries. (orig.)

  1. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is a class of insects that sting in order to subdue their prey. Humans coming into accidental contact with these insects results in stings that may cause from mild local reaction like weal formation around the sting site to severe systemic reactions such as intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and rarely pancreatitis. We report here the clinical course of a patient who developed concurrent acute pancreatitis and pigment-induced acute renal failure after multiple hornet stings.

  2. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mangarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. 1. Responsabilidad del “empleador” por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Noción. 2. La indemnización “tarifada”. Fundamento de su procedencia 3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales en la ley uruguaya (ley Nº 16.074. 4. La “ampliación” de la responsabilidad del empleador por el derecho común en el derecho uruguayo (artículo 7 ley Nº 16.074. 5. Requisitos para la ampliación de la responsabilidad patronal: culpa grave en el incumplimientode normas de seguridad y prevención. 6. La culpa grave. Concepto. 7. El modelo del hombre a tener en cuenta en la “culpa grave” no es el del buen padre de familia. 8. El grado de la culpa no puede ser medido por el resultado del accidente. 9. Se aplican las eximentes de la responsabilidad civil. 10. Distintos ámbitos de la responsabilidad patronal por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales: A ante la víctima o los derecho-habientes; B ante el Banco de Seguros del Estado; C ante el Ministerio de Trabajo ySeguridad Social. 11. Recupero del BSE en caso de culpa grave en el incumplimiento de normas de seguridad y prevención. Requisitos 12. Responsabilidad del empleador en caso de accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional sufrido por un adolescente. Conclusiones.

  3. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  4. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  5. The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the 'accidental logics' of political settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-07-01

    This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and compares rationing for the elderly in the United States and in England for acute care, care at the end of life, and chronic care.

  6. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion... possibility of accidental ingestion of drugs, it is not only suggested but is recommended that one of these...

  7. Circumstances and factors associated with accidental deaths among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Analysis on accidents from the perspective of population segments shows there is higher incidence among children, adolescents and young adults. Since the characteristics and circunstances of the event are closely related to educational, economic, social and cultural issues, identifying them may contribute towards minimizing the causes, which are often fatal. The aim here was to identify the environmental, chemical, biological and cultural factors associated with deaths due to accidents among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, in 2009. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. RESULTS Thirty-nine accidental deaths of individuals aged 0 to 24 years were examined: 56.4% due to traffic accidents; 25.6%, drowning; 10.3%, aspiration of milk; 5.1%, falls; and 2.6%, accidentally triggering a firearm. Male victims predominated (82.1%). The presence of chemical, environmental and biological risk factors was observed in almost all of the homes. Regarding cultural factors and habits, a large proportion of the families had no idea whether accidents were foreseeable events and others did not believe that the family's habits might favor their occurrence. Delegation of household chores or care of younger siblings to children under the age of 10 was common among the families studied. CONCLUSION The results point towards the need to have safe and healthy behavioral patterns and environments, and to monitor occurrences of accidents, thereby structuring and consolidating the attendance provided for victims.

  8. Portal venous gas emboli after accidental ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rebekah A; Schmidt, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a common household product. It is clear and odorless making it easy to confuse with water, especially when improperly stored. Concentrated formulations are also available for consumer purchase. We report a case of hydrogen peroxide ingestion in a child and discuss the potential consequences and treatment of such an exposure. A 12-year-old boy accidentally ingested a sip of concentrated hydrogen peroxide. He rapidly developed hematemesis and presented to the Emergency Department. His initial work-up was unremarkable, and his symptoms resolved quickly. However, diffuse gas emboli were found within the portal system on abdominal computed tomography. The child was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and later found to have gastric irritation as well as an ulcer on endoscopy. He recovered fully from the incident. We present this case to increase awareness of the dangers of hydrogen peroxide ingestion in children. Fortunately, the child in this case recovered fully, but emergency physicians should be aware of the potential consequences and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  10. El accidente de trabajo "in itinere" = Working in the accident "itinere"

    OpenAIRE

    Pinillas Carro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo aqu?? presentado aborda el estudio de los accidentes de trabajo, regulado al art??culo 115 Ley General de Seguridad Social, y m??s concretamente el accidente in itinere, claro est??, sin olvidar tampoco el accidente en misi??n. En la primera parte del trabajo, y una vez desarrollado el concepto de accidente de trabajo, el presente trabajo se centra en el estudio pormenorizado del accidente in itinere y sus requisitos (teleol??gico, topogr??fico, cronol??gico y mec??nico). Por otro ...

  11. Household food wastage in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenlock, R W; Buss, D H; Derry, B J

    1980-01-01

    1. The total food and drink available for human consumption in the United Kingdom would provide approximately 13 MJ (3100 kcal)/person per d, while the energy intake recommended for the population is approximately 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/person per d. A proportion of this substantial difference must be due to wastage in the home as well as in catering establishments and during the storage, distribution and processing of food. 2. As part of a general investigation of this problem, a representative sample of 100 British households was asked to collect all the potentially-edible food wasted in their homes during 1 week, and to keep a record of the food, other than commercial pet food, which they gave to pets and wild birds. A total of 672 households co-operated fully, 338 in summer and 334 in winter. Each food sample received was weighed, and its energy content was determined calorimetrically. 3. Significantly more waste food was collected in summer than in winter, equivalent to 9.3 MJ (2220 kcal)/household per week and 7.1 MJ (1700 kcal)/household per week respectively. In terms of energy, cereals, fat and meat wastage predominated, while in terms of weight, milk was more important and fat less so. 4. Considerable quantities of otherwise edible food were also given to pets and birds, accounting on average for a further 2.4 MJ (570 kcal) and 3.0 MJ (710 kcal)/household per week in summer and winter respectively. The energy content of all food wasted in the home therefore averaged 11.7 MJ (2790 kcal)/household per week in summer and 10.1 MJ (2410 kcal)/households per week in winter, equivalent to 0.6 MJ (150 kcal) and 0.5 MJ (130 kcal)/person per d respectively. This is less than one-quarter of the gap between food supplies and the amount of food thought to be eaten in the UK. 5. Food wastage was significantly influenced by the composition of the family, with adults wasting more in absolute terms than children, and larger households wasting less per person than smaller

  12. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  13. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  14. Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Awwad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives - Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design - Case report. Results - Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion - Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

  15. Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-10-01

    Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

  16. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  17. D-transallethrin: An unusual agent for accidental poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kedari; Rajesh Kulkarni; Chhaya Valvi; Aarti Kinikar; Sandhya Khadse

    2016-01-01

    D-trans allethrin, a pyrethroid, is commonly used as a coil mosquito repellant. There are very few reports of human toxicity due to D-trans allethrin. We present the case of an 11-month-old boy who presented to us with excessive salivation, altered sensorium and convulsions following alleged accidental ingestion of a coil containing D-transallethrin. He required mechanical ventilation for a brief period and made a full recovery. Although rare, the possibility of pyrethroid poisoning should be...

  18. Accidental surface contamination - The effect on trace element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Ueckermann, H.; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the accidental contamination of samples during a micro-PIXE study of Rh, Pd and Pt partition coefficients in the Fe-S and Ni-S systems. Trace amounts of Ni and Cu, mounted separately in epoxy as markers, were found to be present in various phases in the sections, sometimes selectively in specific mineral phases. This contamination is believed to result from polishing during preparation. Further surface contamination from conductive Ag paste was also observed.

  19. Accidental IV administration of epinephrine instead of midazolam at colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration errors appear to be a major source of iatrogenic harm to hospitalized patients. They often, particularly in the case of epinephrine, have catastrophic consequences both for the patient and the well-meaning provider. The following incident is a medication error case report which illustrates one way that incorrect medication may be administered. IV epinephrine was accidentally administered instead of midazolam at colonoscopy.

  20. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Froehle; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Guenther Kirchner; Deniz Kececioglu; Eugen Sandica

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECM...

  1. La prevención de accidentes (3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available The financial loss due to working accidents is very substantial, quite apart from the actual loss of human lives. Hence avoiding these accidents is a most important matter. The accident index in the various industries shows a rate of increase that is larger than should be the case in proportion to the development of the industries concerned, and the larger number of employees. The fact that these indexes are smaller in many countries, however, shows that these accidents can be considerably reduced if suitable measures are taken to avoid them. In chapter 2 of our magazine, issue no. 178, a variety of reasons were discussed that may originate accidents, although these causes are not directly linked to the accident itself. In this article mention is made of some of the measures that can be taken in the handling of cutting and welding equipment, and also of inflammable liquids, to prevent possible accidents.El peso de los accidentes de trabajo sobre la economía supone cantidades muy grandes que, independientemente del inestimable valor de una vida humana, realzan la importancia de la prevención de accidentes. Los índices de accidentes muestran en diferentes industrias un crecimiento mayor de lo que debería corresponder proporcionalmente, habida cuenta del crecimiento laboral. El hecho de que en distintos países los índices sean inferiores, demuestra que se pueden conseguir buenos frutos si se concede primordial importancia a que los trabajos se realicen con las debidas medidas de seguridad. En el Capítulo 2, número 178 de esta Revista, se detallaron diversas causas que pueden originar un accidente sin estar ligadas en forma directa con una tarea determinada. En el presente trabajo se indican algunas de las medidas que deben observarse en el manejo de los equipos de soldadura y corte, así como en el transvase de líquidos inflamables.

  2. "Dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon: accidental drowning or natural disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki; Hasegawa, Iwao; Seto, Yoshihisa; Tsuboi, Akio

    2013-06-01

    Sudden death in a hot bathtub occurs frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. This retrospective report describes the epidemiologic circumstances and physical findings at autopsy. In total, 268 victims were found unconscious or dead during tub bathing. After postmortem examination, the manner of death was judged as natural cause in 191 (71.2%) and accidental drowning in 63 (23.5%) cases. Mean age (SD) was 72.1 (15.2) years with no significant difference between males and females. A seasonal difference was evident: the winter displayed the highest frequency. Drowning water inhalation, which was confirmed in 72% of victims, was absent in the others. The most common observations on postmortem examination were cardiac ischemic changes and cardiomegaly. Water inhalation signs were evident in a significantly fewer victims exhibiting these factors. In contrast, inhalational findings were observed more frequently in victims with other backgrounds such as alcohol intake, mobility disturbance, and history of epilepsy. Annual mortality in Japan from accidental drowning in persons aged older than 75 years is 33 deaths per 100,000 population. However, this number may be considerably underestimated as pathologists tend to regard lack of water inhalation as indicating a natural cause of death. Confusion in diagnosis remains consequent to the accidental and natural aspects of "dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon.

  3. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  4. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  5. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  6. Accidental exposure to UV radiation produced by germicidal lamp: case report and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Camisa, Vincenzo; Lembo, Marco; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Tucci, Mario Graziano; Borra, Massimo; Napolitano, Antonio; Cannatà, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause both benefits and harmful effects on humans. The adverse effects mainly involve two target organs, skin and eye, and can be further divided into short- and long-term effects. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of two health-care workers to ultraviolet radiation produced by a germicidal lamp in a hospital pharmacy. The germicidal lamp presented a spectrum with an intense UV-C component as well as a modest UV-B contribution. Overexposure to UV-C radiation was over 100 times as large as the ICNIRP exposure limits. A few hours after the exposure, the two subjects reported symptoms of acute UV injury and both of them continued having significant clinical signs for over 2 years. In this study, we describe acute and potentially irreversible effects caused by high UV exposure. In addition, we present the results of risk assessment by occupational exposure to germicidal lamps. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Serie temporal de los accidentes laborales atendidos en un hospital de agudos y su relación con la meteorología y la polución atmosférica Time series of industrial accidents attended in an acute hospital care and its relation to meteorology and atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígido Pérez Bermúdez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La siniestralidad es un proceso en muchas ocasiones complejo en el que entran diversos factores de riesgo, tanto inherentes al trabajo como a circunstancias exteriores (organización, climatología, etc.. Objetivos: Describir la tendencia y factores relacionados de los accidentes de trabajo (A.T. atendidos en un hospital de agudos de Madrid durante el trienio 2005-07 y su relación con la meteorología y la polución atmosférica. Metodología: Estudio ecológico. Se analizaron los A.T. atendidos en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Universitario de la Princesa de Madrid, durante el trienio 2005-07. Las variables analizadas fueron variables de calendario, climáticas y niveles de contaminación. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y univariante y se modelizó por medio de una Regresión de Poisson. La medida de asociación fue el Riesgo Relativo con sus Intervalos de Confianza al 95 %. Resultados: La tendencia es estacionaria disminuyendo en el año 2007. El calor es un factor de riesgo, temperaturas superiores a 25 º C. aumenta la siniestralidad un 19 %. La presión atmosférica se comporta como efecto protector. Las variables de contaminación no fueron significativas. Conclusiones: Durante el año 2007, la siniestralidad laboral atendida en el servicio de Urgencias del hospital ha disminuido. Los A.T. tienen una relación con temperaturas elevadas y presión atmosférica.Introduccion: The work accident rate is in several occasions a complex process in wich divers safety factors take place, inherente to the job /profesión as well as external circumstances (organization, climatology, etc Objectives: To describe the tendency and factors wich are linked to the occupational Hazard, admitted toa cute hospital in Madrid during the 2005-2007 triennium and its relations with meteorology and environmental pollution. Methodology: Ecologic study. Occupational injuries admitted in the accident and emergency department at the University

  8. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of househo

  9. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone...

  10. Making Psychology a Household Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  11. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  12. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  13. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  14. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  15. Evaluation and treatment of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyko, Vincent; Cohen, Victor; Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha P; Pearl-Davis, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    A case of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine is described. A 47-year-old man arrived at the emergency department after accidental injection of epinephrine with an autoinjector into his left thumb. His vital signs were stable at admission. The patient was allergic to nuts and thought he may have eaten something containing a pine nut. The patient reported feeling itching in his throat but had no shortness of breath or swollen tongue. He tried to self-administer an epinephrine injection, but it did not inject. While he was checking the device, it accidently injected into his left thumb pad. A review of systems revealed throat discomfort, a tingling sensation of the tongue, and a left-thumb puncture with pain. Physical examination of the left thumb pad revealed a pale, cool thumb with diminished capillary refill and punctuate black discoloration at the site of injection. Topical nitroglycerin paste was applied but had no effect, so terbutaline was ordered. The terbutaline injection was prepared as a 1:1 preparation of terbutaline sulfate 1 mg/mL and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The immediate effects were the return of color from pale white to red and observable perfusion to the area within seconds. After 20 minutes, the red color remained, with observable perfusion and warmth, in addition to complete neurosensory function. Sixty minutes after terbutaline administration, the patient was discharged home. A 47-year-old man who accidentally injected himself in the thumb with an epinephrine autoinjector was successfully treated with subcutaneous terbutaline. The treatment had an immediate effect, including revascularization and resolution of pain.

  16. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  17. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  18. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  19. Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

  20. Accidente Isquémico Transitorio: la gran oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Fernández Couto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El ictus constituye la primera causa de muerte en mujeres y la segunda causa de muerte global en España1, así como la primera causa de discapacidad adquirida en la edad adulta y la segunda causa de demencia por detrás de la enfermedad de Alzheimer. El accidente isquémico transitorio (AIT precede al ictus isquémico en un 23% de los casos2. Esta señal de alarma, lejos de poder considerarse banal, constituye una gran oportunidad para la prevención.

  1. Accidental Chemical Burns of Oral Mucosa by Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Deo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (GlySH is a broad spectrum, nonselective herbicide, widely used in agriculture. This case report describes a 25-year-old man presenting with extensive chemical burns and ulceration of the oral cavity as a result of accidental exposure to GlySH. This paper aims to illustrate the typical appearance of GlySH related chemical mucosal burn and to demonstrate the severity of the corrosive effect of GlySH which need team approach to prevent unfavorable sequelae such as microstomia. Keywords: Chemical burns, corrosive injury, glyphosate poisoning, herbicide, microstomia, oral mucosal burn.

  2. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse.

  3. Costes e Investigación de Accidentes Laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Quintana, Jon Ander

    2013-01-01

    En España en el año 2011, según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), se registraron 581.150 accidentes con baja laboral de los cuales el 88% sucedieron dentro de jornada laboral. Observando estas cifras, es obvio que hay una carencia en el sistema preventivo y, por los tanto, es necesario buscar una solución. Son tres los factores de la baja inversión en prevención: la falta de concienciación de las empresas, la falta del conocimiento de las consecuencias de un...

  4. D-transallethrin: An unusual agent for accidental poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kedari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available D-trans allethrin, a pyrethroid, is commonly used as a coil mosquito repellant. There are very few reports of human toxicity due to D-trans allethrin. We present the case of an 11-month-old boy who presented to us with excessive salivation, altered sensorium and convulsions following alleged accidental ingestion of a coil containing D-transallethrin. He required mechanical ventilation for a brief period and made a full recovery. Although rare, the possibility of pyrethroid poisoning should be kept in mind in children who present with sudden onset unconsciousness or convulsions.

  5. Measurement of accidental coincidences for higher activity sources

    CERN Document Server

    Yull Hwang, H; Jae-Oh, P; Man-Lee, J; Kie-Lee, M

    1999-01-01

    The multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) technique has been applied for the measurement of accidental coincidences for the cases of higher activity samples in beta-gamma coincidence counting. Two beta samples of sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Cs were prepared and the nominal activities observed in the beta counter were about 7000 and 11000 s sup - sup 1 , respectively. The obtained true coincidence rates are independent of resolving times and dead times. They are compared with those calculated from the mathematical model derived by Cox and Isham.

  6. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-01-01

    RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas ...

  7. Accidentes de trabajo en un hospital de agudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Bermúdez B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El mejor conocimiento de los determinantes y circunstancias de producción de los accidentes laborales, favorecerá la implantación de medidas correctoras. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución temporal de los accidentes de trabajo (AT y determinar los factores de riesgo de baja médica en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia. MÉTODOS: Descripción y análisis retrospectivo de los accidentes de trabajo producidos en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia durante los años 1992 a 1995. Se estimó por métodos deterministas la tendencia y estacionalidad de las series (índices estacionales, IE. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores pronósticos de baja médica y determinar su probabilidad de ocurrencia . RESULTADOS: Las tasas más elevadas de AT se produjeron entre los trabajadores de cocina y lavandería (10,00 AT por 100 trabajadores-año. Los AT con baja médica mantienen una tendencia cercana a cero siendo febrero el mes con I.E más elevado (IE=139,8. Los que cursan sin baja médica tienen una tendencia positiva (r²=0,23, p<0,0001, siendo mayo el mes de mayor siniestralidad (IE=134,2. La probabilidad de que el accidente curse con baja médica aumenta significativamente con la edad, cuando se produce por la tarde, si ha tenido lugar en cocina/lavandería, y si se trata de un esguince o tendinitis. CONCLUSIONES: la actuación sobre la siniestralidad en los AT que cursen con IT, debería centrarse sobre los trabajos menos cualificados y en las áreas de cocina y lavandería.

  8. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  9. Assessment of evolutive and prognostic indicators applied to accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation; Evaluacion de indicadores pronosticos y evolutivos aplicables a situaciones accidentales de sobreexposicion a radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera Carrillo, M. de Lourdes; Cardenas, J. [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Dubner, D.; Perez, M. del Rosario; Gisone, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Radiopatologia; Carnot, J. [Hospital Clinico Quirurgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The acute radiation syndrome has been characterized in different ways that involve risk for life and health of the people overexposed to ionizing radiations. This work intends to test a therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI) model as conditioning to bone marrow transplantation. With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures, a study was carried out in 46 patients undergoing TBI receiving doses between 10 Gy and 12 Gy. The following parameters were assessed: lipo peroxyde plasmatic levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity, reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental overexposed patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia.

  10. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  11. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  12. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider w...

  13. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  14. Household costs of leprosy reactions (ENL) in rural India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandler, David J; Hansen, Kristian S; Mahato, Bhabananda;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL) and borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic...... burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53) were...... identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38) had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies. FINDINGS: The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13...

  15. Multidisciplinary approach to "accidental" falls in the elderly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Mazzella, Francesca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Ungar, Andrea; Masotti, Giulio; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Falls in the elderly are commonly and often wrongly identified as "accidental". We report a case of an elderly woman admitted to first aid for a trauma due to an accidental fall. Geriatric multidisciplinary evaluation revealed mild cognitive impairment associated with depressive symptoms; both findings made the anamnesis uncertain. Syncope algorithm was applied and "tachy-brady form of sick sinus syndrome" was diagnosed. Differential diagnosis between "accidental" and "apparently accidental" falls in elderly patients is very difficult but a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation can clarify the correct diagnosis.

  16. Aspects of Household Cooling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mrzyglod, Matthias; Holzer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Actually available household cooling appliances in the highest efficiency class may consume less then 10W average electrical power. To achieve such power consumptions special challenges for the cooling system had to overcome. The related cooling system design has to consider several effects, which arise from the corresponding low cooling capacity demand, start/stop cycles and additional power consumptions by control accessories. The lecture provides symptomatic aspects of cooling technology, ...

  17. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies.

  18. Pathological Findings in Accidental Electrocution in a Horse (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin Gal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the veterinarians are dealing with a number of cases that require forensic expertise. Such a circumstance could be the accidental electrocution in animals, one of the causes of unnatural death. There is a scarcity with reference to the pathological findings in veterinary forensic medicine. In this paper, we present the main lesions that occurred in a horse with accidental electrocution that was presented for complete necropsy survey. A horse corpse was sent to the Pathology Department (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania for a full medical survey. Preliminary results and external examination: the body was in rigor mortis; from the nasal cavities drained out reddish foam and in the mouth was observed the presence of ingested feed (straw that was not chewed, suggesting a quick death. The findings detected after internal examination of the carcass were poor blood coagulability, haemorrhagic diathesis throughout the body, with haemorrhages of various sizes in different body regions (e.g., muscles of the withers, in the gluteal muscle, the mucosa of epiglottis, larynx, trachea, in the interstitium of the lung, and ecchymosis in the left kidney. Some other lesions detected were infarcts and haemorrhages in the fundic region of the stomach’s mucosa. In electrocution, haemorrhages are most often located in the respiratory tract, aspect observed in our case too. However, the diagnosis of electrocution has to corroborate the necropsy findings (which are not specific, with some other data such as the fulminant death and inspection of power source.

  19. accidentes y otras causas violentas en la sierra de Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eloy Rivas Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación sociológica cuyo objeto fue explorar el papel que ha jugado el modelo hegemónico de masculinidad en la ocurrencia de muertes derivadas de accidentes y varias formas de ejercicio de la violencia en una comunidad rural de la sierra de Sonora. Estos resultados difieren de aquellos que tradicionalmente los estudios de las masculinidades han mostrado para México y América Latina. El modelo dominante de masculinidad en las comunidades estudiadas no ha condicionado significativamente la ocurrencia de las muertes por accidentes y otras causas violentas. La responsabilidad, la disciplina y el respeto hacia las personas consideradas socialmente débiles (mujeres, ancianos y niños, principalmente son características que debe poseer un hombre de verdad en las comunidades estudiadas. El apego de los hombres a estas formas de comportamiento y su temor a perder honorabilidad como hombre de verdad si se desvían de estas normas de conducta los ha llevado a evitar una serie de prácticas temerarias que pudieron poner en riesgo su vida y la de otras personas.

  20. Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have established a relationship between poverty and food insecurity, but little is known about the acute changes within households that lead to changes in food insecurity. This study examined how changes in income, employment status, and receipt of welfare related to change in severity of food insecurity during 1 y among low-income families. In 2005-2007, 501 families living in market and subsidized rental housing were recruited through door-to-door sampling in high-poverty neighborhoods in Toronto. One year later, families were re-interviewed. The final longitudinal analytic sample included 331 families. Within-household change in income, employment, and welfare receipt were examined in relation to change in severity of food insecurity. Severity was denoted by the aggregate raw score on the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Analyses were stratified by housing subsidy status owing to differences in characteristics between households. Food insecurity was a persistent problem among families; 68% were food insecure at both interviews. Severity was dynamic, however, as 73.4% answered more or fewer questions affirmatively on the HFFSM between baseline and follow-up. Among market-rent families, a $2000 gain in income during the year and gain of full-time employment were associated with a 0.29 and 1.33 decrease in raw score, respectively (P income and employment are related to improvements in families' experiences of food insecurity, highlighting the potential for income- and employment-based policy interventions to affect the severity of household food insecurity for low-income families.

  1. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharani Loganathan

    Full Text Available While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking.We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur and rural (Kuala Terengganu setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained.Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38% were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001. The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33% households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3% households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5% experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%. The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03 than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24.While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health

  2. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Tharani; Lee, Way-Seah; Lee, Kok-Foo; Jit, Mark; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-01-01

    While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001). The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33%) households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3%) households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5%) experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%). The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03) than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24). While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health

  3. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  4. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Bodkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  5. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  6. A novel method to detect accidental oesophageal intubation based on ventilation pressure waveforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, Alain F.; Absalom, Anthony; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emergency endotracheal intubation results in accidental oesophageal intubation in up to 17% of patients. This is frequently undetected thereby adding to the morbidity and mortality. No current method to detect accidental oesophageal intubation in an emergency setting is both highly sensi

  7. Accidental Perforation of Endotracheal Tube during Orthognathic Surgery for Maxillary Prognathism - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary prognathism(excess is a congenital anomaly characterized by facial disfigurement. Accidental perforation of endotracheal tube during corrective surgery is not an uncommon complication. A case of accidental perforation of endotracheal tube during surgery and its management is presented here.

  8. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  9. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  10. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  11. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  12. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  13. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  14. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  15. Application of biological dosimetry in accidental radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, M.; Batora, I.; Kolesar, D.; Stojkovic, J. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta); Gaal, P.; Sklovsky, A. (Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cizova, O. (Sexuologicka Ambulancia KUNZ, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-03-01

    The case is described of accidental irradiation of a male person with /sup 137/Cs of an activity of 24.71 GBq. The first estimate induced a reasonable suspicion that the absorbed dose could be very high and life-threatening. On the other hand the clinical picture, usual laboratory examinations, findings in the fluorescent blood count, the analysis of chromosomal count of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, the spermiogram, and the negative post-irradiation porphyrinuria suggested that the absorbed dose could be much lower than the original estimate. The results of dosimetry obtained after the reconstruction of the accident by measuring on a phantom revealed that the actual dose was very close to that presumed from the results of biological dosimetry during the first days of examination of the patient.

  16. Comparative toxicology of intentional and accidental heroin overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-07-01

    The demographic and toxicological characteristics of deliberate (SUI, n = 50) and accidental (ACC, n = 927) fatal heroin overdose cases were examined. SUI cases were more likely to be female, had lower body mass indices, were more likely to be enrolled in treatment and less likely to have hepatic pathology. The median blood morphine concentration of SUI cases was significantly higher than that of ACC cases (0.70 vs. 0.40 mg/L, p 1 mg/L were seen among 38.0% of SUI cases compared to 13.9% of ACC cases. Being a member of the SUI group remained a significant independent predictor of higher morphine concentrations after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (p cocaine (p overdose cases, rather than overdose being a parasuicidal phenomenon per se.

  17. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  18. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

    2014-10-30

    Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics).

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Catalin STOENESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.

  20. Accidental endoscopic finding of Anisakis simplex in human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Aloia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anisakidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ingestion of nematodes belonging to the family of Anisakidae. Human infection is caused by intake of raw or undercooked sea fish and cephalopods infested by Anisakis larvae. We present a case of accidental endoscopic finding of an alive nematode adhering to distal ascending colon in a 32 years old man, submitted to colonoscopy owing to recent onsets of rectal bleeding of likely hemorrhoidal origin. The nematode, removed from colon by means of biopsy forceps, has been identified as L3 larvae of A. simplex by a light microscope. Histological examination of intestinal mucosa showed a mild fibrosis of lamina propria, characterized by focal lymphocytic inflammation and scattered infiltration of eosinophils. The patient reported the intake of marinated anchovies 3 days before endoscopic examination.

  1. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation.

  2. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  3. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  4. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    doses of radiation; (b) effects on children from combined exposure to low doses of radiation and chemical agents from food, water and air; and (c) specific effects from exposure during early childhood (radioisotopes from water, radon in homes). Special consideration should also be given to a possible......, environmental radiation pollution and indoor accidental contamination reveals consistently increased chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequency in exposed than in referent children. Future research in this area should be focused on studies providing information on: (a) effects on children caused by low...... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...

  5. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  6. Subtraction of "accidentals" and the validity of Bell tests

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C H

    1999-01-01

    In some key Bell experiments, including two of the well-known ones by Alain Aspect, 1981-2, it is only after the subtraction of ``accidentals'' from the coincidence counts that we get violations of Bell tests. The data adjustment, producing increases of up to 60% in the test statistics, has never been adequately justified. Few published experiments give sufficient information for the reader to make a fair assessment. There is a straightforward and well known realist model that fits the unadjusted data very well. In this paper, the logic of this realist model and the reasoning used by experimenters in justification of the data adjustment are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence from all Bell experiments is in urgent need of re-assessment, in the light of all the known ``loopholes''. Invalid Bell tests have frequently been used, neglecting an improved one derived by Clauser and Horne in 1974. ``Local causal'' explanations for the observations have been wrongfully neglected.

  7. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury.

  8. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  9. Household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA, April-May 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Oliver W; Parks, Sharyn; Shim, Trudi; Blevins, Patricia A; Lucas, Pauline M; Sanchez, Roger; Walea, Nancy; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Duffy, Mark R; Shim, Matthew J; Guerra, Sandra; Guerra, Fernando; Mills, Gwen; Verani, Jennifer; Alsip, Bryan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Shu, Bo; Emery, Shannon; Cohen, Adam L; Menon, Manoj; Fry, Alicia M; Dawood, Fatimah; Fonseca, Vincent P; Olsen, Sonja J

    2010-04-01

    To assess household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in San Antonio, Texas, USA, during April 15-May 8, 2009, we investigated 77 households. The index case-patient was defined as the household member with the earliest onset date of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), or laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Median interval between illness onset in index and secondary case-patients was 4 days (range 1-9 days); the index case-patient was likely to be or =50 years of age (4%-12%). Early in the outbreak, household transmission primarily occurred from children to other household members and was lower than the transmission rate for seasonal influenza.

  10. Financial Satisfaction from Intra-Household Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Namkee Ahn; Victoria Ateca; Arantza Ugidos

    2007-01-01

    We address individuals’ financial satisfaction from the intra-household perspective. Our purpose is twofold. First, we want to contrast the hypothesis of relative income within the household. Does the income level of one individual relative to that of other members of the same household matter in his/her income satisfaction? Second, we want to test procedural utility hypothesis in that different sources of income may contribute differentially to individuals’ income satisfaction. In particular...

  11. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. FACTORES DE RIESGO QUE OCASIONAN ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN EL PERSONAL DE ENFERMERÍA DE UNA CLÍNICA ACREDITADA DE LA CIUDAD DE AREQUIPA, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA SUTTA, PATRICIA CONCEPCION

    2014-01-01

    FACTORES DE RIESGO CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN TIPOS RIESGOS NO MECÁNICOS RUIDOS RADIACIONES IONIZANTES ILUMINACIÓN CALOR FRÍO RIESGOS FÍSICOS MECÁNICOS RIESGOS QUÍMICOS RIESGOS ERGONÓMICOS POSTURA RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS CARGA DE TRABAJO LABORAL DEFINICIÓN ACCIDENTES LABORALES ACCIDENTE CAUSAS BÁSICAS Y CAUSAS INMEDIATAS ACCIDENTES LABORALES CAUSAS DE LOS ACCIDENTES TIPOS DE ACCIDENTE TIPOS DE ACCIDENTES LABORALES

  13. FACTORES DE RIESGO QUE OCASIONAN ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN EL PERSONAL DE ENFERMERÍA DE UNA CLÍNICA ACREDITADA DE LA CIUDAD DE AREQUIPA, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA SUTTA, PATRICIA CONCEPCION

    2014-01-01

    FACTORES DE RIESGO CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN TIPOS RIESGOS NO MECÁNICOS RUIDOS RADIACIONES IONIZANTES ILUMINACIÓN CALOR FRÍO RIESGOS FÍSICOS MECÁNICOS RIESGOS QUÍMICOS RIESGOS ERGONÓMICOS POSTURA RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS CARGA DE TRABAJO LABORAL DEFINICIÓN ACCIDENTES LABORALES ACCIDENTE CAUSAS BÁSICAS Y CAUSAS INMEDIATAS ACCIDENTES LABORALES CAUSAS DE LOS ACCIDENTES TIPOS DE ACCIDENTE TIPOS DE ACCIDENTES LABORALES

  14. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  15. Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Cowling

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While influenza A and B viruses can be transmitted via respiratory droplets, the importance of small droplet nuclei "aerosols" in transmission is controversial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Hong Kong and Bangkok, in 2008-11, subjects were recruited from outpatient clinics if they had recent onset of acute respiratory illness and none of their household contacts were ill. Following a positive rapid influenza diagnostic test result, subjects were randomly allocated to one of three household-based interventions: hand hygiene, hand hygiene plus face masks, and a control group. Index cases plus their household contacts were followed for 7-10 days to identify secondary infections by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR testing of respiratory specimens. Index cases with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza B were included in the present analyses. We used a mathematical model to make inferences on the modes of transmission, facilitated by apparent differences in clinical presentation of secondary infections resulting from aerosol transmission. We estimated that approximately 37% and 26% of influenza B virus transmission was via the aerosol mode in households in Hong Kong and Bangkok, respectively. In the fitted model, influenza B virus infections were associated with a 56%-72% risk of fever plus cough if infected via aerosol route, and a 23%-31% risk of fever plus cough if infected via the other two modes of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Aerosol transmission may be an important mode of spread of influenza B virus. The point estimates of aerosol transmission were slightly lower for influenza B virus compared to previously published estimates for influenza A virus in both Hong Kong and Bangkok. Caution should be taken in interpreting these findings because of the multiple assumptions inherent in the model, including that there is limited biological evidence to date supporting a difference in the clinical features of influenza B virus

  16. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2014-03-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  17. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  18. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  19. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  20. Accidental Children Poisoning With Methadone: An Iranian Pediatric Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayena JABBEHDARI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Jabbehdari S, Farnaghi F, Shariatmadari SF, Jafari J, Mehregan FF, Karimzadeh P. Accidental Children Poisoning With Methadone: An Iranian Pediatric Sectional Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn;7(7: 32-34.ObjectiveToxic poisoning with methadone is common in children in Iran. Our study was carried out due to the changing pattern of methadone poisoning in recent years and increasing methadone toxicity. Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive-sectional study, all of the methadone poisoned children younger than 12 years who were admitted to the Loghman Hakim Hospital in 2012, were assessed. Clinical symptoms and signs, para-clinical findings, and treatment were evaluated. ResultsIn this study, 16 boys and 15 girls who had been poisoned by methadone were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 55 months. All patients had been poisoned randomly or due to parent’s mistakes. The mean time of symptoms onset after methadone consumption was 1 hour and 30 Min, indicating a relatively long time after onset of symptoms.Clinical findings were drowsiness (75%, miotic pupil (68 %, vomiting (61%, rapid shallow breathing (57% and apnea (40%. In paraclinical tests, respiratory acidosis (69% and leukocytosis (55.2% were seen. The most important finding was increase in distance of QT in ECG (23.8%. The mean time of treatment with naloxone infusion was 51 hours. Three percent of patients had a return of symptoms after discontinuation of methadone. In patients with apnea, a longer course of treatment was required, and this difference was significant. Also, 17% of patients with apnea had aspiration pneumonia, which was statistically significant. ConclusionWe suggest long time treatment with naloxone and considering the probability of return of symptoms after discontinuation of methadone.ReferencesGoldfrank L, Flomenbaum N, Lewin N. Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 7th ed. McGraw–Hill 2002; p. 590-607.Schelble DT. Phosgene and

  1. The Frequency of the Accidental Contamination with Laboratory Samples in Yazd Clinical Laboratories’ personnel in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari, AA. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: laboratory personnel have always accidental exposure to clinical samples, which can cause the transmission of infection. This threat can be prevented and controlled by education for the use of safety instruments. The purpose was to determine the frequency of accidental exposure to laboratory samples among Yazd laboratory personnel in 2011. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 of Yazd clinical laboratory personnel. The data was collected, using a valid and reliable questioner, via interview and analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: Eighty-six percent of the subjects reported an experience of accidental exposure to clinical samples, such as blood, serum and urine. The causes were carelessness (41% and work overload (29%. Needle- stick was the most prevalent injury (52% particularly in sampler workers (51% and in their hands (69%. There wasn’t significant relationship between accidental exposure to laboratory samples and the variables such as private and governmental laboratories (p=0.517, kind of employment (p=0.411, record of services (p=0.439 and academic degree (p=0.454. The subjects aged 20-29 (p=0.034 and worked in sampling unit had the highest accidental exposure. Conclusion: based on the results, inexperience of the personnel especially in sampling room, overload at work and ignorance of applying safety instruments are known as the most important reasons for accidental exposure to clinical samples. Keywords: Contamination; accidental Exposure; Infectious agents; laboratory; personnel

  2. La prevención de accidentes (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyone prefers to work in those organizations where their dignity of human beings is respected. One of the most efficient means at the disposal of any firm, to improve the morale of the individual employees, and to establish a spirit of cooperation between the individual and the firm, is to set up a program of accident benefit. It will avoid direct and indirect losses due to working accidents, as analyzed in a previous article, and it will make it possible to improve total performance of each worker, since he will work in a more favorable environment, free from worry about potential danger to his person. It is almost impossible to describe in detail all those items that should be taken into account in a safety program. None the less, and as an indication of their diversity, some sources of danger are mentioned in this chapter, which are closely connected with human safety, such as public curiosity, travelling from one place to another, cleanliness and order.Todas las personas prefieren desempeñar sus tareas en aquellas organizaciones que tienen hacia ellos las consideraciones correspondientes a un ser humano. Uno de los medios más eficaces a disposición de cualquier empresa para elevar la moral del individuo y para crear un lazo de cooperación común entre el individuo y la empresa, es la de llevar a cabo un programa de prevención de accidentes, programa que redundará en el doble fruto: evitar las pérdidas directas e indirectas causadas por los accidentes de trabajo que se detallaron en un trabajo anterior, y conseguir aumentar el rendimiento del operario al hacerle un ambiente más grato por la preocupación que se demuestra hacia su persona. Es casi imposible detallar todos aquellos puntos que se deben tener en cuenta en un programa de seguridad; sin embargo, y como exponente de su diversidad, se señalan en este capítulo algunas causas, que, sin estar ligadas directamente con el trabajo individual, no obstante se encuentran

  3. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes en el hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Arlaes Yero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo (caso-control sobre accidentes en el hogar ocurridos en la población de dos consultorios de médicos de familia del área centro en el municipio Sancti Spiritus, durante el año 1996. Se tuvo en cuenta la ocurrencia de estos eventos en la población general, la incidencia estuvo representada por 77 casos y se escogió como grupo control el resto de la población. Como resultado se observó que los accidentes del hogar (AH son más frecuentes en mujeres en edades avanzadas, con una distribución temporal mayor en el cuarto trimestre del año. Los AH fueron más frecuentes en los individuos que ingieren psicofármacos en las edades extremas de la vejez. El horario de ocurrencia más frecuente fue el de la tarde; y los lugares, la cocina y el patio. Como tipo de lesión predominó la contusión y la herida. Se concluyó además que la presencia de factores predisponentes constituyen riesgo de gran magnitud en la aparición de los AHAn analytical retrospective study (case-control about home accidents occurred among the population of 2 family physician’s offices in the central area of the municipality of Sancti Spiritus, during 1996, was conducted. The occurrence of such events in the general population was taken into account. Incidence was represented by 77 cases and the rest of the population was chosen as a control group. As a result, it was observed that home accidents were more frequent in aged women, with a greater temporary distribution in the fourth trimester of the year. Home accidents took place more frequently in those individuals taking psychotropic drugs a extreme advanced ages. Most of the accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the kitchen and the backyard were the commonest places. Contusions and wounds were the predominant injuries. It was concluded that the presence of predisposing factors is a high risk for the occurrence of home accidents

  4. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  5. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  6. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher fem

  7. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  8. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  9. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  10. Fuzzy classification for farm household characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Most household classifications use hard classification procedures that limit a household to only one cluster. In this paper, fuzzy classification, in which individuals can belong totally, partially or not at all to a particular cluster, with membership showing how well they fit in each cluster, was

  11. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  12. Household income distribution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  13. Poverty and household consumption patterns in Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper, statistical analysis of poverty and household consumption patterns in rural areas and urban areas Ecuador - considers consumer expenditure on basic food requirements and housing; outlines regional disparities, rural urban disparities and disparities associated with family size, men or female headed households, occupational structure, educational level, age, etc. References, statistical tables.

  14. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on nee

  15. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  16. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  17. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  18. Measuring sustainability in households: Interpretations and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    The paper discusses the connection between “green behaviour” and the metering data of household consumption (electricity, heating, water), based on experiences on this from recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how everyday understandings of “green behaviour” are related to the overall household...

  19. Are we safe? NLM's household products database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson Fitzpatrick, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This column features an overview of the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine Household Products Database. Basic searching techniques are presented, as well as a brief overview of the data contained in this file. The Household Products Database contains information on chemical ingredients in various products used in U.S. homes.

  20. Does Income Taxation Affect Partners’ Household Chores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of income taxation on both partners‟ allocation of time to market work and unpaid house work in households with two adults. We estimate a structural household utility model in which the marginal utilities of leisure and house work of both partners are modelled as random coefficie

  1. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  2. Acute fatal pericardial effusion induced by accidental ingestion of cigarette butts in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    A dog was referred for collapse and tachypnea after ingesting cigarette butts. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated pericardial effusion, and an electrocardiogram showed tachycardia, variable QRS complexes, and ventricular premature complexes. This is the first description of fatal pericardial effusion associated with cigarette butt ingestion in a veterinary patient.

  3. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados en Chile hasta la fecha no permiten detectar de manera significativa el deterioro neuropsicológico causado por el accidente cerebro vascular (ACV y el impacto que éste tiene en el paciente a nivel de su desenvolvimiento diario y familiar. Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina Física del Hospital San José al cuál se le administró un Protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, comparándose luego con un grupo control de 50 sujetos evaluados con el mismo protocolo. Se encuentra que sobre un 20% de la población con ACV evaluada presenta deterioro en al menos uno de los ítems evaluados, siendo las funciones ejecutivas, la memoria a largo plazo y la memoria a corto plazo las áreas mayoritariamente afectada en la población evaluada.

  4. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Wei, Shiping

    2017-04-05

    As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1kg HTO and 1000kg dust release) and 34-52years for case 2 (1kg HTO and 10kg-100kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation.

  5. Tratamiento endovascular del accidente vascular encefálico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Francisco Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La alternativa de terapia neuroendovascular para un tratamiento del accidente vascular encefálico agudo es una área de la medicina en rápida expansión. El rescate endovascular del infarto cerebral agudo tiene como principal objetivo la rápida reperfusión del vaso ocluido utilizando la trombolisis intra-arterial cerebral y distintos métodos de trombectomía mecánica o colocación permanente de neurostent. El tratamiento neuro-endovascular de la hemorragia subaracnoidea aguda aneurismática también se ha establecido como la terapia de elección e incluye la embolización convencional con coils del aneurisma cerebral roto o utilizando técnica de embolización balón o stent asistido o colocación primaria de stent con tecnología de divertidor de flujo. Además, con la terapia endovascular se puede efectuar angioplastía farmacológica y mecánica del vasoespasmo cerebral.

  6. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  7. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  8. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matahri, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  9. Calidad de vida de cuidadores de adultos con accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INNA ELIDA FLÓREZ TORRES

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de adultos con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular, en Cartagena, Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo cuantitativo realizado durante el segundo semestre de 2008. Muestra no probabilística por conveniencia de 97 cuidadores. Se empleó el instrumento propuesto por Ferrell et ál. Para valorar cada uno de los bienestares que integran la calidad de vida se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y coeficiente de variación. Resultados: el grupo de cuidadores presentó en el bienestar físico un promedio de 11,1 con relación al máximo puntaje, lo que indica el peor estado de salud; los bienestares psicológico y social tuvieron promedios de 48,8 y 21,9, respectivamente, con menor afectación. El mejor estado se halló en el bienestar espiritual, con promedio de 22,6. Conclusiones: la experiencia de ser cuidador modifica de manera importante la calidad de vida de las personas; los cuidadores, como fuente importante de cuidado informal, requieren apoyo de los sistemas de salud y, como parte de este, de los profesionales de enfermería.

  10. Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

    2011-03-01

    Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours.

  11. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  12. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  13. Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ballesta Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS. Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10 mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100 mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs. The first electroencephalogram (EEG showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later, the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100 mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

  14. ¿Accidente industrial o amputación deliberada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los diferentes aspectos de la práctica de amputaciones durante el período victoriano de Inglaterra tales como: las causas que llevaron a tal práctica, los métodos y técnicas quirúrgicos usados durante el S. XIX así como la evidencia de atrofia y/o asimetría por causa del desuso. Tres casos de amputaciones fueron encontrados en una población industrial en el cementerio Victoriano de St. Pete s Collegiate Church en Wolverhampton (West Midlands, Inglaterra. Las amputaciones fueron realizadas en el miembro superior de una mujer (HB53 y los miembros inferiores de dos hombres (HB86 y (HB129. Se concluye que en los tres casos los individuos sobrevivieron a las amputaciones y que estas fueron realizadas mucho tiempo antes de la muerte. Dos de ellas fueron probablemente realizadas mediante cirugía (HB86 y HB129 mientras que la tercera (HB53 podría ser el resultado de un accidente industrial.

  15. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  16. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  17. Accidental macular hole following Neodymium:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Mihnea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO is the commonest complication of cataract surgery, occurring in up to one-third of patients in a period of five years. The treatment of choice is the Neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. This treatment can be associated with several complications, some of them severe. A rare complication of this procedure is the accidental induced macular hole. Case Outline. A 54-year-old female patient was referred to our Department because of a severe loss of vision and a central scotoma at the right eye. The patient underwent a Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy 2 days ago, for a PCO. The fundus examination at presentation revealed a round retinal defect in the macular region, a massive inferior preretinal hemorrhage and a mild vitreous hamorrhage. A 6-months follow-up of the case, including retinography and fluorescein angiography, is presented. Conclusion. Although the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is a safe, noninvasive, and effective outpatient procedure to improve vision hindered by PCO, it must be recognized that it carries a low but definite risk of serious complications. Physicians and patients should be aware of these rare but severe complications regarding this otherwise safe procedure. Fortunately, most of the complications related to this procedure are transient and can be managed by proper medication.

  18. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  19. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  20. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  1. Individual predisposition, household clustering and risk factors for human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: new epidemiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all

  2. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  3. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  4. Parental response to child injury: examination of parental posttraumatic stress symptom trajectories following child accidental injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Brocque, Robyne M; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin A

    2010-01-01

    Trajectory analyses were used to empirically differentiate patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents following child accidental injury and explore the relationship between parent and child recovery patterns. Parent (n = 189...

  5. Romance, recognition and revenge in Marie Clements's The Unnatural and Accidental Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamford, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the relationship of Marie Clements's The Unnatural and Accidental Women to European traditions of drama and folk narrative, and especially its relation to the genres of revenge tragedy and romance...

  6. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    .... Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported...

  7. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.; Bemt, B.J.F. van den; Duysens, J.E.J.; Limbeek, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant

  8. Insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesen, M.; Kloehr, S.; Rossaint, R.; Walters, M.; Straube, S.; van de Velde, M.

    Background: Inserting an intrathecal catheter after accidental dural puncture in parturients to prevent postdural puncture headache is becoming increasingly popular. We aimed to identify relevant published articles investigating this intervention and subject data to a meta-analysis. Methods: A

  9. Management options for accidental injection of epinephrine from an autoinjector: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathez Christian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epinephrine autoinjector devices are used with increasing frequency to treat severe anaphylactic reactions. Accidental injection, usually involving a finger, is a potential complication. Case presentation A physician in a Family Practice training program accidentally injected epinephrine into his left thumb while reading the operating instructions of an autoinjector (Epipen®. He developed swelling, pallor, and pain in the thumb. Treatment included topical nitroglycerin, oral vasodilators and warming of the thumb. As expected, none caused an immediate response; however, after 8 hours, the thumb was pink and warm. There was full recovery 2 months after the accident. We reviewed the treatment of accidental epinephrine injection, and found that the use of parenteral adrenergic alpha blocker phentolamine would have produced immediate recovery. Conclusions All health professionals concerned with the use of epinephrine autoinjectors should receive adequate instruction on their use. A regimen for management of accidental epinephrine injection, in particular the use of phentolamine, should be emphasized.

  10. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  11. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2016-04-29

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  13. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  15. Severe Acute Respiratory Failure due to Inhalation of Baby Powder and Successfully Treated with Venous-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarello, Giovanna; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Piazza, Marcello; Capitanio, Guido; Vitulo, Patrizio; Gridelli, Bruno; Pilato, Michele; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Accidental inhalation of powder is a potential problem for infants. The clinical effects of inhaling powder depend on the powder contents, degree of aspiration, and the child's underlying systemic response. We present a case of accidental inhalation of rice starch powder in a 17-month-old girl, which led to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome responsive to conventional treatment, ultimately requiring venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  16. An analysis of unused and expired medications in Mexican households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Vásquez, Sandra Leticia; Ramírez-Lara, Evangelina; Camacho-Mora, Ivonne Antonieta; Cantú-Cárdenas, Lucía G; Gracia-Vásquez, Yolanda Araceli; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica Azucena; Gonzalez-Barranco, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Unsafe storage of unused medications at home leads to an increased risk of toxicity, accidental childhood poisoning or risk for suicide, whereas an improper disposal of unwanted/expired medications from household raises concern about environmental pollution. The aim of the study was to characterize expired medications collected according to the types of therapeutic groups, pharmaceutical dosage forms, expiration dates and were prescribed or over the counter drugs, and whether they came from Mexican health system or purchased by patients themselves. The study was conducted in the metropolitan area of Monterrey during a 12-month period from March 2012 to February 2013. Unused/expired drugs were collected according to the collection and disposal of expired medication program instituted by the Department of Health of the State of Nuevo León. Pharmacists and students from The Autonomous University of Nuevo León recorded types of therapeutic groups, total of medicines in each group, among other classification criteria. The proportion of every collected therapeutic group, type of dosage forms, and expiration date. The amount of medications classified was 22,140 items corresponding to a 30 % of the total collected medications in that period of time; most of them belonged to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.11 %). According to the pharmaceutical dosage forms, results showed that a high percentage were solid dosage forms (73.39 %), of the total unused/expired medications, most of them were prescription drugs (91 %) which were purchased at private pharmacies. Expiration date of medications ranges from 1995 to 2016, being 2011 the outstanding year (36.66 %). Addressing the aspect of unused drug disposition constitutes a challenge for Mexican government, due to health implications related to inadequate disposition. No matter how efficient the programs of collection and disposal of expired drugs are, none of them can collect all unused or expired drugs, that is

  17. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  18. Public agencies in Serbia accidental error or bad intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available English term 'agency' has appeared in the Serbian legal system after the political changes in 2000. At first, the Law on Ministries in 2004 created bodies of state administration under the name of the agency and administrative organizations and in 2005 has been passed the Law on Public Agencies, which provides agencies as autonomous entities that are not directly part of the state administration. In addition, in the last ten years in Serbia was created a whole range of subjects of different legal status under the name of the agency. It should be borne in mind that the organization and structure of public administration in Serbia are mostly based on the Germanic tradition and that Serbia has long used the German term for persons performing administrative activities: 'Verwaltungsorgan'. Without any objective need, in addition to traditional forms of bodies performing administrative activities in Serbia has been created a new form called the agency. This has only brought the confusion into by then relatively harmonized system of governance structures, where the name of the former administration and some other subjects changed to agencies and some new, who previously did not exist, have been also created. This has led to the growth of covert administration. Agency name is not unknown in the world and in the US is used since the 18th century. However, instead of the name in English is translated into Serbian language in an adapted way, as it corresponds to the traditional Serbian terminology, this accidental error later turned into a bad intention of creating an ever-larger number of entities called agency.

  19. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  20. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  1. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  2. Risk factors of influenza transmission in households

    OpenAIRE

    Viboud, Cécile; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Cauchemez, Simon; Lavenu, Audrey; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influenza transmission in households is a subject of renewed interest, as the vaccination of children is currently under debate and antiviral treatments have been approved for prophylactic use.

  3. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  4. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  5. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  6. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) collects data from a sample of families and individuals in selected communities across the...

  7. Households' ICT use in an energy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2008-01-01

    by considering ICT in an energy perspective. In particular, the paper focuses on the integration of ICT in households and the energy impacts related to changing everyday practices. As this has not received much attention in previous research, the paper has an explorative character. Firstly, the paper reviews...... some of the previous studies on ICT and energy and the consumption perspective is introduced. Secondly, the integration of ICT in everyday practices and the dynamics behind the changes are outlined, inspired by a historical perspective. Thirdly, a figure of the relationships between changing everyday...... practices and the related energy impacts is presented, followed by descriptions of direct energy consumption related to household ICT, indirect energy consumption outside households, and derived impacts both within and outside households. The paper concludes with some remarks on political implications...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-31

    Mar 31, 2012 ... reducing interest rate on loans for crop production as well as ... Keywords: Climate change, vulnerability, farming households .... tolerant and or resistant to temperature stresses as .... Coping strategy is an adjustment or self.

  9. Policy Analytics, Household Informedness and the Collection of Household Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim-Wavde Kustini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper collection of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW is an important action to support environmental sustainability. We investigate the role of household informedness, the degree to which households have the necessary information to make utility-maximizing decisions, as they relate to participation in HHW collection programs. We find two factors that influence household informedness: the provision of public education about HHW and environmental quality information. We conducted an empirical study on HHW collection in California to obtain statistical evidence on the effect of these factors on the amount of HHW collected. The findings of this policy analytics study improve our understanding of how household informedness influences household decision-making in participating in HHW collection programs. This study is useful in the guidance it offers to devise new information policies to maximize households’ participation in HHW collection program.

  10. Household Water Purification: Low-Cost Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, VK; Bhalwar, R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that improving the microbiological quality of household water by point-of-use treatment reduces diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases. The most promising and accessible of the technologies for household water treatment are filtration with ceramic filters, chlorination with storage in an improvised vessel, solar disinfection in clear bottles by the combined action of UV radiation and heat, thermal disinfection (pasteurization) in opaque vessels with sunlight from ...

  11. The World Distribution of Household Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Davies; Sandström, Susanna; Shorrocks, Anthony; Wolff, Edward N.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much recent research on the world distribution of income, but also growing recognition of the importance of other contributions to well-being, including those of household wealth. Wealth is important in providing security and opportunity, particularly in poorer countries that lack full social safety nets and adequate facilities for borrowing and lending. We find, however, that it is precisely in the latter countries where household wealth is the lowest, both in absolute and rel...

  12. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  13. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies have the potential to significantly reduce household electricity consumption. But adoption of many technologies has been slow. This paper employs a unique dataset of German households to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The 'rebound' effect of increased light luminosity during the transition to energy efficie...

  14. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2011-09-01

    Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.

  15. Forecasting Drinking and Household Water Requirement of the Thrace Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Konukcu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at future forecasting drinking and household water requirements of the Thrace region by the aid of a scientific perspective. To realise this, first future population of the region was predicted and then the water requirements were calculated. As results, water requirements of the city and the countryside for the years 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 were computed as 1.45, 1.94, 2.58 and 3.44 km3, respectively. Beside, rapidly increasing drinking and household water requirements due to fast population growth and immense amount of migration into the region, demands by agriculture and intensive industry suggest that the present total water potential of about 4.0 km3 will not be sufficient and a great water crisis may be experienced. Adverse effects of a probable global climate change on water resources make the situation more acute. To overcome this crisis, governmental agencies and civil societies are called work together to produce and implement rational strategies.

  16. Análisis de accidentes severos en contenciones nucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goicolea Ruigómez, José María

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis for severe accidents has recently been added to the long list of requisites imposed on nuclear power plants. In this work we study the rationale and justiflcation for this type of analysis. Calculations for the structural response of the containment buildings can be performed on the computer using advanced nonlinear Finite Element codes. A state of the art review of these methods is carried out, proposing a methodology based on analysis by numerical methods with experimental validation. Additionally we present some results obtained by the authors for the analysis of both reinforced concrete and steel containments. The concluding remarks show the validity of the proposed methodology, as well as the evidence of a large security margin in the containments, due mainly to the conservatisms in the design stage.

    El análisis frente a accidentes severos ha venido a añadirse recientemente a la larga lista de requisitos impuestos a las centrales nucleares. En este trabajo se pretende estudiar la problemática y justificación de este tipo de análisis. El cálculo de la respuesta de la contención se puede realizar en el ordenador mediante métodos avanzados de elementos finitos no lineales. Se hace una revisión del estado de la técnica en estos métodos, proponiendo una metodología basada en el análisis mediante modelos numéricos con validación experimental. Se presentan asimismo los resultados de análisis realizados, para contenciones tanto de hormigón armado como metálicas. Las conclusiones del trabajo establecen la validez de la metodología empleada, así como la constatación de un amplio margen de seguridad existente en las contenciones evaluadas, debido a los conservadurismos del proceso de diseño original.

  17. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por causas externas, 31.576 (2,3% por accidentes de trabajo y solo 226 (0,02% por accidentes de trabajo con violen- cia interpersonal. Cerca del 80% de los informes estadísticos de defunción no tenían el campo “accidente de trabajo” completado. La mayor cantidad de casos ocurrió entre hom- bres (94,3% de 25-34 años, con nivel de escolaridad medio, ubicados en la región sudeste y noreste, que trabajan principalmente en la producción de bienes y servicios industriales y la actividad agropecuaria. La mayoría de los casos fueron causados por armas de fuego, seguidos por armas blancas, con un aumento relativo de estos últimos en el período estu- diado. Los resultados sugieren un gran subregistro de diagnósticos que reconocen la rela- ción con el trabajo. Se hace necesaria una mejor capacitación en el llenado de los informes estadísticos, así como estudios que cuantifiquen el subregistro de accidentes de trabajo y accidentes de trabajo con violencia interpersonal.

  18. Household Fuel Use and Fuel Switching in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Household fuel choice in the past, has often been analyzed and understood through the lens of the energy ladder model. This model places relatively heavy emphasis on household fuel switching in response to rising incomes. This report views energy use through a household economics framework. The household economics framework clarifies that, in addition to income and market prices, the oppor...

  19. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  20. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Reginald DV

    2010-11-01

    efficacious, this early intervention will assist in reducing symptoms of traumatic stress as well as preventing chronic disorder and disability in children experiencing acute PTSD following accidental injury. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN79049138

  1. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010: A systematic review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Yee Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low– and middle–income country (LMIC settings In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0–4 years in China in the year 2010. Methods In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi–cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008. Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single–cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. Results In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0–4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1% were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0% of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5% among all post–neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7% among children with 1–4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to establish the likely cause structure of accidental deaths in China. We estimated that asphyxia caused 9490 (95% confidence interval (CI 8224–11 072, drowning 5694 (95% CI 5061–6327, traffic accidents 3796 (95% CI3163–4745, poisoning 3163 (95% CI 2531–3796 and falls 2531 (95% CI 2214–3163 deaths. Based on medians from a few rare studies, we also predict 633 (95% CI 316–1265 deaths to be due to burns and 316 (95% CI 0–633 due to falling objects

  2. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  3. Childhood death attributable to trauma: is there a difference between accidental and abusive fatal injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Henry W; Vander Velden, Heidi; Kreykes, Nathaniel S; Reid, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of childhood fatal injuries is necessary for preventing injuries. To determine clinical differences between children who were treated in an emergency department for accidental or abusive injuries. A retrospective review of all deceased patients who were treated in two urban pediatric emergency departments between 1998 and 2010 was performed. Patients were categorized into two groups, accidental and abusive, for comparison. A total of 1498 patients died during the study period, with 124 deaths being attributable to injury for a rate of 9.5 injury-related deaths per year. Most fatal injuries were accidental. Children with abusive fatal injuries were younger and more likely to have been seen for an injury in a clinic or emergency department within 2 months of their death. Eighty-two percent of abusive fatal injuries had documented subdural hematomas, whereas only 7.2% of accidental fatal injuries had a subdural hematoma documented. Nearly 50% of abusive fatal injuries had retinal hemorrhages reported, although no child with an accidental fatal injury had this type of injury documented. Younger children, especially those previously seen in an emergency department or clinic for injury, are more likely to sustain an abusive fatal injury. Sentinel physical findings associated with abusive fatal injuries include subdural hematomas and retinal hemorrhages, and the presence of these findings should prompt an investigation into the circumstances of injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality.

  5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Cunnyngham; Beth Brown

    2004-01-01

    Summarizes the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 21.3 million people received food stamps each month in 2003. A little more than half of all food stamp households contained children, and most of these households were headed by a single parent. About 18 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $195 per household. Compared with 2002, the number of pr...

  6. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  7. A household production model of paid labor, household work and child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we use data on time allocation of women to estimate the value of market and non-market work. Four time use categories are distinguished: paid work, household work, care for children, and leisure. The estimation results show that the value of non-market production (household production

  8. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  9. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas funcional, motriz, sensorial, perceptivo y cognitiva. No debemos olvidar el asesoramiento realizado al paciente, a la familia y/ o cuidadores sobre el manejo de la persona que ha sufrido un ictus, la adaptación del entorno y la prescripción, uso y manejo de ayudas técnicas cuando sea necesario.Las propuestas terapéuticas que expondré a continuación, no son recetas únicas que se puedan emplear del mismo modo en todos las personas que hayan sufrido un ictus. Con cada paciente será necesario una evaluación individualizada de su situación y una adaptación de la terapia según sus déficit específicos.La meta final de la Terapia Ocupacional es la integración óptima del paciente dentro de su entorno familiar y social, con el mayor grado de autonomía posible.ABSTRACTAmong the patients who need Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment, there are those who have suffered a cerebrovascular damage when elderly.People’s gradual ageing is one of the risk factors in the nervous central system’s alterations and this is why I am going to write about intervention on geriatric population.The Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment works on the functional, motor, sensorial, perceptive and cognitive areas. Moreover, we should not forget to advise the patient and his/her family or caregivers about the way of treating ,the environment’s adaptation, the prescription and use of technical aids when needed.The following therapeutic

  10. Household extension and reproductive behaviour in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C S; LeClere, F B; Hsieh, Y S

    1987-07-01

    The inflence of household type on reproductive behavior is examined for a national probability sample of Taiwanese women. Data were derived from a 1980 national household survey of the labor force in Taiwan, focusing on 10,624 couples. Reproductive variables include measures of current and prospective fertility as well as cumulative fertility. In spite of remarkable social and economic development over the past 3 decades, extended families are still widely found in Taiwan. Women in extended households have only slightly higher fertility preferences and current fertility than women in nuclear families once marital duration is controlled. Although women in extended households marry earlier and receive more family help with child care than women in nuclear families, such factors are no longer considered sufficient to produce major differentials in reproductive behavior. Residence and husband's class of work are the strongest correlates of whether a household is currently extended or nuclear. In general, the husband's characteristics are more strongly related to family type than the wife's. Findings suggest that preferences for smaller families and low fertility need not await a transformation to a nuclear family structue.

  11. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  12. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  13. TT virus infection and pancreatic cancer: Relationship or accidental coexistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Tomasiewicz; Roma Modrzewska; Anna Lyczak; Grazyna Krawczuk

    2005-01-01

    TT virus (TTV) was first isolated in 1997 from the patient with acute post-transfusion hepatitis. This fact led to the conclusion that the virus was hepatotropic and could be one of the causative agents of acute hepatitis. Afterwards, however, the virus was found in other human tissues and serological studies revealed that it was widespread. Multiple tropisms of TTV and the fact of its high incidence in general population are considered to indicate no medical significance of TTV in human pathology. Here we present a report of two cases of TTV infection in patients who developed pancreas cancer. The patients were hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases due to hepatitis of unknown origin. Since serological and virological markers of common primary and secondary hepatotropic viruses were negative, TTV-DNA was found in serum and was believed to be the only causative agent with probable hepatotropic action. The patients later developed pancreas cancer and they underwent operation. The relationship is difficult to confirm, however the cases we present should be treated as a preliminary report and a comment on the real role of TTV in human pathology.

  14. [Migration of eight harmful elements from household products made with synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Harmful elements are used as stabilizers and colorants in synthetic resin products. Accidental ingestion of harmful elements from such synthetic resins by infants is a dangerous health hazard. The Japanese Food Sanitation Law and the International Standard ISO 8124-3 "Safety of toys-Part 3: Migration of certain elements" control the levels of migrated harmful elements, such as lead or cadmium, from infants toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from household products that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the law or standard. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) migrated from household products made of synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3: 2010 was executed in 135 products (total 150 specimens), and the concentration of these elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 1810 mg/kg and 1660 mg/kg of lead, exceeding the maximum acceptable level of the ISO standard, migrated from two products. In addition, lead and/or chromium at levels more than 1/10 of the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard migrated from four products. Household products that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and chromium.

  15. Materiales didácticos para los contenidos de enfermedad y accidente en la etapa infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Bocos Urdiales, Elías Javier

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo, es una programación didáctica, que responde a la necesidad de crear materiales para la enseñanza dedicada a la actuación y prevención de accidentes y enfermedades tanto en lo personal, como en lo colectivo tanto en el aula como en los pasillos, patio y zonas comunes. En relación a los accidentes se realizaran materiales para la prevención de los accidentes en el ámbito del centro escolar; y además de la prevención daremos pautas de actuación a los alumnos de tal manera que se...

  16. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget;

    2015-01-01

    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...... undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...

  17. Increasing US mortality due to accidental poisoning: the role of the baby boom cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality in the United States due to accidental poisoning since 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort or, instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. We conducted an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the US Vital Statistics and the US Census covering the period 1968-2007. The United States population aged 15-64 years. Cause of death and demographic data as recorded on death certificates. The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost 10-fold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Y Avidan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alon Y Avidan1, Liisa A Palmer2, Justin F Doan3, Robert W Baran31UCLA Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Thomson Reuters, Washington, DC, USA; 3Takeda Global Research and Development Center, Deerfield, IL, USAObjective: This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006. Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event.Results: Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR], short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR, or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all. A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05.Conclusions: Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR.Keywords: insomnia, accidental events, benzodiazepine receptor agonist, melatonin receptor agonist, older adults

  19. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...... such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...

  20. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  1. Human Capital Diversification within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    Lack of primary schooling among rural children in developing countries is often attributed to credit constraints and household demand for child labour, implying that direct and indirect costs of schooling are high. Surprisingly few studies have considered the importance of parents' expected returns...... of investing in their childrens human capital, despite the fact that most parents rely on their children for old-age support and subsistence. In this paper, I propose an alternative model for human capital investment based on the household, rather than the individual child, incorporating the fact that parents...... bear the costs of educating all their children and face uncertainty about the level and share of future returns. This uncertainty can make it optimal for parents to ensure a certain degree of human capital diversification within the household. The model implications allow me to test whether...

  2. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  3. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  4. Analysis of household energy demand in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Anh Tuan; Lefevre, T. [Institut d`Economie et de Politique de l`Energie, Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-01

    An analysis of household energy consumption in four Vietnamese provinces, Hanoi, Maitay, Haihung and Vinhphu, showed that each province exhibited different energy use patterns but these differences are in a relatively narrow range within urban or rural areas. However, there are big contrasts between rural areas due to availability of resources and income. Coal accounts for 41% of the total energy consumption and fuelwood for 26%, the remainder being kerosene and agricultural residues. Energy consumption for cooking and pigfeed accounts for 91% of total energy use. Households with better incomes are tending to switch from biomass to `modern` fuels with biomass playing a limited role in most urban households. Energy used for cooking was found to increase less readily than income. 21 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs., 1 app.

  5. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  6. El estudio del factor humano en accidentes de aviación

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rubio, Lina María

    2010-01-01

    El factor humano ha sido considerado causa o contribución del 70 al 80% de los accidentes de aviación en el mundo, y constituye una prioridad en investigación para la seguridad aérea. Las estadísticas muestran que los índices y causas de accidentes de aviación se mantienen constantes, e identifican una importante diferencia entre regiones. La investigación científica requiere de nuevas y complementarias aproximaciones para la explicación y comprensión del factor humano en aviación. Los médico...

  7. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC.

  8. Household and Small Business Across the Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Households, which are seen as income pooling units (Wallerstein, Martin, Dickinson 1982, play a crucial role in the world-system analysis. Individuals enjoy income that accrues to their households, a unit embedded in a network of different social relationships among people, kin or not kin, living under the same roof or sharing some important living function. Thus, social relations are seen as ways of obtaining different types of income (wages, rent, pro?t, social exchange, gifts and ways of ensuring different welfare services.

  9. Recent advances of pyrethroids for household use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Kazuya; Mori, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Noritada

    2012-01-01

    Development of pyrethroids for household use and recent advances in the syntheses of (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic acid, the acid moiety of most of the household pyrethroids, are reviewed. As another important acid moiety, we discovered norchrysanthemic acid to have a significant vapor action at room temperature when esterified with fluorobenzyl alcohols. In particular, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methoxymethylbenzyl (1R)-trans-norchrysanthemate (metofluthrin) exhibits the highest potency in mosquito coil formulations as well as the vapor action at room temperature against various mosquitoes. Structure-activity relationships of norchrysanthemic acid esters and synthetic studies of norchrysanthemic acid are discussed.

  10. Human Capital Diversification within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    bear the costs of educating all their children and face uncertainty about the level and share of future returns. This uncertainty can make it optimal for parents to ensure a certain degree of human capital diversification within the household. The model implications allow me to test whether...... it is the need for diversification or the costs of schooling that dominate the human capital investment decision in rural households. Using extraordinary long panel data from a rural region in Northwestern Tanzania, I find strong empirical evidence of diversification effects for rural sons, but not for rural...

  11. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is

  12. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  13. Subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome following high-volume intramuscular and accidental intravascular injection of mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Mathias; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Almind, Merete; Jansen, Tejs

    2015-05-01

    We present a rare case of subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome (FES-like) following intravascular injection of mineral oil-steroid solution with delayed diagnosis, acute onset of pulmonary distress, and transient clinical deterioration. A 40-year-old man was admitted following as a pedestrian being hit by a car. Examinations revealed sternum fracture and lung contusion. The patient was discharged with oral analgesics. Seven days later he returned presenting with coughing, hemoptysis, elevated leucocytes, and increased C-reactive protein. Chest radiograph revealed basal infiltrations. Suspecting pneumonia, the patient was discharged with antibiotics. Unknown to the clinicians, the patient had self-administered a mineral oil with added anabolic steroids by intramuscular injections for cosmetic purposes. The patient had observed blood on aspiration, and then relocated the needle before injecting 140 ml in his biceps muscle. Shortly after, the patient described near fainting and hemoptysis suggesting an accidental intravascular injection. Over the next 3 days the patient experienced increasing shortness of breath and hemoptysis. Examinations confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated with organ-specific supportive measures, tranexamic acid, and prednisolone and discharged after 11 days in the hospital. Subacute FES-like was associated with injection of body filler in muscle tissue. FES-like can mimic pneumonia, posttraumatic lung injury, and other more frequent causes to respiratory failure.

  14. Accidentes ocupacionales y conocimiento sobre precauciones universales en internos universitarios costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rivera-Valdivia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: los internos universitarios (estudiantes de medicina en su último año son vulnerables a accidentes ocupacionales con agujas y otros objetos cortantes, especialmente debido a su inexperiencia y falta de entrenamiento aunados a su deseo de realizar una serie de nuevas actividades y procedimientos. No existe información en nuestro país con respecto a la frecuencia de este tipo de accidentes en internos universitarios de la carrera de medicina. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la frecuencia y tipo de accidentes ocupacionales sufridos con mayor frecuencia por internos de medicina y evaluar su conocimiento sobre precauciones universales. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal a través de una encuesta directa y anónima. De todos los internos de medicina que trabajaban en el Valle Central de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002 se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 201 internos (poder 95%, error 5%. A la población seleccionada se le aplicó una encuesta precodificada, la cual consistía en 20 preguntas estructuradas, la mayoría cerradas y tres abiertas relacionadas con la ocurrencia de accidentes ocupacionales en los médicos internos, número, tipo, acciones tomadas tras el accidente y conocimientos sobre precauciones universales. Posteriormente se hizo un análisis descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: de todos los participantes, 90% habían trabajado más de 3 meses como médicos internos. Más de la mitad habían realizado al menos 3 meses de rotación en una área médica y 3 meses en una área quirúrgica. La muestra incluyó estudiantes de 5 universidades diferentes. Sólo un 37% de los internos encuestados habían recibido la vacunación contra virus de la hepatitis B. Del total de internos, 64% admitió haber sufrido al menos un accidente ocupacional con sangre de algún paciente, un 20% admitió haber sufrido 3 o 4 accidentes. De los internos que

  15. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM and household activities. METHODS: We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables were log10-transformed standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN intervals (SDNN and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD. Household PM was measured as the mass concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5. We used mixed-effects models to examine the association between household PM2.5 exposure and log10-transformed HRV indices. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, an interquartile range change in household PM2.5 with 1- to 4-h mean was associated with 1.25-4.31% decreases in SDNN and 0.12-3.71% decreases in r-MSSD. Stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense may increase household PM2.5 concentrations and modify the effects of household PM2.5 on HRV indices among housewives. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased SDNN and r-MSSD among housewives, especially during stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense.

  16. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is... destruction, removal, alteration or defacement of records; (c) Implement and disseminate policies and... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records?...

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  18. Cystitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  19. Handbook in nonresponse in household surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.G.; Cobben, F.; Schouten, B.

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents an all-inclusive guide to the problem of nonresponse in household surveys, providing an overview of the theory while also describing practical implications. The book begins with a general overview of the nonresponse problem, outlining existing sources of error and guidelines for

  20. Inattention and Inertia in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Campbell, John Y.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    This paper studies inattention to mortgage refinancing incentives among Danish households. Danish data are particularly suitable for this purpose because there are minimal barriers to refinancing, yet many borrowers fail to refinance optimally, and the characteristics of these borrowers can be ac...

  1. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  2. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  3. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  4. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  5. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  6. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption. 

  7. Household Biogas Digesters—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is a summary of different aspects of the design and operation of small-scale, household, biogas digesters. It covers different digester designs and materials used for construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and loading rate, applications of the biogas, the government policies concerning the use of household digesters, and the social and environmental effects of the digesters. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. Biogas production depends on different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT, C/N ratio, and mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and reduce the amount of organic household waste. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3. The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and plug flow type. Biogas and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for cooking, lighting, and electricity.

  8. Himalayan Households, Tamang Demography and Domestic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prasad Sapkota

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomes E. Fricke 1981, Himalayan Households, Tamang Demography and Domestic Process, Book Faith India, 1993 ( pp 227 Price 300 Rs DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2789 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 201-206

  9. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  10. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  11. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market articipation cost is about 5% of labor...

  12. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  13. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of rising food prices and coping strategies of 60 female-headed households ... systematic review.8 The rise in food prices will most likely result in a reduction in ... risk of chronic diseases, which was in contrast to lower diet costs associated with ... approach requires diversification into many sources of food as well as building ...

  14. Hazardous household waste management in Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Vitalii; Petruk, Roman; Kozak, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes hazardous household waste, including detergents, paints, adhesives, expired medicines, luminescent lamps, pesticides, fertilizers, batteries and accumulators, electrical and electronic waste, mercury-containing materials. Research shows that they contain a large quantity of dangerous and toxic substances (compounds of heavy metals, chlorinated polymers, aromatic hydrocarbons, surfactants, etc.), which pose a significant risk to the environment and ...

  15. Labor Laws Affecting Private Household Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Wages and working conditions for private household workers have not kept pace with other occupations, partly because of lack of coverage by labor laws. This pamphlet describes the protection available to domestics under both federal and state laws. Not only wages and hours, but also coverage by Unemployment Compensation, Workmen's Compensation,…

  16. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  17. Household energy isn't all stoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    When people talk about 'household energy', most people automatically think of stoves. A lot of attention has been paid to improving stoves to make them more energy efficient and to reduce their pollution. This is one side of the 'stoves' approach, whilst others look at the 'supply' side of the probl

  18. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  19. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  20. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  1. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  2. So exactly what is a "household"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D

    2000-07-01

    The huge increase in HIV/AIDS in southern Africa has disrupted family life and the means of making a living. This has made Oxfam examine its definitions of a ¿household¿ and changed the kind of support it had given people affected by HIV/AIDS. It is shown that there are more than 23 million HIV-positive people living in southern Africa; nearly 70% of global cases in a region which has only 10% of the global population. When chronic illness and death strikes, the composition of a household change dramatically and affects the roles of household members. It is usually the women who have to cope with the increased burden of caring for the sick, and take the greater responsibility of earning money and providing food. Also, girls often take over the roles of their sick mothers and care for other family members and are taken out of school to save money on school expenses so that they can provide care for the sick. In view of this, Oxfam has been working to incorporate a gender analysis and pays more attention to gender roles in both male- and female-headed households.

  3. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  4. Distributed Coordination of Household Electricity Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Teixeira, Andre; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a distributed framework for coordination of flexible electricity consumption for a number of households in the distribution grid. We conduct coordination with the purpose of minimizing a trade-off between individual concerns about discomfort and electricity cost, on the one hand...

  5. Intraperitoneal granulomatous foreign body reaction after accidental perforation of the abdominal wall. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, C; Winther-Nielsen, H; Hougen, H P

    2013-01-01

    After an accidental perforation by a wooden stake of the abdominal wall and distal ileum a 28-year-old man developed an aggressive granulomatous foreign body reaction of the greater omentum with high fever and abdominal pain. The patient was cured by omental resection and prednisone treatment....

  6. Abbreviata terrapenis (Nematoda: Physalopteridae): an accidental parasite of the banded rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus klauberi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R; Holycross, Andrew T

    2002-04-01

    The nematode, Abbreviata terrapenis (Physalopteridae) was found in 16 (6%) of 267 banded rock rattlesnakes (Crotalus lepidus klauberi) from Arizona and New Mexico. Abbreviata terrapenis in C. lepidus represents an accidental parasite in that "infection" was acquired by the ingestion of lizard prey. Feeding captive snakes on wild-caught lizards poses a risk of introducing nematodes to the snakes.

  7. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both

  8. Management of accidental dural puncture and post-dural puncture headache after labour: a Nordic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvish, B; Gupta, A; Alahuhta, S

    2011-01-01

    a major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour...

  9. Accidentes ofídicos en Yopal y Leticia, Colombia, 1996-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pineda

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available El accidente ofídico presenta un elevado impacto sobre la morbimortalidad en la Amazonia y la Orinoquia colombianas. En este estudio se revisaron prospectivamente los casos ocurridos en los hospitales de Leticia y Yopal durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 1996 y junio de 1997. El 57% de los accidentes estudiados ocurrieron en Leticia. El 54% de los accidentes se presentaron en hombres y el grupo de edad más comprometido fue el de 15 a 44 años (41%. El 57% de los casos ocurrió a campo abierto y el pico de accidentalidad se presentó entre las 17 y las 18 horas. El 82% de las mordeduras fue en miembros inferiores. Se presentó un fallecimiento (1,8% en Yopal y se practicaron 3 fasciotomías y 2 amputaciones; el 16% de los casos presentó infección secundaria. Las horas vespertinas presentan el mayor riesgo de accidente durante la jornada diaria. A pesar del uso generalizado de antibióticos, la infección secundaria fue frecuente en esta serie de casos.

  10. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorical

  11. Estrategia de Inversiones Basada en Accidentes Aéreos: ¿Hay Retornos Anormales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscó investigar si una estrategia de inversiones basada en accidentes aéreos generaría retornos anormales. Fue efectuado un estudio de eventos considerándose todos los accidentes aéreos ocurridos en el período de 1998 a 2009 y los datos de las compañías aéreas y de los fabricantes de las respectivas aeronaves que poseían acciones negociadas en las bolsas de valores, cuando del acontecimiento del evento. Los tests realizados se basaron en el modelo de Campbel, Lo y Mackinlay (1997, para definición de retornos anormales, por medio de una regresión lineal entre el retorno de las acciones de esas empresas y el retorno del portafolio de mercado utilizado como benchmark. Así fue posible proyectar los retornos futuros esperados para las acciones de las compañías aéreas y fabricantes y compararlos a los resultados efectivamente obtenidos en el acontecimiento del evento. El resultado obtenido sugiere que una estrategia de inversiones basada en accidentes aéreos sería viable y que retornos anormales podrían ser obtenidos en el período inmediatamente posterior a un accidente aéreo.

  12. The Costs of Cultural Change: Accidental Injury and Modernization among the Papago Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Robert A.; Gallagher, Mary M.

    1972-01-01

    Several theories are examined suggesting that stress associated with modernization is responsible for excesses of accidental injuries among American Indians. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association, New York, 1971. (FF)

  13. INTERNAL BALLOON TAMPONADE - A NONSURGICAL METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF ACCIDENTALLY PLACED SHEATHS FROM THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; DEMUINCK, E; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    One of the possible complications of subclavian vein puncture is accidental puncture of the subclavian artery. If this is not noted immediately after the puncture, insertion of a large bore sheath in the subclavian artery is likely to follow. We describe our experience with a new method that enables

  14. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J. A.; Purushotham, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

  15. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

    2004-05-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly.

  16. [Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P

    1998-11-01

    We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature.

  17. Tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Vela, Fredy Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Revisión sistemática de la literatura en la que se discuten las controversias del manejo de la presión arterial en las emergencias neurológicas agudas cerebrovasculares como accidente cerebrovascular isquémico, hemorrágico y hemorragia subaracnoidea.

  18. Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

  19. Insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesen, M.; Kloehr, S.; Rossaint, R.; Walters, M.; Straube, S.; van de Velde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inserting an intrathecal catheter after accidental dural puncture in parturients to prevent postdural puncture headache is becoming increasingly popular. We aimed to identify relevant published articles investigating this intervention and subject data to a meta-analysis. Methods: A syste

  20. INTERNAL BALLOON TAMPONADE - A NONSURGICAL METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF ACCIDENTALLY PLACED SHEATHS FROM THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; DEMUINCK, E; LIE, KI

    One of the possible complications of subclavian vein puncture is accidental puncture of the subclavian artery. If this is not noted immediately after the puncture, insertion of a large bore sheath in the subclavian artery is likely to follow. We describe our experience with a new method that enables

  1. Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, P; Wiślicki, W; Raczyński, L; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Bułka, J; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2015-01-01

    Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

  2. La configuraci??n jur??dica del accidente de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez P??rez, Jos??

    2013-01-01

    Esta obra incorpora un an??lisis global del accidente de trabajo y su configuraci??n jur??dica. Analiza su evoluci??n hist??rica e incorpora una selecci??n de m??s de 300 sentencias del Tribunal Supremo que permiten identificar su contenido.

  3. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals.

  4. Social, dietary and clinical correlates of oedema in children with severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Babirekere-Iriso, Esther;

    2015-01-01

    .68). Household dietary diversity score was lower in children with oedema (OR: 0.58, CI: 0.40; 85). No association was found with plasma levels of acute phase proteins, household food insecurity or birth weight. CONCLUSION: Children with oedematous malnutrition were less likely to be breastfed, less likely...

  5. Economic Nature of Monetary Funds of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Glukhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy, household is characterized by the situation in which its members become owners of their tangible and intangible assets or are only declared to be them. Many provisions of the macroeconomy could change significantly if the issues of household and family finances were paid as much attention as economic problems of the state and entities. Finance households are an economic basis for the state and for business entities of different ownership forms, because they are managed by people who are part of families representing the interests of certain individuals. The issues of formation and distribution of Russian households’ intra-cash assets, including shadow ones, are now one of the most topical issues, not only in theory but also in practice of economic science. And at the same time these issues remain virtually unexplored. Social risk of intra-family shadow funds consists in the fact that the models of economic behavior acquired by the individual in the household are transferred to an external social field, and implemented according to the occupied power status. Shadow monetary funds created in the household represent part of the money which is derived from the family budget, and they imply the existence of latent side of financial relations among its members. The purpose of this article is studying the mеchanisms of decision-making on the establishment of both collective and individual monetary funds within the family budget, including the shadow funds (so-called “zanachkа” of individuals, not accounted for in the family budget.

  6. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene), which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. A...

  7. Can the 'African household' be presented meaningfully in large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    households, namely by comparing it with a simplified model of Western households, and that clear-cut ... advantages and disadvantages of qualitative and quantitative research. One of .... misconstructions of 'African traditions'. The conjugal ...

  8. Quantifying within-household transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, Manon R; Platteel, Tamara N; Fluit, A C; Cohen Stuart, James W; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Thijsen, Steven F T; Scharringa, J.; Kloosterman, Fieke R C; Bonten, Marc J M; Bootsma, Martin C J

    OBJECTIVES: Patients can acquire extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae during hospitalisation and colonised patients may transmit these bacteria after discharge, most likely to household contacts. In this study, ESBL transmission was quantified in households. METHODS:

  9. Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... of socio-economic, household and child-related factors on the nutritional status of ...

  10. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical...... analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste....

  11. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  12. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002 (Professional Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso; Daisy Ewell

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  14. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  15. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…

  16. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  17. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  18. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  19. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  20. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but...

  1. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  3. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  4. Measuring sustainability in households: Interpretations and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    consumption. It indicates that the residents “green behaviour” often are overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices often are rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are discussed in the light of Pierre Bourdieu’s “economy......The paper discusses the connection between “green behaviour” and the metering data of household consumption (electricity, heating, water), based on experiences on this from recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how everyday understandings of “green behaviour” are related to the overall household...... of symbolic goods” (Bourdieu, 1998) parallels are drawn between “green behaviour” and gift-giving. It is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of “selling” the green message...

  5. INDIGENOUS HOUSEHOLDS, REMITTANCES AND LIFE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.

  6. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  7. Household Debt and Foreign Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Primiceri; Andrea Tambalotti; Alejandro Justiniano

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the macroeconomic effects of variations in household leverage in an open economy using a quantitative general equilibrium model. The framework features debt by borrowers limited to a fraction of the market value of their real estate holdings, which serve as collateral. Domestic and foreign savers supply funds through a domestic intermediation sector. The main objective of the study is to characterize the interaction between changes in the supply of foreign capital (the internationa...

  8. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDE IN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Sih Joharina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most popular and effective vector control is the use of insecticides. Surveywas done in the houses and some supermarket to know many kind of insecticides usedby people. The formulation, active ingredients, and concentration were recorded andanalyzed. Based on the results of the survey, household insecticides formulated invarious formulations such as liquid, mosquito coils, aerosol, mat and liquid vaporizer,chalk and paper burn. In addition to formulation, active ingredients and concentrationalso vary. Almost all household insecticide products on the market using the syntheticpyrethroid. Selection of household insecticides should be adapted to the type of insectpests because each type of active ingredients and formulations have advantages anddisadvantages. Efficacy of various active ingredients in various formulations has beenstudied and the results vary widely. Insecticide efficacy is influenced by the type ofactive ingredient, dosage, concentration, formulation, and the susceptibility of insectspecies, temperature, sunlight, wind, and application method.Key word: household insecticide, insecticides formulation, active ingredientsABSTRAKPengendalian serangga vektor penyakit yang paling efektif dan populer adalahpenggunaan insektisida. Survei dilakukan di masyarakat dan supermarket untuk mengetahuijcnis-jenis insektisida yang digunakan oleh masyarakat. Berdasarkan hasil survei, insektisidarumah tangga terkemas dalam berbagai formulasi antara lain liquid, mosquito coil, aerosol, mat& liquid vaporizer, kapur serangga dan kertas bakar. Disamping formulasi, bahan aktif dankonsentrasi yang digunakan juga bermacam-macam. Hampir semua produk insektisida rumahtangga di pasaran menggunakan bahan aktif golongan piretroid sintetik. Pemilihan insektisidarumah tangga hendaknya disesuaikan dengan jenis serangga sasaran karena tiap jenis bahan aktifdan formulasi memiliki kelcbihan dan kekurangan. Efikasi berbagai bahan aktif dalam berbagaiformulasi telah

  10. Looking at women's poverty in poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Baysu, Gülseli

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the internal dynamics of women’s poverty, and how women experience and cope with poverty in poor households. It mainly deals with two points, one regarding the conceptualization of women’s poverty as content and context, and the other regarding the method of investigation. As for the former, women’s poverty is defined as unequal access to resources (social as well as material), responsibilities (particularly the one...

  11. Rising Food Insecurity: Dimensions in Farm Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okezie C. Austin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nigeria runs the risk of slowing further progress toward the achievement of MDG-1 to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty; the fourth goal, to reduce child mortality since over 30% of child deaths are attributable to malnutrition and the fifth goal relating to reduction in maternal mortality. This study evaluated the manifestation of food insecurity in households in Abia State, Nigeria. Approach: Systematic sampling was adopted in selecting households from the three geopolitical zones in the state. Primary and secondary data were used in the study. Data collection involved the use of structured questionnaires. Food intake, height and weight measures of children were taken Data analysis in involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: Domestic food production is increasing but demand remained above production. The shortfall along with food import is on the increase. The composite consumer price index for food has continued to rise over the years. Logistic results show that income significantly reduced exposure to food insecurity while household size was an important determinant of food security. Children were more exposed to the incidence of growth retardation and stunting with increasing household size. Birth order increases the incidence of stunting. As more children come into the family there is increasing marginalization of the subsequent ones. Conclusion: Food insecurity is a developmental challenge in Nigeria. The country is characterized by high food imports and declining productivity of agriculture. Malnutrition is widespread especially among children in rural Nigeria. The study recommends family planning education to stern the over bloated population.

  12. The sequential propensity household projection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The standard method of projecting living arrangements and households in Australia and New Zealand is the 'propensity model', a type of extended headship rate model. Unfortunately it possesses a number of serious shortcomings, including internal inconsistencies, difficulties in setting living arrangement assumptions, and very limited scenario creation capabilities. Data allowing the application of more sophisticated dynamic household projection models are unavailable in Australia. OBJECTIVE The aim was create a projection model to overcome these shortcomings whilst minimising input data requirements and costs, and retaining the projection outputs users are familiar with. METHODS The sequential propensity household projection model is proposed. Living arrangement projections take place in a sequence of calculations, with progressively more detailed living arrangement categories calculated in each step. In doing so the model largely overcomes the three serious deficiencies of the standard propensity model noted above. RESULTS The model is illustrated by three scenarios produced for one case study State, Queensland. They are: a baseline scenario in which all propensities are held constant to demonstrate the effects of population growth and ageing, a housing crisis scenario where housing affordability declines, and a prosperity scenario where families and individuals enjoy greater real incomes. A sensitivity analysis in which assumptions are varied one by one is also presented. CONCLUSIONS The sequential propensity model offers a more effective method of producing household and living arrangement projections than the standard propensity model, and is a practical alternative to dynamic projection models for countries and regions where the data and resources to apply such models are unavailable.

  13. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  14. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  15. The effect of household income and seasonal price changes on household food expenditure patterns. A case study of Vihiga District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritho, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of food price changes and relative household incomes on household food expenditure patterns in Kenya. Primary data on household budgets and monthly market prices for selected food items were collected in two agroecological zones of Vihiga

  16. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  17. Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish McManus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69-20.37, living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06-10.07, suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70-25.21, and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17-30.65. CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.87 and HIV-positive date ≥1990 (1990-1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89, post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.84 were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.70 in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death.

  18. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  19. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  20. Clinical and virological study of dengue cases and the members of their households: the multinational DENFRAME Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dussart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue has emerged as the most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas. Evaluations of the burden and severity of dengue disease have been hindered by the frequent lack of laboratory confirmation and strong selection bias toward more severe cases. METHODOLOGY: A multinational, prospective clinical study was carried out in South-East Asia (SEA and Latin America (LA, to ascertain the proportion of inapparent dengue infections in households of febrile dengue cases, and to compare clinical data and biological markers from subjects with various dengue disease patterns. Dengue infection was laboratory-confirmed during the acute phase, by virus isolation and detection of the genome. The four participating reference laboratories used standardized methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 215 febrile dengue subjects-114 in SEA and 101 in LA-28 (13.0% were diagnosed with severe dengue (from SEA only using the WHO definition. Household investigations were carried out for 177 febrile subjects. Among household members at the time of the first home visit, 39 acute dengue infections were detected of which 29 were inapparent. A further 62 dengue cases were classified at early convalescent phase. Therefore, 101 dengue infections were found among the 408 household members. Adding these together with the 177 Dengue Index Cases, the overall proportion of dengue infections among the study participants was estimated at 47.5% (278/585; 95% CI 43.5-51.6. Lymphocyte counts and detection of the NS1 antigen differed significantly between inapparent and symptomatic dengue subjects; among inapparent cases lymphocyte counts were normal and only 20% were positive for NS1 antigen. Primary dengue infection and a specific dengue virus serotype were not associated with symptomatic dengue infection. CONCLUSION: Household investigation demonstrated a high proportion of household members positive for dengue infection, including a number of inapparent cases, the

  1. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  2. Multifocal Inflammatory Leukoencephalopathy Induced by Accidental Consumption of Levamisole: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocalinflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital(Kermanshah, Iran with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

  3. Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. PMID:24250864

  4. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  5. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods: An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results: After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions: The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints.

  6. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  7. [The prevalence of accidental poisoning in a hospital pediatric unit of Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, F; Protano, C; Bini, V; Lizzi, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of accidental poisoning among children, over a period of fifteen years, from 1990 to 2004, in the pediatric wards of a hospital in Latium (Italy). The prevalence of childhood poisoning was calculated based on the medical records of the pediatric unit of the hospital. The derived data was divided into different categories according to age, gender and types of poisoning. The results of this study show a decrease in accidental pediatric poisoning; according to the literature the frequency of poisoning was higher in males, under the age of 2 years, than females. Trends show an increase in pharmaceutical poisonings. The present study underlines the need for continuous information on prevention and educational programs organized by the Institutions, territorial sanitary services and GP with the aim of increasing the awareness of parents regarding the risk factors of poisoning.

  8. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  9. A Precise Analytic Delayed Coincidence Efficiency and Accidental Coincidence Rate Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jingyi; Chen, Shaomin

    2013-01-01

    In a delayed coincidence experiment, for example, the recent reactor neutrino oscillation experiments, a precise analytic determination of the delayed coincidence signal efficiency and the accidental coincidence background rate is important for the high accuracy measurement of the oscillation parameters and to understand systematic uncertainties associated with fluctuations in muon rate and random background rate. In this work, a data model is proposed to describe the full time sequence of all possible events on the live time axis. The acceptance of delayed coincidence signals, the rate of accidental backgrounds and other coincidence possibilities are calculated by assuming that all of the `net muons' are uniformly distributed on the live time axis. The intrinsic relative uncertainties in the event rates are at the $10^{-5}$ level for all combinations. The model and predictions are verified with a high statistics Monte Carlo study with a set of realistic parameters.

  10. Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghanbari, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

  11. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  12. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus

    OpenAIRE

    Weijters, B.J.; Verbunt, R.J.A.M.; Hoogsteen, J.; Visser, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;1...

  13. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Xingang; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature. PMID:27827842

  14. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergency room (ER visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC. Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature.

  15. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their tem...

  16. Current controversies in the interpretation of non-accidental head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, Tim [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The field of non-accidental injury (NAI) has been the subject of a number of theories and hypotheses of variable merit. Concerning injuries that occur within the intracranial compartment, much research has been undertaken to investigate the cause of SDH and parenchymal brain injury. Much, however, remains contentious, particularly regarding the medicolegal aspects of suspected child abuse. Issues that present the greatest challenges will be addressed. (orig.)

  17. Artritis tuberculosa - Autoinoculación en profesional sanitario por accidente laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Los autores describen un caso de monoartritis tuberculosa en un médico traumatólogo previamente sano, por inoculación accidental durante el drenaje quirúrgico de una artritis séptica. El tratamiento oral con fármacos antituberculosos y el drenaje quirúrgico fueron suficientes, sin tener que recurrir a la sinovectomía.

  18. Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

  19. Cuidado popular de familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero López-Díaz; Fabiola Castellanos-Soriano; Esperanza Muñoz-Torres

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular afecta a numerosas personas en el mundo y se constituye en la principal causa de muer- te. Los sobrevivientes pueden padecer discapacidad y sufrir modificaciones en las actividades cotidianas. La familia es el principal apoyo del sobreviviente y al ser parte de una misma cultura, construye acciones de cuidado en búsqueda del bienestar. Objetivo: describir las acciones del cuidado popular de las familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del prim...

  20. Analizan partículas calientes del accidente nuclear de Palomares

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Investigadores pertenecientes al Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, (Universidad de Sevilla-Junta de Andalucía-CSIC) en colaboración con la Organización Internacional de la Energía Atómica (IAEA), han llevado a cabo me didas de elementos transuránicos en partículas calientes procedentes de accidentes nucleares tales como el de Thule (Groenlandia) o Palomares (España).

  1. [Fatal accidental mixed poisoning of 3 men at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnasch, P; Reiter, A; Meissner, C; Oehmichen, M

    1999-01-01

    The case history presented reports on three 30- to 40-years-old men, who were found dead in a party like situation in the living room. The toxicological investigation proved alcohol and THC as well as therapeutic Flunitrazepam- and Pentobarbital levels and toxic 7- Amino-Flunitrazepam concentrations. The background of this surprising scene led up to the conclusion of an accidental death caused by a mixed intoxication.

  2. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME DAN ACUTE PNEUMONIA PADA NEAR DROWNING:SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Prinka Adyana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Near drowning is a condition in which the victim survived the first 24 hours. The WorldHealth Organization (WHO , recorded worldwide in 2000 there were 400,000 incidentdrowned accidentally . That is, this figure ranks second only to traffic accidents.Aspiration pneumonia is a complication of near drwoning which occurred in 80 % ofcases of near drowning, while 50 % of patients sink into acute respiratory distresssyndrome ( ARDS . This case report discusses the acute respiratory distress syndromeand acute pneumonia in near drowning 24 years old , who had drowned at the beach for± 15 minutes , the chest x - ray obtained pulmonary edema dd / lung pnuemonia therepneuomothorax . Examination of multislice spiral computed tomography ( MSCT bilateral pneumothorax Thorax obtained major and minor fisuura right and left majorfissure , pneumomediastinum , pulmonary pneumonia contusio / suspected aspirationpneumonia , emphysema subcutis . In intensive care patients conducted for 9 days andreturn to akitivitas everyday

  3. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... significantly among the studies and differ from one country to another. Here, we provide a consistent methodology for characterization of household food waste, so that data comparability and source information are ensured. In this study, residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from more than...

  4. Los accidentes laborales, su impacto económico y social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Cisneros-Prieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investigativo aborda la problemática de los accidentes de trabajo en las empresas estatales en la provincia Holguín y la importancia de la determinación efectiva de las causas que los provocan, a partir del análisis del comportamiento de los indicadores emitidos por la Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información (ONEI hasta el año 2014. Se analiza el comportamiento, en el período comprendido entre el 2011-2014, de las cifras de trabajadores lesionados y fallecidos, y se evalúa el impacto humano, económico y social de la accidentalidad en las empresas y la sociedad. Se demuestra un incremento en el indicador “Días perdidos por accidentados”, siendo la principal lectura de este comportamiento el aumento de la gravedad de los accidentes de trabajo, este es un elemento que generalmente las organizaciones no valoran en su verdadera magnitud como un significativo impacto negativo de su eficiencia económica y financiera. Se presenta un enfoque sobre las potencialidades de la comunicación en función de la solución o atenuación de la ocurrencia de los accidentes y en consecuencia ladisminución del costo financiero y social de esta compleja problemática.

  5. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  6. Decay Heat Removal and Transient Analysis in Accidental Conditions in the EFIT Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomino Bandini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a conceptual design of an industrial-scale transmutation facility (EFIT of several 100 MW thermal power based on accelerator-driven system (ADS is addressed in the frame of the European EUROTRANS Integral Project. In normal operation, the core power of EFIT reactor is removed through steam generators by four secondary loops fed by water. A safety-related decay heat removal (DHR system provided with four independent inherently safe loops is installed in the primary vessel to remove the decay heat by natural convection circulation under accidental conditions which are caused by a loss-of-heat sink (LOHS. In order to confirm the adequacy of the adopted solution for decay heat removal in accidental conditions, some multi-D analyses have been carried out with the SIMMER-III code. The results of the SIMMER-III code have been then used to support the RELAP5 1D representation of the natural circulation flow paths in the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 code has been employed for the analysis of LOHS accidental scenarios.

  7. Shape measurement tools in footwear analysis: a statistical investigation of accidental characteristics over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, H David; Gross, Susan; Langenburg, Glenn; Bush, Peter J; Bush, Mary A

    2013-10-10

    Presence of accidental characteristics on footwear strengthens the linkage of a given piece of footwear to a footwear impression left at a crime-scene. Thus an understanding of rate of appearance and disappearance of these characteristics is of importance. Artificial cut-marks, 1-3mm in depth, were cut into outsoles of 11 pairs of athletic shoes. Loss of these cut-marks and acquisition of new accidental characteristics/wear patterns were monitored over a seven-week time-span. Feature-vector methods were used to acquire multivariate data on wear/acquisition rates. A repeatability study indicated the feature vector method could detect small differences among shoes relative to measurement uncertainty. The shoes displayed a strong retention of artificial cut-marks over the study interval. Net rate of wear was 0.1% of the textured area of the shoe per week, predominantly in the heel and ball area. Results indicate accidental characteristics can reasonably be expected to persist over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cuidado popular de familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero López-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular afecta a numerosas personas en el mundo y se constituye en la principal causa de muer- te. Los sobrevivientes pueden padecer discapacidad y sufrir modificaciones en las actividades cotidianas. La familia es el principal apoyo del sobreviviente y al ser parte de una misma cultura, construye acciones de cuidado en búsqueda del bienestar. Objetivo: describir las acciones del cuidado popular de las familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular. Método: estudio etnográfico, con observación participante y entrevistas en profundidad. Participaron siete familias bogotanas (siete adultos mayores entre los dos y diez meses posteriores al primer accidente cerebrovascular y los siete cuidadores principales respectivos. Resultados: cuidadores y adulto mayor comparten acciones de cuidado para la recuperación, relacionadas con la alimentación, el cuidado personal y la ingesta de medicamentos permeadas por la creencia religiosa, fuente de soporte y vínculo afectivo. Conclusión: conocer el cuidado popular de esta población posibilita proponer acciones culturalmente congruentes con sus valores y creencias para potencializar las ca- pacidades familiares e intermediar en los procesos de tratamiento.

  9. Humeral fracture in non-ambulant infants - a possible accidental mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, John M.; Halliday, Katharine E. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Radiology Department, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chapman, Stephen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Humeral fracture in a non-ambulant infant younger than 1 year is suspicious for a non-accidental injury unless there is a credible accidental explanation. A previously unrecognised accidental mechanism was described in 1996 whereby a 5-month-old infant was rolled by a 3-year-old sibling from a prone to a supine position. To investigate the widely accepted view that an infant with limited mobility cannot sustain a fracture of the humerus by his or her own actions in the absence of the intervention of an external party. We present seven cases of non-ambulant infants between 4 and 7 months of age in whom an isolated humeral fracture was the only injury present. In each case the caregiver described the fracture occurring when the child rolled over, trapping the dependent arm, without the intervention of another party. There is no proof for this mechanism in the form of an independent witness or video recording. However, we propose that this mechanism is worthy of further consideration as a rare and unusual cause for the injury. Further study is required. (orig.)

  10. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  11. Study of TSL and OSL properties of dental ceramics for accidental dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronese, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.veronese@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galli, Anna [CNR-INFM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cantone, Marie Claire [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Martini, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Vernizzi, Fabrizio; Guzzi, Gianpaolo [Italian Association for Metals and Biocompatibility Research - A.I.R.M.E.B., Milan (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Interest is increasing in the development of new methodologies for accidental dose assessment, exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be usually found directly on exposed subjects and/or in the contaminated area. In this work, several types of ceramics employed for dental prosthetics restoration, including both innovative materials used as sub-frames for the construction of the inner part of dental crowns (core), and conventional porcelains used for the fabrication of the external layer (veneer), were investigated with regard to their thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TSL and OSL respectively) properties, in view of their potential application in accidental dosimetry. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation proved to strongly depend on the type and brand of ceramic, with minimum detectable dose ranging from few mGy up to several tens of mGy. A linear dose-response was observed for most of the samples. However, the luminescence signals were characterised by a significant fading, which has to be taken into account for a reliable accidental dose assessment after a radiation exposure event.

  12. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-12-01

    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature.

  13. Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisonings in Adana, Turkey: A 14-year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Darçın

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbon monoxide (CO is often referred to as the “silent killer” because its victims cannot see it, smell it or taste it. CO is responsible for a large percentage of the accidental poisonings and deaths reported throughout the world. CO poisoning therefore is considered a serious global health threat. The aim of the present study was to describe the cases of CO poisoning in a rural areas of Adana, Turkey between 2002 and 2015 based on data collected from incident reports. Methods: The cases of accidental CO poisoning were statistically analyzed. During that period, 74 incidents occurred and 154 people were poisoned by accidental CO poisoning. Results: The results of this analysis indicate that men and adults aged ≥65 years were more likely to die from CO poisoning than others. The number of CO poisoning cases was highest during the heating season. The majority (72% of poisoning resulting in hospitalization with a life-threatening condition or death occurred within the home. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious danger. People must be informed about this hazard. By educating risk groups about the dangers of CO poisoning, it is possible to save many lives as well as reduce the health risks.

  14. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Marcello Bracale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. A 72-year-old female with a 6 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

  15. Bilateral Distal Radius Fractures in a 12-Year-Old Boy after Household Electrical Shock: Case Report and Literature Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fracture resulting from household electric shock is uncommon. When it occurs, it is usually the result of a fall; however, electricity itself can cause sufficient tetany to produce a fracture. We present the case of bilateral fractures of the distal radii of a 12-year-old boy which were sustained after accidental shock. The literature regarding fractures after domestic electric shock is also reviewed. Methods. An Ovid-Medline search was conducted. The resultant articles and their bibliographies were surveyed for cases describing fractures resulting from a typical household-level voltage (110–220 V, 50–60 Hertz and not a fall after the shock. Twenty-one articles describing 22 patients were identified. Results. Twenty-two cases were identified. Thirteen were unilateral injuries; 9 were bilateral. Proximal humerus fractures were most frequent (8 cases, followed by scapula fractures (7 cases, forearm fractures (4 cases, femoral neck fractures (2 cases, and vertebral body fracture (1 case. Eight of the 22 cases were diagnosed days to weeks after the injury. Conclusions. Fracture after electric shock is uncommon. It should be suspected in patients with persistent pain, particularly in the shoulder or forearm area. Distal radius fractures that occur during electrocution are likely due to tetany.

  16. Bilateral distal radius fractures in a 12-year-old boy after household electrical shock: case report and literature summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Norman; Karamitopoulos, Mara; Edelstein, David; Hashem, Jenifer; Tucci, James

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fracture resulting from household electric shock is uncommon. When it occurs, it is usually the result of a fall; however, electricity itself can cause sufficient tetany to produce a fracture. We present the case of bilateral fractures of the distal radii of a 12-year-old boy which were sustained after accidental shock. The literature regarding fractures after domestic electric shock is also reviewed. Methods. An Ovid-Medline search was conducted. The resultant articles and their bibliographies were surveyed for cases describing fractures resulting from a typical household-level voltage (110-220 V, 50-60 Hertz) and not a fall after the shock. Twenty-one articles describing 22 patients were identified. Results. Twenty-two cases were identified. Thirteen were unilateral injuries; 9 were bilateral. Proximal humerus fractures were most frequent (8 cases), followed by scapula fractures (7 cases), forearm fractures (4 cases), femoral neck fractures (2 cases), and vertebral body fracture (1 case). Eight of the 22 cases were diagnosed days to weeks after the injury. Conclusions. Fracture after electric shock is uncommon. It should be suspected in patients with persistent pain, particularly in the shoulder or forearm area. Distal radius fractures that occur during electrocution are likely due to tetany.

  17. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  18. Fallopian tube insertion into the uterine cavity discovered accidentally during laparoscopic retrieval of a misplaced coil from the pelvic cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotidis, Costas; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Nisolle, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents for the first time in the literature a case of fallopian tube insertion into the uterine cavity discovered accidentally during laparoscopic retrieval of a misplaced coil from the pelvic cavity. Peer reviewed

  19. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  20. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001087.htm Bronchitis - acute To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ...

  1. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  2. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  3. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Vekkos, K; Baratieri, M

    2016-04-15

    Valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW), by means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A significant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy. In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the significantly less time required for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i.e. composting, anaerobic digestion and transesterification. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways. Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. In this study, by means of utilizing drying/milling as an intermediate step, thermal treatment of household biowaste has become possible. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil (tar) and syngas were recovered. The thermochemical properties of the feedstock and products were analyzed by means of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Ultimate and Proximate analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield.

  4. El subregistro de accidentes de trabajo en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Subregistro de accidentes de trabajo en asegurados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el subregistro de los accidentes de trabajo en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMFX escogida, inicialmente atendidos en el servicio de urgencias de un Hospital General de Zona (HGZ, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en el año 2002. Material y métodos: Es un estudio transversal que utilizó información de la fuente original del HGZ que otorga la primera atención médica. Se elaboró una cédula de registro con las diversas fuentes de información, efectuando confrontación, seguimiento y análisis estadístico de las mismas. Resultados: De 6551 probables accidentes de trabajo atendidos en el HGZ, se seleccionaron 821 casos adscritos a la UMFX escogida. Se conformaron tres grupos de acuerdo con su dictamen: Grupo I= SÍ de trabajo, 35.4% (290; Grupo II=NO de trabajo, 4.6% (38, y el Grupo III= no calificados y atendidos en urgencias, 60%(493; este último representa el subregistro de los accidentes de trabajo. Conclusiones: El subregistro del 60% es de los más altos reportado en la literatura, lo cual representa para el IMSS, los trabajadores y el país graves repercusiones económicas y sociales no cuantificadas.Objective: To determine the Occupational Accidents Subregistry at a selected Family Medicine Unit (FMUX initially treated at a Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS General Zone Hospital (HGZ during the year 2002. Materials and Methods: This is a transversal study utilizing information from the original source, the HGZ primary-care hospital-facility. We elaborated a registry permit with diverse information sources, and conducted confrontation, followup, and statistical analysis of these sources. Results: Of 6,551 probable occupational accidents treated at the HGZ Emergency Room, we selected 821 cases ascribed to the selected FMUX. We made up three groups according these dictates: Group I = YES, occupational, 35.4% (290; Group II = NO, occupational, 4.6% (38, and Grupo III = not qualified and

  5. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  6. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  7. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  8. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  9. Investigating design issues in household environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, Lynne; Benyon, David; Macauley, Catriona

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the current involvement of end users in the design of technological artefacts is too superficial. It is common to involve people in requirements generation, but rarely in product inception or design. A study is reported involving five households in central Scotland, who were...... each visited on three occasions, using a new investigative framework. Illustrative examples are provided of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Despite the latter, it is demonstrated that the general public can both generate and critique design ideas and that valuable contributions...... to understanding people's relationships with technologies can be expected both from children and from the elderly....

  10. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies in utero exposure to the 2008 financial crisis. Exploiting the sudden and unexpected collapse of the Icelandic economy, I find that first-trimester exposure to the crisis led to a sizable and significant reduction in birth weight, increased the probability of a low birth weight...... – because children with worse health at birth can expect substantially lower lifetime earnings – and suggest that economic hardships may in general exacerbate income inequalities in the long run as low-income households are typically more exposed to financial distress....

  11. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  12. Asbestos, lead, and the family: household risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Cohn, J.; Ackerman, G.

    1980-06-01

    Although the intrafamilial transmission of infectious diseases has long been recognized, the induction of environmental disease in household contacts is being increasingly documented and requires a higher index of suspicion. An incidental radiographic finding, such as pleural thickening or calcification, or even interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in a young person without obvious occupational exposure to asbestos, should prompt the physician to clarify the parental occupational history. Likewise, unexpected evidence of lead induced abnormalities, such as elevated blood lead and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, should focus the examiner's attention on possible intrafamilial transmission, treatment, and prevention.

  13. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  14. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  15. Stochastic Production Frontier Models to Explore Constraints on Household Travel Expenditures Considering Household Income Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan M. Saleh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variation of household travel expenditure frontiers (HTEFs prior to CC reform in Jakarta. This study incorporates the variation of household income classes into the modeling of HTEFs and investigates the degree to which various determinants influence levels of HTEF. The HTEF is defined as an unseen maximum (capacity amount of money that a certain income class is willing to dedicate to their travel. A stochastic production frontier is applied to model and explore upper bound household travel expenditure (HTE. Using a comprehensive household travel survey (HTS in Jakarta in 2004, the observed HTE spending in a month is treated as an exogenous variable. The estimation results obtained using three proposed models, for low, medium and high income classes, show that HTEFs are significantly associated with life stage structure attributes, socio-demographics and life environment factors such as professional activity engagements, which is disclosed to be varied across income classes. Finding further reveals that considerable differences in average of HTEFs across models. This finding calls for the formulation of policies that consider the needs to be addressed for low and medium income groups in order to promote more equity policy thereby leading to more acceptable CC reform.

  16. Getting outside help : How trust problems explain household differences in household outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, E.H.M. de; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value. Analyse

  17. "Raising Him . . . to Pull His Own Weight": Boys' Household Work in Single-Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Clara W.; Romich, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine boys' household work in low- and moderate-income single-mother families. Through describing the work that boys do, why they do this work, and the meaning that they and their mothers give to this work, they add to the understanding of housework as an arena for gender role reproduction or interruption. Their data…

  18. Getting outside help : How trust problems explain household differences in household outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, E.H.M. de; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value. Analyse

  19. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  20. Household time allocation – Theoretical and empirical results from Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bonke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a sample of households in 1994 we find that Danish household labour allocation choices are bestdescribed by a collective model in which decisions are made cooperatively. Individual preferences are similar butthere are important differences due to the differences in educational attainment. Households can be characterized as utilitarian with a sharing rule which depends on household income and is feminist rather than egalitarian. The allocation of tasks within the family depends on both the individuals’ comparative advantage in labour markets andindividual preferences for paid work as well as the intra-household distribution of income. These results do not require explicit assumptions about labour supply that are often employed in the household time allocation literature.