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Sample records for acute gi bleeding

  1. Acute upper GI bleeding: Did anything change? Time trend analysis of incidence and outcome of acute upper GI bleeding between 1993/1994 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leerdam, M. E.; Vreeburg, E. M.; Rauws, E. A. J.; Geraedts, A. A. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Reitsma, J. B.; Tytgat, G. N. J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine recent time trends in incidence and outcome of upper GI bleeding. METHODS: Prospective data collection on all patients presenting with acute upper GI bleeding from a defined geographical area in the period 1993/1994 and 2000. RESULTS: Incidence

  2. GI bleeding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100162.htm GI bleeding - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gastrointestinal Bleeding A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  4. Detection and localization of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with arterial phase multi-detector row helical CT

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    Jaeckle, T.; Stuber, G.; Hoffmann, M.H.K.; Jeltsch, M.; Schmitz, B.L.; Aschoff, A.J. [University Hospital of Ulm, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of multi-detector row helical CT (MDCT) for detection and localization of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage or intraperitoneal bleeding. Thirty-six consecutive patients with clinical signs of acute bleeding underwent biphasic (16- or 40-channel) MDCT. MDCT findings were correlated with endoscopy, angiography or surgery. Among the 36 patients evaluated, 26 were examined for GI bleeding and 10 for intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Confirmed sites of GI bleeding were the stomach (n = 5), duodenum (n = 5), small bowel (n = 6), large bowel (n = 8) and rectum (n = 2). The correct site of bleeding was identifiable on MDCT in 24/26 patients with GI bleeding. In 20 of these 24 patients, active CM extravasation was apparent during the exam. Among the ten patients with intraperitoneal hemorrhage, MDCT correctly identified the bleeding source in nine patients. Our findings suggest that fast and accurate localization of acute gastrointestinal and intraperitoneal bleeding is achievable on MDCT. (orig.)

  5. Detection and localization of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with arterial phase multi-detector row helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckle, T.; Stuber, G.; Hoffmann, M.H.K.; Jeltsch, M.; Schmitz, B.L.; Aschoff, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of multi-detector row helical CT (MDCT) for detection and localization of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage or intraperitoneal bleeding. Thirty-six consecutive patients with clinical signs of acute bleeding underwent biphasic (16- or 40-channel) MDCT. MDCT findings were correlated with endoscopy, angiography or surgery. Among the 36 patients evaluated, 26 were examined for GI bleeding and 10 for intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Confirmed sites of GI bleeding were the stomach (n = 5), duodenum (n = 5), small bowel (n = 6), large bowel (n = 8) and rectum (n = 2). The correct site of bleeding was identifiable on MDCT in 24/26 patients with GI bleeding. In 20 of these 24 patients, active CM extravasation was apparent during the exam. Among the ten patients with intraperitoneal hemorrhage, MDCT correctly identified the bleeding source in nine patients. Our findings suggest that fast and accurate localization of acute gastrointestinal and intraperitoneal bleeding is achievable on MDCT. (orig.)

  6. Mortality associated with gastrointestinal bleeding events: Comparing short-term clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding and acute myocardial infarction in a US managed care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mel Wilcox

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available C Mel Wilcox1, Byron L Cryer2, Henry J Henk3, Victoria Zarotsky3, Gergana Zlateva41University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX; 3i3 Innovus, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; 4Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA Objectives: To compare the short-term mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI bleeding to those of acute myocardial infarction (AMI by estimating the 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among hospitalized patients.Methods: United States national health plan claims data (1999–2003 were used to identify patients hospitalized with a GI bleeding event. Patients were propensity-matched to AMI patients with no evidence of GI bleed from the same US health plan.Results: 12,437 upper GI-bleed patients and 22,847 AMI patients were identified. Propensity score matching yielded 6,923 matched pairs. Matched cohorts were found to have a similar Charlson Comorbidity Index score and to be similar on nearly all utilization and cost measures (excepting emergency room costs. A comparison of outcomes among the matched cohorts found that AMI patients had higher rates of 30-day mortality (4.35% vs 2.54%; p < 0.0001 and rehospitalization (2.56% vs 1.79%; p = 0.002, while GI bleed patients were more likely to have a repeat procedure (72.38% vs 44.95%; p < 0.001 following their initial hospitalization. The majority of the difference in overall 30-day mortality between GI bleed and AMI patients was accounted for by mortality during the initial hospitalization (1.91% vs 3.58%.Conclusions: GI bleeding events result in significant mortality similar to that of an AMI after adjusting for the initial hospitalization.Keywords: gastrointestinal, bleeding, mortality, acute myocardial infarction, claims analysis

  7. Reliability measures in managing GI bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2012-06-01

    Multiple procedures and devices are used in a complex interplay to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. To model how a large variety of diagnostic and therapeutic components interact in the successful management of GI bleeding. The analysis uses the concept of reliability block diagrams from probability theory to model management outcome. Separate components of the management process are arranged in a serial or parallel fashion. If the outcome depends on the function of each component individually, such components are modeled to be arranged in series. If components complement each other and can mutually compensate for each of their failures, such components are arranged in a parallel fashion. General endoscopy practice. Patients with GI bleeding of unknown etiology. All available endoscopic and radiographic means to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. Process reliability in achieving hemostasis. Serial arrangements tend to reduce process reliability, whereas parallel arrangements increase it. Whenever possible, serial components should be bridged and complemented by additional alternative (parallel) routes of operation. Parallel components with low individual reliability can still contribute to overall process reliability as long as they function independently of other pre-existing alternatives. Probability of success associated with individual components is partly unknown. Modeling management of GI bleeding by a reliability block diagram provides a useful tool in assessing the impact of individual endoscopic techniques and administrative structures on the overall outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Giant gastric lipoma presenting as GI bleed: Enucleation or Resection?

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    Salah Termos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastric lipomas are unusual benign lesions and account for less than 1% of all tumours of the stomach and 5% of all gastrointestinal lipomas (Thompson et al.2003; Fernandez et al. 1983 [1,2]. Although predominantly asymptomatic and indolent; they may present with gastric outlet obstruction and upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding owing to size and ulceration. Only a few cases have been reported, presenting large in size with massive GI bleeding (Alcalde Escribano et al. 1989; Johnson et al. 1981 [3,4]. Presentation of case: We report the case of a 62-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department with massive upper GI hemorrhage. He was initially resuscitated and stabilized. Later gastroscopy showed a large submucosal tumour (Fig. 1. Biopsy revealed adipose tissue. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge well defined oval soft tissue lesion measuring about 16 × 8 × 8 cm. The mass noted a homogenous fat density arising from the posterior wall of stomach with no extramural infiltration (Fig. 2. The tumour was completely enucleated through an explorative gastrotomy incision (Fig. 4. Discussion and conclusion: Massive bleeding secondary to a giant gastric lipoma is a rare finding of a rare disease. The majority of cases in the literature result in major gastric resection. Familiarity with its radiological findings and a high index of suspicion can lead to proper diagnosis in the acute setting. If malignancy is carefully ruled out, stomach preserving surgery is an optimal treatment option. Keywords: Case report, Lipoma, Gastric lipoma, G I bleeding, Enucleation, Gastric resection

  9. Postpolypectomy lower GI bleeding: descriptive analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorbi, D.; Norton, I.; Conio, M.; Balm, R.; Zinsmeister, A.; Gostout, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpolypectomy hemorrhage may warrant intensive care monitoring, transfusions, and surgery. We sought factors predicting significant bleeding requiring blood transfusion and the benefits of critical care monitoring. METHODS: Patients with postpolypectomy bleeding between April 1989 and

  10. Acute GI obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucl, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    Acute gastrointestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The blockage can occur at any level throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical symptoms depend on the level and extent of obstruction. Various benign and malignant processes can produce acute gastrointestinal obstruction, which often represents a medical emergency because of the potential for bowel ischemia leading to perforation and peritonitis. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are thus essential. The typical clinical symptoms associated with obstruction include nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, abdominal pain and failure to pass bowel movements. Abdominal distention, tympany due to an air-filled stomach and high-pitched bowel sounds suggest the diagnosis. The diagnostic process involves imaging including radiography, ultrasonography, contrast fluoroscopy and computer tomography in less certain cases. In patients with uncomplicated obstruction, management is conservative, including fluid resuscitation, electrolyte replacement, intestinal decompression and bowel rest. In many cases, endoscopy may aid in both the diagnostic process and in therapy. Endoscopy can be used for bowel decompression, dilation of strictures or placement of self-expandable metal stents to restore the luminal flow either as a final treatment or to allow for a delay until elective surgical therapy. When gastrointestinal obstruction results in ischemia, perforation or peritonitis, emergency surgery is required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Clinical approach to obscure GI bleeding - Diagnostic testing and management

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    Prashanth Prabakaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB can present as a diagnostic dilemma and management can be challenging. The search for causes of OGIB is usually centered on visualizing the small bowel, and in the past decade, the technology to visualize the entire small bowel has significantly advanced. Moreover, small bowel endoscopic imaging has replaced, in many instances, prior radiographic evaluation for obscure GI bleeding. These new modalities, such as small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE, balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy [double balloon enteroscopy (DBE and single balloon enteroscopy (SBE], and overtube-assisted deep enteroscopy (spiral enteroscopy, are paving the way toward more accurately identifying and treating patients with OGIB. We will review the diagnostic modalities available in evaluating a patient with OGIB and also propose the management based on clinical and endoscopic findings.

  12. Trends in Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Yeh; Lee, Tsung-Chun; Montez-Rath, Maria E.; Paik, Jane; Chertow, Glenn M.; Desai, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Impaired kidney function is a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, an event associated with poor outcomes. The burden of upper GI bleeding and its effect on patients with ESRD are not well described. Using data from the US Renal Data System, we quantified the rates of occurrence of and associated 30-day mortality from acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding in patients undergoing dialysis; we used medical claims and previously validated algorithms where available. Overall, 948,345 patients contributed 2,296,323 patient-years for study. The occurrence rates for upper GI bleeding were 57 and 328 episodes per 1000 person-years according to stringent and lenient definitions of acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding, respectively. Unadjusted occurrence rates remained flat (stringent) or increased (lenient) from 1997 to 2008; after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid conditions, however, we found a significant decline for both definitions (linear approximation, 2.7% and 1.5% per year, respectively; Pupper GI bleeding episodes and were more likely to receive blood transfusions during an episode. Overall 30-day mortality was 11.8%, which declined significantly over time (relative declines of 2.3% or 2.8% per year for the stringent and lenient definitions, respectively). In summary, despite declining trends worldwide, crude rates of acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding among patients undergoing dialysis have not decreased in the past 10 years. Although 30-day mortality related to upper GI bleeding declined, perhaps reflecting improvements in medical care, the burden on the ESRD population remains substantial. PMID:22266666

  13. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) - initial evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaysi, Iyad; Gralnek, Ian M

    2013-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the most common reason that the 'on-call' gastroenterologist is consulted. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of upper endoscopy, there is still significant associated morbidity and mortality in patients experiencing acute UGIB, thus this is a true GI emergency. Acute UGIB is divided into non-variceal and variceal causes. The most common type of acute UGIB is 'non-variceal' and includes diagnoses such as peptic ulcer (gastric and duodenal), gastroduodenal erosions, Mallory-Weiss tears, erosive oesophagitis, arterio-venous malformations, Dieulafoy's lesion, and upper GI tract tumours and malignancies. This article focuses exclusively on initial management strategies for acute upper GI bleeding. We discuss up to date and evidence-based strategies for patient risk stratification, initial patient management prior to endoscopy, potential causes of UGIB, role of proton pump inhibitors, prokinetic agents, prophylactic antibiotics, vasoactive pharmacotherapies, and timing of endoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne; Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age ± 95% confidence interval = 70 ± 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 ± 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 ± 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding

  15. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 ± 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition

  16. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 {+-} 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition.

  17. Prevalence and outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding and use of acid suppressants in acutely ill adult intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of, risk factors for, and prognostic importance of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and use of acid suppressants in acutely ill adult intensive care patients. METHODS: We included adults without GI bleeding who were acutely admitted to the intensive care unit (IC...

  18. Management of Patients with Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L.; Gralnek, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based upon clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper GI bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy. In the majority of patients, colonoscopy should be the initial diagnostic procedure and should be performed within 24 hours of patient presentation after adequate colon preparation. Endoscopic hemostasis therapy should be provided to patients with high risk endoscopic stigmata of bleeding including active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel, or adherent clot. The endoscopic hemostasis modality used (mechanical, thermal, injection or combination) is most often guided by the etiology of bleeding, access to the bleeding site, and endoscopist experience with the various hemostasis modalities. Repeat colonoscopy, with endoscopic hemostasis performed if indicated, should be considered for patients with evidence of recurrent bleeding. Radiographic interventions (tagged red blood cell scintigraphy, CT angiography, angiography) should be considered in high-risk patients with ongoing bleeding who do not respond adequately to resuscitation, and who are unlikely to tolerate bowel preparation and colonoscopy. Strategies to prevent recurrent bleeding should be considered. NSAID use should be avoided in patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding particularly if secondary to diverticulosis or angioectasia. In patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin (secondary prophylaxis), aspirin should not be discontinued. The exact timing depends on the severity of bleeding, perceived adequacy of hemostasis and the risk of a thromboembolic event. Surgery

  19. Acute GI bleeding by multiple jejunal gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour associated with neurofibromatosis type I Urgencia quirúrgica por sangrado intestinal debido a tumor intestinal de nervios autónomos asociados a neurofibromatosis tipo I

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    M. Keese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a surgical emergency due to GI-bleeding caused by gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumours (GANT's in a patient with von Recklinghausen's disease. A 72 year old female patient with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted with maelena. Endoscopy showed no active bleeding in the stomach and the colon. Therefore an angio-CT-scan was performed which revealed masses of the proximal jejunum as source of bleeding. Laparotomy was indicated and a 20 cm segment of jejunum which carried multiple extraluminal tumours was resected. The source of the bleeding was a 2 cm tumour which had eroded the mucosal surface. Immunohistologically, evidence of neuronal differentiation could be shown in the spindle-formed cells with positive staining for C-Kit (CD 117, CD 34, and a locally positive staining for synaptophysine and S100. This case report illustrates the association between neurofibromatosis and stromal tumours and should alert surgeons and gastroenterologist about gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.Se describe una urgencia quirúrgica por sangrado intestinal debido a tumor gastrointestinal de nervios autónomos (GANT asociado a enfermedad de von Recklinghausen. Una mujer de 72 años con neurofibromatosis fue ingresada con signos de melena. La endoscopia digestiva alta y baja fue negativa. Se indicó TAC con contraste que advirtió tumores yeyunales como causa del sangrado. Se realizó laparotomía y resección de un segmento de 20 cm de yeyuno que incluía varios tumores. La causa del sangrado activo fue lesión en mucosa intestinal por erosión tumoral. El análisis por inmunohistoquímica de la pieza mostró diferenciación neuronal, con células fusiformes con tinción positiva para el C-Kit (CD 117, CD 34. Esta nota clínica pone de manifiesto la asociación entre la neurofibromatosis y los tumores estromales y debe alertar a gastroenterólogos y cirujanos sobre las posibles manifestaciones

  20. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ...

  1. Gastric cirsoid aneurysm: Uncommon cause of death from upper GI bleed

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    Tatiana Bihun, BA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cirsoid aneurysm is an arterial malformation found in the submucosa of the stomach. It is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of gastrointestinal bleed. We present a case of a 48 year old male who presented to the ER unconscious, unresponsive, pale, and tachycardic. Patient expired and an autopsy was performed. Upon examination blood was found in the GI tract. During examination an arterial malformation was found in the body of the stomach. Histological samples were taken and the findings were consistent with gastric cirsoid aneurysm. Diagnosis can be made through endoscopy, angiography, or red cell scanning. Current treatment is hemostasis achieved by either thermal, regional injection or mechanical therapies. Multiple therapies are found to be more successful than monotherapy. Gastric cirsoid aneurysms are thought to make up <5% of upper GI bleeds, however clinicians should be mindful when working up a differential diagnosis.

  2. Portal Hypertensive Colopathy with Pelvic Varices presenting as Severe Lower GI Bleed treated with TIPSS

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, SF

    2018-02-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old lady with a background of significant alcohol intake who presented with frank lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, lower abdominal pain and haemoglobin 6.3g\\/dL. CT abdominal angiogram showed right-sided colonic thickening, atrophic liver and enlarged superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and right-sided pelvic varix. This lead to a diagnosis of portal hypertensive colopathy secondary to alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The patient failed conservative management and underwent a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPSS) procedure. This lead to an immediate resolution of her lower-GI bleeding. Repeat CT at three weeks showed a decompressed SMV and resolution of the right-sided pelvic varix. The patient was discharged after three months following optimization of medical condition and social circumstances.

  3. Endoscopic management and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: a nationwide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Dinani, Amreen M; Pivovarov, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    Upper GI endoscopy has an important diagnostic and therapeutic role in the management of nonvariceal upper GI bleeding (NVUGB). To characterize nationwide patterns of utilization of upper GI endoscopy in pregnant women with NVUGB and to assess health outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Participating hospitals from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2007. Pregnant and age-matched nonpregnant women admitted for NVUGB. The study population was classified as pregnant women with NVUGB (n = 1210) and nonpregnant women with NVUGB (n = 6050). Rate of upper GI endoscopy, maternal mortality, fetal death/complications, and premature delivery. Pregnant women were less likely than nonpregnant women to undergo upper GI endoscopy (26% vs 69%; P < .0001) even after adjustment for comorbidities, transfusion requirement, and the presence of hypovolemic shock (adjusted odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.22). Among those who underwent endoscopy, pregnant women were less likely to undergo the procedure within 24 hours of admission (50% vs 57%; P = .02). Mortality was lower among pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women (0% vs 0.6%; P = .006). In comparing outcomes between those who did and did not undergo endoscopy, there was no difference in fetal loss (0.2% vs 0.6%), fetal distress/complications (2.7% vs 2.6%), or premature delivery (7.3% vs 6.4%). The study was based on administrative data. A conservative nonendoscopic approach is common in the management of pregnant women with NVUGB and is not associated with worse maternal or fetal outcomes. Upper GI endoscopy is, however, safe when judiciously implemented in the actively bleeding patient. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

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    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  5. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung

    2007-01-01

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

  6. Management of acute gastric varices bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jung Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal varices bleeding is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis. Gastric varices (GVs occur in approximately 20% of patients with portal hypertension. However, GV bleeding develops in only 25% of patients with GV and requires more transfusion and has higher mortality than esophageal variceal (EV bleeding. The best strategy for managing acute GV bleeding is similar to that of acute EV bleeding, which involves airway protection, hemodynamic stabilization, and intensive care. Blood transfusion should be cautiously administered in order to avoid rebleeding. Vasoactive agents such as terlipressin or somatostatin should be used when GV bleeding is suspected. Routine use of prophylactic antibiotics reduces bacterial infection and lowers rebleeding rates. By administering endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection, the initial hemostasis rate achieved is at least 90% in most cases; the average mortality rate of GV bleeding is approximately 10–30% and the rebleeding rate is between 22% and 37%. Although endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate is superior to sclerotherapy and band ligation, and has remained the treatment of choice for treating acute GV bleeding, the outcome of this treatment is still unsatisfactory. New treatment options, such as thrombin injection, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, have shown promising results for acute GV bleeding. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacy of these therapies with cyanoacrylate.

  7. Studies of GI bleeding with scintigraphy and the influence of vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.; McLean, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    The management of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on accurate localization of the site of hemorrhage. Endoscopy and arteriography, although successful in achieving this goal in the majority of patients, are invasive and have other shortcomings. The introduction of the 99mTc-sulfur colloid technique has greatly simplified the evaluation and management of these patients. This test is useful in detecting and localizing the bleeding site in the lower GI tract. Scintigraphy is now used as the initial study of choice in patients with rectal bleeding. Advances made in angiography and nuclear medicine techniques also have resulted in improved management of patients. Conservative approaches succeed in controlling hemorrhage in most patients. Vasopressin is the most widely tested agent and has been adopted by many as the preferred preparation for this purpose. Before the introduction of the 99mTc-sulfur colloid technique, angiography was used to monitor the effectiveness of this drug, whether administered intravenously or intraarterially. With the use of scintigraphy and intravenous administration of vasopressin, these patients now can be managed noninvasively. Only when the intravenous Pitressin infusion fails to stop hemorrhage, is the intraarterial approach considered. Surgery is used as a last resort when these measures fail to stop the bleeding

  8. Helical CT in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Olivier; Leroy, Christophe; Sergent, Geraldine; Bulois, Philippe; Saint-Drenant, Sophie; Paris, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of helical CT in depicting the location of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A three-phase helical CT of the abdomen was performed in 24 patients referred for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of the bleeding site was established by CT when there was at least one of the following criteria: spontaneous hyperdensity of the peribowel fat; contrast enhancement of the bowel wall; vascular extravasation of the contrast medium; thickening of the bowel wall; polyp or tumor; or vascular dilation. Diverticula alone were not enough to locate the bleeding site. The results of CT were compared with the diagnosis obtained by colonoscopy, enteroscopy, or surgery. A definite diagnosis was made in 19 patients. The bleeding site was located in the small bowel in 5 patients and the colon in 14 patients. The CT correctly located 4 small bowel hemorrhages and 11 colonic hemorrhages. Diagnosis of the primary lesion responsible for the bleeding was made in 10 patients. Our results suggest that helical CT could be a good diagnostic tool in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding to help the physician to diagnose the bleeding site. (orig.)

  9. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander Ahm; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The management of variceal bleeding remains a clinical challenge with a high mortality. Standardisation in supportive and new therapeutic treatments seems to have improved survival within the last 25 years. Although overall survival has improved in recent years, mortality is still closely related...... to failure to control initial bleeding or early re-bleeding occurring in up to 30-40% of patients. Initial procedures are to secure and protect the airway, and administer volume replacement to stabilize the patient. Treatment with vasoactive drugs should be started as soon as possible, since a reduction...... in portal pressure is associated with a better control of bleeding and may facilitate later endoscopic procedures. Vasopressin and its analogues Terlipressin and somatostatin and analogues are the two types of medicine, which has been evaluated. In meta-analysis, only Terlipressin have demonstrated effects...

  10. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  11. Monitoring and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenjani, Basri; Zeka, Sadik; Krasniqi, Salih; Bunjaku, Ilaz; Jakupi, Arianit; Elshani, Besni; Xhafa, Agim

    2012-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding-massive acute bleeding from gastrointestinal section is one of the most frequent forms of acute abdomen. The mortality degree in emergency surgery is about 10%. It's very difficult to identify the place of bleeding and etiology. The important purpose of this research is to present the cases of acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the patients which were monitored and treated at The University Clinical Center of Kosova-Emergency Center in Pristina. These inquests included 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who were treated in emergency center of The University Clinical Center in Pristina for the period from January 2005 until December 2006. From 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding 41% or 29% was female and 96% or 70.1% male. Following the sex we gained a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01). The gastrointestinal bleeding was two times more frequent in male than in female. Also in the age-group we had a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01) 63.5% of patients were over 55 years old. The mean age of patients with an acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 58.4 years SD 15.8 age. The mean age for female patients was 56.4 age SD 18.5 age. The patients with arterial systolic pressure under 100 mmHg have been classified as patients with hypovolemic shock. They participate with 17.5% in all prevalence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. From the number of prevalence 2 {1.5%} patients have been diagnosed with peptic ulcer, 1 {0.7%} as gastric perforation and 1 {0.7%} with intestine ischemia. Abdominal Surgery and Intensive Care 2 or 1.5% died, 1 at intensive care unit and 1 at nephrology. As we know the severe condition of the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and etiology it is very difficult to establish, we need to improve for the better conditions in our emergency center for treatment and initiation base of clinic criteria.

  12. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.

    1980-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding may be localized using noninvasive radionuclide methods. We have favored the use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid with sequential imaging because of the rapid clearance of background activity. Definition of the site of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, however, may be obscured by intense uptake of radioactivity by liver and spleen. The sensitivity of the method is such that the bleeding rates of 0.05-0.1 ml/min can be detected compared to a sensitivity of 0.5 ml/min for angiography.

  13. Detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding by intra-arterial scintigraphy: an experimental study and preliminary clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Duk Yoon; Yi, Bum Ha; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this animal and clinical study was to compare intra-arterial (IA) scintigraphy with angiography in the localization of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. After sedation with intramuscularly administered ketamine, lower GI bleeding was induced in ten rabbits. Using inguinal cut-down, an arterial femoral 3F catheter was placed in the proximal mesenteric artery. Following abdominal incision to expose the bowel, lower GI bleeding was caused by incising the antimesenteric border of the small bowel wall. Initial angiography was performed, and this was followede by Tc-99m pertechnetate IA scintigarphy. Tc-99m RBC IA scintigraphy involved two patients who had undergone selective mesenteric arterial catheterizaion for the evaluation of acute lower GI bleeding. Ten rabbits, bleeding at a mean rate of 0.7g/min, were studied. IA scintigraphy was superior to angiography in four cases and equal in six. The sensitivity of angiography was 40%(4/10), and IA scintigraphy 80%(8/10). In one patient, Tc-99m RBC was administered directly into the superior mesenteric artery and ulcer bleeding in the transverse colon was identified. PRior to conventional angiography, the bleeding had been occult. In a second patient, in whom angiography had revealed a hypervascular mass, selective injection of Tc-99m RBC into the superior mesenteric artery revealed tumor(leiomyoma) bleeding in the jejunum. Selective IA scintigraphy was valuable for detecting intestinal bleeding, occult during conventional studies and may be useful for detecting acute bleeding at the time of negative angiography.=20.

  14. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, Hans; Pfammatter, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wildi, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauerfeind, Peter [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Gastroenterology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the ability of multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) to identify the source and etiology of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eighteen patients with acute upper (n = 10) and lower (n = 8) gastrointestinal bleeding underwent 4-detector-row CT (n = 6), 16-detector-row CT (n = 11), and 64-slice CT (n = 1) with an arterial and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement. Unenhanced scans were performed in nine patients. CT scans were reviewed to determine conspicuity of bleeding source, underlying etiology, and for potential causes of false-negative prospective interpretations. Bleeding sources were prospectively identified with CT in 15 (83%) patients, and three (17%) bleeding sources were visualized in retrospect, allowing the characterization of all sources of bleeding with CT. Contrast extravasation was demonstrated with CT in all 11 patients with severe bleeding, but only in 1 of 7 patients with mild bleeding. The etiology could not be identified on unenhanced CT scans in any patient, whereas arterial-phase and portal venous-phase CT depicted etiology in 15 (83%) patients. Underlying etiology was correctly identified in all eight patients with mild GI bleeding. Multi-detector-row CT enables the identification of bleeding source and precise etiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  15. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Hans; Pfammatter, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildi, Stefan; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the ability of multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) to identify the source and etiology of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eighteen patients with acute upper (n = 10) and lower (n = 8) gastrointestinal bleeding underwent 4-detector-row CT (n = 6), 16-detector-row CT (n = 11), and 64-slice CT (n = 1) with an arterial and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement. Unenhanced scans were performed in nine patients. CT scans were reviewed to determine conspicuity of bleeding source, underlying etiology, and for potential causes of false-negative prospective interpretations. Bleeding sources were prospectively identified with CT in 15 (83%) patients, and three (17%) bleeding sources were visualized in retrospect, allowing the characterization of all sources of bleeding with CT. Contrast extravasation was demonstrated with CT in all 11 patients with severe bleeding, but only in 1 of 7 patients with mild bleeding. The etiology could not be identified on unenhanced CT scans in any patient, whereas arterial-phase and portal venous-phase CT depicted etiology in 15 (83%) patients. Underlying etiology was correctly identified in all eight patients with mild GI bleeding. Multi-detector-row CT enables the identification of bleeding source and precise etiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  16. Use of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA for detection and localization of site of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.; Owuwanne, A.; Nawaz, K.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Mahajan, K.; Ericsson, S.; Awdeh, M.

    1988-05-01

    Intravenously injected /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was evaluated in 64 patients for its efficiency in detecting and localizing sites of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (G.I.) bleeding. These studies were correlated with endoscopic and surgical findings. There were 34 bleeders and 30 non bleeders giving a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 82% and accuracy of 86%. Of these, 49 were upper G.I. studies (stomach 21 and duodenum 28) and 15 were lower G.I. studies (small intestine 8, large bowel 7). Of the 49 upper G.I. studies, 27 showed active bleeding while 22 showed no bleeding at the time of the study resulting in a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 76% and accuracy of 82%. Of the 15 lower G.I. studies, 7 were bleeders while 8 were non bleeders. All the lower G.I. bleeding sites were accurately localized with the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. An incidental finding of these studies was the localization of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in the site of inflammatory and malignant lesions of the G.I. tract. Of the 64 studies, 18 inflammatory and malignant lesions were detected with the IV injected /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; 10 were bleeders while 8 were non bleeders. Image subtraction of early from delayed images was helpful to differentiate bleeding from non bleeding cases in this last group of studies.

  17. The use of 99mTc-DTPA for detection and localization of site of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.; Owuwanne, A.; Nawaz, K.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Mahajan, K.; Ericsson, S.; Awdeh, M.; Kuwait Univ. Dept. of Surgery)

    1988-01-01

    Intravenously injected 99m Tc-DTPA was evaluated in 64 patients for its efficiency in detecting and localizing sites of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (G.I.) bleeding. These studies were correlated with endoscopic and surgical findings. There were 34 bleeders and 30 non bleeders giving a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 82% and accuracy of 86%. Of these, 49 were upper G.I. studies (stomach 21 and duodenum 28) and 15 were lower G.I. studies (small intestine 8, large bowel 7). Of the 49 upper G.I. studies, 27 showed active bleeding while 22 showed no bleeding at the time of the study resulting in a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 76% and accuracy of 82%. Of the 15 lower G.I. studies, 7 were bleeders while 8 were non bleeders. All the lower G.I. bleeding sites were accurately localized with the 99m Tc-DTPA. An incidental finding of these studies was the localization of 99m Tc-DTPA in the site of inflammatory and malignant lesions of the G.I. tract. Of the 64 studies, 18 inflammatory and malignant lesions were detected with the IV injected 99m Tc-DTPA; 10 were bleeders while 8 were non bleeders. Image subtraction of early from delayed images was helpful to differentiate bleeding from non bleeding cases in this last group of studies. (orig.)

  18. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...

  19. Continued bleeding following acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this Ph.D. thesis, ‘Continued bleeding following acute intracerebral hemorrhage’, we have discussed the background literature, risk factors, and underlying biology of hematoma expansion, as well as the clinical applicability of the CT angiography (CTA) 'spot sign' as an imaging marker of this

  20. Management of Acute Bleeding Per Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benita K.T. Tan

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Perianal conditions contributed to the majority of acute patient admissions. Colonic causes of bleeding were less common and were most stable. There were differences in the frequencies of aetiologies in our population compared to Western populations. Understanding the common pathologies and outcomes guides the management of our patients.

  1. In-111-oxine red cells for imaging of intermittent G.I. bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Sequential daily abdominal imaging was performed for up to 7 days in 11 patients with intermittent G.I. bleeding after the intravenous administration of lmCi autologous In-111-oxine labeled RBC's. The bleeding sites were identified in 3 patients. The causes were colon carcinoma, diverticulitis, and eroding distal aortic aneutysm. In addition to the imaging information, the authors have obtained preliminary biodistribution and kinetic data on the In-RBC's. Distribution to liver, spleen, and bone marrow was approximately 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. (This does not include the quantity of In-111 in the blood pool, which is very high initially and declines with time.) The survival of circulating In-RBC's is described by the equation: Surviving fraction=0.26e/sup -0.0021t/+0.74e/sup -0.00083t/ The halflives of the fast and slow components (x-bar+-x-bar) are 33.4 +- 1.6 hours and 35.0 +- 1.25 days, respectively. The In-oxine label is less stable than Cr-51 but more stable than Tc-99m. At 24 hours, Cr-RBC/In-RBC survival is 1.11 and Cr-RBC/Tc-RBC survival is 1.23. This imaging procedure is quite useful in selected patients

  2. Endoscopic management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endovascular management of acute bleeding arterioenteric fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, H.; Mellander, S.; Snygg, J.

    2008-01-01

    follow-up time was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). All massive bleeding was controlled by occlusive balloon catheters. Four fistulas were successfully sealed with stent-grafts, resulting in a technical success rate of 80%. One patient was circulatory stabilized by endovascular management but needed....... All had massive persistent bleeding with hypotension despite volume substitution and transfusion by the time of endovascular management. Outcome after treatment of these patients was investigated for major procedure-related complications, recurrence, reintervention, morbidity, and mortality. Mean...... arterioenteric fistulas in the emergent episode. However, in this group of patients with severe comorbidities, the risk of rebleeding is high and further intervention must be considered. Patients with cancer may only need treatment for the acute bleeding episode, and an endovascular approach has the advantage...

  4. Role of enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography before urgent endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Youichi; Amano, Yuji; Ueno, Sayaka; Izumi, Daisuke; Mikami, Hironobu; Yazaki, Tomotaka; Okimoto, Eiko; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Imaoka, Tomonori

    2014-04-01

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has been reported to be a potentially useful modality for detection of the bleeding origin in patients with acute upper massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of MDCT as a routine method for detecting the origin of acute upper GI bleeding prior to urgent endoscopy. Five hundred seventy-seven patients with acute upper GI bleeding (514 nonvariceal patients, 63 variceal patients) who underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: enhanced MDCT, unenhanced MDCT, and no MDCT before endoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for detection of the bleeding origin was evaluated, and the average procedure times needed to endoscopically identify the bleeding origin were compared between groups. Diagnostic accuracy among endoscopists was 55.3% and 14.7% for the enhanced MDCT and unenhanced MDCT groups, respectively. Among nonvariceal patients, accuracy was 50.2% in the enhanced MDCT group, which was significantly better than that in the unenhanced MDCT group (16.5%). In variceal patients, accuracy was significantly better in the enhanced MDCT group (96.4%) than in the unenhanced MDCT group (0.0%). These accuracies were similar to those achieved by expert radiologists. The average procedure time to endoscopic detection of the bleeding origin in the enhanced MDCT group was significantly faster than that in the unenhanced MDCT and no-MDCT groups. Enhanced MDCT preceding urgent endoscopy may be an effective modality for the detection of bleeding origin in patients with acute upper GI bleeding. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding by means of technetium-99m in vivo labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Vizd'a, J.; Bures, J.

    2002-01-01

    Prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on the timely and accurate detection of the source of bleeding and sequential surgical or endoscopy therapy. Scintigraphy with red blood cells (RBCs) in vivo labelled by means of technetium-99m hastened detection of source of GI bleeding and improved management of the particular disease. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnostics of bleeding from upper tract and large bowel. For diagnostics of bleeding from the small bowel we can use scintigraphy with in vivo labelled autological red blood cells if pushenteroscopy, intra-operative enteroscopy or angiography are not available. 31 patients (13 men, 18 women, aged 20-91, mean 56 years) underwent this investigation from 1998 till 2001 at the Department of Nuclear Medicine. All patients had melaena or enterorrhagia associated with acute anaemia. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, enteroclysis or X-ray angiography did not detect the source of bleeding. Twenty-one patients had positive scintigraphy with in vivo labelled RBCs - 9 patients were already positive on dynamic scintigraphy, and 12 patients were positive on static images. Scintigraphy with in vivo labelled RBCs was negative in 10 patients. GI bleeding stopped spontaneously in these 10 patients with negative scintigraphy. These patients did not undergo intra-operative enteroscopy or surgery. The final diagnosis of the 21 patients with positive scintigraphy was determined in 16 patients by push-enteroscopy (6 patients), intra-operative enteroscopy (6 patients) or by surgery (4 patients). Of these 16 patients the correct place of bleeding was determined by scintigraphy with labelled RBCs in 11 (69%) patients. Final diagnoses of our 16 patients with positive scintigraphy with autological labelled RBCs were: bleeding small bowel arteriovenous malformation (6 patients), uraemic enteritis with bleeding erosions in ileum and jejunum (2 patients), Osler-Rendu- Weber disease (1 patient), pseudocyst of

  6. Endovascular Management of Acute Bleeding Arterioenteric Fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Henrik; Mellander, Stefan; Snygg, Johan; Loenn, Lars

    2008-01-01

    . Patients with cancer may only need treatment for the acute bleeding episode, and an endovascular approach has the advantage of low morbidity

  7. The effect of embolotherapy for acute gastrointestinal bleeding in patient with coagulopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Bin; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Jae Ick; Koo, Bong Sik; Lee, Ki Nam; Lee, Yung Il

    2000-01-01

    To analyse the causes of coagulopathy and determine the effect of embolotherapy on acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding coexisting with coagulopathy. Between June 1991 and December 1998, 29 patients with acute GI bleeding (M;F 21:8, mean age, 57.8 years) underwent percutaneous embolotherapy and immediate cessation of bleeding was confirmed. The patients were divided into two groups: control (n=16) and those with coagulopathy (n=13), group membership being determined according to the criteria of greater than ±2SD of normal prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (PT greater than 23 seconds, aPTT greater than 40 seconds) at the time at which embolization was requested. Embolotherapy was, defined as clinically successful, if the patient was stable for at least three days, without bleeding, after technically successful embolization. The clinical success rate of embolization and the mortality rate were compared between the two groups, and the causes of coagulopathy statistically analysed. The clinical success rate of embolization was 75% (n=12) in the control group, compared with 38.5% (n=5) in the coagulopathic group (p less than 0.05), while the mortality rate for the two groups was 6.3% (n=1) and 53.8% (n=7), respectively (p less than 0.005). Statistically, massive transfusion and sustained shock before embolization were the causes of coagulopathy (p less than 0.05). In coagulopathic patients with acute GI bleeding, embolotherapy induces transient bleeding control, but is unlikely to save lives. (author)

  8. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The usefulness of MDCT in acute intestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Kim, Jae Woon; Chang, Jay Chun; Jang, Han Won

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MDCT for localizing a bleeding site and for helping make a decision on further management for acute intestinal bleeding. We conducted a retrospective review of 17 consecutive patients who presented with acute intestinal bleeding and who also underwent MDCT before angiography or surgery. The sensitivity of MDCT for detecting acute intestinal bleeding was assessed and compared with that of conventional angiography. The sensitivity of MDCT for the detection of acute intestinal bleeding was 77% (13 or 17), whereas that of angiography was 46% (6 or 13). All the bleeding points that were subsequently detected on angiography were visualized on MDCT. In three cases, the bleeding focus was detected on MDCT and not on angiography. In four cases, both MDCT and angiography did not detect the bleeding focus; for one of these cases, CT during SMA angiography was performed and this detected the active bleeding site. In patients with acute intestinal bleeding, MDCT is a useful image modality to detect the bleeding site and to help decide on further management before performing angiography or surgery. When tumorous lesions are detected, invasive angiography can be omitted

  10. The role of nuclear medicine in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.

    1993-01-01

    In most patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, endoscopy will locate the site and cause of bleeding, and also provide an opportunity for local therapy. The cause of lower GI bleeding is often difficult to attribute, even when pathology is found by colonoscopy or barium enema. Nuclear medicine techniques can be used to identify the site of bleeding in those patients in whom the initial diagnostic procedures are negative or inconclusive. Methods using transient labelling of blood (e.g. 99 Tc m -sulphur colloid) produce a high target-to-background ratio in positive cases, give quick results and localize bleeding sites accurately, but depend upon bleeding being active at the time of injection. Techniques using stable blood labelling (e.g. 99 Tc m -labelled red blood cells) may be positive even with intermittent bleeding but may take several hours to produce a result and are less precise in localization. The most useful application is in patients with recurrent or prolonged bleeding, those with inconclusive endoscopy or barium studies, and those who are high-risk surgical candidates. (author)

  11. The role of nuclear medicine in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P. (Saint James' s Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-10-01

    In most patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, endoscopy will locate the site and cause of bleeding, and also provide an opportunity for local therapy. The cause of lower GI bleeding is often difficult to attribute, even when pathology is found by colonoscopy or barium enema. Nuclear medicine techniques can be used to identify the site of bleeding in those patients in whom the initial diagnostic procedures are negative or inconclusive. Methods using transient labelling of blood (e.g. [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-sulphur colloid) produce a high target-to-background ratio in positive cases, give quick results and localize bleeding sites accurately, but depend upon bleeding being active at the time of injection. Techniques using stable blood labelling (e.g. [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-labelled red blood cells) may be positive even with intermittent bleeding but may take several hours to produce a result and are less precise in localization. The most useful application is in patients with recurrent or prolonged bleeding, those with inconclusive endoscopy or barium studies, and those who are high-risk surgical candidates. (author).

  12. Relationship of time to presentation after onset of upper GI bleeding with patient characteristics and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laine, Loren; Laursen, Stig B; Dalton, Harry R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a prospective multi-national study of patients presenting to the emergency department with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and assessed the relationship of time to presentation after onset of UGIB symptoms with patient characteristics and outcomes. METHODS...

  13. Post traumatic intra thoracic spleen presenting with upper GI bleed! – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinra Sonali

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated splenic vein thrombosis with left sided portal hypertension is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Diagnosis is difficult and requires a high index of suspicion, especially in patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleed in the presence of splenomegaly and normal liver function tests. Case presentation A 64 year old male presented with haematemesis and melaena. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the presence of antral erosions in the stomach and fundal varices. A computerised tomography scan of abdomen confirmed the presence of a diaphragmatic tear and the spleen to be lying in the left hemi thorax. The appearances of the splenic vein on the scan were consistent with thrombosis. Conclusion Left sided portal hypertension as a result of isolated splenic vein thrombosis secondary to trauma is rare. The unusual presentation of our case, splenic herniation into the left hemithorax, causing fundal varices leading to upper gastrointestinal bleed 28 years after the penetrating injury, makes this case most interesting. We believe that this has not been reported in literature before.

  14. Acute radiologic intervention in gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesak, F.

    1986-01-01

    A case of embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in a 38-year old man with chronic pancreatitis and uncontrollable bleeding is presented. The advantage of this interventional radiologic procedure is discussed and in selective cases it seems to be the choice of treatment. (orig.) [de

  15. Acute radiologic intervention in gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesak, F.

    1986-01-01

    A case of embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in a 38-year old man with chronic pancreatitis and uncontrollable bleeding is presented. The advantage of this interventional radiologic procedure is discussed and in selective cases it seems to be the choice of treatment.

  16. Focal intestinal lymphangiectasia: An unusual cause of acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of bleeding lesion in a patient of acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is a real challenge. Recently, authors have showed superiority of urgent capsule endoscopy (CE over angiography in patients with acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Focal type of intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare cause of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Here, we describe a case of focal lymphangiectasia who presented to us with acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and diagnosed by urgent CE.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, A. E.; Ridley, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to carry out a systematic review determining the accuracy of CT angiography in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. A search of published work in Medline and manual searching of reference lists of articles was conducted. Studies were included if they compared CT angiography to a reference standard of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, angiography or surgery in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eight published studies evaluating 129 patients were included. Data were used to form 2 x2 tables. Computed tomography angiography showed pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval 78-92%) and specificity of 95% (95% confidence interval 76-100%), without showing significant heterogeneity (x 2 = 3.5, P=0.6) and (x 2 - 5.4, P = 0.6), respectively. Summary receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.93. Computed tomography angiography is accurate in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can show the precise location and aetiology of bleeding, thereby directing further management. Strong recommendations for use of CT cannot be made from this review because of the methodological limitations and further large prospective studies are needed to define the role of CT in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  18. Somatostatin analogues for acute bleeding oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Hrobjartsson, A.

    2008-01-01

    or recent bleeding from oesophageal varices. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The outcome measures extracted were: mortality, blood transfusions, use of balloon tamponade, initial haemostasis and rebleeding. Intention-to-treat analyses including all randomised patients were conducted if possible; a random...... it was substantially reduced in the other trials, relative risk 0.36 (0.19 to 0.68). Use of balloon tamponade was rarely reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The need for blood transfusions corresponded to one half unit of blood saved per patient. It is doubtful whether this effect is worthwhile. The findings do...

  19. In vitro and clinical evaluation of DSA in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, C.R.; Palmaz, J.C.; Alvarado, R.; Tyrrel, R.; Ciaravino, V.; Register, T.; Reuter, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    In an in vitro model of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was found to be more accurate, more sensitive, and equally specific in the detection of extravasation compared to conventional screen-film angiography /sub chi//sup 2/, P < .05), DSA was used in the diagnosis and/or therapeutic management of 35 patients with GI bleeding (in the upper tract in 30, in the lower tract in five). When DSA results were negative (13 cases), results of conventional angiography were also negative. Upper GI bleeding episodes could be managed solely with DSA, which shortened examination times by 20% - 35%. The usefulness of DSA in lower GI bleeding was limited in the authors' series by a 9-inch image intensifier and misregistration caused by bowel motion

  20. Transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uflacker, R.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was attempted in 13 patients by selective embolization of branches of the mesenteric arteries with Gelfoam. Bleeding was adequately controlled in 11 patients with active bleeding during the examination. One patient improved after embolization but bleeding recurred within 24 hours and in another patient the catheterization was unsuccessful. Five patients with diverticular hemorrhage were embolized in the right colic artery four times, and once in the middle colic artery. Three patients had embolization of the ileocolic artery because of hemorrhage from cecal angiodysplasia, post appendectomy, and leukemia infiltration. Three patients had the superior hemorrhoidal artery embolized because of bleeding from unspecific proctitis, infiltration of the rectum from a carcinoma of the bladder, and transendoscopic polypectomy. One patient was septic and bled from jejunal ulcers. Ischemic changes with infarction of the large bowel developed in two patients and were treated by partial semi-elective colectomy, three and four days after embolization. Four other patients developed pain and fever after embolization. Transcatheter embolization of branches of mesenteric arteries in an effective way to control acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but still has a significant rate of complications that must be seriously weighed against the advantages of operation. (orig.)

  1. Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  2. Complex endoscopic treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding of ulcer origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Izbitsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB is determined in 20-30% of patients with peptic ulcer disease. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is on the first place as the main cause of deaths from peptic ulcer ahead of the other complications. Rebleeding occurs in 30-38% of patients. Materials and Methods For getting of the objective endoscopic picture in patients with bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers we used the classification of J.A. Forrest in our study: Type I - active bleeding: • I a - pulsating jet; • I b - stream. Type II - signs of recent bleeding: • II a - visible (non-bleeding visible vessel; • II b - fixed thrombus - a clot; • II c - flat black spot (black bottom ulcers. Type III - ulcer with a clean (white down. Integrated endoscopic hemostasis included: irrigation of ulcer defect and area around it with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution in a volume of 10 - 30ml; Injection of 2-4 mL of diluted epinephrine (1:10000 for hemostasis; use of Argon plasma coagulation. Results and Discussion Integrated endoscopic stop of bleeding was performed in 57 patients who were examined and treated at the Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2012. In 16 patients bleeding was caused by gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer type I localization according to classification (HD Johnson, 1965 was determined in 9 patients, type II - in 2 patients, type III – in 5 patients. In 31 patients bleeding was caused by duodenal peptic ulcer, in 4 patients - erosive gastritis, 1 - erosive esophagitis, and in 5 patients - gastroenteroanastomosis area peptic ulcer. Final hemostasis was achieved in 55 (96.5% patients. In 50 (87.7% patients it was sufficient to conduct a single session of complex endoscopic treatment. In 5 (8.8% patients – it was done two times. In 2 (3.5% cases operation was performed due to the recurrent bleeding. The source of major bleeding in these patients was: chronic, duodenal ulcer penetrating into the head of the pancreas in one case complicated by subcompensated

  3. Bleeding rates necessary for detecting acute gastrointestinal bleeding with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.A.; Datz, F.L.; Remley, K.; Christian, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Proponents of [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid for GI bleeding studies argue that, although labeled red blood cells are useful for intermittent bleeding, they are not capable of detecting low bleeding rates. Studies of dogs with experimental GI bleeding have indicated bleeding rates of 0.05 ml/min can be detected with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid. Since similar data in the dog model were unavailable for /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells, we undertook this study. To simulate lower GI bleeding, catheters were inserted into the bowel lumen. Each dog's blood was labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using an in vitro technique. Venous blood was then withdrawn and re-infused into the lumen of the bowel using a Harvard pump. Fourteen dogs were studied, ten receiving a bleeding rate from 4.6-0.02 ml/min in the descending colon and four with proximal jejunal bleeds of 0.20-0.02 ml/min. Bleeding rates of 4.6-0.2 ml/min were detected within 10 min in the colon and bleeding rates as low as 0.04 ml/min were seen by 55 min. Slower bleeding rates were not detected. Similar findings were noted for proximal jejunal bleeds. Based on the time of appearance, a minimum volume of approximately 2-3 ml labeled blood was necessary to detect bleeding. We conclude that /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBCs are sensitive for low bleeding rates in the dog model. The rates are comparable to those described for [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid in this experimental setting. The time of appearance of activity is related to the bleeding rate

  4. Scintigraphic detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.

    1988-01-01

    Successful management of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding usually depends on accurate localization of the bleeding site. History and clinical findings are often misleading in determination of the site of hemorrhage. The widespread application of flexible endoscopy and selective arteriography now provide accurate diagnoses for the majority of patients bleeding from the upper GI tract, but lower GI bleeding still poses a serious diagnostic challenge. Endoscopy and barium studies are of limited value in examining the small bowel and colon in the face of active hemorrhage. Arteriography, although successful in many cases (3-5), has limitations. The angiographic demonstration of bleeding is possible only when the injection of contrast material coincides with active bleeding at a rate greater than 0.5 ml/min, and since lower GI bleeding is commonly intermittent rather than continuous, a high rate of negative angiographic examinations has been reported. The diagnosis of lower GI bleeding is usually easy to make. In contrast, localizing the site of bleeding may be extremely difficult. Using the techniques described the nuclear physician may be able to detect the bleeding site precisely. However, if the cautions detailed are not observed, the tracer studies will show GI bleeding, but not at the true bleeding site. This must be carefully understood and avoided. Done correctly, these tests can have a major impact on patient care

  5. Effect of Ramadan fasting on acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, El Mekkaoui; Kaoutar, Saâda; Ihssane, Mellouki; Adil, Ibrahimi; Dafr-Allah, Benajah

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged fasting may precipitate or exacerbate gastrointestinal complaints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between Ramadan fasting and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB), and to assess characteristics of those occurred in the holly month. Retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients, who underwent endoscopy for AUGIB in Ramadan (R) and the month before Ramadan (BR). Epidemiological, clinical and etiological characteristics and outcome of patients having AUGIB were compared between the two periods from 2001 to 2010. Two hundred and ninety-one patients had endoscopy for AUGIB during the two periods study. There was an increasing trend in the overall number of patients in Ramadan period (n = 132, 45.4% versus n = 159, 54.6%), especially with duodenal ulcer (n = 48, 37.2% versus n = 81, 62.8%). The most frequent etiology was peptic ulcer but it was more observed in group R than in group BR (46.2% versus 57.9%, P = 0.04), especially duodenal ulcer (36.4% versus 50.3%, P = 0.01); this finding persisted in multivariable modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.69, P = 0.03). In contrast, there was a decreasing trend in rate of variceal bleeding from BR period (26.5%) to R period (18.9%; P = 0.11). Regarding the outcome, there were no significant differences between the two periods of the study: Recurrent bleeding (10.6% versus 7.5%, P = 0.36) and mortality rate (5.3% versus 4.4%, P = 0.7). The most frequent etiology of AUGIB was peptic ulcer during Ramadan. However, Ramadan fasting did not influence the outcome of the patients. Prophylactic measures should be taken for people with risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

  6. Prediction scores or gastroenterologists' Gut Feeling for triaging patients that present with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N.; Oijen, M.G. van; Kessels, K.; Hemmink, M.; Weusten, B.; Timmer, R.; Hazen, W.; Lelyveld, N. van; Vermeijden, J.R.; Curvers, W.; Baak, L.; Verburg, R.; Bosman, J.; Wijkerslooth, L. de; Rooij, J van; Venneman, N.; Pennings, M.C.P.; Hee, K. van; Scheffer, R.; Eijk, R. van; Meiland, R.; Siersema, P.D.; Bredenoord, A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several prediction scores for triaging patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding have been developed, yet these scores have never been compared to the current gold standard, which is the clinical evaluation by a gastroenterologist. The aim of this study was to assess the added

  7. Prediction scores or gastroenterologists' Gut Feeling for triaging patients that present with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N. L.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; Kessels, K.; Hemmink, M.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Hazen, W. L.; van Lelyveld, N.; Vermeijden, J. R.; Curvers, W. L.; Baak, L. C.; Verburg, R.; Bosman, J. H.; de Wijkerslooth, L. R. H.; de Rooij, J.; Venneman, N. G.; Pennings, M.; van Hee, K.; Scheffer, R. C. H.; van Eijk, R. L.; Meiland, R.; Siersema, P. D.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Several prediction scores for triaging patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding have been developed, yet these scores have never been compared to the current gold standard, which is the clinical evaluation by a gastroenterologist. The aim of this study was to assess the added

  8. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history.

  9. Risk score to predict gastrointestinal bleeding after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Shen, Haipeng; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Penglian; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Singhal, Aneesh B; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-07-25

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common and often serious complication after stroke. Although several risk factors for post-stroke GIB have been identified, no reliable or validated scoring system is currently available to predict GIB after acute stroke in routine clinical practice or clinical trials. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a risk model (acute ischemic stroke associated gastrointestinal bleeding score, the AIS-GIB score) to predict in-hospital GIB after acute ischemic stroke. The AIS-GIB score was developed from data in the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients in the CNSR were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and internal validation (40%) cohorts. External validation was performed using data from the prospective Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (CICAS). Independent predictors of in-hospital GIB were obtained using multivariable logistic regression in the derivation cohort, and β-coefficients were used to generate point scoring system for the AIS-GIB. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration, respectively. A total of 8,820, 5,882, and 2,938 patients were enrolled in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. The overall in-hospital GIB after AIS was 2.6%, 2.3%, and 1.5% in the derivation, internal, and external validation cohort, respectively. An 18-point AIS-GIB score was developed from the set of independent predictors of GIB including age, gender, history of hypertension, hepatic cirrhosis, peptic ulcer or previous GIB, pre-stroke dependence, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale score, Glasgow Coma Scale score and stroke subtype (Oxfordshire). The AIS-GIB score showed good discrimination in the derivation (0.79; 95% CI, 0.764-0.825), internal (0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82) and external (0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82) validation cohorts

  10. Use of Ulipristal Acetate for the Management of Fibroid-Related Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendas, Kristina; Leyland, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Episodes of acute abnormal uterine bleeding related to uterine fibroids can cause significant morbidity. Traditional management with high-dose hormonal regimens may not be as effective when used in women with fibroids. A 32-year-old woman with a 12 cm uterine fibroid presented with an episode of acute abnormal uterine bleeding requiring blood transfusion. In lieu of using a hormonal maintenance regimen after the bleeding had stabilized, the patient was treated with ulipristal acetate 5 mg daily for three months. Amenorrhea was induced rapidly and the patient had no further episodes of acute excessive uterine bleeding. She subsequently underwent a laparoscopic myomectomy with a satisfactory outcome. Ulipristal acetate has been shown to induce amenorrhea rapidly in women with uterine fibroids, and it can be a useful treatment in the emergency management of fibroid-related acute abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Superselective transarterial embolization for the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Kyoung; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jeong; Shin, Sang Soo; Yoon Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Cho, Chol Kyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of superselective transarterial embolization for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated 97 of 115 patients who had undergone diagnostic angiography and transarterial embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding from February 2001 to July 2004, and they subsequently underwent superselective transarterial embolization. Their ages ranged from 17 to 88 years (mean age: 58.5 years), and 73 were men and 24 were women. The etiologies were a postoperative condition (n=31), ulcer (n=23), Mallory-Weiss syndrome (n=3), trauma (n=3), pseudoaneurysm from pancreatitis (n=3), diverticula (n=2), inflammatory bowel disease (n=2), tumor (n=2), Behcet's disease (n=2), hemobilia (n=1), and unknown origin (n=25). The regions of bleeding were the esophagus (n=3), stomach and duodenum (n=41), small bowel (n=38) and colon (n=15). All the patients underwent superselective transarterial embolization using microcoils, gelfoam or a combination of microcoils and gelfoam. Technical success was defined as devascularization of targeted vascular lesion or the disappearance of extravasation of the contrast media, as noted on the angiography after embolization. Clinical success was defined as the disappearance of clinical symptoms and the reestablishment of normal cardiovascular hemodynamics after transarterial embolization without any operation or endoscopic management. The technical success rate was 100%. The primary clinical success rate was 67% (65 of 97 patients). Of the 32 primary failures, fourteen patients underwent repeat embolization; of these, clinical success was achieved in all the patients and so the secondary clinical success rate was 81% (79 of 97 patients). Of the 18 patients with primary failures, five patients underwent operation, one patient underwent endoscopic management and the others died during the observation period due to disseminated coagulopathy or complications of their underlying diseases. During the

  12. Superselective transarterial embolization for the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Kyoung; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jeong; Shin, Sang Soo; Yoon Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chol Kyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    We wanted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of superselective transarterial embolization for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated 97 of 115 patients who had undergone diagnostic angiography and transarterial embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding from February 2001 to July 2004, and they subsequently underwent superselective transarterial embolization. Their ages ranged from 17 to 88 years (mean age: 58.5 years), and 73 were men and 24 were women. The etiologies were a postoperative condition (n=31), ulcer (n=23), Mallory-Weiss syndrome (n=3), trauma (n=3), pseudoaneurysm from pancreatitis (n=3), diverticula (n=2), inflammatory bowel disease (n=2), tumor (n=2), Behcet's disease (n=2), hemobilia (n=1), and unknown origin (n=25). The regions of bleeding were the esophagus (n=3), stomach and duodenum (n=41), small bowel (n=38) and colon (n=15). All the patients underwent superselective transarterial embolization using microcoils, gelfoam or a combination of microcoils and gelfoam. Technical success was defined as devascularization of targeted vascular lesion or the disappearance of extravasation of the contrast media, as noted on the angiography after embolization. Clinical success was defined as the disappearance of clinical symptoms and the reestablishment of normal cardiovascular hemodynamics after transarterial embolization without any operation or endoscopic management. The technical success rate was 100%. The primary clinical success rate was 67% (65 of 97 patients). Of the 32 primary failures, fourteen patients underwent repeat embolization; of these, clinical success was achieved in all the patients and so the secondary clinical success rate was 81% (79 of 97 patients). Of the 18 patients with primary failures, five patients underwent operation, one patient underwent endoscopic management and the others died during the observation period due to disseminated coagulopathy or complications of their underlying diseases. During

  13. Exsanguinating upper GI bleeds due to Unusual Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM of stomach and spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqai Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we are reporting one case of exsanguinating upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT bleed requiring massive blood transfusion and immediate life saving surgery. Case presentation A 30 years old female, 12 weeks pregnant was referred to our hospital from the earth-quake affected area of Kashmir with history of upper abdominal pain, haematemesis and melaena for one week. After stabilizing the patient, upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy was performed. It revealed gastric ulcer just distal to the gastro-esophageal junction on the lesser curvature. Biopsy from the ulcer edge led to profuse spurting of the blood and patient went into state of shock. Immediate resuscitation led to rebleeding and recurrence of post haemorrahagic shock. Conclusion The patient was immediately explored and total gastrectectomy with splenectomy concluded as life saving procedure. A review of literature was conducted to make this report possible.

  14. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy for a giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermansaravi, Mohammad; Rokhgireh, Samaneh; Darabi, Sattar; Pazouki, Abdolreza

    2017-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) include 80% of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors that originate from interstitial Cajal cells and include 0.1-3% of GI malignancies, and the stomach is the most commonly involved organ. The only potentially curative treatment is surgical resection with clear margins. Although laparoscopic resection of small GISTs is a standard treatment, there is controversy about laparoscopic surgical resection for large and giant GISTs. A 52-year-old woman, a known case of large GIST of the stomach that was under neoadjuvant imatinib therapy, was admitted to the emergency department due to acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). The patient underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy and received adjuvant imatinib after surgery. Laparoscopic resection is a safe and feasible method in large and giant GISTs with oncologic and long-term outcomes comparable to open surgery, and with better short-term outcomes.

  15. Management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Current policies and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Holster (Ingrid); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAcute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a gastroenterological emergency with a mortality of 6%-13%. The vast majority of these bleeds are due to peptic ulcers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Helicobacter pylori are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

  16. Implications of bleeding in acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuong-Anh; Pham, Phuong-Thu; Pham, Phuong-Chi; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pham, Phuong-Mai; Pham, Son V

    2011-01-01

    The advent of potent antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents over the past decade has resulted in significant improvement in reducing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the use of antiplatelet and antithrombotic combination therapy, often in the settings of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), has led to an increase in the risk of bleeding. In patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with antithrombotic agents, bleeding has been reported to occur in 0.4%–10% of patients, whereas in patients undergoing PCI, periprocedural bleeding occurs in 2.2%–14% of cases. Until recently, bleeding was considered an intrinsic risk of antithrombotic therapy, and efforts to reduce bleeding have received little attention. There have been increasing data demonstrating that bleeding is associated with adverse outcomes, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Therefore, it is imperative to optimize patient outcomes by adopting pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to minimize bleeding while maximizing treatment efficacy. In this paper, we present a review of the bleeding classifications used in large-scale clinical trials in patients with ACS and those undergoing PCI treated with antiplatelets and antithrombotic agents, adverse outcomes, particularly mortality associated with bleeding complications, and suggested predictive risk factors. Potential mechanisms of the association between bleeding and mortality and strategies to reduce bleeding complications are also discussed. PMID:21915172

  17. Transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Indications, techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffroy, R; Favelier, S; Pottecher, P; Estivalet, L; Genson, P Y; Gehin, S; Cercueil, J P; Krausé, D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, transcatheter arterial embolization has become the first-line therapy for the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic hemostasis. Advances in catheter-based techniques and newer embolic agents, as well as recognition of the effectiveness of minimally invasive treatment options, have expanded the role of interventional radiology in the treatment of bleeding for a variety of indications. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a fast, safe, and effective minimally invasive alternative to surgery, when endoscopic treatment fails to control acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article describes the role of arterial embolization in the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and summarizes the literature evidence on the outcomes of endovascular therapy in such a setting. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors for the need for endoscopic therapy in patients with presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Sun; Kim, Kyung Up; Kim, Sung Jun; Seo, Seung In; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Hak Yang; Shin, Woon Geon

    2017-12-15

    Selecting patients with an urgent need for endoscopic hemostasis is difficult based only on simple parameters of presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study assessed easily applicable factors to predict cases in need of urgent endoscopic hemostasis due to acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The consecutively included patients were divided into the endoscopic hemostasis and nonendoscopic hemostasis groups. We reviewed the enrolled patients' medical records and analyzed various variables and parameters for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding outcomes such as demographic factors, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, rebleeding rate, and mortality to evaluate simple predictive factors for endoscopic treatment. A total of 613 patients were analyzed, including 329 patients in the endoscopic hemostasis and 284 patients in the non-endoscopic hemostasis groups. In the multivariate analysis, a bloody nasogastric lavage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.786; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.990 to 11.543; p upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  19. Prognostic Significance of Bleeding Location and Severity Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavalle, John P.; Clare, Robert; Chiswell, Karen; Rao, Sunil V.; Petersen, John L.; Kleiman, Neal S.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Wang, Tracy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if there is an association between bleed location and clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients. Background The prognostic significance of bleeding location among ACS patients undergoing cardiac catheterization is not well known. Methods We analyzed in-hospital bleeding events among 9,978 patients randomized in the SYNERGY (Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors) study. Bleeding events were categorized by location as access site, systemic, surgical, or superficial, and severity was graded using the GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definition. We assessed the association of each bleeding location and severity with 6-month risk of death or myocardial infarction using a multicovariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. Results A total of 4,900 bleeding events were identified among 3,694 ACS patients with in-hospital bleeding. Among 4,679 GUSTO mild/moderate bleeding events, only surgical and systemic bleeds were associated with an increased risk of 6-month death or myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.16 to 2.94, and 1.40 [95% CI: 1.16 to 1.69], respectively). Mild/moderate superficial and access-site bleeds were not associated with downstream risk (adjusted HR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.97 to 1.40], and 0.96 [95% CI: 0.82 to 1.12], respectively). Among 221 GUSTO severe bleeds, surgical bleeds were associated with the highest risk (HR: 5.27 [95% CI: 3.80 to 7.29]), followed by systemic (HR: 4.48 [95% CI: 2.98 to 6.72]), and finally access-site bleeds (HR: 3.57 [95% CI: 2.35 to 5.40]). Conclusions Among ACS patients who develop in-hospital bleeding, systemic and surgical bleeding are associated with the highest risks of adverse outcomes regardless of bleeding severity. Although the most frequent among bleeds, GUSTO mild/moderate access-site bleeding is not

  20. Endovascular treatment of nonvariceal acute arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization as treatment of upper nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding is increasingly being used after failed primary endoscopic treatment. The results after embolization have become better and surgery still has a high mortality. Embolization is a safe and effective...... procedure, but its use is has been limited because of relatively high rates of rebleeding and high mortality, both of which are associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and non-gastrointestinal related mortality causes. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a valuable minimal invasive method...

  1. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Shibuya, Keiko; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm 3 of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10–50 Gy [V 10–50 ]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4–37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V 50 of ≥16 cm 3 of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V 50 3 of the stomach vs. those with V 50 of ≥16 cm 3 was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V 50 of ≥33 cm 3 of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V 50 3 of the StoDuo vs. those with V 50 ≥33 cm 3 was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, for the treatment of pancreatic

  2. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akira [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko, E-mail: kei@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm{sup 3} of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10-50 Gy [V{sub 10-50}]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4-37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V{sub 50} <16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach vs. those with V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V{sub 50} of {>=}33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V{sub 50} <33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo vs. those with V{sub 50} {>=}33 cm{sup 3} was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel

  3. Acute Management and Secondary Prophylaxis of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding: A Western Canadian Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cheung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Guidelines have been published in 1997; however, variability in the acute management and prevention of EVB rebleeding may occur.

  4. Prediction of Outcome in Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Using Gradient Boosting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmana Ayaru

    Full Text Available There are no widely used models in clinical care to predict outcome in acute lower gastro-intestinal bleeding (ALGIB. If available these could help triage patients at presentation to appropriate levels of care/intervention and improve medical resource utilisation. We aimed to apply a state-of-the-art machine learning classifier, gradient boosting (GB, to predict outcome in ALGIB using non-endoscopic measurements as predictors.Non-endoscopic variables from patients with ALGIB attending the emergency departments of two teaching hospitals were analysed retrospectively for training/internal validation (n=170 and external validation (n=130 of the GB model. The performance of the GB algorithm in predicting recurrent bleeding, clinical intervention and severe bleeding was compared to a multiple logic regression (MLR model and two published MLR-based prediction algorithms (BLEED and Strate prediction rule.The GB algorithm had the best negative predictive values for the chosen outcomes (>88%. On internal validation the accuracy of the GB algorithm for predicting recurrent bleeding, therapeutic intervention and severe bleeding were (88%, 88% and 78% respectively and superior to the BLEED classification (64%, 68% and 63%, Strate prediction rule (78%, 78%, 67% and conventional MLR (74%, 74% 62%. On external validation the accuracy was similar to conventional MLR for recurrent bleeding (88% vs. 83% and therapeutic intervention (91% vs. 87% but superior for severe bleeding (83% vs. 71%.The gradient boosting algorithm accurately predicts outcome in patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and outperforms multiple logistic regression based models. These may be useful for risk stratification of patients on presentation to the emergency department.

  5. Endovascular control of the acute bleeding in patients with advanced neoplasms of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachvarov, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Advanced neoplastic processes in the neck can cause acute life-threatening bleeding. Source of the bleeding can be vessels from a tumor mass or invasion of the main cervical arterial vessels. Poor general condition of the patients and accompanying complications create additional difficulties in getting these situations under control. What you will learn: Endovascular embolization of acute bleeding from advanced cervical neoplasms requires detailed knowledge of anatomical structures in this area and precision equipment with the possibility of super selective catheterization of small caliber vessels. The presentation discusses the various embolization materials and possibilities for their application in the neck. The experience of 5 embolization sessions in 4 patients is presented. An important point is discussion of the possible complications and how to avoid them. Discussion: Acute bleeding from large tumor formation is often a real risk to the life of the patient. Getting these conditions under control usually postpones the poor prognosis of the main disease. Postembolization syndrome and postembolization tissue necrosis define the basic cares in the early and late period after such a procedure. Conclusion: Acute bleeding from advanced neoplastic processes in the neck offers a real challenge. For their successful mastery it is required certain technical skills, unconventional solutions and a wide range of materials for embolization. A multidisciplinary approach is required to view the specific care these patients need and the possible complications

  6. Acute intracranial bleeding and recurrence after bur hole craniostomy for chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chang Hwan; Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Chang Hyeun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Chi Heon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Chun Kee; Jung, Hee-Won; Yoo, Heon

    2015-07-01

    There is inconsistency among the perioperative management strategies currently used for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Moreover, postoperative complications such as acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence affect clinical outcome of cSDH surgery. This study evaluated the risk factors associated with acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence and identified an effective perioperative strategy for cSDH patients. A retrospective study of patients who underwent bur hole craniostomy for cSDH between 2008 and 2012 was performed. A consecutive series of 303 cSDH patients (234 males and 69 females; mean age 67.17 years) was analyzed. Postoperative acute intracranial bleeding developed in 14 patients (4.57%) within a mean of 3.07 days and recurrence was observed in 37 patients (12.21%) within a mean of 31.69 days (range 10-104 days) after initial bur hole craniostomy. The comorbidities of hematological disease and prior shunt surgery were clinical factors associated with acute bleeding. There was a significant risk of recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus, but recurrence did not affect the final neurological outcome (p = 0.776). Surgical details, including the number of operative bur holes, saline irrigation of the hematoma cavity, use of a drain, and type of postoperative ambulation, were not significantly associated with outcome. However, a large amount of drainage was associated with postoperative acute bleeding. Bur hole craniostomy is an effective surgical procedure for initial and recurrent cSDH. Patients with hematological disease or a history of prior shunt surgery are at risk for postoperative acute bleeding; therefore, these patients should be carefully monitored to avoid overdrainage. Surgeons should consider informing patients with diabetes mellitus that this comorbidity is associated with an increased likelihood of recurrence.

  7. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  8. Extramedullary Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Presenting as Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Diana T; Kutny, Matthew A; Chewning, Joseph H; Arbuckle, Janeen L

    2017-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Relapse of ALL occurs in 15%-20% of patients, with 2%-6% occurring exclusively in extramedullary sites. Relapse of ALL in gynecologic organs is extremely rare. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of ALL who was referred to the pediatric gynecology clinic with abnormal uterine bleeding. She was determined to have an extramedullary uterine relapse of her ALL. Abnormal uterine bleeding in the setting of childhood malignancy is a frequent reason for consultation to pediatric and adolescent gynecology services. This bleeding is commonly attributed to thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow suppressive chemotherapeutic agents. However, as shown in this report, abnormal uterine bleeding might be a manifestation of an extramedullary relapse. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Pseudomonas contamination or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on acute radiation lethality after neutron or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of antibiotic decontamination of Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract prior to whole-body neutron or gamma irradiation was studied. It was observed that for fission neutron doses greater than 5.5 Gy, cyclotron-produced neutron doses greater than 6.7 Gy, and 137Cs gamma-ray doses greater than 14.4 Gy, the median survival time of untreated rats was relatively constant at 4.2 to 4.5 days, indicating death was due to intestinal injury. Within the dose range of 3.5 to 5.5 Gy of fission neutrons, 4.9 to 6.7 Gy of cyclotron-produced neutrons, and 9.6 to 14.4 Gy of gamma rays, median survival time of these animals was inversely related to dose and varied from 12 to 4.6 days. This change in survival time with dose reflects a transition in the mechanisms of acute radiation death from pure hematopoietic, to a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic, to pure intestinal death. Decontamination of the GI tract with antibiotics prior to irradiation increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this transitional dose range. Contamination of the intestinal flora with Pseudomonas aeruginosa prior to irradiation reduced median survival time 1 to 5 days in the same radiation dose range. Pseudomonas-contaminated animals irradiated within this transitional dose range had maximum concentrations of total bacteria and Pseudomonas in their livers at the time of death. However, liver bacteria concentration was usually higher in gamma-irradiated animals, due to a smaller contribution of hematopoietic injury in neutron-irradiated animals. The effects of both decontamination of the GI tract and Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract were negligible in the range of doses in which median survival time was dose independent, i.e., in the pure intestinal death dose range

  10. A study of clinical and endoscopic profile of acute upper, gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, K R; Patowary, B S; Bhattarai, S

    2014-01-01

    Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding is a common medical emergency with a hospital mortality of approximately 10 percent. Higher mortality rate is associated with rebleeding. Rockall scoring system identifies patients at higher risk of rebleed and mortality. To study the clinical and endoscopic profile of acute upper gastrointestinal bleed to know the etiology, clinical presentation, severity of bleeding and outcome. This is a prospective, descriptive hospital based study conducted in Gastroenterology unit of College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal from January 2012 to January 2013. It included 120 patients at random presenting with manifestations of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Their clinical and endoscopic profiles were studied. Rockall scoring system was used to assess their prognosis. Males were predominant (75%). Age ranged from 14 to 88 years, mean being 48.76+17.19. At presentation 86 patients (71.7%) had both hematemesis and malena, 24 patients (20%) had only malena and 10 patients (8.3%) had only hematemesis. Shock was detected in 21.7%, severe anemia and high blood urea were found in 34.2% and 38.3% respectively. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding endoscopy revealed esophageal varices (47.5%), peptic ulcer disease (33.3%), erosive mucosal disease (11.6%), Mallory Weiss tear (4.1%) and malignancy (3.3%). Median hospital stay was 7.28+3.18 days. Comorbidities were present in 43.3%. Eighty six patients (71.7%) had Rockall score 6. Five patients (4.2%) expired. Risk factors for death being massive rebleeeding, comorbidities and Rockall score >6. Acute Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding is a medical emergency. Mortality is associated with massive bleeding, comorbidities and Rockall score >6. Urgent, appropriate hospital management definitely helps to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  11. Discharge hemoglobin and outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Hwang, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kang, Seung Hun; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Many patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding present with anemia and frequently require red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. A restrictive transfusion strategy and a low hemoglobin (Hb) threshold for transfusion had been shown to produce acceptable outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, most patients are discharged with mild anemia owing to the restricted volume of packed RBCs (pRBCs). We investigated whether discharge Hb influences the outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had received pRBCs during hospitalization between January 2012 and January 2014. Patients with variceal bleeding, malignant lesion, stroke, or cardiovascular disease were excluded. We divided the patients into 2 groups, low (8 g/dL ≤ Hb  10 g/dL. Patients in the low Hb group had a lower consumption of pRBCs and shorter hospital stay than did those in the high Hb group. The Hb levels were not fully recovered at outpatient follow-up until 7 days after discharge; however, most patients showed Hb recovery at 45 days after discharge. The rate of rebleeding after discharge was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions: In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, a discharge Hb between 8 and 10 g/dL was linked to favorable outcomes on outpatient follow-up. Most patients recovered from anemia without any critical complication within 45 days after discharge. PMID:27540574

  12. Effect of Transfusion Strategy in Acute Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Rasmus; Svenningsen, Peter; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common cause of admissions as well as aggressive transfusion of blood products. Whether the transfusion strategy in NVUGIB impacts on hemostasis is unknown and constitutes the focus of this study. METHOD: Retrospective...

  13. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the Amsterdam area: incidence, diagnosis, and clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, E. M.; Snel, P.; de Bruijne, J. W.; Bartelsman, J. F.; Rauws, E. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    In the United States of America and the United Kingdom several epidemiological upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) surveys have been done. However, information about the current epidemiology of acute UGIB in continental Western Europe is sparse. From July of 1993 to July of 1994, 951 patients

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  15. Hepatic artery stent-grafts for the emergency treatment of acute bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellemann, Nadine, E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Mokry, Theresa; Kortes, Nikolas; Gnutzmann, Daniel; Gockner, Theresa; Schmitz, Anne [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weitz, Jürgen [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department for Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery at the University Hospital, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Radeleff, Boris; Stampfl, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report our experiences with stent-grafts for the treatment of acute hemorrhage from the hepatic artery or the stump of the gastroduodenal artery. • The technical success of stent-graft implantation was 88%. • The bleeding ceased immediately after stent-graft implantation in 88%. • The complication rate was 21%. - Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated the technical success and clinical efficacy of stent-graft implantation for the emergency management of acute hepatic artery bleeding. Methods: Between January 2010 and July 2013, 24 patients with hemorrhage from the hepatic artery were scheduled for emergency implantation of balloon expandable stent-grafts. The primary study endpoints were technical and clinical success, which were defined as successful stent-graft implantation with sealing of the bleeding site at the end of the procedure, and cessation of clinical signs of hemorrhage. The secondary study endpoints were complications during the procedure or at follow-up and 30-day mortality rate. Results: In 23 patients, hemorrhage occurred after surgery, and in one patient hemorrhage occurred after trauma. Eight patients had sentinel bleeding. In most patients (n = 16), one stent-graft was implanted. In six patients, two overlapping stent-grafts were implanted. The stent-grafts had a target diameter between 4 mm and 7 mm. Overall technical success was 88%. The bleeding ceased after stent-graft implantation in 21 patients (88%). The mean follow-up was 137 ± 383 days. In two patients, re-bleeding from the hepatic artery occurred during follow-up after 4 and 29 days, respectively, which could be successfully treated by endovascular therapy. The complication rate was 21% (minor complication rate 4%, major complication rate 17%). The 30-day mortality rate was 21%. Conclusions: Implantation of stent-grafts in the hepatic artery is an effective emergency therapy and has a good technical success rate for patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  16. Role of interventional radiology in the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Raja S; Choi, Hyung Won; Mouser, Hans C; Narsinh, Kazim H; McCammack, Kevin C; Treesit, Tharintorn; Kinney, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality without appropriate treatment. There are numerous causes of acute GIB including but not limited to infection, vascular anomalies, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and malignancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of GIB depends on its location, severity, and etiology. The role of interventional radiology becomes vital in patients whose GIB remains resistant to medical and endoscopic treatment. Radiology offers diagnostic imaging studies and endovascular therapeutic interventions that can be performed promptly and effectively with successful outcomes. Computed tomography angiography and nuclear scintigraphy can localize the source of bleeding and provide essential information for the interventional radiologist to guide therapeutic management with endovascular angiography and transcatheter embolization. This review article provides insight into the essential role of Interventional Radiology in the management of acute GIB. PMID:24778770

  17. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Small Bowel Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Lauren B; Fidler, Jeff L; Cave, David R; Leighton, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Bleeding from the small intestine remains a relatively uncommon event, accounting for ~5-10% of all patients presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given advances in small bowel imaging with video capsule endoscopy (VCE), deep enteroscopy, and radiographic imaging, the cause of bleeding in the small bowel can now be identified in most patients. The term small bowel bleeding is therefore proposed as a replacement for the previous classification of obscure GI bleeding (OGIB). We recommend that the term OGIB should be reserved for patients in whom a source of bleeding cannot be identified anywhere in the GI tract. A source of small bowel bleeding should be considered in patients with GI bleeding after performance of a normal upper and lower endoscopic examination. Second-look examinations using upper endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and/or colonoscopy can be performed if indicated before small bowel evaluation. VCE should be considered a first-line procedure for small bowel investigation. Any method of deep enteroscopy can be used when endoscopic evaluation and therapy are required. VCE should be performed before deep enteroscopy if there is no contraindication. Computed tomographic enterography should be performed in patients with suspected obstruction before VCE or after negative VCE examinations. When there is acute overt hemorrhage in the unstable patient, angiography should be performed emergently. In patients with occult hemorrhage or stable patients with active overt bleeding, multiphasic computed tomography should be performed after VCE or CTE to identify the source of bleeding and to guide further management. If a source of bleeding is identified in the small bowel that is associated with significant ongoing anemia and/or active bleeding, the patient should be managed with endoscopic therapy. Conservative management is recommended for patients without a source found after small bowel investigation, whereas repeat diagnostic investigations are recommended

  18. Role of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Acute Variceal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Maufa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute variceal bleeding continues to be associated with significant mortality. Current standard of care combines hemodynamic stabilization, antibiotic prophylaxis, pharmacological agents, and endoscopic treatment. Rescue therapies using balloon tamponade or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt are implemented when first-line therapy fails. Rescue therapies have many limitations and are contraindicated in some cases. Placement of fully covered self-expandable metallic stent is a promising therapeutic technique that can be used to control bleeding in cases of refractory esophageal bleeding as an alternative to balloon tamponade. These stents can be left in place for as long as two weeks, allowing for improvement in liver function and institution of a more definitive treatment.

  19. Telemetric real-time sensor for the detection of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostek, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Melanie; Keller, Jan; Fode, Mario; Melbert, Michael; Schurr, Marc O; Gottwald, Thomas; Prosst, Ruediger L

    2016-04-15

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings from ulcers or esophago-gastric varices are life threatening medical conditions which require immediate endoscopic therapy. Despite successful endoscopic hemostasis, there is a significant risk of rebleeding often requiring close surveillance of these patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Any time delay to recognize bleeding may lead to a high blood loss and increases the risk of death. A novel telemetric real-time bleeding sensor can help indicate blood in the stomach: the sensor is swallowed to detect active bleeding or is anchored endoscopically on the gastrointestinal wall close to the potential bleeding source. By telemetric communication with an extra-corporeal receiver, information about the bleeding status is displayed. In this study the novel sensor, which measures characteristic optical properties of blood, has been evaluated in an ex-vivo setting to assess its clinical applicability and usability. Human venous blood of different concentrations, various fluids, and liquid food were tested. The LED-based sensor was able to reliably distinguish between concentrated blood and other liquids, especially red-colored fluids. In addition, the spectrometric quality of the small sensor (size: 6.5mm in diameter, 25.5mm in length) was comparable to a much larger and technically more complex laboratory spectrophotometer. The experimental data confirm the capability of a miniaturized sensor to identify concentrated blood, which could help in the very near future the detection of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to survey high-risk patients for rebleeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stent grafting of acute hepatic artery bleeding following pancreatic head resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoupis, Christoforos; Ludwig, Karin; Triller, Juergen; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Do, Dai-Do

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the potential of hepatic artery stent grafting in cases of acute hemorrhage of the gastroduodenal artery stump following pancreatic head resection. Five consecutive male patients were treated because of acute, life-threatening massive bleeding. Instead of re-operation, emergency angiography, with the potential of endovascular treatment, was performed. Because of bleeding from the hepatic artery, a stent graft (with the over-the-wire or monorail technique) was implanted to control the hemmorhage by preserving patency of the artery. The outcome was evaluated. In all cases, the hepatic artery stent grafting was successfully performed, and the bleeding was immediately stopped. Clinically, immediately after the procedure, there was an obvious improvement in the general patient condition. There were no immediate procedure-related complications. Completion angiography (n=5) demonstrated control of the hemorrhage and patency of the hepatic artery and the stent graft. Although all patients recovered hemodynamically, three individuals died 2 to 10 days after the procedure. The remaining two patients survived, without the need for re-operation. Transluminal stent graft placement in the hepatic artery is a safe and technically feasible solution to control life-threatening bleeding of the gastroduodenal artery stump. (orig.)

  1. Treatment of Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents: What Are Providers Doing in Various Specialties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, Patricia S; Buyers, Eliza M; Lange-Liss, Jill H; Scott, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether variability exists in the management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents between pediatric Emergency Department (ED) physicians, pediatric gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care medical center ED. We included girls aged 9-22 years who presented from July 2008 to June 2014 with the complaint of acute AUB. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision codes for heavy menstrual bleeding, AUB, and irregular menses. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy and current use of hormonal therapy. One hundred fifty patients were included. Among those evaluated, 61% (n = 92) were prescribed hormonal medication to stop their bleeding by providers from the ED, Adolescent Medicine, or Pediatric Gynecology. ED physicians prescribed mostly single-dose and multidose taper combined oral contraceptive pills (85%; n = 24), compared with Adolescent Medicine (54%, n = 7), and Gynecology (28%, n = 13). Pediatric gynecologists were more likely than ED physicians to treat patients with norethindrone acetate, either alone or in combination with a single dose combined oral contraceptive pill (61%, n = 33 vs 7%, n = 2; P bleeding, side effects, and patient satisfaction are valuable next steps. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan

    2015-06-09

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. People with liver disease frequently have haemostatic abnormalities such as hyperfibrinolysis. Therefore, antifibrinolytic amino acids have been proposed to be used as supplementary interventions alongside any of the primary treatments for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. This is an update of this Cochrane review. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register (February 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2 of 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 to February 2015), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1974 to February 2015), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to February 2015), LILACS (1982 to February 2015), World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal (accessed 26 February 2015), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (accessed 26 February 2015). We scrutinised the reference lists of the retrieved publications. Randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. Observational studies for assessment of harms. We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials using standard Cochrane methodologies and assessed according to the GRADE approach. We found no randomised clinical trials assessing antifibrinolytic amino acids for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease. We did not identify quasi-randomised, historically controlled, or observational studies in which we could assess harms. This updated Cochrane review identified no randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits and harms of antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or

  3. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.

  4. Vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan

    2015-06-09

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. Several treatments are used for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. One of them is vitamin K administration, but it is not known whether it benefits or harms people with acute or chronic liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This is an update of this Cochrane review. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin K for people with acute or chronic liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register (February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2 of 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 to February 2015), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1974 to February 2015), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to February 2015), and LILACS (1982 to 25 February 2015). We sought additional randomised trials from two registries of clinical trials: the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials. We looked through the reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles. Randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. We considered observational studies for assessment of harms only. \\We aimed to summarise data from randomised clinical trials using Standard Cochrane methodology and assess them according to the GRADE approach. We found no randomised trials on vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases assessing benefits and harms of the intervention. We identified no quasi-randomised studies, historically controlled studies, or observational studies assessing harms. This updated review found no randomised clinical trials of vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. The benefits and harms of vitamin K need to be tested

  5. Detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding site with scintigraphic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.

    1988-01-01

    Successful management of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding frequently depends on accurate localization of the bleeding site. History and clinical findings are often misleading in localizing the site of hemorrhage. The widespread application of flexible endoscopy and selective arteriography now provides accurate diagnoses for the majority of patients with upper GI tract hemorrhage, but lower GI bleeding still is a serious diagnostic problem. Endoscopy and barium studies are of limited value in examining the small bowel and colon in the face of active hemorrhage. Arteriography, although successful in many cases, has limitations. The angiographic demonstration of bleeding is possible only when the injection of contrast material coincides with active bleeding. Since lower GI bleeding is commonly intermittent rather than continuous, a high rate of negative angiographic examinations has been reported. Repeated angiography to pursue recurrent episodes of bleeding is impractical. Because of these shortcomings, in the past decade several noninvasive scintigraphic techniques have been developed to detect and localize sites of GI bleeding. In this chapter the authors discuss details related to the technetium 99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) and technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell (Tc-RBC) techniques

  6. Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa labelled with the fac-99 mTc(CO)3-core: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a putative new radiopharmaceutical for imaging in acute bleeding lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Christensen, Jesper B.; Olsen, Ole H.

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation in blood is initiated when coagulation factor VII (FVII) binds to exposed TF and is activated to FVIIa, and the TF/ FVIIa complex may therefore provide a marker of vascular injury potentially applicable in diagnostic imaging of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods: Recombinant...... yield and in 495% radiochemical purity. Pull down experiments showed that the biological activity (binding to tissue factor and to anti-FVII antibody) of the radiolabelled product remained intact in the formulation mixture as well as in human serum. By computer modeling analysis, two candidate sites...

  7. Hemospray for treatment of acute bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Monica; Masci, Enzo; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Viaggi, Paolo; Morandi, Elisabetta; Fanti, Lorella; Granata, Antonino; Traina, Mario; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Opocher, Enrico; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2017-05-01

    Hemospray is a new endoscopic haemostatic powder that can be used in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleedings. To assess the efficacy and safety of Hemospray as monotherapy for the treatment of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to cancer. The endoscopy databases of 3 Italian Endoscopic Units were reviewed retrospectively and 15 patients (8 males; mean age 74 years) were included in this study. Immediate haemostasis was achieved in 93% of cases. Among the successful cases, 3 re-bled, one case treated with Hemospray and injection had a good outcome, while 2 cases died both re-treated with Hemospray, injection and thermal therapy. No complications related to Hemospray occurred. Finally, 80% of patients had a good clinical outcome at 30days and 50% at six months. Hemospray may be considered an effective and safe method for the endoscopic management of acute neoplastic upper gastrointestinal bleedings. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute Abdominal Pain Secondary to Retroperitoneal Bleeding From a Giant Adrenal Lipoma With Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyaz M. Singaporewalla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal lipomas are rare, non-functioning benign tumours, which are primarily detected during autopsy or imaging, as asymptomatic incidentalomas. Occasionally, they can present with abdominal pain due to their large size. Imaging studies help to determine the origin, volume, composition of the lesion and presence of bleeding. Histopathology, however, is necessary to differentiate an adrenal lipoma from other fatty tumours such as myelolipoma, angiomyolipomas, teratomas and liposarcomas. We report a case of spontaneous bleeding from a giant adrenal lipoma that presented as an acute abdomen, and was initially mistaken on imaging for the more common myelolipoma. The literature is reviewed to discuss the clinical, pathological and radiological features, and the optimum therapeutic management.

  9. Has the frequency of bleeding changed over time for patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome? The global registry of acute coronary events.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, KA; Carruthers, K; Steg, PG; Avezum, A; Granger, CB; Montalescot, G; Goodman, SG; Gore, JM; Quill, AL; Eagle, KA; GRACE Investigators,

    2010-01-01

    08.09.14 KB. Ok to add published version to spiral, OA paper AIMS: To determine whether changes in practice, over time, are associated with altered rates of major bleeding in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events were enrolled between 2000 and 2007. The main outcome measures were frequency of major bleeding, including haemorrhagic stroke, over time, after adjustment for patient characteristics, and impact of major b...

  10. A new progestogen-only medical therapy for outpatient management of acute, abnormal uterine bleeding: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Stacy R; Nelson, Anita L

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study short-term efficacy and feasibility of a new progestogen-only treatment for outpatient management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding. This was a prospective, single-arm, pilot clinical trial of a progestogen-only bridging treatment for acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant, premenopausal women in the Gynecologic Urgent Care Clinic at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. Subjects were administered a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg intramuscular injection and given medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 mg to be taken orally every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measures included a percentage of women who stopped bleeding in 5 days, time to bleeding cessation, reduction in numbers of pads used, side effects, and patient satisfaction. All 48 women stopped bleeding within 5 days; 4 women had spotting only at the time of their last contact during the 5 day follow-up. Mean time to bleeding cessation was 2.6 days. Side effects were infrequent and patient satisfaction was high. Injection of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg intramuscularly combined with 3 days of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 mg every 8 hours for 9 doses is an effective outpatient therapy for acute abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in a cohort of elderly Egyptian patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsebaey, Mohamed A; Elashry, Heba; Elbedewy, Tamer A; Elhadidy, Ahmed A; Esheba, Noha E; Ezat, Sherif; Negm, Manal Saad; Abo-Amer, Yousry Esam-Eldin; Abgeegy, Mohamed El; Elsergany, Heba Fadl; Mansour, Loai; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief

    2018-04-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) affects large number of elderly with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Early identification and management of the factors predicting in-hospital mortality might decrease mortality. This study was conducted to identify the causes of acute UGIB and the predictors of in-hospital mortality in elderly Egyptian patients.286 elderly patients with acute UGIB were divided into: bleeding variceal group (161 patients) and bleeding nonvariceal group (125 patients). Patients' monitoring was done during hospitalization to identify the risk factors that might predict in-hospital mortality in elderly.Variceal bleeding was the most common cause of acute UGIB in elderly Egyptian patients. In-hospital mortality rate was 8.74%. Increasing age, hemodynamic instability at presentation, co-morbidities (especially liver cirrhosis associated with other co-morbidity) and failure to control bleeding were the predictors of in-hospital mortality.Increasing age, hemodynamic instability at presentation, co-morbidities (especially liver cirrhosis associated with other co-morbidity) and failure to control bleeding should be considered when triaging those patients for immediate resuscitation, close observation, and early treatment.

  12. Abdominal blood pool scintigraphy in the management of acute or intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalff, V.; Kelly, M.J.; Dudley, F.; Metz, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gastrointestinal blood pool scintigraphy, using a modified in-vivo blood cell labelling technique with technetium-99, is a new, easily performed, non-invasive procedure. It is valuable in screening patients with acute or intermittent gastrointestinal blood loss in whom duodenoscopic and sigmoidoscopic findings are unhelpful. This paper reviews the value of this scintigraphic technique over the first eight months of its use in a major teaching hospital, and compares the results with other published data. If used and interpreted appropriately, scintigraphy is sensitive in detecting and localizing the bleeding site, and is very helpful in indicating the optimal timing of emergency contrast angiography

  13. Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Olmesartan-Associated Collagenous Gastroduodenitis: A Potential Endoscopic Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Hudacko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous gastroenteritis is a rare disease that is known to be associated with the drug olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension. It is characterized histologically by increased subepithelial collagen deposition with associated inflammation and epithelial injury. Endoscopically, the mucosa appears inflamed and friable and may be nodular or atrophic. We report a case of acute gastric bleeding on direct mucosal contact during endoscopy in a patient with olmesartan-associated collagenous gastroduodenitis to raise awareness of this potential endoscopic complication.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: audit of a single center experience in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B. Rathod

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The most important aspect of management of GI bleeding is to locate the site and cause of bleeding. The aim of the study is to find out the common etiology, presentation and management, including the role of upper GI endoscopy. Recent advances have meant that endoscopic hemostatic methods are now associated with a reduced rate of re-bleeding, cost, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay and mortality. A prospective study of 50 cases was carried out between August 2001 and July 2003. Patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of upper GI bleeding (UGIB such as hematemesis, melena, aspirated blood from nasogastric tubes, profuse hematochezia, etc., were included in the study. The patients were selected randomly. The most common cause of UGIB in the present study was acute erosive gastritis (34% followed by portal hypertension (24% and peptic ulcer (22%. All 50 patients underwent upper GI endoscopy, of whom 39 patients were treated conservatively and 11 patients underwent endotherapy to control bleeding. Out of 39 patients treated non-endoscopically, 6 cases required laparotomy to control UGIB. 8 of 50 cases had past history of UGIB, 5 of whom had a previous history of endotherapy. One case was treated with devascularization as routine hemostatic methods failed. So, initial method of choice to control the bleeding was endotherapy and surgery was undertaken if an endoscopic method failed. The most common cause of hematemesis in our setting was acute erosive gastritis followed by portal hypertension. Endoscopy is a valuable minimal invasive method to diagnose and treat upper GI bleeding.

  15. Clinical outcome of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after hours: the role of urgent endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dong-Won; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Hyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical role of urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) performed by experienced endoscopists after hours. A retrospective analysis was performed for consecutively collected data of patients with ANVUGIB between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 158 patients visited the emergency unit for ANVUGIB after hours. Among them, 60 underwent urgent EGD (within 8 hours) and 98 underwent early EGD (8 to 24 hours) by experienced endoscopists. The frequencies of hemodynamic instability, fresh blood aspirate on the nasogastric tube, and high-risk endoscopic findings were significantly higher in the urgent EGD group. Primary hemostasis was achieved in all except two patients. There were nine cases of recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality occurred in three patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary hemostasis, recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality. In a multiple linear regression analysis, urgent EGD significantly reduced the hospital stay compared with early EGD. In patients with a high clinical Rockall score (more than 3), urgent EGD tended to decrease the hospital stay, although this was not statistically significant (7.7 days vs. 12.0 days, p > 0.05). Urgent EGD after hours by experienced endoscopists had an excellent endoscopic success rate. However, clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the urgent and early EGD groups.

  16. Prediction of esophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, Don C; Elliott, Alan; Lyles, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), identifying those with esophageal variceal hemorrhage prior to endoscopy would be clinically useful. This retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with UGIB used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR) and Lok index (all non-invasive blood markers) as predictors of variceal bleeding in (1) all patients with UGIB and (2) patients with cirrhosis and UGIB. 2233 patients admitted for UGIB were identified; 1034 patients had cirrhosis (46%) and of these, 555 patients (54%) had acute UGIB due to esophageal varices. In all patients with UGIB, the platelet count (cut-off 122,000/mm(3)), APRI (cut-off 5.1), AAR (cut-off 2.8) and Lok index (cut-off 0.9) had area under the curve (AUC)s of 0.80 0.82, 0.64, and 0.80, respectively, for predicting the presence of varices prior to endoscopy. To predict varices as the culprit of bleeding, the platelet count (cut-off 69,000), APRI (cut-off 2.6), AAR (cut-off 2.5) and Lok Index (0.90) had AUCs of 0.76, 0.77, 0.57 and 0.73, respectively. Finally, in patients with cirrhosis and UGIB, logistic regression was unable to identify optimal cut-off values useful for predicting varices as the culprit bleeding lesion for any of the non-invasive markers studied. For all patients with UGIB, non-invasive markers appear to differentiate patients with varices from those without varices and to identify those with a variceal culprit lesion. However, these markers could not distinguish between a variceal culprit and other lesions in patients with cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  17. Interventions for treating acute bleeding episodes in people with acquired hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Zhou, Ruiqing; Duan, Xin; Long, Dan; Yang, Songtao

    2014-08-28

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). In most cases, bleeding episodes are spontaneous and severe at presentation. The optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial. To determine the efficacy of hemostatic therapies for acute bleeds in people with acquired hemophilia A; and to compare different forms of therapy for these bleeds. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 4) and MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to 30 April 2014). We searched the conference proceedings of the: American Society of Hematology; European Hematology Association; International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH); and the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) (from 2000 to 30 April 2014). In addition to this we searched clinical trials registers. All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of hemostatic therapies for people with acquired hemophilia A, with no restrictions on gender, age or ethnicity. No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion. No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion. No randomised clinical trials of hemostatic therapies for acquired hemophilia A were found. Thus, we are not able to draw any conclusions or make any recommendations on the optimal hemostatic therapies for acquired hemophilia A based on the highest quality of evidence. GIven that carrying out randomized controlled trials in this field is a complex task, the authors suggest that, while planning randomised controlled trials in which patients can be enrolled, clinicians treating the disease continue to base their choices on alternative, lower quality sources of evidence, which hopefully, in the future, will also be appraised and incorporated in a Cochrane Review.

  18. Small Bowel Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  19. Andexanet alfa effectively reverses edoxaban anticoagulation effects and associated bleeding in a rabbit acute hemorrhage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Genmin; Pine, Polly; Leeds, Janet M.; DeGuzman, Francis; Pratikhya, Pratikhya; Lin, Joyce; Malinowski, John; Hollenbach, Stanley J.; Curnutte, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing use of factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors necessitates effective reversal agents to manage bleeding. Andexanet alfa, a novel modified recombinant human FXa, rapidly reverses the anticoagulation effects of direct and indirect FXa inhibitors. Objective To evaluate the ability of andexanet to reverse anticoagulation in vitro and reduce bleeding in rabbits administered edoxaban. Materials and methods In vitro studies characterized the interaction of andexanet with edoxaban and its ability to reverse edoxaban-mediated anti-FXa activity. In a rabbit model of surgically induced, acute hemorrhage, animals received edoxaban vehicle+andexanet vehicle (control), edoxaban (1 mg/kg)+andexanet vehicle, edoxaban+andexanet (75 mg, 5-minute infusion, 20 minutes after edoxaban), or edoxaban vehicle+andexanet prior to injury. Results Andexanet bound edoxaban with high affinity similar to FXa. Andexanet rapidly and dose-dependently reversed the effects of edoxaban on FXa activity and coagulation pharmacodynamic parameters in vitro. In edoxaban-anticoagulated rabbits, andexanet reduced anti-FXa activity by 82% (from 548±87 to 100±41 ng/ml; P<0.0001), mean unbound edoxaban plasma concentration by ~80% (from 100±10 to 21±6 ng/ml; P<0.0001), and blood loss by 80% vs. vehicle (adjusted for control, 2.6 vs. 12.9 g; P = 0.003). The reduction in blood loss correlated with the decrease in anti-FXa activity (r = 0.6993, P<0.0001) and unbound edoxaban (r = 0.5951, P = 0.0035). Conclusion These data demonstrate that andexanet rapidly reversed the anticoagulant effects of edoxaban, suggesting it could be clinically valuable for the management of acute and surgery-related bleeding. Correlation of blood loss with anti-FXa activity supports the use of anti-FXa activity as a biomarker for assessing anticoagulation reversal in clinical trials. PMID:29590221

  20. Adoga, GI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoga, GI. Vol 3 (2001) - Articles Fluorometric Assessment Of Lysosomal Enzymes In Garlic Oil Treated Diabetic Rats Abstract. ISSN: 9783-1230. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  1. External validation of the NOBLADS score, a risk scoring system for severe acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Aoki

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the generalizability of NOBLADS, a severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB prediction model which we had previously derived when working at a different institution, using an external validation cohort. NOBLADS comprises the following factors: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg, antiplatelet drug use, albumin < 3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥ 2, and syncope.We retrospectively analyzed 511 patients emergently hospitalized for acute LGIB at the University of Tokyo Hospital, from January 2009 to August 2016. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs-AUCs for severe bleeding (continuous and/or recurrent bleeding were compared between the original derivation cohort and the external validation cohort.Severe LGIB occurred in 44% of patients. Several clinical factors were significantly different between the external and derivation cohorts (p < 0.05, including background, laboratory data, NOBLADS scores, and diagnosis. The NOBLADS score predicted the severity of LGIB with an AUC value of 0.74 in the external validation cohort and one of 0.77 in the derivation cohort. In the external validation cohort, the score predicted the risk for blood transfusion need (AUC, 0.71, but was not adequate for predicting intervention need (AUC, 0.54. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with a score ≥ 5 than in those with a score < 5 (AUC, 0.83.Although the external validation cohort clinically differed from the derivation cohort in many ways, we confirmed the moderately high generalizability of NOBLADS, a clinical risk score for severe LGIB. Appropriate triage using this score may support early decision-making in various hospitals.

  2. Clinical outcomes of patients with major bleeding after primary coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongchao; Zhang Qi; Zhang Ruiyan; Hu Jian; Yang Zhenkun; Zhang Jiansheng; Shen Weifeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients complicated with major bleeding after primary coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: During the period of January 2004-January 2008, primary PCI was performed in 412 consecutive patients with acute STEMI at Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death, reoccurrence of myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization, in patients with major bleeding were compared with that in patients without major bleeding. Results: Compared to patients without bleeding, the patients with bleeding were older (70.0 ± 8.9 years vs 64.9 ± 12.7 years, P=0.04), mainly the females (51.9% vs 23.1%, P=0.001) and treated more often with glycoprotein (GP) IIb / IIIa receptor inhibitor (88.9% vs 69.4%, P=0.03) or intra-aortic balloon pump (7.4% vs 1.3%, P=0.02). In-hospital and one-year MACE rate in the patients with bleeding was 18.5% and 37.0% respectively,which were significantly higher than that in the patients without bleeding (5.7% and 14.3%, with P=0.008 and P=0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that patient aged over 70 years, feminine gender and use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor were independent predictors for the occurrence of major bleeding. The occurrence of major bleeding after primary PCI was significantly correlated with MACE occurred within one year after the procedure (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 2.21-5.90, P<0.001). Conclusion: In patients with acute STEMI, the occurrence of major bleeding after primary PCI is closely linked to the increased MACE rate within one year after the treatment.Feminine gender, aged patient and use of GPIIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor are independent predictors to increase the danger of major bleeding. (authors)

  3. Effective salvage of acute massive uterine bleeding using intrauterine balloon tamponade in a uterine adenomyosis patient on dienogest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kimihiro; Hayashi, Kazumasa; Chaya, Jyunya; Kato, Noriko; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2013-03-01

    We present the case of a 37-year-old nulliparous woman in whom acute massive uterine bleeding during dienogest therapy was successfully treated using intrauterine balloon tamponade. Abnormal uterine bleeding and several cases of profuse bleeding causing severe anemia in association with dienogest therapy have been reported, but this is the first reported case involving hypovolemic shock. While successful control of postpartum hemorrhage with intrauterine balloon tamponade has been well described, applications for non-obstetric bleeding, particularly in the presence of underlying diseases, such as adenomyosis, have only rarely been reported. This procedure can be easily, promptly, and safely implemented without analgesia, anesthesia, or laparotomy; it can be used with a minimally dilated external cervical os or narrow uterine cavity; and it can preserve fertility. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Crohn's disease: characteristics of a unique series of 34 patients. Belgian IBD Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belaiche, J.; Louis, E.; D'Haens, G.; Cabooter, M.; Naegels, S.; de Vos, M.; Fontaine, F.; Schurmans, P.; Baert, F.; de Reuck, M.; Fiasse, R.; Holvoet, J.; Schmit, A.; van Outryve, M.

    1999-01-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare complication of Crohn's disease, which represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to define epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic options of hemorrhagic forms of Crohn's disease. Thirty-four cases of

  5. Radiological diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Gross-Fengels, W.; Lorenz, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopy holds the first place today. Radiological investigations are indispensable whenever endoscopy cannot precisely localise the bleeding site, whenever a tumour is present or suspected, in all cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and in haemobilia. A tailored radiological approach is recommended. The radiological basis programme should be at least a complete abdominal ultrasound study and plain abdominal radiograms. CT and ERCP scans may become necessary in selected cases. As a rule, angiographical localisation of the bleeding site will be successful only in the acute stage; selective visceral arteriograms have to be obtained, which may be executed in the digital subtraction technique in patients who are cooperating and clinically stable. Angiodysplasias and aneurysms, however, may be demonstrated angiographically in the interval as well. Upper and/or lower G.I. tract studies with barium or water-soluble contrast media may be indicated in the interval in order to demonstrate tumours, metastatic lesions, diverticula and gut malformations. (orig.) [de

  6. Promoting the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeds among junior doctors: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunsbury, Emma; Allison, Emma; Colleypriest, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Though they are knowledgeable, foundation year one (FY1) doctors can lack skills and confidence in acute situations due to inexperience. This was witnessed when a new FY1 on call attended an acute upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB), a common emergency with a 10% in hospital mortality rate. We aimed to improve FY1s' ability to manage these critical patients through simulation based teaching, before and after the introduction of an algorithm summarising current guidelines. After assessing the FY1s' perceived level of confidence in managing UGIBs, they individually attended a simulation session which evaluated specific aspects of their assessment and management plans. Immediate debriefing and subsequent teaching sessions reinforced learning points, with an algorithm instituted as an aide mémoire to improve efficiency. A repeat simulation session assessed improvements in both subjective confidence and objective management targets. All FY1s expressed improved confidence in managing patients with UGIBs. There were improvements across the board in their assessment and management, notably: verbalisation of concern for hypotension increased to 100% (from 60%), two points of intravenous access requested in 100% of cases (from 53%), and a 76 second reduction in time to call for senior support. Collectively, these individual aspects led to improved patient care. Effective management of acute patients is best learnt through exposure, and simulation based teaching provides a safe but powerful modality to aid transition from textbook theory to ward situations. Algorithms can streamline care and hasten the stabilisation of patients. This project reinforces generic competencies that FY1s can translate to their management of not only UGIBs, but many acute presentations, providing a convincing argument for broader simulation use in FY1 teaching.

  7. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug related upper gastrointestinal bleeding: types of drug use and patient profiles in real clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patrica; Lanas, Angel

    2017-10-01

    The best available evidence regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-related gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding comes from randomized controlled trials including patients who use NSAIDs to manage chronic rheumatic diseases; however, patients with varying background profiles commonly take NSAIDs for many other reasons, often without prescription, and such usage has not been well studied. To define the characteristics of patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding in clinical practice, we conducted a case-control study among patients with endoscopy-proven major upper GI bleeding due to gastroduodenal peptic lesions and control subjects. We used adjusted logistic regression models to estimate bleeding risks. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. Our analysis included 3785 cases and 6540 controls, including 1270 cases (33.55%) and 834 controls (12.75%) reporting recent use (upper GI bleeding, with an adjusted relative risk of 4.86 (95% CI, 4.32-5.46). Acute musculoskeletal pain (36.1%), chronic osteoarthritis (13.5%), and headache (13.6%) were the most common reasons for NSAID use. Among cases, only 17.31% took NSAIDs and 6.38% took high dose ASA due to chronic osteoarthritis. Demographic characteristics significantly differed between subjects with chronic vs. acute musculoskeletal pain. Proton pump inhibitor use was significantly higher in patients who used NSAIDs due to chronic osteoarthritis compared to patients with acute musculoskeletal pain. NSAID (65.15%) or high-dose ASA use (65.83%) preceding upper GI bleeding was most often short-term. In over half of cases (63.62%), the upper GI bleeding event was not preceded by dyspeptic warning symptoms. The majority of patients hospitalized due to NSAID-related upper GI bleeding reported short-term NSAID use for reasons other than chronic rheumatic disease. These findings suggest that current prevention strategies may not reach a wide population of short-term NSAID users.

  8. Bleeding risk during treatment of acute thrombotic events with subcutaneous LMWH compared to intravenous unfractionated heparin; a systematic review.

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    Giorgio Costantino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH are at least as effective antithrombotic drugs as Unfractionated Heparin (UFH. However, it is still unclear whether the safety profiles of LMWH and UFH differ. We performed a systematic review to compare the bleeding risk of fixed dose subcutaneous LMWH and adjusted dose UFH for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE or acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Major bleeding was the primary end point. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to May 2010 with no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials in which subcutaneous LMWH were compared to intravenous UFH for the treatment of acute thrombotic events were selected. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data on study design, study quality, incidence of major bleeding, patients' characteristics, type, dose and number of daily administrations of LMWH, co-treatments, study end points and efficacy outcome. Pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using the random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were included. A total of 14,002 patients received UFH and 14,635 patients LMWH. Overall, no difference in major bleeding was observed between LMWH patients and UFH (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.04. In patients with VTE LMWH appeared safer than UFH, (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-1.00. CONCLUSION: The results of our systematic review suggest that the use of LMWH in the treatment of VTE might be associated with a reduction in major bleeding compared with UFH. The choice of which heparin to use to minimize bleeding risk must be based on the single patient, taking into account the bleeding profile of different heparins in different settings.

  9. Gastrointestinal bleeding after intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective review of 808 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tie-Cheng; Li, Jian-Guo; Shi, Hong-Mei; Yu, Dong-Ming; Shan, Kai; Li, Li-Xia; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Tian-Hua

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the incidence and risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The available medical records of patients with ICH admitted from June 2008 to December 2009 for any episode of GI bleeding, possible precipitating factors and administration of ulcer prophylaxis were reviewed. The prevalence of GI bleeding was 26.7%, including 3 cases of severe GI bleeding (0.35%). Patients with GI bleeding had significantly longer hospital stay and higher in-hospital mortality compared with patients without GI bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, sepsis and ICH volume were independent predictors of GI bleeding. About 63.4% of patients with ICH received stress ulcer prophylaxis. GI bleeding occurred frequently after ICH, but severe events were rare. Age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, sepsis and ICH volume were independent predictors of GI bleeding occurring after ICH.

  10. Acute Variceal Bleeding: Does Octreotide Improve Outcomes in Patients with Different Functional Hepatic Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Cortez-Hernández, Carlos A; González-González, José A; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco J; Silva-Ramos, Héctor N; García-Flores, Jorge A; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J

    2018-01-01

    Current guidelines do not differentiate in the utilization of vasoactive drugs in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding (AVB) depending on liver disease severity. In this retrospective study, clinical outcomes in 100 patients receiving octreotide plus endoscopic therapy (ET) and 216 patients with ET alone were compared in terms of failure to control bleeding, in-hospital mortality, and transfusion requirements stratifying the results according to liver disease severity by Child-Pugh (CP) score and MELD. In patients with CP-A or those with MELD < 10 octreotide was not associated with a better outcome compared to ET alone in terms of hospital mortality (CP-A: 0.0 vs. 0.0%; MELD < 10: 0.0 vs. 2.9%, p = 1.00), failure to control bleeding (CP-A: 8.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.58; MELD < 10: 5.3 vs. 4.3%, p = 1.00) and need for transfusion (CP-A: 39.1 vs. 61.1%, p = 0.09; MELD < 10: 63.2 vs. 62.9%, p = 1.00). Those with severe liver dysfunction in the octreotide group showed better outcomes compared to the non-octreotide group in terms of hospital mortality (CP-B/C: 3.9 vs. 13.0%, p = 0.04; MELD ≥ 10: 3.9 vs. 13.3%, p = 0.03) and need for transfusion (CP-B/C: 58.4 vs. 71.6%, p = 0.05; MELD ≥ 10: 50.6 vs. 72.7%, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, octreotide was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.028) and need for transfusion (p = 0.008) only in patients with severe liver dysfunction (CP-B/C or MELD ≥ 10). Patients with cirrhosis and AVB categorized as CP-A or MELD < 10 had similar clinical outcomes during hospitalization whether or not they received octreotide.

  11. Evaluation of RIDA®GENE norovirus GI/GII real time RT-PCR using stool specimens collected from children and adults with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, N; Hassan, F; Barclay, L; Langley, C; Vinjé, J; Bryant, P W; George, K St; Mosher, L; Matthews-Greer, J M; Rocha, M A; Beenhouwer, D O; Harrison, C J; Moffatt, M; Shastri, N; Selvarangan, R

    2018-04-10

    Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the United States. Widespread prevalence necessitates implementation of accurate norovirus detection assays in clinical diagnostic laboratories. To evaluate RIDA ® GENE norovirus GI/GII real-time RT-PCR assay (RGN RT-PCR) using stool samples from patients with sporadic AGE. Patients between 14 days to 101 years of age with symptoms of AGE were enrolled prospectively at four sites across the United States during 2014-2015. Stool specimens were screened for the presence of norovirus RNA by the RGN RT-PCR assay. Results were compared with a reference method that included conventional RT-PCR and sequencing of a partial region of the 5'end of the norovirus ORF2 gene. A total of 259 (36.0%) of 719 specimens tested positive for norovirus by the reference method. The RGN RT-PCR assay detected norovirus in 244 (94%) of these 259 norovirus positive specimens. The sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of the RGN RT-PCR assay for detecting norovirus genogroup (G) I was 82.8% (63.5-93.5) and 99.1% (98.0-99.6) and for GII was 94.8% (90.8-97.2) and 98.6% (96.9-99.4), respectively. Seven specimens tested positive by the RGN-RT PCR that were negative by the reference method. The fifteen false negative samples were typed as GII.4 Sydney, GII.13, GI.3, GI.5, GI.2, GII.1, and GII.3 in the reference method. The RGN RT-PCR assay had a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of norovirus in stool specimens from patients with sporadic AGE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Clinical significance of diminution of high-density areas in basal cisterns following acute aneurysmal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Takeda, Rihei; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Sato, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hidetoshi

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed the sequential changes in the high density in basal cisterns in the acute stage of aneurysmal bleeding. We could recognize Group 3 (clot or thick layer), according to Fisher's classification, in 66.3% of the intracranial aneurysms at admission (83 cases). In the early stage of an intracranial aneurysm, a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected in all the patients on CT. We evaluated 40 cases of Group 3 sequentially on CT. This investigation showed that 55% of the Grade I--Ii group, 27.3% of the Grade III group, and 11.1% of the Grade IV--V group changed to Group 2(thin or diffuse pattern) in approximately 20 hours on the average. As for the correlation between the high density in basal cisterns and the neurological condition (Hunt and Hess), we found a neurological improvement in the decreased-high-density group. The unchanged- high-density group showed deterioration. Compared with the decreased-high-density group, the unchanged group showed a greater increase in the CVI (Cerebro Ventricular Index). RI ( 111 In) cisternography also showed a disturbance of the CSF circulation. To lower the vasospasm it is important to decrease the high density in an early stage by carrying out CSF. It was considered to be prognostic when a CT scan was performed within 24 hours after SAH. (author)

  13. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

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    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  14. Correlation of adjusted blood requirement index with treatment intervention and outcome in patients presenting with acute variceal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaberi, B.F.; Riaz, M.F.; Sultan, B.A.; Gobindram, P.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the correlation of ABRI with treatment intervention and outcome as discharged or expired in patients of acute variceal bleed. Records of all the patients admitted in Medical Unit-IV, Civil Hospital Karachi with acute variceal bleeding during January 2004 to October 2006 were retrieved. Use of vasoactive agents (Terlipressin/Octreotide), endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and outcome (Discharged/Expired) were noted. ABRI was calculated by the following formula. ABRI= Blood Units Transfused/((Final Hematocrit-Initial Hematocrit)+0.01) Mean ABRI were compared by student's 't' test according to vasoactive therapy, EBL and outcome. Correlation of ABRI with the same variables was also studied by plotting Receiver Operative Curves (ROC). Seventy six patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were selected. No statistically significant difference was observed in the mean ABRI scores when compared according to vasoactive drug administration, EBL and outcome. Significant correlation with mortality was seen on ROC plot with significantly larger area under the curve. (author)

  15. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding following aortic valve replacement in a patient with Heyde's sindrome. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, G D; Salvatori, F; Masone, S; Simeoli, I; Rega, M; Celiento, M; Persico, G

    2007-09-01

    A 58-year old man was admitted to the hospital because of melena. He had a 1-year history of mechanical aortic valve replacement and coronary stent placement because of myocardial infarction and he was taking warfarin and clopidogrel. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for bleeding. Capsule endoscopy showed bleeding diffuse angiodysplasia of the small bowel. The patient was treated with octreotide 20 mg, at monthly interval. After 25 months there had been no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The case suggests that mechanical valve replacement may not prevent gastrointestinal bleeding in Heyde syndrome and that octreotide treatment should be considered in these cases.

  16. PROPOSAL OF A CLINICAL CARE PATHWAY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Nakao, Frank Shigueo; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Paulo, Gustavo Andrade de; Libera, Ermelindo Della

    2015-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding implies significant clinical and economic repercussions. The correct establishment of the latest therapies for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The use of clinical pathways for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with shorter hospital stay and lower hospital costs. The primary objective is the development of a clinical care pathway for the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to be used in tertiary hospital. It was conducted an extensive literature review on the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, contained in the primary and secondary information sources. The result is a clinical care pathway for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with evidence of recent bleeding, diagnosed by melena or hematemesis in the last 12 hours, who are admitted in the emergency rooms and intensive care units of tertiary hospitals. In this compact and understandable pathway, it is well demonstrated the management since the admission, with definition of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, passing through the initial clinical treatment, posterior guidance for endoscopic therapy, and referral to rescue therapies in cases of persistent or rebleeding. It was also included the care that must be taken before hospital discharge for all patients who recover from an episode of bleeding. The introduction of a clinical care pathway for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding may contribute to standardization of medical practices, decrease in waiting time for medications and services, length of hospital stay and costs.

  17. PROPOSAL OF A CLINICAL CARE PATHWAY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cavalcante FRANCO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Upper gastrointestinal bleeding implies significant clinical and economic repercussions. The correct establishment of the latest therapies for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The use of clinical pathways for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with shorter hospital stay and lower hospital costs. Objective - The primary objective is the development of a clinical care pathway for the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to be used in tertiary hospital. Methods - It was conducted an extensive literature review on the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, contained in the primary and secondary information sources. Results - The result is a clinical care pathway for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with evidence of recent bleeding, diagnosed by melena or hematemesis in the last 12 hours, who are admitted in the emergency rooms and intensive care units of tertiary hospitals. In this compact and understandable pathway, it is well demonstrated the management since the admission, with definition of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, passing through the initial clinical treatment, posterior guidance for endoscopic therapy, and referral to rescue therapies in cases of persistent or rebleeding. It was also included the care that must be taken before hospital discharge for all patients who recover from an episode of bleeding. Conclusion - The introduction of a clinical care pathway for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding may contribute to standardization of medical practices, decrease in waiting time for medications and services, length of hospital stay and costs.

  18. Late GI and GU complications in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Lee, W. Robert; Hunt, Margie A.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Peter, Ruth S.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the factors that predict late GI and GU morbidity in radiation treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Seven hundred twelve consecutive prostate cancer patients treated at this institution between 1986 and 1994 (inclusive) with conformal or conventional techniques were included in the analysis. Patients had at least 3 months follow-up and received at least 65 Gy. Late GI Grade 3 morbidity was rectal bleeding (requiring three or more procedure) or proctitis. Late Grade 3 GU morbidity was cystitis or structure. Multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to assess factors related to the complication-free survival. The factors assessed were age, occurrence of side effects ≥ Grade 2 during treatment, irradiated volume parameters (use of pelvic fields, treatment of seminal vesicles to full dose or 57 Gy, and use of additional rectal shielding), dose, comorbidities, and other treatments (hormonal manipulation, TURP). Results: Acute GI and GU side effects (Grade 2 or higher ) were noted in 246 and 201 patients, respectively; 67 of these patients exhibited both. GI side effects were not correlated with GU side effects acutely. Late and acute morbidities were correlated (both GI and GU). Fifteen of the 712 patients expressed Grade 3 or 4 GI injuries 3 to 32 months after the end of treatment, with a mean of 14.3 months. One hundred fifteen patients expressed Grade 2 or higher GI morbidity (mean: 13.7 months). The 43 Grade 2 or higher GU morbidities occurred significantly later (mean: 22.7 months). Central axis dose was the only independent variable significantly related to the incidence of late GI morbidity on MVA. No treatment volume parameters were significant for Grade 3. The following parameters were significantly related (by MVA) to Grade 2 GI morbidity: central axis dose, use of the increased rectal shielding, androgen deprivation therapy starting before RT. Acute and late GI morbidities were highly correlated. History of diabetes, treatment of

  19. Bleeding Peptic Ulcer - Tertiary Center Experience: Epidemiology, Treatment and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Ivan; Stojsavljević, Sanja; Hrabar, Davor; Kralj, Dominik; Bišćanin, Alen; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Zovak, Mario; Babić, Žarko; Bohnec, Sven; Budimir, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate epidemiological, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) with special reference to peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The study included 2198 consecutive patients referred to our emergency department due to acute UGIB from January 2008 to December 2012. All patients underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy within 24 hours of admission, and 842 patients diagnosed with PUB were enrolled and prospectively followed-up. The cumulative incidence of UGIB was 126/100,000 in the 5-year period. Two out of five patients had a bleeding peptic ulcer; in total, 440 (52.3%) had bleeding gastric ulcer, 356 (42.3%) had bleeding duodenal ulcer, 17 (2%) had both bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers, and 29 (3.5%) patients had bleeding ulcers on gastroenteric anastomoses. PUB was more common in men. The mean patient age was 65.9 years. The majority of patients (57%) with PUB were taking agents that attenuate the cytoprotective function of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Rebleeding occurred in 77 (9.7%) patients and 47 (5.9%) patients required surgical intervention. The 30-day morality was 5.2% and 10% of patients died from uncontrolled bleeding and concomitant diseases. In conclusion, PUB is the main cause of UGIB, characterized by a significant rebleeding rate and mortality.

  20. Endoscopic findings of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadayat, R.; Rehman, A.U.; Gandapur, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30-40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastro-duodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age ?50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used. Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. Results: The mean age was 57.84 ± 6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). Conclusion: In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes. (author)

  1. ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadayat, Rania; Jehangiri, Attique-ur-Rehman; Gul, Rahid; Khan, Adil Naseer; Said, Khalid; Gandapur, Asadullah

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30-40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastroduodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology & Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age 50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used, Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. The mean age was 57.84 +/- 6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes.

  2. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (2015, Nanchang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Li, Zhao Shen

    2016-02-01

    Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) is one of the most common medical emergencies in China and worldwide. In 2009, we published the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" for the patients in China; however, during the past years numerous studies on the diagnosis and treatment of ANVUGIB have been conducted, and the management of ANVUGIB needs to be updated. The guidelines were updated after the databases including PubMed, Embase and CNKI were searched to retrieve the clinical trials on the management of ANVUGIB. The clinical trials were evaluated for high-quality evidence, and the advances in definitions, diagnosis, etiology, severity evaluation, treatment and prognosis of ANVUGIB were carefully reviewed, the recommendations were then proposed. After several rounds of discussions and revisions among the national experts of digestive endoscopy, gastroenterology, radiology and intensive care, the 2015 version of "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" was successfully developed by the Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, National Medical Journal of China, Chinese Journal of Digestion and Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy. It shall be noted that although much progress has been made, the clinical management of ANVUGIB still needs further improvement and refinement, and high-quality randomized trials are required in the future. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-01-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy

  4. Major bleeding in acute coronary syndromes: Incidence, predictors and prognostic value

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    Walid Ammar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Major bleeding is a powerful independent predictor of in-hospital and 30 day mortality in patients with ACS. Advanced age, renal insufficiency, high clopidogrel loading and invasive coronary procedures are independent risk factors for major bleeding in ACS patients.

  5. The value of multidetector-row computed tomography for localization of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding

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    Chang, Wei-Chou [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shih-Hung [Department of Emergency Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wei-Kuo [Division of Gasteroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chang-Hsien [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Bao [Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chih-Yung, E-mail: chougo2002@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: There are no simple guidelines on when to perform multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for diagnosis of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB). We used a risk scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic power of MDCT for patients with obscure AGIB. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with obscure AGIB who were referred for an MDCT scan after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment at presentation were studied. We recorded clinical data and calculated Blatchford score for each patient. Patients who required transfusion more than 500 mL of blood to maintain the vital signs were classified as high-risk patients. Two radiologists independently reviewed and categorized MDCT signs of obscure AGIB. Discordant findings were resolved by consensus. One-way ANOVA was used to compare clinical data between two groups; kappa statistics were used to estimate agreement on MDCT findings between radiologists. Results: Of the 92 patients, 62 (67.4%) were classified as high-risk patients. Blatchford scores of high-risk patients were significantly greater than those of low-risk patients. Sensitivity for MDCT diagnosing obscure AGIB was 81% in high-risk patients, as compared with 50% in the low-risk. When used in conjunction with selection of the cut-off value of 13 in Blatchford scoring system, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCT were 70.9% and 73.7%, respectively. Contrast extravasation was the most specific sign of AGIB (k = .87), recognition of which would have improved diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: With the aid of Blatchford scoring system for evaluating the disease severity, MDCT can localize the bleeders of obscure AGIB more efficiently.

  6. The value of multidetector-row computed tomography for localization of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Chou; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Tung, Ho-Jui; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Yu, Chih-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are no simple guidelines on when to perform multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for diagnosis of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB). We used a risk scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic power of MDCT for patients with obscure AGIB. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with obscure AGIB who were referred for an MDCT scan after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment at presentation were studied. We recorded clinical data and calculated Blatchford score for each patient. Patients who required transfusion more than 500 mL of blood to maintain the vital signs were classified as high-risk patients. Two radiologists independently reviewed and categorized MDCT signs of obscure AGIB. Discordant findings were resolved by consensus. One-way ANOVA was used to compare clinical data between two groups; kappa statistics were used to estimate agreement on MDCT findings between radiologists. Results: Of the 92 patients, 62 (67.4%) were classified as high-risk patients. Blatchford scores of high-risk patients were significantly greater than those of low-risk patients. Sensitivity for MDCT diagnosing obscure AGIB was 81% in high-risk patients, as compared with 50% in the low-risk. When used in conjunction with selection of the cut-off value of 13 in Blatchford scoring system, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCT were 70.9% and 73.7%, respectively. Contrast extravasation was the most specific sign of AGIB (k = .87), recognition of which would have improved diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: With the aid of Blatchford scoring system for evaluating the disease severity, MDCT can localize the bleeders of obscure AGIB more efficiently.

  7. Causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding on colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.U.; Gul, R.; Khursheed, L.; Hadayat, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bleeding from anus is usually referred as rectal bleeding but actually rectal bleeding is defined as bleeding from lower colon or rectum, which means bleeding from a place distal to ligament of Treitz. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of different causes of rectal bleeding in patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Methods: One hundred and seventy-five patients with evidence of rectal bleed, without gender discrimination were selected by non-probability convenient sampling from the out-patient department and general medical wards. Patients with suspected upper GI source of bleeding; acute infectious bloody diarrhoea and any coagulopathy were excluded from the study. All patients were subjected to fibre optic colonoscopy after preparation of the gut and findings were recorded. Where necessary, biopsy samples were also taken. Diagnosis was based on colonoscopic findings. Results: A total of 175 patients (92 males and 83 females) with mean age 35.81±9.18 years were part of the study. Colonoscopy showed abnormal findings in 150 (85.7%) patients. The commonest diagnosis was haemorrhoids, which was found in 39 (22.3%) patients. It was followed by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 30 (17.1%) patients, solitary rectal ulcer in 13 (7.4%) patients and polyps in 25 (14.3%) patients. Other less frequent findings were non-specific inflammation and fungating growths in rectum. Conclusion: Haemorrhoids was the leading cause of bleeding per rectum in this study, followed by evidence of IBD while infrequent findings of polyps and diverticuli indicate that these are uncommon in this region. (author)

  8. Clinical review: Bleeding - a notable complication of treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes: incidence, predictors, classification, impact on prognosis, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the incidence, predictors, classification, impact on prognosis, and management of bleeding associated with the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The issue of bleeding complications is related to the continual improvement of ischemic heart disease treatment, which involves mainly (a) the widespread use of coronary angiography, (b) developments in percutaneous coronary interventions, and (c) the introduction of new antithrombotics. Bleeding has become an important health and economic problem and has an incidence of 2.0% to 17%. Bleeding significantly influences both the short- and long-term prognoses. If a group of patients at higher risk of bleeding complications can be identified according to known risk factors and a risk scoring system can be developed, we may focus more on preventive measures that should help us to reduce the incidence of bleeding. PMID:24093465

  9. Derivation and validation of a novel risk score for safe discharge after acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Kathryn; Jairath, Vipul; Uberoi, Raman; Guy, Richard; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Mortensen, Neil; Murphy, Mike F; Collins, Gary S

    2017-09-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a common reason for emergency hospital admission, and identification of patients at low risk of harm, who are therefore suitable for outpatient investigation, is a clinical and research priority. We aimed to develop and externally validate a simple risk score to identify patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding who could safely avoid hospital admission. We undertook model development with data from the National Comparative Audit of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding from 143 hospitals in the UK in 2015. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to identify predictors of safe discharge, defined as the absence of rebleeding, blood transfusion, therapeutic intervention, 28 day readmission, or death. The model was converted into a simplified risk scoring system and was externally validated in 288 patients admitted with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (184 safely discharged) from two UK hospitals (Charing Cross Hospital, London, and Hammersmith Hospital, London) that had not contributed data to the development cohort. We calculated C statistics for the new model and did a comparative assessment with six previously developed risk scores. Of 2336 prospectively identified admissions in the development cohort, 1599 (68%) were safely discharged. Age, sex, previous admission for lower gastrointestinal bleeding, rectal examination findings, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and haemoglobin concentration strongly discriminated safe discharge in the development cohort (C statistic 0·84, 95% CI 0·82-0·86) and in the validation cohort (0·79, 0·73-0·84). Calibration plots showed the new risk score to have good calibration in the validation cohort. The score was better than the Rockall, Blatchford, Strate, BLEED, AIMS65, and NOBLADS scores in predicting safe discharge. A score of 8 or less predicts a 95% probability of safe discharge. We developed and validated a novel clinical prediction model with good discriminative

  10. Early Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Vietnamese Patients with Acute Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: A Prospective Study

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    Duc Trong Quach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate H. pylori infection rate and evaluate a combined set of tests for H. pylori diagnosis in Vietnamese patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding (PUD. Methods. Consecutive patients with acute PUB were enrolled prospectively. Rapid urease test (RUT with 3 biopsies was carried out randomly. Patients without RUT or with negative RUT received urea breath test (UBT and serological and urinary H. pylori antibody tests. H. pylori was considered positive if RUT or any noninvasive test was positive. Patients were divided into group A (RUT plus noninvasive tests and group B (only noninvasive tests. Results. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 94.2% (161/171. Groups A and B had no differences in demographic characteristics, bleeding severity, endoscopic findings, and proton pump inhibitor use. H. pylori-positive rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (98.2% versus 86.7%, p=0.004. The positive rate of RUT was similar at each biopsy site but significantly increased if RUT results from 2 or 3 sites were combined (p<0.05. Conclusions. H. pylori infection rate in Vietnamese patients with acute PUB is high. RUT is an excellent test if at least 2 biopsies are taken.

  11. Superselective transcatheter renal arterial embolization for acute renal bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency: its clinical efficacy and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tingyang; Zhou Bing; Yu Wenqiang; Luo Zuyan; Mao Yingmin; Chen Fanghong; Li Bo; Yuan Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical efficacy and complications of super selective renal arterial embolization in treating acute renal arterial bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency, and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on the renal function. Methods: During the period of January 2000 December 2009, super selective renal arterial embolization was performed in our institution for acute renal bleeding in 13 patients with renal insufficiency. The complete clinical and imaging materials of all patients were properly collected. The clinical effectiveness, the renal function, the extent of embolization and the complications were observed and the relationship between each other was analyzed. Results: The embolization procedure was successfully completed in all patients with a technical success rate of 100%. The mean embolized territory was 22% of a single kidney. Three days after the procedure, the hemoglobin level, hematocrit, blood pressure and heart rate were considerably improved in all patients. Compared to the corresponding preoperative data, all the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05), while the blood urea nitrogen was markedly decreased (P=0.011). Post embolization syndrome occurred in 5 patients and progressive aggravation of the renal function was observed in one patient, who had to receive hemodialysis finally. The embolized territory in patients occurring complications was larger than that in patients without occurring complications (U=1.500, P=0.006). Conclusion: Super selective renal arterial embolization is an effective and safe treatment for acute renal arterial bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency, the therapy will not significantly worsen the renal function. Appropriate and reasonable extent of embolization, as small as possible, is the key point for reducing the complications. (authors)

  12. [Related factors to re-bleeding and mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding at Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Pérez, Víctor Felipe; Raymundo Cajo, Roxana Magali; Gutiérrez de Aranguren, Constantino Fernando

    2013-01-01

    To determine related factors to 5 days re-bleeding and 6 week-mortality of an episode of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Observational, descriptive, co relational, retrospective study. In this study were included the cirrhotic patients who entered to Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru, between January 2006 and February 2012 with suspicion of variceal bleeding. Were excluded patients who bled from nonvariceal origin, or that did not have the data in clinical history to calculate the Child Pugh score, the Model for terminal diseases of the liver (MELD), or the endoscopic report detailing the bleeding source and the presence of esophageal and/or gastric varices. We include 63 patients, 35 (55.6%) were men. The median of age was of 64 years. 26 of them (41.3%) were Child Pugh C, where as the median of MELD score was 9. The multivariate analysis found that the Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality (p=0,003), where as the presence of active bleeding during endoscopy (p=0.012) and the value of creatinine (p=0.012) were related to 5 days re-bleeding. The Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Active bleeding during endoscopy and the value of creatinine were related to 5 days re-bleeding.

  13. Use of heparin in the investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; O'Donovan, N.; Somers, S.; Gill, G.; Sridhar, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine if the administration of heparin improves the predictive value of angiography in the investigation of obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. 18 patients with a history of chronic GI bleeding were investigated with angiography. For 6 patients, the cause of GI bleeding was established with angiography; the 12 patients who had negative results were given heparin for 24 h and were reassessed with angiography. After heparin administration, the source of GI bleeding was determined with angiography for 6 of the remaining 12 patients. Thus, heparinization increased diagnostic yield from 33% (6 of 18) to 67% (12 of 18). No significant complications, such as uncontrolled GI bleeding, occurred. Heparinization improves the diagnostic yield of angiography when obscure GI bleeding is being investigated. (author)

  14. Comparison of three scoring systems for risk stratification in elderly patients wıth acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Karakaya, Fatih; Tüzün, Ali; Gençtürk, Zeynep Bıyıklı

    2017-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires rapid assessment and dynamic management. Several scoring systems are used to predict mortality and rebleeding in such cases. The aim of the present study was to compare three scoring systems for predicting short-term mortality, rebleeding, duration of hospitalization and the need for blood transfusion in elderly patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The present study included 335 elderly patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Pre- and post-endoscopic Rockall, Glasgow-Blatchford and AIMS65 scores were calculated. The ability of these scores to predict rebleeding, mortality, duration of hospitalization and the need for blood transfusion was determined. Pre- (4.5) and post-endoscopic (7.5) Rockall scores were superior to the Glasgow-Blatchford (12.5) score for predicting mortality (P = 0.006 and P = 0.015). Likewise, pre- (4.5) and post-endoscopic Rockall scores were superior to the respective Glasgow-Blatchford scores for predicting rebleeding (P = 0.013 and P = 0.03). There was an association between duration of hospitalization and mortality; as the duration of hospitalization increased the mortality rate increased. In all, 94% of patients hospitalized for a mean of 5 days were alive versus 56.1% of those hospitalized for 20 days, and 20.2% of those hospitalized for 40 days. In elderly patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the Rockall score is clinically more useful for predicting mortality and rebleeding than the Glasgow-Blatchford and AIMS65 scores; however, for predicting duration of hospitalization and the need for blood transfusion, the Glasgow-Blatchford score is superior to the Rockall and AIMS65 scores. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 575-583. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Restrictive vs Liberal Blood Transfusion for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Rationale and Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Feasibility Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C.; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J.; Mora, Ana; Dyer, Claire; Stokes, Elizabeth A.; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Bailey, Adam A.; Dallal, Helen; Everett, Simon M.; James, Martin W.; Stanley, Adrian J.; Church, Nicholas; Darwent, Melanie; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Reckless, Ian; Campbell, Helen E.; Meredith, Sarah; Palmer, Kelvin R.; Logan, Richard F.A.; Travis, Simon P.L.; Walsh, Timothy S.; Murphy, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is the commonest reason for hospitalization with hemorrhage in the UK and the leading indication for transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Observational studies suggest an association between more liberal RBC transfusion and adverse patient outcomes, and a recent randomised trial reported increased further bleeding and mortality with a liberal transfusion policy. TRIGGER (Transfusion in Gastrointestinal Bleeding) is a pragmatic, cluster randomized trial which aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of implementing a restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion policy in adult patients admitted with AUGIB. The trial will take place in 6 UK hospitals, and each centre will be randomly allocated to a transfusion policy. Clinicians throughout each hospital will manage all eligible patients according to the transfusion policy for the 6-month trial recruitment period. In the restrictive centers, patients become eligible for RBC transfusion when their hemoglobin is bleeding, mortality, thromboembolic events, and infections. Quality of life will be measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at day 28, and the costs associated with hospitalization for AUGIB in the UK will be estimated. Consent will be sought from participants or their representatives according to patient capacity for use of routine hospital data and day 28 follow up. The study has ethical approval for conduct in England and Scotland. Results will be analysed according to a pre-defined statistical analysis plan and disseminated in peer reviewed publications to relevant stakeholders. The results of this study will inform the feasibility and design of a phase III randomized trial. PMID:23706959

  16. In-111-labeled leukocyte imaging: false-positive study due to acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.F.; Rudd, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    A case is reported in which In-111-labeled leukocytes accumulated in the left colon on a 24-hr delayed image. This was found to be secondary to an upper gastrointestinal bleed in progress at the time of injection of the radiolabeled leukocytes

  17. Pharmaco-induced vasospasm therapy for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Huei-Lung, E-mail: hlliang@vghks.gov.tw [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chia-Ling [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu [Department of Radiology, Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung. Taiwan (China); Lin, Yih-Huie; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Pan, Huay-Ben [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To report a novel technique and preliminary clinical outcomes in managing lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB). Materials and methods: Eighteen LGIB patients (11 men and 7 women, mean age: 66.2 years) were treated with artificially induced vasospasm therapy by semi-selective catheterization technique. Epinephrine bolus injection was used to initiate the vascular spasm, and followed by a small dose vasopressin infusion (3–5 units/h) for 3 h. The technical success, clinical success, recurrent bleeding and major complications of this study were evaluated and reported. Results: Sixteen bleeders were in the superior mesenteric artery and 2 in the inferior mesenteric artery. All patients achieved successful immediate hemostasis. Early recurrent bleeding (<30 days) was found in 4 patients with local and new-foci re-bleeding in 2 (11.1%) each. Repeated vasospasm therapy was given to 3 patients, with clinical success in 2. Technical success for the 21 bleeding episodes was 100%. Lesion-based and patient-based primary and overall clinical successes were achieved in 89.4% (17/19) and 77.7% (14/18), and 94.7% (18/19) and 88.8% (16/18), respectively. None of our patients had complications of bowel ischemia or other major procedure-related complications. The one year survival of our patients was 72.2 ± 10.6%. Conclusions: Pharmaco-induced vasospasm therapy seems to be a safe and effective method to treat LGIB from our small patient-cohort study. Further evaluation with large series study is warranted. Considering the advanced age and complex medical problems of these patients, this treatment may be considered as an alternative approach for interventional radiologists in management of LGIB.

  18. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffroy, Romaric; Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  19. Risk for Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Ticagrelor Compared With Aspirin After Transient Ischemic Attack or Acute Ischemic Stroke in the SOCRATES Study (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, J Donald; Aunes, Maria; Albers, Gregory W; Amarenco, Pierre; Bokelund-Singh, Sara; Denison, Hans; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Jahreskog, Marianne; Jonasson, Jenny; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-09-05

    Patients with minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack are at high risk for subsequent stroke, and more potent antiplatelet therapy in the acute setting is needed. However, the potential benefit of more intense antiplatelet therapy must be assessed in relation to the risk for major bleeding. The SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes) was the first trial with ticagrelor in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in which the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were compared with those of aspirin. The main safety objective was assessment of PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)-defined major bleeds on treatment, with special focus on intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH). An independent adjudication committee blinded to study treatment classified bleeds according to the PLATO, TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), and GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definitions. The definitions of ICrH and major bleeding excluded cerebral microbleeds and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of cerebral infarctions so that the definitions better discriminated important events in the acute stroke population. A total of 13 130 of 13 199 randomized patients received at least 1 dose of study drug and were included in the safety analysis set. PLATO major bleeds occurred in 31 patients (0.5%) on ticagrelor and 38 patients (0.6%) on aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.34). The most common locations of major bleeds were intracranial and gastrointestinal. ICrH was reported in 12 patients (0.2%) on ticagrelor and 18 patients (0.3%) on aspirin. Thirteen of all 30 ICrHs (4 on ticagrelor and 9 on aspirin) were hemorrhagic strokes, and 4 (2 in each group) were symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of brain infarctions. The ICrHs were spontaneous in 6 and 13, traumatic in 3 and 3, and procedural in 3 and 2

  20. X-ray diagnostic features of acute bleeding ulcers of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbatenko, M.K.; Selina, I.E.; Chekalina, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is based on the analysis of clinical, X-ray, and morphological studies in 74 patients with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The paper presents the specific features of X-ray studies of patients with bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. X-ray studies shout be twice performed in these patients. The first study is conducted if gastroscopic findings are unclear, the repeated one is carried out while assessing changes in disease regression. X-ray diagnosis of bleeding ulcers is determined by their sites and the nature of an ulcerous process. The X-ray diagnosis of chronic callous gastric ulcers accompanied by hemorrhage was based on the detection of two direct symptoms of a niche on the gastric outlines and configuration and an inflammatory mound on the gastric outline and configuration. That of chronic bleeding ulcers of the duodenal bulb is based not only on searches niche, but other signs of the disease - the deformed organ, and the magnitude of a periprocess. 10 refs., 5 figs

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  2. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (TRIGGER): a pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J; Mora, Ana; James, Martin W; Stanley, Adrian J; Everett, Simon M; Bailey, Adam A; Dallal, Helen; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Darwent, Melanie; Church, Nicholas; Reckless, Ian; Hodge, Renate; Dyer, Claire; Meredith, Sarah; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Palmer, Kelvin R; Logan, Richard F; Travis, Simon P; Walsh, Timothy S; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-07-11

    Transfusion thresholds for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding are controversial. So far, only three small, underpowered studies and one single-centre trial have been done. Findings from the single-centre trial showed reduced mortality with restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. We aimed to assess whether a multicentre, cluster randomised trial is a feasible method to substantiate or refute this finding. In this pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial, done in six university hospitals in the UK, we enrolled all patients aged 18 years or older with new presentations of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, irrespective of comorbidity, except for exsanguinating haemorrhage. We randomly assigned hospitals (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence (random permuted block size of 6, without stratification or matching) to either a restrictive (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 80 g/L) or liberal (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 100 g/L) RBC transfusion policy. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, protocol adherence, haemoglobin concentration, RBC exposure, selection bias, and information to guide design and economic evaluation of the phase 3 trial. Main exploratory clinical outcomes were further bleeding and mortality at day 28. We did analyses on all enrolled patients for whom an outcome was available. This trial is registered, ISRCTN85757829 and NCT02105532. Between Sept 3, 2012, and March 1, 2013, we enrolled 936 patients across six hospitals (403 patients in three hospitals with a restrictive policy and 533 patients in three hospitals with a liberal policy). Recruitment rate was significantly higher for the liberal than for the restrictive policy (62% vs 55%; p=0·04). Despite some baseline imbalances, Rockall and Blatchford risk scores were identical between policies. Protocol adherence was 96% (SD 10) in

  3. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Five-year experience from one centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the commonest emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Objective To assess the frequency of erosive gastropathy and duodenal ulcer as a cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding as well as its relation to age, gender and known risk factors. METHOD We conducted retrospective observational analysis of emergency endoscopy reports from the records of the Emergency Department of Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Data consisted of patients' demographics, endoscopic findings and potential risk factors. Results During the period 2000-2005, three thousand nine hundred and fifty four emergency upper endoscopies were performed for acute bleeding. In one quarter of cases, acute gastric erosions were the actual cause of bleeding. One half of them were associated with excessive consumption of salicylates and NSAIDs. In most of the examined cases, bleeding stopped spontaneously, while 7.6% of the cases required endoscopic intervention. Duodenal ulcer was detected as a source of bleeding in 1320 (33.4% patients and was significantly associated with a male gender (71.8% and salicylate or NSAID abuse (59.1% (χ2-test; p=0.007. Conclusion Erosive gastropathy and duodenal ulcer represent a significant cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for up to 60% of all cases that required emergency endoscopy during the 5- year period. Consumption of NSAIDs and salicylates was associated more frequently with bleeding from a duodenal ulcer than with erosive gastropathy leading to a conclusion that we must explore other causes of erosive gastropathy more thoroughly. .

  4. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  5. Transcatheter arterial embolization for endoscopically unmanageable non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Hee; Park, Jae Myung; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk; Ahn, Hyo Jun; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is a therapeutic option for endoscopically unmanageable upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We aimed to assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes of TAE for acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding and to identify predictors of recurrent bleeding within 30 days. Visceral angiography was performed in 66 patients (42 men, 24 women; mean age, 60.3 ± 12.7 years) who experienced acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding that failed to be controlled by endoscopy during a 7-year period. Clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes included technical success rates, complications, and 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates. TAE was feasible in 59 patients. The technical success rate was 98%. Rebleeding within 30 days was observed in 47% after an initial TAE and was managed with re-embolization in 8, by endoscopic intervention in 5, by surgery in 2, and by conservative care in 12 patients. The 30-day overall mortality rate was 42.4%. In the case of initial endoscopic hemostasis failure (n = 34), 31 patients underwent angiographic embolization, which was successful in 30 patients (96.8%). Rebleeding occurred in 15 patients (50%), mainly because of malignancy. Two factors were independent predictors of rebleeding within 30 days by multivariate analysis: coagulopathy (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-15.29; p = 0.021) and embolization in ≥2 territories (OR = 4.93; 95% CI: 1.43-17.04; p = 0.012). Catheterization-related complications included hepatic artery dissection and splenic embolization. TAE controlled acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding effectively. TAE may be considered when endoscopic therapy is unavailable or unsuccessful. Correction of coagulopathy before TAE is recommended.

  6. Major bleeding risks of different low-molecular-weight heparin agents: a cohort study in 12 934 patients treated for acute venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, N; Biedermann, J S; van der Meer, F J M; Cannegieter, S C; Wiersma, N; Vermaas, H W; Reitsma, P H; Kruip, M J H A; Lijfering, W M

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Low-molecular-weight-heparins (LMWH) kinetics differ which may result in different bleeding risks. A cohort of 12 934 venous thrombosis patients on LMWH was followed until major bleeding. The absolute major bleeding risk was low among patients registered at the anticoagulation clinic. Once-daily dosing was associated with a lower bleeding risk as compared with twice-daily. Background Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are considered members of a class of drugs with similar anticoagulant properties. However, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between LMWHs differ, which may result in different bleeding risks. As these agents are used by many patients, small differences may lead to a large effect on numbers of major bleeding events. Objectives To determine major bleeding risks for different LMWH agents and dosing schedules. Methods A cohort of acute venous thrombosis patients from four anticoagulation clinics who used an LMWH and a vitamin K antagonist were followed until they ceased LMWH treatment or until major bleeding. Exposures were classified according to different types of LMWHs and for b.i.d. and o.d. use. Cumulative incidences for major bleeding per 1000 patients and risk ratios were calculated and adjusted for study center. Results The study comprised 12 934 patients with a mean age of 59 years; 6218 (48%) were men. The cumulative incidence of major bleeding was 2.5 per 1000 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.5). Enoxaparin b.i.d. or o.d. was associated with a relative bleeding risk of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.2-17.5) compared with nadroparin o.d. In addition, a nadroparin b.i.d. dosing schedule was associated with a 2.0-fold increased major bleeding risk (95% CI, 0.8-5.1) as compared with a nadroparin o.d. dosing schedule. Conclusions Absolute major bleeding rates were low for all LMWH agents and dosing schedules in a large unselected cohort. Nevertheless, twice-daily dosing with nadroparin appeared to be associated with an increased

  7. Effect of endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in treatment of acute esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaoxing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and safety of endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in the treatment of esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding (EGVB in children. MethodsThe clinical data of 35 children with acute EGVB who were treated with endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in Children′s Hospital of Baoji Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from August 2010 to August 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The emergency response rate, rebleeding rate, and incidence of complications after the treatment were analyzed statistically. ResultsThirty-five patients received 46 times of endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in total. The response rate to the initial injection was 95.6% (44/46. The volume of cyanoacrylate injected was 0.2-0.6 ml, with a mean volume of 0.4±0.2 ml. The emergency hemostasis rate was 93.4% (43/46, the rebleeding rate was 11.4% (4/35, and the cycle for 4 patients with the recurrence of bleeding to be cured was 1.2-23.0 months (mean 121±10.9 months. One patient experienced abdominal pain, and no patients experienced ectopic embolism. Two patients died after injection. ConclusionFrequent, small-volume endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate is an effective and convenient therapeutic method for EGVB in children, has few complications, and holds promise for clinical application.

  8. Early Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation: Effect of Anticoagulation and Its Timing: The RAF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Bubba, Valentina; Silvestri, Ilenia; Lees, Kennedy R

    2015-08-01

    The best time for administering anticoagulation therapy in acute cardioembolic stroke remains unclear. This prospective cohort study of patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation, evaluated (1) the risk of recurrent ischemic event and severe bleeding; (2) the risk factors for recurrence and bleeding; and (3) the risks of recurrence and bleeding associated with anticoagulant therapy and its starting time after the acute stroke. The primary outcome of this multicenter study was the composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack, symptomatic systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding and major extracranial bleeding within 90 days from acute stroke. Of the 1029 patients enrolled, 123 had 128 events (12.6%): 77 (7.6%) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism, 37 (3.6%) symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and 14 (1.4%) major extracranial bleeding. At 90 days, 50% of the patients were either deceased or disabled (modified Rankin score ≥3), and 10.9% were deceased. High CHA2DS2-VASc score, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large ischemic lesion and type of anticoagulant were predictive factors for primary study outcome. At adjusted Cox regression analysis, initiating anticoagulants 4 to 14 days from stroke onset was associated with a significant reduction in primary study outcome, compared with initiating treatment before 4 or after 14 days: hazard ratio 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.30-0.93). About 7% of the patients treated with oral anticoagulants alone had an outcome event compared with 16.8% and 12.3% of the patients treated with low molecular weight heparins alone or followed by oral anticoagulants, respectively (P=0.003). Acute stroke in atrial fibrillation patients is associated with high rates of ischemic recurrence and major bleeding at 90 days. This study has observed that high CHA2DS2-VASc score, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large ischemic lesions, and type of anticoagulant administered

  9. Impact of INR monitoring, reversal agent use, heparin bridging, and anticoagulant interruption on rebleeding and thromboembolism in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB during the pre-endoscopic period has not been fully addressed in American, European, or Asian guidelines. This study sought to evaluate the risks of rebleeding and thromboembolism in anticoagulated patients with acute GIB.Baseline, endoscopy, and outcome data were reviewed for 314 patients with acute GIB: 157 anticoagulant users and 157 age-, sex-, and important risk-matched non-users. Data were also compared between direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs and warfarin users.Between anticoagulant users and non-users, of whom 70% underwent early endoscopy, no endoscopy-related adverse events or significant differences were found in the rate of endoscopic therapy need, transfusion need, rebleeding, or thromboembolism. Rebleeding was associated with shock, comorbidities, low platelet count and albumin level, and low-dose aspirin use but not HAS-BLED score, any endoscopic results, heparin bridge, or international normalized ratio (INR ≥ 2.5. Risks for thromboembolism were INR ≥ 2.5, difference in onset and pre-endoscopic INR, reversal agent use, and anticoagulant interruption but not CHA2DS2-VASc score, any endoscopic results, or heparin bridge. In patients without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption, there was only one rebleeding event and no thromboembolic events. Warfarin users had a significantly higher transfusion need than DOACs users.Endoscopy appears to be safe for anticoagulant users with acute GIB compared with non-users. Patient background factors were associated with rebleeding, whereas anticoagulant management factors (e.g. INR correction, reversal agent use, and drug interruption were associated with thromboembolism. Early intervention without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption may be warranted for acute GIB.

  10. Co-incidental Plasmodium Knowlesi and Mucormycosis infections presenting with acute kidney injury and lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Arunachalam; Pisharam, Jayakrishnan K; Aung, Hla; Ghazala, Kafeel; Maboud, Khalil; Chong, Vui Heng; Tan, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is frequently reported in Southeast Asian countries and is now widely regarded as the fifth malarial parasite. Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection that can occur in patients with a weakened immune system. We report a case of acute kidney injury secondary to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria infection and mucormycosis fungal infection. In addition, the patient also had lower gastrointestinal bleeding from invasive gastrointestinal mucormycosis. P. knowlesi infection was diagnosed by blood film and mucormycosis was diagnosed by histopathological examination of biopsy specimen of the colon. The patient recovered with antimalarial treatment (Quinine), antifungal treatment (Lipophilic Amphotericin), and supportive hemodialysis treatment. We hypothesize that P. knowlesi malarial infection can lower the immunologic threshold and predisposes vulnerable individuals to rare disseminated fungal infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first P. Knowlesi malaria-associated invasive fungal infection reported in the literature.

  11. Acute alcohol intoxication, diffuse axonal injury and intraventricular bleeding in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Shinoda, Masaki; Fujii, Motoharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Murakata, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of blood alcohol level (BAL) on outcome remains unclear. This study investigated the relationships between BAL, type and number of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), intraventricular bleeding (IVB) and 6-month outcome. This study reviewed 419 patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. First, it compared clinical and radiological characteristics between patients with good recovery and disability. Second, it compared BAL among DAI lesions. Third, it evaluated the correlation between the BAL and severity of IVB, number of DAI and corpus callosum injury lesions. Regardless of BAL, older age, male gender, severe Glasgow Coma Scale score (injury lesions. Acute alcohol intoxication was not associated with type and number of DAI lesion, IVB and disability. This study suggested that a specific type of traumatic lesion, specifically lesion on genu of corpus callosum and IVB, might be more vital for outcome.

  12. Enteral alimentation and gastrointestinal bleeding in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, S K; Hadzima, S K

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in mechanically ventilated ICU patients receiving enteral alimentation was reviewed and compared to bleeding occurring in ventilated patients receiving prophylactic antacids or cimetidine. Of 250 patients admitted to our ICU during a 1-yr time period, 43 ventilated patients were studied. Patients in each group were comparable with respect to age, respiratory diagnosis, number of GI hemorrhage risk factors, and number of ventilator, ICU, and hospital days. Twenty-one patients had evidence of GI bleeding. Fourteen of 20 patients receiving antacids and 7 of 9 patients receiving cimetidine had evidence of GI bleeding. No bleeding occurred in 14 patients receiving enteral alimentation. Complications of enteral alimentation were few and none required discontinuation of enteral alimentation. Our preliminary data suggest the role of enteral alimentation in critically ill patients may include not only protection against malnutrition but also protection against GI bleeding.

  13. Bleeding in acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions: position paper by the Working Group on Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, P.G.; Huber, K.; Andreotti, F.; Arnesen, H.; Atar, D.; Badimon, L.; Bassand, J.P.; De Caterina, R.; Eikelboom, J.A.; Gulba, D.; Hamon, M.; Helft, G.; Fox, K.A.; Kristensen, S.D.; Rao, S.V.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Widimsky, P.; Zeymer, U.; Collet, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding has recently emerged as an important outcome in the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), which is relatively frequent compared with ischaemic outcomes and has important implications in terms of prognosis, outcomes, and costs. In particular, there is evidence that patients

  14. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@126.com [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)

    2013-05-02

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  15. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications

  16. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many possible causes of GI bleeding, including hemorrhoids , peptic ulcers , tears or inflammation in the esophagus, ... blood Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Hemorrhoids Peptic Ulcer National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  17. Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus presenting with GIT Bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kadam; VSV Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in neonatal period is a life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of neonate with respiratory distress and GI bleeding who was diagnosed to have congenital diaphragmatic eventration with Intrathoracic gastric volvulus.

  18. Andexanet Alfa for Acute Major Bleeding Associated with Factor Xa Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Stuart J.; Milling, Truman J.; Eikelboom, John W.; Gibson, C. Michael; Curnutte, John T.; Gold, Alex; Bronson, Michele D.; Lu, Genmin; Conley, Pamela B.; Verhamme, Peter; Schmidt, Jeannot; Middeldorp, Saskia; Cohen, Alexander T.; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Albaladejo, Pierre; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Goodman, Shelly; Leeds, Janet; Wiens, Brian L.; Siegal, Deborah M.; Zotova, Elena; Meeks, Brandi; Nakamya, Juliet; Lim, W. Ting; Crowther, Mark; Connolly, S. C.; Crowther, M.; Eikelboom, J.; Gibson, M.; Milling, T. J.; Albaladejo, P.; Cohen, A.; Lopez-Sendon, J.; Schmidt, J.; Verhamme, P.; Beyer-Westendorf, J.; Wyse, D. G.; Garcia, D.; Prins, M. [=Martin H.; Nakamya, J.; Büller, H. R.; Mahaffey, K.; Alexander, J.; Demchuk, A.; Raskob, G.; Schulman, S.; Meeks, B.; Zotova, E.; Holadyk-Gris, I.; Coppens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein that has been shown to reverse the inhibition of factor Xa in healthy volunteers. Methods In this multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-group study, we evaluated 67 patients who had acute major

  19. Pantoprazole for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding and Prevention of Rebleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding proton pump inhibitors (PPIs to endoscopic therapy has become the mainstay of treatment for peptic ulcer bleeding, with current consensus guidelines recommending high-dose intravenous (IV PPI therapy (IV bolus followed by continuous therapy. However, whether or not high-dose PPI therapy is more effective than low-dose PPI therapy is still debated. Furthermore, maintaining pH ≥ 4 appears to prevent mucosal bleeding in patients with acute stress ulcers; thus, stress ulcer prophylaxis with acid-suppressing therapy has been increasingly recommended in intensive care units (ICUs. This review evaluates the evidence for the efficacy of IV pantoprazole, a PPI, in preventing ulcer rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, and in controlling gastric pH and protecting against upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in high-risk ICU patients. The review concludes that IV pantoprazole provides an effective option in the treatment of upper GI bleeding, the prevention of rebleeding, and for the prophylaxis of acute bleeding stress ulcers.

  20. Impact of chronic kidney disease on long-term ischemic and bleeding outcomes in medically managed patients with acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melloni, Chiara; Cornel, Jan H; Hafley, Gail

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We aimed to study the relationship of chronic kidney disease stages with long-term ischemic and bleeding outcomes in medically managed acute coronary syndrome patients and the influence of more potent antiplatelet therapies on platelet reactivity by chronic kidney disease stage. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: We estimated creatinine clearance for 8953 medically managed acute coronary syndrome patients enrolled in the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes trial. Patients were classified by chronic kidney disease stage: normal renal...... function/mild (creatinine clearance >60 mL/min); moderate (creatinine clearance 30-60 mL/min); severe (creatinine clearance event rates through 30 months were evaluated for ischemic (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke; primary end point) and bleeding (Global Use...

  1. iPad-based primary 2D reading of CT angiography examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioni, L; Neri, E; Bargellini, I; Scalise, P; Calcagni, F; Mantarro, A; D'Ippolito, G; Bartolozzi, C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) for two-dimensional (2D) reading of CT angiography (CTA) studies performed for suspected acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding. 24 CTA examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding confirmed (19/24, 79.2%) or ruled out (5/24, 20.8%) by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed by three independent readers on a commercial picture archiving communication system (PACS) workstation and on an iPad with Retina Display® 64 GB (Apple Inc.). The time needed to complete reading of every CTA examination was recorded, as well as the rate of detection of arterial bleeding and identification of suspected bleeding arteries on both devices. Overall, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values for bleeding detection were not significantly different while using the iPad and workstation (0.774 vs 0.847, 0.947 vs 0.895, 0.6 vs 0.8, 0.9 vs 0.944 and 0.750 vs 0.667, respectively; p > 0.05). In DSA-positive cases, the iPad and workstation allowed correct identification of the bleeding source in 17/19 cases (89.5%) and 15/19 cases (78.9%), respectively (p > 0.05). Finally, the time needed to complete reading of every CTA study was significantly shorter using the iPad (169 ± 74 vs 222 ± 70 s, respectively; p < 0.01). Compared with a conventional PACS workstation, iPad-based preliminary 2D reading of CTA studies has comparable diagnostic accuracy for detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can be significantly faster. The iPad could be used by on-call interventional radiologists for immediate decision on percutaneous embolization in patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. Vaginal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or period, is a woman's monthly bleeding.Abnormal vaginal bleeding is different from normal menstrual periods. It ... therapy) Cancer of the cervix, ovaries, uterus or vagina Thyroid problems Bleeding during pregnancy can have several ...

  3. Intracerebral Hemorrhage; towards physiological imaging of hemorrhage risk in acute and chronic bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael eJakubovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in management and prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, there has been little improvement in mortality over the last 30 years. Hematoma expansion, primarily during the first few hours is highly predictive of neurological deterioration, poor functional outcome and mortality. For each 10% increase in ICH size, there is a 5% increase in mortality and an additional 16% chance of poorer functional outcome. As such, both the identification and prevention of hematoma expansion are attractive therapeutic targets in ICH. Previous studies suggest that contrast extravasation seen on CT Angiography (CTA, MRI, and digital subtraction angiography correlates with hematoma growth, indicating ongoing bleeding. Contrast extravasation on the arterial phase of a CTA has been coined the CTA Spot Sign. These easily identifiable foci of contrast enhancement have been identified as independent predictors of hematoma growth, mortality and clinical outcome in primary ICH. The Spot Sign score, developed to stratify risk of hematoma expansion, has shown high inter-observer agreement. Post-contrast leakage or delayed CTA Spot Sign, on post contrast CT following CTA or delayed CTA respectively are seen in an additional ~8% of patients and explain apparently false negative observations on early CTA imaging in patients subsequently undergoing hematoma expansion. CT perfusion provides an opportunity to acquire dynamic imaging and has been shown to quantify rates of contrast extravasation. Intravenous recombinant factor VIIa(rFVIIa within 4 hours of ICH onset has been shown to significantly reduce hematoma growth. However, clinical efficacy has yet to be proven. There is compelling evidence that cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA may precede the radiographic evidence of vascular disease and as such contribute to microbleeding. The interplay between microbleeding, CAA,CTA Spot Sign and genetic composition (ApoE genotype may be crucial in developing a

  4. Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding with Rivaroxaban: A Comparative Study with Warfarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Sherid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of gastrointestinal (GI bleeding with rivaroxaban has not been studied extensively. The aim of our study was to assess this risk in comparison to warfarin. Methods. We examined the medical records for patients who were started on rivaroxaban or warfarin from April 2011 to April 2013. Results. We identified 300 patients (147 on rivaroxaban versus 153 on warfarin. GI bleeding occurred in 4.8% patients with rivaroxaban when compared to 9.8% patients in warfarin group (p=0.094. GI bleeding occurred in 8% with therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban (>10 mg/d compared to 9.8% with warfarin (p=0.65. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who were on rivaroxaban for ≤40 days had a higher incidence of GI bleeding than those who were on it for >40 days (OR = 2.8, p=0.023. Concomitant use of dual antiplatelet agents was associated with increased risk of GI bleeding in the rivaroxaban group (OR = 7.4, p=0.0378. Prior GI bleeding was also a risk factor for GI bleeding in rivaroxaban group (OR = 15.5. Conclusion. The incidence of GI bleeding was similar between rivaroxaban and warfarin. The risk factors for GI bleeding with rivaroxaban were the first 40 days of taking the drug, concomitant dual antiplatelet agents, and prior GI bleeding.

  5. [High risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after neurosurgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; Wu, Gang; Cheng, Neng-neng; Yao, Cheng-jun; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2005-12-21

    To analyze high risk factors of postoperative upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after neurosurgery so as to give guidance for prevention of GI bleeding. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the medical records of 1500 patients who were hospitalized and underwent neurosurgical operations in 1997. Logistic regression analysis was made. 1430 valid questionnaires were obtained. Postoperative upper GI bleeding occurred in 75 patients (5.24%). The incidence of upper GI bleeding were 6.64% (54/813) in the male patients and 3.40% (21/617) in the female persons (P = 0.007); 9.88% (41/415) in those aged > 50 and 3.35% in those aged hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and extradural hematoma were 15.7%, 10.0%, 6.00%, and 2.94% respectively (P = 0.02). The incidence of upper GI bleeding of the patients with tumors of fourth ventricle of cerebrum, brainstem, cerebral hemisphere, and sellar hypothalamus were 15.79% (3/19), 7.89%, 5.71%, and 3.74% respectively. In the emergent cases, the incidence of upper GI bleeding was higher in those with hypertension. The incidence of upper GI bleeding was 5.46% in the patients undergoing adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly higher than that in those who did not receive such treatment (2.13%). Patients who are at high risk of developing postoperative upper GI bleeding including that: age greater than 50 years; male; Glasgow Coma Score less than 10 pre and post operation; The lesion was located in brain stem and forth ventricle; Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage; Intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhagic brain trauma; Postoperative pneumonia, brain edema, encephalic high pressure, pyogenic infection of the central nervous system and other postoperative complications. The mortality of patients with postoperative upper GI bleeding was evidently higher than that of the patients without postoperative upper GI bleeding.

  6. Reduction in cardiac mortality with bivalirudin in patients with and without major bleeding: The HORIZONS-AMI trial (Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Clayton, Tim; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Prats, Jayne; Mehran, Roxana; Pocock, Stuart J

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether, in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the reduction in cardiac mortality in those taking bivalirudin compared with unfractionated heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (UFH+GPI) can be fully attributed to reduced bleeding. The association between hemorrhagic complications and mortality may explain the survival benefit with bivalirudin. A total of 3,602 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI were randomized to bivalirudin versus UFH+GPI. Three-year cardiac mortality was analyzed in patients with and without major bleeding. When compared with UFH+GPI, bivalirudin resulted in lower 3-year rates of major bleeding (6.9% vs. 10.5%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51 to 0.80], p accounting for major bleeding and other adverse events, bivalirudin was still associated with a 43% reduction in 3-year cardiac mortality (adjusted HR: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.39 to 0.83], p = 0.003). Bivalirudin reduces cardiac mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, an effect that can only partly be attributed to prevention of bleeding. Further studies are required to identify the nonhematologic benefits of bivalirudin. (Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction; NCT00433966). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intra-Arterial Treatment in Patients with Acute Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding after Endoscopic Failure: Comparisons between Positive versus Negative Contrast Extravasation Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei Chou; Liu, Chang Hsien; Hsu, Hsian He; Huang, Guo Shu; Hsieh, Tasi Yuan; Tsai, Shin Hung; Hsieh, Chung Bao; Yu, Chin Yung; Tung, Ho Jui

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether treatment outcome is associated with visualization of contrast extravasation in patients with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding after endoscopic failure. From January 2007 to December 2009, patients that experienced a first attack of acute gastrointestinal bleeding after failure of initial endoscopy were referred to our interventional department for intra-arterial treatment. We enrolled 79 patients and divided them into two groups: positive and negative extravasation. For positive extravasation, patients were treated by coil embolization; and in negative extravasation, patients were treated with intra-arterial vasopressin infusion. The two groups were compared for clinical parameters, hemodynamics, laboratory findings, endoscopic characteristics, and mortality rates. Forty-eight patients had detectable contrast extravasation (positive extravasation), while 31 patients did not (negative extravasation). Fifty-six patients survived from this bleeding episode (overall clinical success rate, 71%). An elevation of hemoglobin level was observed in the both two groups; significantly greater in the positive extravasation group compared to the negative extravasation group. Although these patients were all at high risk of dying, the 90-day mortality rate was significantly lower in the positive extravasation than in the negative extravasation (20% versus 42%, p < 0.05). A multivariate analysis suggested that successful hemo stasis (odds ratio [OR] = 28.66) is the most important predictor affecting the mortality in the two groups of patients. Visualization of contrast extravasation on angiography usually can target the bleeding artery directly, resulting in a higher success rate to control of hemorrhage.

  8. Prediction of Early Recurrent Thromboembolic Event and Major Bleeding in Patients With Acute Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation by a Risk Stratification Schema: The ALESSA Score Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Procopio, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Bandini, Fabio; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict early ischemic events and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) and severe atrial enlargement (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.87) were predictors for ischemic outcome events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism) at 90 days from acute stroke. Small lesions (≤1.5 cm) were inversely correlated with both major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.39; P =0.03) and ischemic outcome events (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.00). We assigned to age ≥80 years 2 points and between 70 and 79 years 1 point; ischemic index lesion >1.5 cm, 1 point; severe atrial enlargement, 1 point (ALESSA score). A logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure (C statistic) showed an area under the curve of 0.697 (0.632-0.763; P =0.0001) for ischemic outcome events and 0.585 (0.493-0.678; P =0.10) for major bleedings. The validation cohort consisted of 994 patients included in prospective series between April 2014 and June 2016. Logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure showed an area under the curve of 0.646 (0.529-0.763; P =0.009) for ischemic outcome events and 0.407 (0.275-0.540; P =0.14) for hemorrhagic outcome events. In acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, high ALESSA scores were associated with a high risk of ischemic events but not of major bleedings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Prediction of early recurrent thromboembolic event and major bleeding in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation by a risk stratification schema: the ALESSA score study

    OpenAIRE

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purposes—This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict early ischemic events and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.\\ud \\ud Methods—The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.11) and severe atrial enlar...

  10. Comparison of detectable bleeding rates of radiopharmaceuticals for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in sheep using a closed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owunwanne, A.; Sadek, S.; Yacoub, T.; Awdeh, M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Surgery)

    1989-06-01

    The closed experimental animal model system was used to compare the detectable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rates of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs and {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid in sheep. The three radiopharmaceuticals were used to detect the upper GI bleeding sites at rates of 0.57 and 0.25 ml/min. At the lower bleeding rate of 0.1 ml/min, both {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs were successful in detecting the bleeding site. At the lowest rate of 0.07 ml/min only {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was successful in detecting the bleeding site. The results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA is the most useful {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical for detecting the upper GI bleeding site at the slowest bleeding rate studied. (orig.).

  11. Comparison of detectable bleeding rates of radiopharmaceuticals for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in sheep using a closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owunwanne, A.; Sadek, S.; Yacoub, T.; Awdeh, M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S.

    1989-01-01

    The closed experimental animal model system was used to compare the detectable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rates of 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-RBCs and 99m Tc tin colloid in sheep. The three radiopharmaceuticals were used to detect the upper GI bleeding sites at rates of 0.57 and 0.25 ml/min. At the lower bleeding rate of 0.1 ml/min, both 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-RBCs were successful in detecting the bleeding site. At the lowest rate of 0.07 ml/min only 99m Tc-DTPA was successful in detecting the bleeding site. The results indicate that 99m Tc-DTPA is the most useful 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical for detecting the upper GI bleeding site at the slowest bleeding rate studied. (orig.) [de

  12. Volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64 multidetector-row CT during aortography: utility for catheterization in transcatheter arterial embolization for acute arterial bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Nakai, Motoki; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Murotani, Kazuhiro; Hosokawa, Seiki; Nishioku, Tadayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aortography for detecting hemorrhage is limited when determining the catheter treatment strategy because the artery responsible for hemorrhage commonly overlaps organs and non-responsible arteries. Selective catheterization of untargeted arteries would result in repeated arteriography, large volumes of contrast medium, and extended time. A volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created with 64 multidetector-row CT (64MDCT) during aortography (MDCTAo) can be used both for hemorrhage mapping and catheter navigation. The MDCTAo depicted hemorrhage in 61 of 71 cases of suspected acute arterial bleeding treated at our institute in the last 3 years. Complete hemostasis by embolization was achieved in all cases. The hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram was used for navigation during catheterization, thus assisting successful embolization. Hemorrhage was not visualized in the remaining 10 patients, of whom 6 had a pseudoaneurysm in a visceral artery; 1 with urinary bladder bleeding and 1 with chest wall hemorrhage had gaze tamponade; and 1 with urinary bladder hemorrhage and 1 with uterine hemorrhage had spastic arteries. Six patients with pseudoaneurysm underwent preventive embolization and the other 4 patients were managed by watchful observation. MDCTAo has the advantage of depicting the arteries responsible for hemoptysis, whether from the bronchial arteries or other systemic arteries, in a single scan. MDCTAo is particularly useful for identifying the source of acute arterial bleeding in the pancreatic arcade area, which is supplied by both the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In a case of pelvic hemorrhage, MDCTAo identified the responsible artery from among numerous overlapping visceral arteries that branched from the internal iliac arteries. In conclusion, a hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64MDCT immediately before catheterization is useful for deciding the catheter treatment strategy for acute arterial bleeding.

  13. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: A rare cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat H Dar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of obscure gastrointestinal (GI bleed are diverse and rare. The most common cause for GI bleeding of small bowel origin is angiodysplasia, followed by tumors of the small intestine, and various other causes, including small bowel ulcers and aortienteric fistulas. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a rare cause of GI bleed. It is an inherited elastic tissue disorder with degeneration of elastic fibers involving mainly skin, eyes and the cardiovascular system. Upper GI hemorrhage occurs in 13% of cases and is often resistant to nonsurgical methods of treatment. Presented herein is a case of GI bleed in a 65-year-old woman who had PXE and hyperplastic polyps in the stomach.

  14. A long-Segmental Vascular Malformation in the Small Bowel Presenting With Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Preschool-Aged Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeoun Joo; Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Cho, Yong Hoon; Kim, Yong-Woo; Kim, Tae Un; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in pediatric patients has several causes. Vascular malformation of the small bowel is a rare disease leading to pediatric GI bleeding. To our knowledge, few reports describe ultrasound and computed tomography findings of venous malformations involving the small bowel. We present a case of long-segmental and circumferential vascular malformation that led to GI bleeding in a pre-school aged child, focusing on the radiologic findings. Although vascular malformation including of the GI tract is rare in children, it should be considered when GI bleeding occurs in pediatric patients

  15. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  16. Scintigraphy in gastrointestinal bleeding in the pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, T.R.; Miller, J.H.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding in the pediatric population is not uncommon, especially in chronically ill patients. A total of 29 patients with GI tract bleeding were studied scintigraphically using Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) or sulfur colloid (SC). The patients ranged in age from 3 weeks to 20 years, with an equal sex distribution. Of 19 patients studied with Tc-99m-labeled RBCs using an in vitro labeling technique, evidence of GI tract bleeding was documented scintigraphically in 15. Tc-99m-labeled SC scans in the remaining ten patients demonstrated GI tract bleeding in six. The Tc-99m RBC method was slightly more sensitive than the Tc-99m SC method. Advantages of using labeled RBCs include increased sensitivity in detecting upper abdominal bleeding, ability to delay imaging for up to 18-24 hours, and the use of provocative testing

  17. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F.; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 66 Final Diagnosis: Calciphylaxis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis • blood transfusions Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. Case Report: A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  18. The GI Bilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risener, Randall

    1976-01-01

    What to do about the billion-dollar GI Bill overpayment problem is a question confronting many community college administrators and the Veterans' Administration. Legal and administrative technicalities are reviewed, and it is suggested that many Vietnam era veterans may have no qualms about accepting checks from a government they feel has betrayed…

  19. Reduced hemoglobin and increased C-reactive protein are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Togawa, Akira; Shirai, Yoshinori; Ichiki, Noboru; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Sueishi, Makoto

    2014-02-07

    To investigate the early upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (endoscopy) significantly reduces mortality resulting from upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Upper GI bleeding was defined as 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b according to the Forrest classification. The hemoglobin (Hb), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined at around the day of endoscopy and 3 mo prior to endoscopy. The rate of change was calculated as follows: (the result of blood examination on the day of endoscopy - the results of blood examination 3 mo prior to endoscopy)/(results of blood examination 3 mo prior to endoscopy). Receiver operating characteristic curves were created to determine threshold values. Seventy-nine men and 77 women were enrolled. There were 17 patients with upper GI bleeding: 12 with a gastric ulcer, 3 with a duodenal ulcer, 1 with an acute gastric mucosal lesion, and 1 with gastric cancer. The area under the curve (AUC), threshold, sensitivity, and specificity of Hb around the day of endoscopy were 0.902, 11.7 g/dL, 94.1%, and 77.1%, respectively, while those of CRP were 0.722, 0.5 mg/dL, 70.5%, and 73%, respectively. The AUC, threshold, sensitivity, and specificity of the rate of change of Hb were 0.851, -21.3%, 76.4%, and 82.6%, respectively, while those of CRP were 0.901, 100%, 100%, and 82.5%, respectively. Predictors for upper GI bleeding were Hb 21.3% and an increase in the CRP > 100%, 3 mo before endoscopy.

  20. Comparison of three scoring systems in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Chen, Wan Jun; Lu, Xiao Ye; Qian, Jie; Zhu, Chang Qing

    2016-12-01

    To compare the performances of the Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS), modified GBS (mGBS) and AIMS65 in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). This study enrolled 320 consecutive patients with AUGIB. Patients at high and low risks of developing adverse clinical outcomes (rebleeding, the need of clinical intervention and death) were categorized according to the GBS, mGBS and AIMS65 scoring systems. The outcome of the patients were the occurrences of adverse clinical outcomes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of three scoring systems were compared. Irrespective of the systems used, the high-risk groups showed higher rates of rebleeding, intervention and death compared with the low-risk groups (P < 0.05). For the prediction of rebleeding, AIMS65 (AUROC 0.735, 95% CI 0.667-0.802) performed significantly better than GBS (AUROC 0.672, 95% CI 0.597-0.747; P < 0.01) and mGBS (AUROC 0.677, 95% CI 0.602-0.753; P < 0.01). For the prediction of interventions, there was no significant difference among the three systems (GBS: AUROC 0.769, 95% CI 0.668-0.870; mGBS: AUROC 0.745, 95% CI 0.643-0.847; AIMS65: AUROC 0.746, 95% CI 0.640-0.851). For the prediction of in-hospital mortality, there was no significant difference among the three systems (GBS: AUROC 0.796, 95% CI 0.694-0.898; mGBS: AUROC 0.803, 95% CI 0.703-0.904; AIMS65: AUROC 0.786, 95% CI 0.670-0.903). The three scoring systems are reliable and accurate in predicting the rates of rebleeding, surgery and mortality in AUGIB. However, AIMS65 outperforms GBS and mGBS in predicting rebleeding. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Treatment of massive gastrointestinal bleeding occurred during autologous stem cell transplantation with recombinant activated factor VII and octreotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Atas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, patients may suffer from bleeding. One of the bleeding type is gastrointestinal (GI which has serious morbidity and mortality in children with limited treatment options. Herein, we presented a child with upper GI bleeding post autologous HSCT controlled successfully by using recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa and octreotide infusion.

  2. Efficacy of Early Rehabilitation After Surgical Repair of Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Outcomes After Verticalization on Days 2-5 Versus Day 12 Post-Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Andjela; Grujicic, Danica; Bogosavljevic, Vojislav; Jokovic, Milos; Mujovic, Natasa; Markovic, Ivana Petronic

    2017-01-01

    To develop a specific rehabilitation protocol for patients who have undergone surgical repair of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), and to determine the time at which verticalization should be initiated after aSAH. Sixty-five patients who underwent acute-term surgery for aSAH and early rehabilitation were evaluated in groups: Group 1 (n=34) started verticalization on days 2-5 post-bleeding whereas Group 2 (n=31) started verticalization approximately day 12 post-bleeding. All patients were monitored for early complications, vasospasm and ischemia. Assessments of motor status, depression and anxiety (using Zung scales), and cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)) were conducted at discharge and at 1 and 3 months post-surgery. At discharge, Group 1 had a significantly higher proportion of patients with ischemia than Group 2 (p=0.004). Group 1 had a higher proportion of patients with hemiparesis than Group 2 three months post-surgery (p=0.015). Group 1 patients scored significantly higher on the Zung depression scale than Group 2 patients at 1 month (p=0.005) and 3 months post-surgery (p=0.001; the same applies to the Zung anxiety scale (p=0.006 and p=0.000, respectively). Group 2 patients scored significantly higher on the MMSE than those in Group 1 at discharge (p=0.040) and 1 month post-surgery (p=0.025). Early verticalization had no effect with respect to preventing early postoperative complications in this patient group. Once a patient has undergone acute surgical repair of aSAH, it is safe and preferred that rehabilitation be initiated immediately postsurgery. However, verticalization should not start prior to day 12 post-bleeding.

  3. Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Home For Patients Search FAQs Perimenopausal Bleeding and ... 2011 PDF Format Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Gynecologic Problems What are menopause and perimenopause? What ...

  4. Outcome of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal haemorrhage after nontherapeutic arteriography compared with embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, Luc; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Decruyenaere, Johan; Van Maele, Georges; De Vos, Martine; Troisi, Roberto; Pattyn, Piet

    2003-01-01

    In acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, immediate arteriographic haemostasis is presently assumed to be a therapeutic advantage. This study assesses whether the risk of a delayed haemostasis, caused by arteriographic findings precluding embolization, might influence patient outcome. We performed a 5.5-year retrospective database search to find all patients referred for arteriography to arrest acute nonvariceal GI bleeding with embolization. The embolized and nonembolized patients were compared for differences in baseline characteristics and bleeding parameters. In both groups the outcome of all endoscopic or surgical interventions after catheterization was included in the follow-up. Clinical success (at 30 days, after all therapy) and in-hospital mortality in the embolized and nonembolized group were compared. We retrieved 63 nonembolized bleedings in 58 patients and 49 embolized bleedings in 49 patients. In the nonembolized group, transfusion need and haemodynamic instability were significantly less severe. Forty-two of 63 (66%) nonembolized bleedings persisted requiring haemostasis by surgery (n=23), endoscopy (n=13) or supportive transfusions. Thirteen of 49 (27%) embolized bleedings recurred and were managed by surgery (n=7), endoscopy (n=3) or transfusion. Overall clinical success rate was 88.9% (56 of 63) in the nonembolized and 87.8% (43 of 49) in the embolized group. Mortality rate was 17.2% (10 of 58) in the nonembolized vs 30.6% (15 of 49) in the embolized patients (P=0.115). Whether or not arteriographic findings afforded the opportunity to embolize, outcome of acute nonvariceal GI bleeding did not differ significantly; however, patients undergoing embolization were more critically bleeding and ill. (orig.)

  5. Risks of bleeding and thrombosis in intensive care unit patients with haematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Lene; Holst, Lars Broksø; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    products and risk factors for bleeding in an adult population of ICU patients with haematological malignancies. METHODS: We screened all patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome admitted to a university hospital ICU during 2008-2012. Bleeding in ICU was scored according to the WHO grading...... lower and upper airways and upper GI tract. Thirty-nine (59%) of the 66 patients had severe or debilitating (WHO grade 3 or 4) bleeding. The median platelet count on the day of grade 3 or 4 bleeding was 23 × 109 per litre (IQR 13-39). Nine patients (8%) died in ICU following a bleeding episode; five...... was the cause of death in four patients. The median platelet count was 20 × 109 per litre (15-48) at the time of thrombosis. The patients received a median of 6 units of red blood cells, 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma and 8 units of platelet concentrates in ICU. CONCLUSIONS: Severe and debilitating bleeding...

  6. The effect of transcatheter arterial embolisation for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolisation with coils for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy.......The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolisation with coils for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy....

  7. Miscellaneous GI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansell, J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiotracers has served as a valuable adjunct to the myriad of methods available to the physiologist and clinician for measuring various parameters of gastrointestinal (GI) function. The advantage of the technique that employs a radioactive label is the ability to measure function by noninvasive means with relatively little discomfort to the subject. Procedures of this type consist usually of administration of a radioactive form of a substance, by either the oral or intravenous route, followed by radioassay of postadministration samples of body fluids, excreta, or breath. On occasion the body itself is used as the definitive sample for radioassay

  8. CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, T.P.; Gulati, M.S.; Makharia, G.K.; Bandhu, S.; Garg, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) enteroclysis in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Materials and methods: In a prospective study, CT enteroclysis was performed in 21 patients (median age 50 years; range 13-71 years) with obscure GI bleeding in which the source of the bleeding could not be detected despite the patient having undergone both upper GI endoscopic and colonoscopic examinations. The entire abdomen and pelvis was examined in the arterial and venous phases using multisection CT after distending the small intestine with 2 l of 0.5% methylcellulose as a neutral enteral contrast medium and the administration of 150 ml intravenous contrast medium. Results: Adequate distension of the small intestine was achieved in 20 of the 21 (95.2%) patients. Potential causes of GI bleeding were identified in 10 of the 21 (47.6%) patients using CT enteroclysis. The cause of the bleeding could be detected nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding. However, for patients with occult, obscure GI bleeding, the cause of the bleeding was identified in only one of the seven (14.3%) patients. The lesions identified by CT enteroclysis included small bowel tumours (n = 2), small bowel intussusceptions (n = 2), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 2), and vascular lesions (n = 3). All vascular lesions were seen equally well in both the arterial and venous phases. Conclusions: The success rate in detection of the cause of bleeding using CT enteroclysis was 47.6% in patients with obscure GI bleeding. The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding than in those with occult obscure GI bleeding

  9. CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, T.P. [Department ofRadiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Gulati, M.S. [Department of Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Makharia, G.K. [Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)]. E-mail: govindmakharia@aiims.ac.in; Bandhu, S. [Department ofRadiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Garg, P.K. [Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) enteroclysis in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Materials and methods: In a prospective study, CT enteroclysis was performed in 21 patients (median age 50 years; range 13-71 years) with obscure GI bleeding in which the source of the bleeding could not be detected despite the patient having undergone both upper GI endoscopic and colonoscopic examinations. The entire abdomen and pelvis was examined in the arterial and venous phases using multisection CT after distending the small intestine with 2 l of 0.5% methylcellulose as a neutral enteral contrast medium and the administration of 150 ml intravenous contrast medium. Results: Adequate distension of the small intestine was achieved in 20 of the 21 (95.2%) patients. Potential causes of GI bleeding were identified in 10 of the 21 (47.6%) patients using CT enteroclysis. The cause of the bleeding could be detected nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding. However, for patients with occult, obscure GI bleeding, the cause of the bleeding was identified in only one of the seven (14.3%) patients. The lesions identified by CT enteroclysis included small bowel tumours (n = 2), small bowel intussusceptions (n = 2), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 2), and vascular lesions (n = 3). All vascular lesions were seen equally well in both the arterial and venous phases. Conclusions: The success rate in detection of the cause of bleeding using CT enteroclysis was 47.6% in patients with obscure GI bleeding. The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding than in those with occult obscure GI bleeding.

  10. Optimal timing of vitamin K antagonist resumption after upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A risk modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Ammar; Wallvik, Niklas; Eriksson, Joakim; Höijer, Jonas; Bottai, Matteo; Holmström, Margareta; Schulman, Sam

    2017-02-28

    The optimal timing of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) resumption after an upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, in patients with continued indication for oral anticoagulation, is uncertain. We included consecutive cases of VKA-associated upper GI bleeding from three hospitals retrospectively. Data on the bleeding location, timing of VKA resumption, recurrent GI bleeding and thromboembolic events were collected. A model was constructed to evaluate the 'total risk', based on the sum of the cumulative rates of recurrent GI bleeding and thromboembolic events, depending on the timing of VKA resumption. A total of 121 (58 %) of 207 patients with VKA-associated upper GI bleeding were restarted on anticoagulation after a median (interquartile range) of one (0.2-3.4) week after the index bleeding. Restarting VKAs was associated with a reduced risk of thromboembolism (HR 0.19; 95 % CI, 0.07-0.55) and death (HR 0.61; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.94), but with an increased risk of recurrent GI bleeding (HR 2.5; 95 % CI, 1.4-4.5). The composite risk obtained from the combined statistical model of recurrent GI bleeding, and thromboembolism decreased if VKAs were resumed after three weeks and reached a nadir at six weeks after the index GI bleeding. On this background we will discuss how the disutility of the outcomes may influence the decision regarding timing of resumption. In conclusion, the optimal timing of VKA resumption after VKA-associated upper GI bleeding appears to be between 3-6 weeks after the index bleeding event but has to take into account the degree of thromboembolic risk, patient values and preferences.

  11. Mortality from nonulcer bleeding is similar to that of ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with nonvariceal hemorrhage: a prospective database study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmo, Riccardo; Del Piano, Mario; Rotondano, Gianluca; Koch, Maurizio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Zambelli, Alessandro; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Grossi, Enzo; Cipolletta, Livio; Prometeo Investigators

    2012-02-01

    Nonulcer causes of bleeding are often regarded as minor, ie, associated with a lower risk of mortality. To assess the risk of death from nonulcer causes of upper GI bleeding (UGIB). Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from 3 national databases. Community and teaching hospitals. Consecutive patients admitted for acute nonvariceal UGIB. Early endoscopy, medical and endoscopic treatment as appropriate. Thirty-day mortality, recurrent bleeding, and need for surgery. A total of 3207 patients (65.8% male), mean (standard deviation) age 68.3 (16.4) years, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 4.45% (143 patients). According to the source of bleeding, mortality was 9.8% for neoplasia, 4.8% for Mallory-Weiss tears, 4.8% for vascular lesions, 4.4% for gastroduodenal erosions, 4.4% for duodenal ulcer, and 3.1% for gastric ulcer. Frequency of death was not different among benign endoscopic diagnoses (overall P = .567). Risk of death was significantly higher in patients with neoplasia compared with benign conditions (odds ratio 2.50; 95% CI, 1.32-4.46; P bleeding peptic ulcers in the clinical context of a high-risk patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper GI bleeding among neonates admitted to Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003;88:F359-. F64. 21. López-Herce J, Dorao P, Elola P, Delgado MA,. Ruza F, Madero R. Frequency and prophylaxis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in critically ill children: a prospective study comparing the efficacy of almagate, ranitidine and sucralfate. Crit Care ...

  13. Angiographic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Sung, Kyu Bo; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Bae, Tae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Han, Man Chung

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic angiographic evaluations were done in 33 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding for recent 5 years at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. On 11 patients of them, therapeutic interventional procedures were made and the results were analysed. 1. In a total of 33 cases, there were 18 cases of upper GI bleeding and 15 cases of lower GI bleeding. The most frequent causes were peptic ulcer in the former and intestinal typhoid fever in the latter. 2. Bleeding sites were localized angiographically in 28 cases, so the detection rate was 85%. Four of the five angiographically negative cases were lower GI bleeding cases. 3. The most frequent bleeding site was left gastric artery (7/33). The next was ileocecal branch of superior mesenteric artery (6/33). 4. Among the 11 interventional procedures, Gelfoam embolization was done in 7 cases and Vasopressin infusion was tried in 4 cases. They were successful in 4 and 3 cases, suggesting 57% and 47% success rates respectively.

  14. Angiographic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Sung, Kyu Bo; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Bae, Tae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Diagnostic angiographic evaluations were done in 33 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding for recent 5 years at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. On 11 patients of them, therapeutic interventional procedures were made and the results were analysed. 1. In a total of 33 cases, there were 18 cases of upper GI bleeding and 15 cases of lower GI bleeding. The most frequent causes were peptic ulcer in the former and intestinal typhoid fever in the latter. 2. Bleeding sites were localized angiographically in 28 cases, so the detection rate was 85%. Four of the five angiographically negative cases were lower GI bleeding cases. 3. The most frequent bleeding site was left gastric artery (7/33). The next was ileocecal branch of superior mesenteric artery (6/33). 4. Among the 11 interventional procedures, Gelfoam embolization was done in 7 cases and Vasopressin infusion was tried in 4 cases. They were successful in 4 and 3 cases, suggesting 57% and 47% success rates respectively.

  15. Outcome of holiday and nonholiday admission patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding: a real-world report from southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Chin; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that patients admitted on the weekend with peptic ulcer bleeding might be at increased risk of adverse outcomes. However, other reports found that there was no "holiday effect." The purpose of this study was to determine if these findings hold true for a real-life Taiwanese medical gastroenterology practice. We reviewed the medical files of hospital admissions for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who received initial endoscopic hemostasis between January 2009 and March 2011. A total of 744 patients were enrolled (nonholiday group, n = 615; holiday group, n = 129) after applying strict exclusion criteria. Holidays were defined as weekends and national holidays in Taiwan. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. We also observed that, compared to the nonholiday group, patients in the holiday group received earlier endoscopy treatment (12.20 hours versus 16.68 hours, P = 0.005), needed less transfused blood (4.8 units versus 6.6 units, P = 0.02), shifted from intravenous to oral proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) more quickly (5.3 days versus 6.9 days, P = 0.05), and had shorter hospital stays (13.05 days versus 17.36 days, P = 0.005). In the holiday and nonholiday groups, the rebleeding rates were 17.8% and 23.41% (P = 0.167), the mortality rates were 11.63% versus 13.66% (P = 0.537), and surgery was required in 2.11% versus 4.66% (P = 0.093), respectively. Patients who presented with peptic ulcer bleeding on holidays did not experience delayed endoscopy or increased adverse outcomes. In fact, patients who received endoscopic hemostasis on the holiday had shorter waiting times, needed less transfused blood, switched to oral PPIs quicker, and experienced shorter hospital stays.

  16. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker after endoscopic gastric variceal obturation for first acute episode of gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Han Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThe most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study.MethodsNinety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group. This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model.ResultsThe follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD. During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8% and 21 (41.2% GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8% in the GVO group and 16 (31.4% in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774, whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036.Conclusions Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV.

  17. High syndecan-1 levels in acute myeloid leukemia are associated with bleeding, thrombocytopathy, endothelial cell damage, and leukocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Mette Vestskov; Leinøe, Eva Birgitte; Johansson, Pär I

    2013-01-01

    The risk of hemorrhage is influenced by multiple factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated whether hemorrhage in AML patients was associated with endothelial perturbation, potentially caused by thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction and leukocytosis. Biomarkers of endothelial...

  18. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  19. Incidence and Management of Bleeding Complications Following Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Nieun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a serious complication that sometimes occurs after percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). We evaluated the incidence of bleeding complications after a PRG and its management including transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). We retrospectively reviewed 574 patients who underwent PRG in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Eight patients (1.4%) had symptoms or signs of upper GI bleeding after PRG. The initial presentation was hematemesis (n = 3), melena (n = 2), hematochezia (n = 2) and bloody drainage through the gastrostomy tube (n = 1). The time interval between PRG placement and detection of bleeding ranged from immediately after to 3 days later (mean: 28 hours). The mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 3.69 g/dL (range, 0.9 to 6.8 g/dL). In three patients, bleeding was controlled by transfusion (n = 2) or compression of the gastrostomy site (n = 1). The remaining five patients underwent an angiography because bleeding could not be controlled by transfusion only. In one patient, the bleeding focus was not evident on angiography or endoscopy, and wedge resection including the tube insertion site was performed for hemostasis. The other four patients underwent prophylactic (n = 1) or therapeutic (n = 3) TAEs. In three patients, successful hemostasis was achieved by TAE, whereas the remaining one patient underwent exploration due to persistent bleeding despite TAE. We observed an incidence of upper GI bleeding complicating the PRG of 1.4%. TAE following conservative management appears to be safe and effective for hemostasis.

  20. Incidence and Management of Bleeding Complications Following Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Nieun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a serious complication that sometimes occurs after percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). We evaluated the incidence of bleeding complications after a PRG and its management including transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). We retrospectively reviewed 574 patients who underwent PRG in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Eight patients (1.4%) had symptoms or signs of upper GI bleeding after PRG. The initial presentation was hematemesis (n = 3), melena (n = 2), hematochezia (n = 2) and bloody drainage through the gastrostomy tube (n = 1). The time interval between PRG placement and detection of bleeding ranged from immediately after to 3 days later (mean: 28 hours). The mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 3.69 g/dL (range, 0.9 to 6.8 g/dL). In three patients, bleeding was controlled by transfusion (n = 2) or compression of the gastrostomy site (n = 1). The remaining five patients underwent an angiography because bleeding could not be controlled by transfusion only. In one patient, the bleeding focus was not evident on angiography or endoscopy, and wedge resection including the tube insertion site was performed for hemostasis. The other four patients underwent prophylactic (n = 1) or therapeutic (n = 3) TAEs. In three patients, successful hemostasis was achieved by TAE, whereas the remaining one patient underwent exploration due to persistent bleeding despite TAE. We observed an incidence of upper GI bleeding complicating the PRG of 1.4%. TAE following conservative management appears to be safe and effective for hemostasis.

  1. Laboratory test variables useful for distinguishing upper from lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2015-05-28

    To distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Patient records between April 2011 and March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively (3296 upper endoscopy, and 1520 colonoscopy). Seventy-six patients had upper GI bleeding (Upper group) and 65 had lower GI bleeding (Lower group). Variables were compared between the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Logistic regression was performed to identify variables significantly associated with the diagnosis of upper vs lower GI bleeding. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the threshold value that could distinguish upper from lower GI bleeding. Hemoglobin (P = 0.023), total protein (P = 0.0002), and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.009) were significantly lower in the Upper group than in the Lower group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was higher in the Upper group than in the Lower group (P = 0.0065). Logistic regression analysis revealed that BUN was most strongly associated with the diagnosis of upper vs lower GI bleeding. ROC analysis revealed a threshold BUN value of 21.0 mg/dL, with a specificity of 93.0%. The threshold BUN value for distinguishing upper from lower GI bleeding was 21.0 mg/dL.

  2. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  3. Severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding in extraluminal diverticula in the third part of the duodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Andersen, Johnny Fredsbo; Lauritsen, Morten Laksafoss

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding requires identification of the source of bleeding and when this is achieved the bleeding can often be treated endoscopically. However, the identification of the bleeding can be challenging due to the location of the bleeding...... or technical aspects. Therefore it might be necessary to use other measures than endoscopy such as CT angiography. Duodenal diverticula is a rare cause of upper GI bleeding and can be challenging to diagnose as they often require specialised endoscopy procedures such as endoscopy with a side-viewing scope....... This case describes the first successful management of this rare condition with an upper GI endoscopy with a colonoscope and afterwards intravascular coiling....

  4. Mortality and need of surgical treatment in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a one year study in a tertiary center with a 24 hours / day-7 days / week endoscopy call. Has anything changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botianu, Am; Matei, D; Tantau, M; Acalovschi, M

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, previously often a surgical problem, is now the most common gastroenterological emergency. To evaluate the current situation in terms of mortality and need of surgery. Retrospective non-randomised clinical study performed between 1st January-31st December 2011, at "Professor Dr. Octavian Fodor" Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Cluj Napoca. 757 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding were endoscopically examined within 24 hours from presentation in the emergency unit. Data were collected from admission charts and Hospital Manager programme. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad 2004, using the following tests: chi square, Spearman, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, area under receiver operating curve. Non-variceal etiology was predominant, the main cause was bleeding being peptic ulcer. In hospital global mortality was of 10.43%, global rebleeding rate was 12.02%, surgery was performed in 7.66% of patients. Urgent haemostatic surgery was needed in 3.68% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding. The need for surgery correlated with the postendoscopic Rockall score (p=0.0425). In peptic ulcer, the need for surgery was not influenced by time to endoscopy or type of treatment (p=0.1452). Weekend (p=0.996) or night (p=0.5414) admission were not correlated with a higher need for surgery. Over the last decade, the need for urgent surgery in upper gastrointestinal bleeding has decreased by half, but mortality has remained unchanged. Celsius.

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of Octreotide as Secondary Prophylaxis in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur B; Gunda, Sampath; Emani, Sitaramesh; Kanwar, Manreet K; Uriel, Nir; Colombo, Paolo C; Uber, Patricia A; Sears, Melissa L; Chuang, Joyce; Farrar, David J; Brophy, Donald F; Smallfield, George B

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common complications after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation. More than one third of patients with incident bleed go on to develop recurrent GI bleeding. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, is proposed to reduce the risk of recurrent GI bleeding in this population. This multicenter, retrospective analysis evaluated 51 continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients who received secondary prophylaxis with octreotide after their index GI bleed from 2009 to 2015. All patients had a hospitalization for GI bleed and received octreotide after discharge. Patient demographics, medical and medication history, and clinical characteristics of patients who rebled after receiving octreotide were compared with non-rebleeders. These data were also compared with matched historical control patients previously enrolled in the HMII (HeartMate II) clinical trials, none of whom received octreotide, to provide a context for the bleeding rates. Twelve patients (24%) who received secondary octreotide prophylaxis developed another GI bleed, whereas 39 (76%) did not. There were similar intergroup demographics; however, significantly more bleeders had a previous GI bleeding history before left ventricular assist device placement (33% versus 5%; P =0.02) and greater frequency of angiodysplasia confirmed during endoscopy (58% versus 23%; P =0.03). Fewer patients in this study experienced a recurrent GI bleed compared with a matched historical control group that did not receive octreotide (24% versus 43%; P =0.04). Patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device receiving secondary prophylaxis with octreotide had a significantly lower GI bleed recurrence compared with historical controls not treated with octreotide. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Endoscopic management of bleeding peptic ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)

  7. Acute Myocardial Infarction Risk in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Doubled after Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding: A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Wu

    Full Text Available Prior studies of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB and acute myocardial infarction (AMI are small, and long-term effects of UGIB on AMI have not been delineated. We investigated whether UGIB in patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD increased their risk of subsequent AMI. This was a population-based, nested case-control study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. After propensity-score matching for age, gender, comorbidities, CAD date, and follow-up duration, we identified 1,677 new-onset CAD patients with AMI (AMI[+] between 2001 and 2006 as the case group and 10,062 new-onset CAD patients without (AMI[-] as the control group. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between UGIB and AMI. Compared with UGIB[-] patients, UGIB[+] patients had twice the risk for subsequent AMI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-2.50. In the subgroup analysis for gender and age, UGIB[+] women (AOR = 2.70; 95% CI, 2.03-3.57 and patients < 65 years old (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.56-3.18 had higher odds of an AMI. UGIB[+] AMI[+] patients used nonsignificantly less aspirin than did UGIB[-] AMI[+] patients (27.69% vs. 35.61%, respectively. UGIB increased the risk of subsequent AMI in CAD patients, especially in women and patients < 65. This suggests that physicians need to use earlier and more aggressive intervention to detect UGIB and prevent AMI in CAD patients.

  8. Sex-related differences in risk factors, type of treatment received and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute stroke: Results from the RAF-study (Early Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonenko, Kateryna; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is an independent risk factor of thromboembolism. Women with atrial fibrillation are at a higher overall risk for stroke compared to men with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation, regarding risk factors, treatments received and outcomes.\\ud Methods Data were analyzed from the “Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibril...

  9. Arteriojejunal Fistula Presenting with Recurrent Obscure GI Hemorrhage in a Patient with a Failed Pancreas Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmit Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a patient with a failed pancreaticoduodenal allograft with exocrine enteric-drainage who developed catastrophic gastrointestinal (GI hemorrhage. Over the course of a week, she presented with recurrent GI bleeds of obscure etiology. Multiple esophago-gastro-duodenoscopic (EGD and colonoscopic evaluations failed to reveal the source of the hemorrhage. A capsule endoscopy and a technetium-labeled red blood cells (RBC imaging study were similarly unrevealing for source of bleeding. She subsequently developed hemorrhagic shock requiring emergent superior mesenteric arteriography. Run off images revealed an external iliac artery aneurysm with fistulization into the jejunum. Coiled embolization was attempted but abandoned because of hemodynamic instability. Deployment of a covered endovascular stent into the right external iliac artery over the fistula site resulted in immediate hemodynamic stabilization. A high index of suspicion for arterioenteric fistulae is needed for diagnosis of this uncommon but eminently treatable form of GI hemorrhage in this patient population.

  10. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  11. Bleeding Disorders in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might be heavy, print and use a menstrual chart to track your bleeding and talk to your ... you’re “low in iron.” Heavy bleeding after dental surgery, other surgery, or childbirth. Prolonged bleeding episodes ...

  12. Timing of onset of gastrointestinal bleeding in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, A; Lange, T; Anthon, C T

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, but clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. The majority of intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite uncertainty concerning the balance between benefit and harm....... For approximately half of ICU patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, onset is early, ie within the first two days of the ICU stay. The aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding and consequently the balance between benefit and harm of SUP may differ between patients with early vs late gastrointestinal bleeding...... will describe baseline characteristics and assess the time to onset of the first clinically important episode of GI bleeding accounting for survival status and allocation to SUP or placebo. In addition, we will describe differences in therapeutic and diagnostic procedures used in patients with clinically...

  13. Topical tranexamic acid as a novel treatment for bleeding peptic ulcer: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Rafeey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers are among the most common causes of upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in children. The standard care for GI bleeding is endoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We aimed to assess the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TXA via endoscopic procedures in children with GI bleeding caused by bleeding ulcers. Procedure: In this randomised controlled trial, 120 children were evaluated by diagnostic procedures for GI bleeding, of which 63 (30 girls, 33 boys aged 1-month to 15 years were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. In the case group, TXA was administered directly under endoscopic therapy. In the control group, epinephrine (1/10,000 was submucosally injected to the four quadrants of ulcer margins as the routine endoscopic therapy. In both groups, the patients received supportive medical therapy with intravenous fluids and proton pump inhibitor drugs. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the children was 5 ± 2.03 years. Rebleeding occurred in 15 (11.4% and 21 (9.8% patients in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.50. The frequency of blood transfusion episodes (P = 0.06 and duration of hospital stay (P = 0.07 were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: Using topical TXA via endoscopic procedures may be effective in cases of GI bleedings caused by active bleeding ulcers. In order to establish this therapeutic effect, a large number of clinical studies are needed.

  14. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  15. Acute and late complications after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Results of a multicenter randomized trial comparing 68 Gy to 78 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Slot, Annerie; Tabak, Hans; Mens, Jan Willem; Lebesque, Joos V.; Koper, Peter C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) side effects in prostate cancer patients randomized to receive 68 Gy or 78 Gy. Methods and materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, 669 prostate cancer patients were randomized between radiotherapy with a dose of 68 Gy and 78 Gy, in 2 Gy per fraction and using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. All T stages with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 120 days) was scored according to the slightly adapted RTOG/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Results: The median follow-up time was 31 months. For acute toxicity no significant differences were seen between the two randomization arms. GI toxicity Grade 2 and 3 was reported as the maximum acute toxicity in 44% and 5% of the patients, respectively. For acute GU toxicity, these figures were 41% and 13%. No significant differences between both randomization arms were seen for late GI and GU toxicity, except for rectal bleeding requiring laser treatment or transfusion (p = 0.007) and nocturia (p = 0.05). The 3-year cumulative risk of late RTOG/EORTC GI toxicity grade ≥2 was 23.2% for 68 Gy, and 26.5% for 78 Gy (p = 0.3). The 3-year risks of late RTOG/EORTC GU toxicity grade ≥2 were 28.5% and 30.2% for 68 Gy and 78 Gy, respectively (p = 0.3). Factors related to acute GI toxicity were HT (p < 0.001), a higher dose-volume group (p = 0.01), and pretreatment GI symptoms (p = 0.04). For acute GU toxicity, prognostic factors were: pretreatment GU symptoms (p < 0.001), HT (p = 0.003), and prior transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (p = 0.02). A history of abdominal surgery (p < 0.001) and pretreatment GI symptoms (p = 0.001) were associated with a higher incidence of late GI grade ≥2 toxicity, whereas HT (p < 0.001), pretreatment GU symptoms (p < 0.001), and prior TURP (p = 0.006) were prognostic factors for late GU grade ≥2. Conclusions: Raising the dose to the prostate from 68 Gy to

  16. Risk stratification in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; prediction, prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we developed a novel prediction score for predicting upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in both NSAID and low-dose aspirin users. Both for NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin use risk scores were developed by identifying the five most dominant predictors. The risk of upper

  17. Accuracy of rockall score for in hospital re bleeding among cirrhotic patients with variceal bleed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgher, S.; Saleem, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Roc kall scoring system for predicting in-hospital re-ble- eding in cirrhotic patients presenting with variceal bleed. Material and Methods: This descriptive case series study was conducted at Department of Medicine Combined Military Hospital Lahore from December 2013 to May 2014. We included patients with liver cirrhosis who presented with upper GI bleeding and showed varices as the cause of bleeding on endoscopy. Clinical and endoscopic features were noted to calculate Rockall score. Patients with score < 2 and > 8 were included. After treating with appropriate pharmacological and endoscopic therapy, patients were followed for re-bleeding for 10 days. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using 2 x 2 tables. Results: In the study, 175 patients were included. Mean age was 51.5 ± 1.22 years. Male to female ratio was 1.5 to 1.0 out of 175 patients, 157 patients (89.7%) were of low risk group (score = 2) while 18 patients (10.3%) were in high risk group (score > 8). In low risk group, re-bleeding occurred only in 2 patients (1.2%) while in high risk group, re-bleeding occurred in 14 patients (78%). Rockall score was found to have good diagnostic accuracy with sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 97.48%, positive predictive value of 77.8% and negative predictive value of 98.7%. Conclusion: In cases of variceal bleed, frequency of re-bleed is less in patients who are in low risk category with lower Rockall score and high in high risk patients with higher rockall score. The Rockall score has a good diagnostic accuracy in prediction of re-bleed in variceal bleeding. (author)

  18. A Mysterious Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Disguising Itself as Diverticulosis and Peptic Ulcer Disease: A Review of Diagnostic Modalities for Aortoenteric Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viplove Senadhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old male with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and peptic ulcer disease (PUD presented with 2 episodes of maroon stools for 3 days and was found to be orthostatic. His PUD was thought to have accounted for a previous upper gastrointestinal (GI bleed. A colonoscopy revealed 3 polyps and a few diverticuli throughout the colon that were considered to be the source of the bleeding. Two months later, the patient had massive lower GI bleeding and developed hypovolemic shock with a positive bleeding scan in the splenic flexure; however, angiography was negative. A repeat colonoscopy revealed transverse/descending colon diverticular disease and the patient was scheduled for a left hemicolectomy for presumed diverticular bleeding. Intraoperatively, an aortoenteric (AE fistula secondary to an aorto-bi-iliac bypass graft placed during an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA repair 14 years prior was discovered and was found to be the source of the bleeding. The patient had an AE fistula repair and did well postoperatively without further bleeding. AE fistulas can present with either upper GI or lower GI bleeding, and are universally deadly if left untreated. AE fistulas often present with a herald bleed before life-threatening bleeding. A careful history should always be elicited in patients with risk factors of AAAs such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and a history of smoking. Strong clinical suspicion in the setting of a scrupulous patient history is the most important factor that allows for the diagnosis of an AE fistula. There are numerous diagnostic modalities for AE fistula, but there is not one specific test that universally diagnoses AE fistulas. Nuclear medicine scans and angiography should not be completely relied on for the diagnosis of AE fistulas or other lower GI bleeds for that manner. Although the conventional paradigm for evaluating lower GI bleeds incorporates nuclear medicine scans and angiography, there is

  19. Evaluation of nasogastric tubes to enable differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients with melena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Boris; Olsha, Oded; Younis, Aurwa; Daskal, Yaakov; Granovsky, Emil; Alfici, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common surgical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate how insertion of the nasogastric tube may enable differentiation between upper and lower GI bleeding in patients with melena. A retrospective study involving patients admitted to our surgery division with a melena was carried out between the years 2010 and 2012. A total of 386 patients were included in the study. Of these, 279 (72.2%) patients had negative nasogastric aspirate. The sensitivity of examination of nasogastric aspirate to establish the upper GI as the source of bleeding was only 28% and the negative predictive value of a negative nasogastric aspirate was less than 1%. Most patients who initially presented with melena and were found to have upper GI bleeding had a negative nasogastric aspirate. Insertion of a nasogastric tube does not affect the clinical decision to perform upper endoscopy and should not be routinely carried out.

  20. Bleeding Risk Related to Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Biopsy in Patients Receiving Antithrombotic Therapy: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Yuki, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We found no significant increase in upper-GI bleeding risk following an EGD biopsy in patients taking antithrombotic agents, suggesting its safety without the need for antithrombotic treatment interruption.

  1. Immunosuppressive agents are associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding can be fatal. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are administered for long-term usage. The present study assessed the association between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Furthermore, the efficacy of lowering the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) was evaluated. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy performed at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital (Yotsukaido, Japan) from October 2014 to September 2015. During this period, a total of 1,023 patients underwent an upper GI endoscopy. A total of 1,023 patients, including 431 males (age, 68.1±12.9 years) and 592 females (age, 66.4±12.3 years), who had been administered NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, PPIs and H2RAs, were respectively enrolled. Endoscopic findings of the patients were reviewed and their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of peptic ulcer bleeding for each medication; immunosuppressive agents had an odds ratio of 5.83, which was larger than that for NSAIDs (4.77). The Wald test was applied to confirm the correlation between immunosuppressive agents and peptic ulcer bleeding. Furthermore, χ 2 tests were applied to the correlation between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of PPIs or H2RAs. Immunosuppressive agents had the largest χ 2 , and the P-value was 0.03. Administration of PPIs was significantly correlated with non-peptic ulcer bleeding (P=0.02); furthermore, a tendency toward non-peptic ulcer bleeding with administration of H2RA was indicated, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.12). In conclusion, immunosuppressive agents were correlated with peptic ulcer bleeding and PPIs were effective at

  2. Bleeding in cancer patients and its treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Candice; Rich, Shayna E

    2017-12-18

    Bleeding is a common problem in cancer patients, related to local tumor invasion, tumor angiogenesis, systemic effects of the cancer, or anti-cancer treatments. Existing bleeds can also be exacerbated by medications such as bevacizumab, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticoagulants. Patients may develop acute catastrophic bleeding, episodic major bleeding, or low-volume oozing. Bleeding may present as bruising, petechiae, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematochezia, melena, hematuria, or vaginal bleeding. Therapeutic intervention for bleeding should start by establishing goals of care, and treatment choice should be guided by life expectancy and quality of life. Careful thought should be given to discontinuation of medications and reversal of anticoagulation. Interventions to stop or slow bleeding may include systemic agents or transfusion of blood products. Noninvasive local treatment options include applied pressure, dressings, packing, and radiation therapy. Invasive local treatments include percutaneous embolization, endoscopic procedures, and surgical treatment.

  3. Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other menstrual conditions; Abnormal menstrual periods; Abnormal vaginal bleeding ... There are many causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. HORMONES ... Doctors call the problem abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) . AUB ...

  4. Bleeding esophageal varices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000268.htm Bleeding esophageal varices To use the sharing features on ... veins in the esophagus to balloon outward. Heavy bleeding can occur if the veins break open. Any ...

  5. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  6. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  7. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... It can also be bleeding that is very heavy. How do you know if you have heavy ...

  8. Bleeding after expandable nitinol stent placement in patients with esophageal and upper gastrointestinal obstruction: incidence, management, and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Jin; Song, Ho-Young; Nam, Deok Ho; Ko, Heung Kyu; Park, Jung-Hoon; Na, Han Kyu; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Min Kyoung

    2014-11-01

    Placement of self-expandable nitinol stents is useful for the treatment of esophageal and upper gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction. However, complications such as stent migration, tumor overgrowth, and bleeding occur. Although stent migration and tumor overgrowth are well documented in previous studies, the occurrence of bleeding has not been fully evaluated. To evaluate the incidence, management strategies, and predictors of bleeding after placement of self-expandable nitinol stents in patients with esophageal and upper GI obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and results of computed tomography and endoscopy of 1485 consecutive patients with esophageal and upper GI obstructions who underwent fluoroscopically guided stent placement. Bleeding occurred in 25 of 1485 (1.7%) patients 0 to 348 days after stent placement. Early stent-related bleeding occurred in 10 patients (40%) and angiographic embolization was used for 5/10. Late bleeding occurred in 15 patients (60%) and endoscopic hemostasis was used for 7/15. Twenty-two of 25 (88%) patients with bleeding had received prior radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Bleeding is a rare complication after placement of expandable nitinol stents in patients with esophageal and upper GI obstruction, but patients with early bleeding may require embolization for control. Care must be exercised on placing stents in patients who have received prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on and ongoing study concerning non-professional users` understanding of GI. Online access to GI are offered by many public authorities, in order to make the public able to serve them selves online and gain insight in the physical planning and area administration. The aim...... of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  10. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in pregnancy? • What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? • Can bleeding be a sign of preterm labor? • ... the hospital. What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? Several problems with the placenta later in pregnancy ...

  11. Investigation of the effect of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution and Tranexamic Acid on the amount of bleeding during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jalaeian Taghadoomi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative bleeding and transfusion remain a source of morbidity and cost after open heart operations . To evaluate the effect of ANH method and tranexamic acid on blood transfusion requirements and blood loss after off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. Materials and Methods: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception to December 2014; reference lists of published guidelines, reviews, and associated articles, as well as conference proceedings.We included articles with available abstract in English language. Manual searching was done within the reference list of articles. Three reviewers independently reviewed and assessed eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data. Results: Bleeding and hemorrhagic complications and the consequent need for allogeneic transfusion are still major problems after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery that can reduced in combination of ANH method and tranexamic acid. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid and ANH appear to be effective in reducing postoperative bleeding and the need for allogeneic blood products.

  12. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES or lactated Ringer’s (LR on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; N=6 or LR (GRL; N=6. Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure (P<0.01 and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (P=0.039, bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power (P=0.04 and P<0.01, resp., while propofol plasma concentrations increased (P<0.01. Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output (P=0.03 and the cerebral oxygenation (P=0.008 decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (P=0.02. Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations.

  13. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N. Fiorino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of worsening abdominal pain, fever, emesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right upper quadrant mass that was confirmed by computed tomography angiogram (CTA, which showed an 8 cm well-defined retroperitoneal vascular mass. 123Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123MIBG scan indicated uptake only in the abdominal mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed a paraganglioma that was treated with chemotherapy. This case represents an unusual presentation of a paraganglioma associated with gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and highlights the utility of CTA and 123MIBG in evaluation and treatment.

  14. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Gastrointestinal Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin [Henan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology (China); Shin, Ji Hoon, E-mail: jhshin@amc.seoul.kr; Han, Kichang; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong-Soo [Kyunghee University, College of Medicine, Kangdong Kyunghee University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Kyu-Bo [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by GI lymphoma.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 11 patients who underwent TAE for GI bleeding caused by GI lymphoma between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.ResultsA total of 20 TAE procedures were performed. On angiography, contrast extravasation, and both contrast extravasation and tumor staining were seen in 95 % (19/20) and 5 % (1/20) of the procedures, respectively. The most frequently embolized arteries were jejunal (n = 13) and ileal (n = 5) branches. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 % (20/20) and 27 % (3/11), respectively. The causes of clinical failure in eight patients were rebleeding at new sites. In four patients who underwent repeat angiography, the bleeding focus was new each time. Three patients underwent small bowel resection due to rebleeding after one (n = 2) or four (n = 1) times of TAEs. Another two patients underwent small bowel resection due to small bowel ischemia/perforation after three or four times of TAEs. The 30-day mortality rate was 18 % due to hypovolemic shock (n = 1) and multiorgan failure (n = 1).ConclusionAngiogram with TAE shows limited therapeutic efficacy to manage GI lymphoma-related bleeding due to high rebleeding at new sites. Although TAE can be an initial hemostatic measure, surgery should be considered for rebleeding due to possible bowel ischemic complication after repeated TAE procedures.

  15. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omidvari, A.-H. (Amir-Houshang); R.G.S. Meester (Reinier); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal

  16. Piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin: a GI safer piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    Although NSAIDs are very effective drugs, their use is associated with a broad spectrum of adverse reactions in the liver, kidney, cardiovascular (CV) system, skin and gut. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects are the most common and constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from dyspepsia, heartburn and abdominal discomfort to more serious events such as peptic ulcer with life-threatening complications of bleeding and perforation. The appreciation that CV risk is also increased further complicates the choices of physicians prescribing anti-inflammatory therapy. Despite prevention strategies should be implemented in patients at risk, gastroprotection is often underused and adherence to treatment is generally poor. A more appealing approach would be therefore to develop drugs that are devoid of or have reduced GI toxicity. Gastro- duodenal mucosa possesses many defensive mechanisms and NSAIDs have a deleterious effect on most of them. This results in a mucosa less able to cope with even a reduced acid load. NSAIDs cause gastro-duodenal damage, by two main mechanisms: a physiochemical disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier and systemic inhibition of gastric mucosal protection, through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX, PG endoperoxide G/H synthase) activity of the GI mucosa. However, against a background of COX inhibition by anti-inflammatory doses of NSAIDs, their physicochemical properties, in particular their acidity, underlie the topical effect leading to short-term damage. It has been shown that esterification of acidic NSAIDs suppresses their gastrotoxicity without adversely affecting anti-inflammatory activity. Another way to develop NSAIDs with better GI tolerability is to complex these molecules with cyclodextrins (CDs), giving rise to so-called "inclusion complexes" that can have physical, chemical and biological properties very different from either those of the drug or the cyclodextrin. Complexation of NSAIDs with β-cyclodextrin potentially leads to a

  17. Embolisation of acute abdominal and thoracal bleeding with ethylene-vinyl-alcohol copolymer (Onyx {sup registered}); Embolisation akuter abdomineller und thorakaler Blutungen mit Ethylen-Vinyl-Alkohol-Kopolymer (Onyx {sup registered}). Erste Erfahrungen im arteriellen Gefaessgebiet des Koerperstamms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, R.; Uder, M.; Kleinschmidt, T.; Detmar, K.; Bolte, R.; Stein, H.; Loose, R.W.

    2010-10-15

    During the last years most embolizations with the liquid agent Onyx have been performed in the field of neuroradiological interventions. There is minimal experience with arterial embolizations of the body trunk. 23 patients suffering from acute abdominal or thoracic bleeding underwent 28 embolizations with Onyx (17 male, 6 female, mean age 69 years). 27 interventions were technically and clinically successful. One patient with rebleeding from a jejunal artery aneurysm underwent surgery. Onyx embolizations were performed in renal, hepatic, iliac and bronchial arteries and esophageal varices. Compared with prior embolisation agents Onyx offers advantages due to good controllability. Fast arterial occlusion improves time management of patients. In comparison with prior techniques we observed a significant reduction of fluoroscopy time. Quantitative measurements demonstrated a significant higher embolisation agent contrast. (orig.)

  18. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisalamah, A.A.; Mraiat, Z.M.

    2007-01-01

    To define the various causes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to outline management modalities and to determine the final outcome of patients. A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from January 2003 to December 2006 (4 years) was conducted. Patients with endoscopically proven variceal bleeding were excluded. Out of the 120 patients, most of the patients belonged to an age group of more than 50 years (mean 48.5 years). Haematemesis was the most common presentation and Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion (AGML) was the most frequently encountered lesion. The cause of bleeding was not identified in 10 patients (undetermined group). Twenty-two (18.3%) underwent surgery and we had an overall mortality of 15.8%. AGML being the leading cause can be managed conservatively most of the time. There is a male preponderance and the incidence and mortality increases with advancing age. The undetermined group remains a diagnostic problem. (author)

  19. An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-01-01

    This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (≥18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 ± 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 ± 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock

  20. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  1. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  2. Anesthesia related Complications in Pediatric GI Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzevari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elective upper and lower GI endoscopy is usually performed in children on an outpatient basis with the child under sedation or general anesthesia (GA. The objective of this study was to describe Anesthesia related complications in   children undergoing elective GI endoscopy.   Materials and Methods: The study design was descriptive on 1388 patients undergoing elective GI endoscopy in Sheikh Hospital from 2009 to 2013. All patient received propofol or standard inhalational anesthesia. We examined patients’ demographic data  ,  location of GI endoscopy ,  perioperative vital singe ,  recovery time , respiratory and cardiac complications , post operative nausea and vomiting , agitation , diagnosis and outcome   Results: Pediatric patients aged 2 to 17 years. 29 % of elective GI endoscopy was upper GI endoscopy and 70.3 % was lower GI endoscopy and 0.7 was both of them. 47.7 % of Pediatric patients were female and 52.3 % was male. We haven’t significant or fatal anesthesia related respiratory and cardiac complications (no apnea, no cardiac arrest. 8 patients (0.5% have transient bradicardia in post operative care Unit. 83 patients (5.9% have post operative nausea and vomiting controlled by medication.  6 patients (0.4% have post operative agitation controlled by medication.   Conclusions: General anesthesia and deep sedation in children undergoing elective GI endoscopy haven’t significant or fatal anesthesia related complications. We suggest Anesthesia for infants, young children, children with neurologic impairment, and some anxious older children undergoing elective GI endoscopy. Keyword: Anesthesia, Complication, Endoscopy, Pediatric.

  3. Clinical approach to a patient with abnormal uterine bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bleeding, type, appearance, duration, cyclicity and associated ... Clinical approach. In all cases where the main complaint is that of excessive menstrual bleeding, an immediate differentiation must be made between acute severe blood loss and chronic excessive ... management rules can be implemented. In such patients ...

  4. Evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding by red blood cells labeled in vivo with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzelberg, G.G.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of abdominal imaging with RBCs labeled in vivo with Tc-99m, for the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, 28 control subjects and ten patients with suspected bleeding underwent scintigraphy at 0 to 24 hr after tracer injection. Colonic activity was noted in one of the controls within 3 hr of injection, and in five of ten controls at 24 hr, all of whom had initial gastric activity. Of the ten patients with suspected GI bleeding, eight had documented active bleeding; seven of these had positive scintigrams. Nasogastric (NG) suction markedly decreased the presence of initial gastric activity in the patients with active bleeding. With this blood-pool radiopharmaceutical, frequent imaging of the abdomen over 24 hr can be done to test for active bleeding. Continuous NG suction is recommended to reduce accumulation of gastric activity. These results suggest that red blood cells labeled in vivo with Tc-99m provide a sensitive method of detecting active GI bleeding

  5. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...

  6. Oomägi 1941 / Mart Mõniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõniste, Mart

    2016-01-01

    Oomägi on koht, kus 1941. aastal toimusid hukkamised. 1988. aastal avati Hiiumaa Muinsuskaitse Seltsi korraldusel Ristimäel (Oomäel) mälestusrist 1941. aasta hukkamis- ja matmispaiga tähistamiseks

  7. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid —This medication treats heavy menstrual bleeding. • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs—These drugs, which include ibuprofen, may help control heavy bleeding and relieve menstrual cramps. • Antibiotics—If you have an infection, you may be ...

  9. Endoscopic evaluation of upper and lower gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Ray-Offor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A myriad of pathologies lead to gastro-intestinal bleeding (GIB. The common clinical presentations are hematemesis, melena, and hematochezia. Endoscopy aids localization and treatment of these lesions. Aims: The aim was to study the differential diagnosis of GIB emphasizing the role of endoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of patients with GIB referred to the Endoscopy unit of two health facilities in Port Harcourt Nigeria from February 2012 to August 2014. The variables studied included: Demographics, clinical presentation, risk score, endoscopic findings, therapeutic procedure, and outcome. Data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: A total of 159 upper and lower gastro-intestinal (GI endoscopies were performed during the study period with 59 cases of GI bleeding. There were 50 males and 9 females with an age range of 13-86 years (mean age 52.4 ΁ 20.6 years. The primary presentations were hematochezia, hematemesis, and melena in 44 (75%, 9 (15%, and 6 (10% cases, respectively. Hemorrhoids were the leading cause of lower GIB seen in 15 cases (41%. The majority of pathologies in upper GIB were seen in the stomach (39%: Gastritis and benign gastric ulcer. Injection sclerotherapy was successfully performed in the hemorrhoids and a case of gastric varices. The mortality recorded was 0%. Conclusion: Endoscopy is vital in the diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Gastritis and Haemorrhoid are the most common causes of upper and lower GI bleeding respectively, in our environment

  10. Diagnostic performance of CT angiography in patients visiting emergency department with overt gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hang; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in identifying the cause of bleeding and to determine the clinical features associated with a positive test result of CTA in patients visiting emergency department with overt gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We included 111 consecutive patients (61 men and 50 women; mean age: 63.4 years; range: 28-89 years) who visited emergency department with overt GI bleeding. They underwent CTA as a first-line diagnostic modality from July through December 2010. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the CTA images and determined the presence of any definite or potential bleeding focus by consensus. An independent assessor determined the cause of bleeding based on other diagnostic studies and/or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic performance of CTA and clinical characteristics associated with positive CTA results were analyzed. To identify a definite or potential bleeding focus, the diagnostic yield of CTA was 61.3% (68 of 111). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were 84.8% (67 of 79), 96.9% (31 of 32), 98.5% (67 of 68), and 72.1% (31 of 43), respectively. Positive CTA results were associated with the presence of massive bleeding (p = 0.001, odds ratio: 11.506). Computed tomography angiography as a first-line diagnostic modality in patients presenting with overt GI bleeding showed a fairly high accuracy. It could identify definite or potential bleeding focus with a moderate diagnostic yield and a high PPV. CTA is particularly useful in patients with massive bleeding.

  11. Acquired Inhibitors: A Special Case of Bleeding in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Stefanacci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review is intended to familiarize physicians and healthcare providers of older adults with the potential causes of acute bleeding in older adults and to review diagnostic approaches that can produce prompt identification of acute bleeding and facilitate timely treatment. Adverse events from anticoagulant treatment and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID and aspirin use and abuse are among the most common causes of bleeding in older adults. Diagnoses infrequently considered—mild congenital hemophilia, acquired hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and platelet dysfunction—can contribute to acute bleeding in older adults. The approach to management of bleeding varies. Management of acute bleeding in older adults can be challenging because these patients often have chronic comorbidity and have been prescribed long-term concomitant medications that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Prompt recognition of acquired hemophilia, referral to an expert hematologist, and timely initiation of treatment could improve outcome in older patients who experience bleeding episodes resulting from this condition.

  12. Scintigraphic pattern of small bowel bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshu Rajnish Sharma; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Small intestine is the longest part of gastrointestinal tract. Intra-luminal haemorrhage occurring anywhere in its long and tortuous course is difficult to trace. It is relatively inaccessible to endoscopic evaluation. Upper GI endoscopy can see only up to distal duodenum, whereas colonoscope can view maximum of 30 centimeters of terminal ileum after negotiating the scope through ileo-caecal valve. Hence, localization of bleeding source from small bowel remains a difficult clinical problem. This group of patients can be evaluated with scintigraphy for localizing the site of bleeding before undergoing either angiography or surgery. To our best of knowledge, there is no study, which has utilized scintigraphy for evaluation of small bowel bleed exclusively. The present study has been designed to know the efficacy of 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy in detecting small bowel bleed and to know whether it can differentiate between jejunal and ileal bleeding ? Materials and methods: Thirteen patients presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (malena) were enrolled for the study. In all cases, upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) was unremarkable. Colonoscopic examination was either negative or suspected bleeding occurring proximal to ileo-caecal valve. Thus, in these patients, it is presumed clinically that bleeding is originating from small bowel. Barium meal follow through (BMFT) studies, however, could not delineate any etiological lesion in these patients. There were 8 men and 5 women (mean age 48 years). All patients were anemic (Hb- 6 gm%) and mean 3 units of blood were transfused.These patients were subjected to Tc-99m labeled red blood cells scintigraphy (15 mci, in-vivo method) for localization of source of bleeding. The scintiscan was acquired in two phases. A first pass phase acquired at a rate of 2 seconds per frame for 60 seconds followed by acquisition of static abdominal images (500 K, 256 x 256 matrix) at 5 minutes intervals up to 90 minutes on LFOV gamma

  13. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endocrine carcinoma of the pancreatic tail exhibiting gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.

  15. GI-conf: A configuration tool for the GI-cat distributed catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeschi, F.; Boldrini, E.; Bigagli, L.; Mazzetti, P.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we present a configuration tool for the GI-cat. In an Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework, GI-cat implements a distributed catalog service providing advanced capabilities, such as: caching, brokering and mediation functionalities. GI-cat applies a distributed approach, being able to distribute queries to the remote service providers of interest in an asynchronous style, and notifies the status of the queries to the caller implementing an incremental feedback mechanism. Today, GI-cat functionalities are made available through two standard catalog interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and CSW Core Application Profiles. However, two other interfaces are under testing: the CIM and the EO Extension Packages of the CSW ebRIM Application Profile. GI-cat is able to interface a multiplicity of discovery and access services serving heterogeneous Earth and Space Sciences resources. They include international standards like the OGC Web Services -i.e. OGC CSW, WCS, WFS and WMS, as well as interoperability arrangements (i.e. community standards) such as: UNIDATA THREDDS/OPeNDAP, SeaDataNet CDI (Common Data Index), GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) services, and SibESS-C infrastructure services. GI-conf implements user-friendly configuration tool for GI-cat. This is a GUI application that employs a visual and very simple approach to configure both the GI-cat publishing and distribution capabilities, in a dynamic way. The tool allows to set one or more GI-cat configurations. Each configuration consists of: a) the catalog standards interfaces published by GI-cat; b) the resources (i.e. services/servers) to be accessed and mediated -i.e. federated. Simple icons are used for interfaces and resources, implementing a user-friendly visual approach. The main GI-conf functionalities are: • Interfaces and federated resources management: user can set which interfaces must be published; besides, she/he can add a new resource, update or remove an already federated

  16. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  18. Etiological and Endoscopic Profile of Middle Aged and Elderly Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pranav; Chandail, Vijant Singh

    2017-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation depends on the amount and location of hemorrhage and the endoscopic profile varies according to different etiology. At present, there are limited epidemiological data on upper GI bleed and associated mortality from India, especially in the middle and elderly age group, which has a higher incidence and mortality from this disease. This study aims to study the clinical and endoscopic profile of middle aged and elderly patients suffering from upper GI bleed to know the etiology of the disease and outcome of the intervention. Out of a total of 1790 patients who presented to the hospital from May 2015 to August 2017 with upper GI bleed, and underwent upper GI endoscopy, data of 1270 patients, aged 40 years and above, was compiled and analyzed retrospectively. All the patients included in the study were above 40 years of age. Majority of the patients were males, with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. The most common causes of upper GI bleed in these patients were portal hypertension-related (esophageal, gastric and duodenal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric antral vascular ectasia GAVE), seen in 53.62% of patients, followed by peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodenal ulcers) seen in 17.56% of patients. Gastric erosions/gastritis accounted for 15.20%, and duodenal erosions were seen in 5.8% of upper GI bleeds. The in-hospital mortality rate in our study population was 5.83%. The present study reported portal hypertension as the most common cause of upper GI bleeding, while the most common endoscopic lesions reported were esophageal varices, followed by gastric erosion/gastritis, and duodenal ulcer.

  19. Advanced GI Surgery Training-a Roadmap for the Future: the White Paper from the SSAT Task Force on Advanced GI Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Matthew M; Behrns, Kevin E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Michelassi, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    There is the need for well-trained advanced GI surgeons. The super specialization seen in academic and large community centers may not be applicable for surgeons practicing in other settings. The pendulum that has been swinging toward narrow specialization is swinging the other way, as many trained subspecialists are having a harder time finding positions after fellowship, and if they do find a position, the majority of their practice can actually be advanced GI surgery and not exclusively their area of focused expertise. Many hospitals/practices desire surgeons who are competent and specifically credentialed to perform a variety of advanced GI procedures from the esophagus through the anus. Furthermore, broader exposure in training may provide complementary and overlapping skills that may lead to an even better trained GI surgeon compared to someone whose experience is limited to just the liver and pancreas, or to just the colon and rectum, or to only bariatric and foregut surgery. With work hour restrictions and limitations on autonomy for current trainees in residency, many senior trainees have not developed the skills and knowledge to allow them to be competent and comfortable in the broad range of GI surgery. Such training should reflect the needs of the patients and their diseases, and reflect what many practicing surgeons are currently doing, and what many trainees say they would like to do, if there were such fellowship pathways available to them. The goal is to train advanced GI surgeons who are competent and proficient to operate throughout the GI tract and abdomen with open, laparoscopic, and endoscopic techniques in acute and elective situations in a broad variety of complex GI diseases. The program may be standalone, or prepare a surgeon for additional subspecialty training (transition to fellowship and/or to practice). This group of surgeons should be distinguished from subspecialist surgeons who focus in a narrow area of GI surgery. Advanced GI

  20. Thalidomide for treatment of gastrointestinal bleedings due to angiodysplasia : a case report in acquired von Willebrand syndrome and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E T; van Galen, K P M; Schutgens, R E G

    INTRODUCTION: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder and treatment of the associated gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia is challenging. AIM: The aim of this study was to present a new case on the successful use of thalidomide in a patient with acquired von

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Gastric Amyloidosis in a Patient with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Gjeorgjievski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a common complication of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM, and multiple myeloma (MM. This proteinaceous material can be deposited intercellularly in any organ system, including the gastrointestinal (GI tract. In the GI tract, amyloidosis affects the duodenum most commonly, followed by the stomach and colorectum. Gastric amyloidosis causes symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, abdominal pain, and GI bleeding. A case of upper GI bleeding from gastric amyloidosis is presented in a patient with SMM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a gastric mass. Endoscopic biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lamina propria, consistent with gastric amyloidosis. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry performed on peptides extracted from Congo red-positive microdissected areas of paraffin-embedded stomach specimens revealed a peptide profile consistent with AL- (lambda- type amyloidosis. Based on this and multiple other case reports, we recommend that patients with GI bleeding and MGUS, SMM, or MM undergo EGD and pathologic examination of endoscopic biopsies of identified lesions using Congo red stains for amyloidosis for early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with or without concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Rebecca; Yuan, Yuhong; Moayyedi, Paul; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David; Leontiadis, Grigorios I

    2014-06-01

    There is emerging concern that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, and that this risk may be further increased by concurrent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medications. Previous reviews of a relatively small number of studies have reported a substantial risk of upper GI bleeding with SSRIs; however, more recent studies have produced variable results. The objective of this study was to obtain a more precise estimate of the risk of upper GI bleeding with SSRIs, with or without concurrent NSAID use. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials (through April 2013), and US and European conference proceedings were searched. Controlled trials, cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that reported the incidence of upper GI bleeding in adults on SSRIs with or without concurrent NSAID use, compared with placebo or no treatment were included. Data were extracted independently by two authors. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain odds ratio (OR) of the risk of upper GI bleeding with SSRIs +/- NSAID, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The main outcome and measure of the study was the risk of upper GI bleeding with SSRIs compared with placebo or no treatment. Fifteen case-control studies (including 393,268 participants) and four cohort studies were included in the analysis. There was an increased risk of upper GI bleeding with SSRI medications in the case-control studies (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.44,1.92) and cohort studies (OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.13,2.50). The number needed to harm for upper GI bleeding with SSRI treatment in a low-risk population was 3,177, and in a high-risk population it was 881. The risk of upper GI bleeding was further increased with the use of both SSRI and NSAID medications (OR=4.25, 95% CI=2.82,6.42). SSRI medications are associated with a modest increase in the risk of upper GI bleeding, which is lower than has

  3. [Comparative study of two treatment methods for acute periodontal abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-mei; Wang, Wei-qian

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this short-term study was to compare the clinical efficacy of 2 different methods to treat acute periodontal abscesses. After patient selection, 100 cases of acute periodontal abscess were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated by supra- and subgingival scaling, while the control group was treated by incision and drainage. A clinical examination was carried out to record the following variables: subjective clinical variables including pain, edema, redness and swelling; objective clinical variables including gingival index(GI), bleeding index(BI), probing depth(PD),suppuration, lymphadenopathy and tooth mobility. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19.0 software package. RESULES: Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both methods from the first day after treatment and lasted for at least 30 days(P0.05), but the experimental group showed more improvement in edema and redness than the control group(Pperiodontal abscesses.

  4. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  5. Kultuuritorm Tallinnas / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Linnakultuuri Festivalist 20.-27. novembrini Tallinna eri paikades. Muusikaüritustest Von Krahli Teatris: "Tallinn: psühhedeelne linn" ja samanimelise heliplaadi esitlusest; rockmaratonist Operation B; tribuutkontserdist Sven Grünbergile ja S. Grünbergi kolmikheliplaadist "Hukkunud alpinisti Hotell"; Raido Mägi ja Mart Kangro moderntantsuetendusest "Meelega. Start.based on a true story"

  6. Discovery of flare activity on the dwarf M stars, GI 375 and GI 431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.G.; Mathioudakis, M.; Panagi, P.M.; Butler, C.J. (Armagh Observatory, (IE))

    1990-12-01

    Optical and infrared photometry plus spectroscopic data is present for two new flare stars, GI 375 and GI 431. Both of these stars have the hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission. Several flares were detected on GI 375 implying a high level of flare activity. The H{alpha} surface flux of 1.0 x 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} for both stars is similar to that of other active flare stars. Fluxes are given for several of the higher Balmer lines.

  7. Patterns of Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds at Kenyatta National

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued eMachines Customer

    Conclusion: Acute subdural hematomas are the commonest traumatic ... Most of the intracranial bleeds were acute, 27.5% (n=14) followed by chronic, 9.8% .... Gentry LR, Godersky JC, Thomson B. MR imaging of head trauma: review of the ...

  8. Replacement therapy for bleeding episodes in factor VII deficiency. A prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Guglielmo; Napolitano, Mariasanta; Dolce, Alberto; Pérez Garrido, Rosario; Batorova, Angelika; Karimi, Mehran; Platokouki, Helen; Auerswald, Günter; Bertrand, Anne-Marie; Di Minno, Giovanni; Schved, Jean F; Bjerre, Jens; Ingerslev, Jorgen; Sørensen, Benny; Ruiz-Saez, Arlette

    2013-02-01

    Patients with inherited factor VII (FVII) deficiency display different clinical phenotypes requiring ad hoc management. This study evaluated treatments for spontaneous and traumatic bleeding using data from the Seven Treatment Evaluation Registry (STER). One-hundred one bleeds were analysed in 75 patients (41 females; FVII coagulant activity <1-20%). Bleeds were grouped as haemarthroses (n=30), muscle/subcutaneous haematomas (n=16), epistaxis (n=12), gum bleeding (n=13), menorrhagia (n=16), central nervous system (CNS; n=9), gastrointestinal (GI; n=2) and other (n=3). Of 93 evaluable episodes, 76 were treated with recombinant, activated FVII (rFVIIa), eight with fresh frozen plasma (FFP), seven with plasma-derived FVII (pdFVII) and two with prothrombin-complex concentrates. One-day replacement therapy resulted in very favourable outcomes in haemarthroses, and was successful in muscle/subcutaneous haematomas, epistaxis and gum bleeding. For menorrhagia, single- or multiple-dose schedules led to favourable outcomes. No thrombosis occurred; two inhibitors were detected in two repeatedly treated patients (one post-rFVIIa, one post-pdFVII). In FVII deficiency, most bleeds were successfully treated with single 'intermediate' doses (median 60 µg/kg) of rFVIIa. For the most severe bleeds (CNS, GI) short- or long-term prophylaxis may be optimal.

  9. One hundred and one over-the-scope-clip applications for severe gastrointestinal bleeding, leaks and fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, Edris; Gonzalez, Susana; Menke, Detlev; Kruse, Elena; Matthes, Kai; Hochberger, Juergen

    2016-02-07

    To investigate the efficacy and clinical outcome of patients treated with an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) system for severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, perforations and fistulas. From 02-2009 to 10-2012, 84 patients were treated with 101 OTSC clips. 41 patients (48.8%) presented with severe upper-gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, 3 (3.6%) patients with lower-GI bleeding, 7 patients (8.3%) underwent perforation closure, 18 patients (21.4%) had prevention of secondary perforation, 12 patients (14.3%) had control of secondary bleeding after endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and 3 patients (3.6%) had an intervention on a chronic fistula. In 78/84 patients (92.8%), primary treatment with the OTSC was technically successful. Clinical primary success was achieved in 75/84 patients (89.28%). The overall mortality in the study patients was 11/84 (13.1%) and was seen in patients with life-threatening upper GI hemorrhage. There was no mortality in any other treatment group. In detail OTSC application lead to a clinical success in 35/41 (85.36%) patients with upper GI bleeding and in 3/3 patients with lower GI bleeding. Technical success of perforation closure was 100% while clinical success was seen in 4/7 cases (57.14%) due to attendant circumstances unrelated to the OTSC. Technical and clinic success was achieved in 18/18 (100%) patients for the prevention of bleeding or perforation after endoscopic mucosal resection and ESD and in 3/3 cases of fistula closure. Two application-related complications were seen (2%). This largest single center experience published so far confirms the value of the OTSC for GI emergencies and complications. Further clinical experience will help to identify optimal indications for its targeted and prophylactic use.

  10. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Leaks and Bleeding with the Over-the-Scope Clip: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Goenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims The over-the-scope clip (OTSC is a device used for endoscopic closure of perforations, leaks and fistulas, and for endoscopic hemostasis. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of OTSC. Methods Between October 2013 and November 2015, 12 patients underwent OTSC placement by an experienced endoscopist. OTSC was used for the closure of gastrointestinal (GI leaks and fistula in six patients, three of which were iatrogenic (esophageal, gastric, and duodenal and three of which were inflammatory. In six patients, OTSC was used for hemostasis of non-variceal upper GI bleeding. Endoscopic tattooing using India ink was used to assist the accurate placement of the clip. Results All subjects except one with a colonic defect experienced immediate technical success as well as long-term clinical success, during a mean follow-up of 6 weeks. Only one clip was required to close each of the GI defects and to achieve hemostasis in all patients. There were no misfirings or complications of clips. The procedure was well tolerated, and patients were hospitalized for an average of 8 days (range, 3 to 10. Antiplatelet therapy was continued in patients with GI bleeding. Conclusions In our experience, OTSC was safe and effective for the closure of GI defect and to achieve hemostasis of non-variceal GI bleeding.

  11. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Luis A.; Martín-Pérez, Mar; Hennekens, Charles H.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lanas, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has proven effectiveness in secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but is also associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. For primary prevention, this absolute risk must be carefully weighed against the benefits of aspirin; such assessments are currently limited by a lack of data from general populations. Methods Systematic searches of Medline and Embase were conducted to identify observational studies published between 1946 and 4 March 2015 that reported the risks of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with long-term, low-dose aspirin (75–325 mg/day). Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) for bleeding events with aspirin versus non-use were calculated using random-effects models, based on reported estimates of RR (including odds ratios, hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios and standardized incidence ratios) in 39 articles. Findings The incidence of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was 0.48–3.64 cases per 1000 person-years, and the overall pooled estimate of the RR with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.7). For upper and lower GI bleeding, the RRs with low-dose aspirin were 2.3 (2.0–2.6) and 1.8 (1.1–3.0), respectively. Neither aspirin dose nor duration of use had consistent effects on RRs for upper GI bleeding. The estimated RR for ICH with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (1.2–1.7) overall. Aspirin was associated with increased bleeding risks when combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with monotherapy. By contrast, concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors decreased upper GI bleeding risks relative to aspirin monotherapy. Conclusions The risks of major bleeding with low-dose aspirin in real-world settings are of a similar magnitude to those reported in randomized trials. These data will help inform clinical judgements regarding the use of low-dose aspirin

  12. Accessibility of GI for Public Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette; Campagna, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports an ongoing comparative study on the accessibility of Geographic Information at public authorities’ websites in Denmark and Italy. The purpose of the study is twofold; to give an idea of the latest development and diffusion of GI on public authorities websites, and to identify...... critical factors for success or failure of the applications. First part of the study therefore consists of a mapping of the level of accessibility of GI in the two countries as a comparative analysis. The focus of the mapping is mainly on the use of geographic information as support to citizens......’ involvement in spatial e-government and planning processes. Then, in the reminder of the paper, a comparative analysis is proposed outlining similarities and divergences in critical success factors in the two examined domains....

  13. Comparison of four technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in a sheep model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owunwanne, A.; Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S.; Sadek, S.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Yacoub, T.

    1988-01-01

    Four Tc-99 radiopharmaceuticals, Tc-99m sulphur colloid, Tc-99m red blood cells (RBCs), Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), and Tc-99m DTPA, were studied in an experimental animal model for detection and localization of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding site in both the upper and lower abdomen. With Tc-99m sulphur colloid and Tc-99m RBCs, it was possible to detect and localize the GI bleeding site in the lower abdomen. With Tc-99m MAG3, it was possible to visualize the bleeding site in both the upper and lower abdomen. However, Tc-99m MAG3 is partially excreted by the liver into the bile, hence it will be difficult to use Tc-99m MAG3 to localize the GI bleeding site in the lower abdomen. With Tc-99m DTPA, it was possible to detect and localize the GI bleeding site simultaneously in both upper and lower abdomen. The overall background radioactivity was reduced considerably by diuresis with frusemide and catheterization of the urinary bladder

  14. Prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients: a randomized, double-blind study evaluating esomeprazole and cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wenhui; Xia, Ying; Xiang, Peng; Zhang, Liangqing; Yu, Xiangyou; Lim, Sam; Xu, Mo; Zhao, Lina; Rydholm, Hans; Traxler, Barry; Qin, Xinyu

    2018-04-20

    To assess the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in preventing upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, using cimetidine as an active comparator. A pre-specified non-inferiority limit (5%) was used to compare rates of significant upper GI bleeding in this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 study across 27 intensive care units in China. Secondary endpoints included safety and tolerability measures. Patients required mechanical ventilation and had at least one additional risk factor for stress ulcer bleeding. Patients were randomized to receive either active esomeprazole 40 mg, as a 30-min intravenous (IV) infusion twice daily, and an IV placebo cimetidine infusion or active cimetidine 50 mg/h, as a continuous infusion following an initial bolus of 300 mg, and placebo esomeprazole injections, given up to 14 days. Patients were blinded using this double-dummy technique. Of 274 patients, 2.7% with esomeprazole and 4.6% with cimetidine had significant upper GI bleeding (bright red blood in the gastric tube not clearing after lavage or persistent Gastroccult-positive "coffee grounds" material). Non-inferiority of esomeprazole to cimetidine was demonstrated. The safety profiles of both drugs were similar and as expected in critically ill patients. Esomeprazole is effective in preventing upper GI bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, as demonstrated by the non-inferiority analysis using cimetidine as an active control. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02157376.

  15. Factors related to late GI and GU complications in conformal and conventional radiation treatment of cancer of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Lee, W. Robert; Hunt, Margie A.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Peter, Ruth S.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the factors that predict for late GI and GU morbidity in radiation treatment of the prostate. Materials and Methods: Six hundred sixteen consecutive prostate cancer patients treated between 1985 and 1994 with conformal or conventional techniques were included in the analysis. All patients had at least 3 months followup (median 26 months) and received at least 65 Gy. Late GI morbidity was rectal bleeding (requiring more than 2 procedures) or proctitis. Late GU morbidity was cystitis or stricture. Univariate analysis compared the differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade 3 and 4 late morbidity by age (<60 versus ≥ 60 years), peracute side effects ≥ grade 1 (during treatment), subacute side effects ≥ grade 1 (0 to 90 days after treatment), irradiated volume parameters, and dose. Multivariate proportional hazards analysis includes these same variables in a model of time to complication. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze incidence of peracute and subacute GI and GU side effects by GI and GU comorbidities, performance status, pretreatment procedures (biopsy, TURP, etc.), age, treatment volume parameters, and peracute responses. Results: Peracute GI and GU side effects were noted in 441 and 442 patients, respectively. Subacute GI and GU side effects were noted in 34 and 54 patients, respectively. Subacute GI side effects were highly correlated with subacute GU side effects (p<0.00001). Late morbidities were not correlated with peracute side effects but were correlated with subacute side effects (both GI and GU). Thirteen of the 616 patients expressed grade 3 or 4 GI injuries 3 to 32 months after the end of treatment, with a mean of 13 months. The 6 GU morbidities occurred significantly later (9 - 52 months) with a mean of 33 months. Central axis dose and age less than 60 years were the only independent variables significantly related to the incidence of late GI morbidity on multivariate analysis. Subacute and peracute

  16. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to ulcer in duodenal diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon Banos Madrid; Fernando Alberca de las Parras; Angel Vargas Acosta and others

    2006-01-01

    The reasons more frequent of high gastrointestinal bleeding are the peptic gastric and duodenal, followed by acute erosions and the varicose veins in oesophagus and stomach. The diverticulosis of the small bowel is a very rare reason of gastrointestinal bleeding, must considerate in patients with bleeding without evident reason in oesophagus and stomach, the habitual is to diagnose this entity of accidental form in the course of endoscopic procedures, radiological or surgical. The complications associated with the diverticulosis duodenal are rare; it justifies supporting a not surgical attitude at first

  17. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  18. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to ulcer in duodenal diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos Madrid, Ramon; Alberca de las Parras, Fernando; Vargas Acosta, Angel and others

    2006-01-01

    The reasons more frequent of high gastrointestinal bleeding are the peptic gastric and duodenal, followed by acute erosion and the varicose veins in oesophagus and stomachs. The diverticulosis of the small bowel is a very rare reason of gastrointestinal bleeding, must considerate in patients with bleeding without evident reason in oesophagus and stomach the habitual is to diagnose this entity of occidental form in the course of endoscopic procedures, radiological of surgical. The complications associated with the diverticulosis duodenal are rare; it justifies supporting a not surgical attitude at first

  19. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  20. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients with Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Most patients bleed from esophageal or gastric varices, but bleeding from ectopic varices or portal hypertensive gastropathy is also possible. The management of acute bleeding has changed over the last years. Patients are managed with a combination of endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is variceal band ligation. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the time point of endoscopy. The first-line treatment for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding is nonselective beta blockers. Pharmacologic therapy is recommended for most patients; band ligation is an alternative in patients with contraindications for or intolerability of beta blockers. Treatment options for secondary prophylaxis include variceal band ligation, beta blockers, a combination of nitrates and beta blockers, and combination of band ligation and pharmacologic treatment. A clear superiority of one treatment over the other has not been shown. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy or ectopic varices is less common. Treatment options include beta blocker therapy, injection therapy, and interventional radiology. PMID:27335828

  1. Management of severe perioperative bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Ahmed, Aamer B; Afshari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    : The management of perioperative bleeding involves multiple assessments and strategies to ensure appropriate patient care. Initially, it is important to identify those patients with an increased risk of perioperative bleeding. Next, strategies should be employed to correct preoperative anaemia...... and to stabilise macrocirculation and microcirculation to optimise the patient's tolerance to bleeding. Finally, targeted interventions should be used to reduce intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, and so prevent subsequent morbidity and mortality. The objective of these updated guidelines is to provide...

  2. Pinworms and postmenopausal bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Rufaie, H K; Rix, G H; Pérez Clemente, M P; al-Shawaf, T

    1998-01-01

    The human pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is normally found within the human gastrointestinal tract. Pregnant females migrate out of their host's anus at night to lay their eggs perianally. As a consequence of this nocturnal migration some worms find their way into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract, producing irritative symptoms such as vulvovaginitis. A case of pinworm infestation of the uterus presented as postmenopausal bleeding.

  3. Emergent Endovascular Management of Acute Arterial Bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    little attention has been paid to the novel endovascular options available .... Fig 1b. Fig 1c. Figure 1a: Mass at gastric fundus enhanced in post contrast CT abdomen. ... 1c: Left gastric artery super selectively coiled to occlusion. Fig 2a. Fig 2b.

  4. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. Among the criteria that were proposed in Baveno conferences, the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) has not been validated prospectively in clinical practice. We therefore aim to evaluate the measurement of ABRI as a marker of failure to control bleeding and to evaluate the consistency of ABRI in relation to other criteria of failure to control variceal bleeding. All patients with variceal bleeding who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 who were administered transfusion of packed red blood cells were included after obtaining informed consent. All patients were managed as per the standard protocol with intravenous terlipressin along with band ligation and injection of cyanoacrylate in cases of esophageal and fundal varices, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured every 6 h for 48 h and then every 12 h until 5 days of index bleed in each patient. Packed cells were transfused if hemoglobin decreased below 8 g/dl. The number of blood units transfused, change in hemoglobin values, and ABRI were calculated after each unit of blood transfusion till 120 h. In patients in whom bleed could not be controlled, an ABRI value of 0.75 or more was compared with other Baveno IV-based parameters that define failure to control variceal bleeding. During the study period, 137 eligible patients with variceal bleed were admitted. The mean age of the patients was 52±12 years. The majority of patients (50.4%) were in Child-Pugh class B, followed by 38% in Child-Pugh class C. According to the Baveno IV criteria, overall failure to control acute variceal bleeding occurred in 52 (37.9%) patients. Excluding ABRI, failure to control bleeding was found in 22/137 (16%) patients, whereas ABRI-based criteria showed that in 34/137 (24.8%) patients, bleeding could not be controlled. There were only four (2.9%) patients with variceal bleeding in whom ABRI and

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Choon Keun; Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1988-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major diagnostic problem. Although advances have been made in the medical and surgical methods of managing gastrointestinal bleeding, the commonly employed techniques of barium radiography, endoscopy, and angiography may not successfully localize the site and define the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Two widely available technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, sulfur colloid and red blood cells are currently used in the evaluation of patients who are bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. Surgically confirmed 19 patients with use of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid (7 cases) and 99m Tc-RBC (12 cases) were retrospectively evaluated. The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy in detection of bleeding and localization of bleeding site was 68% and 84%, respectively. The authors conclude that bleeding scintigraphy is a safe, sensitive, and non-invasive method as an effective screening test before performing angiography or surgery.

  6. Clinically significant bleeding in incurable cancer patients: effectiveness of hemostatic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihoric, Nikola; Crowe, Susanne; Eychmüller, Steffen; Aebersold, Daniel M; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the outcome after hemostatic radiotherapy (RT) of significant bleeding in incurable cancer patients. Patients treated by hemostatic RT between November 2006 and February 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Bleeding was assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scale (grade 0 = no bleeding, 1 = petechial bleeding, 2 = clinically significant bleeding, 3 = bleeding requiring transfusion, 4 = bleeding associated with fatality). The primary endpoint was bleeding at the end of RT. Key secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and acute toxicity. The bleeding score before and after RT were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Time to event endpoints were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. Overall 62 patients were analyzed including 1 patient whose benign cause of bleeding was pseudomyxoma peritonei. Median age was 66 (range, 37–93) years. Before RT, bleeding was graded as 2 and 3 in 24 (39%) and 38 (61%) patients, respectively. A median dose of 20 (range, 5–45) Gy of hemostatic RT was applied to the bleeding site. At the end of RT, there was a statistically significant difference in bleeding (p < 0.001); it was graded as 0 (n = 39), 1 (n = 12), 2 (n = 6), 3 (n = 4) and 4 (n = 1). With a median follow-up of 19.3 (range, 0.3-19.3) months, the 6-month OS rate was 43%. Forty patients died (65%); 5 due to bleeding. No grade 3 or above acute toxicity was observed. Hemostatic RT seems to be a safe and effective treatment for clinically and statistically significantly reducing bleeding in incurable cancer patients

  7. Small bowel enteroscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B S; Wenger, J S; Waye, J D

    1991-02-01

    Intraoperative endoscopy (IOE) is accepted as the ultimate diagnostic procedure for completely evaluating the small bowel in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Small bowel enteroscopy (SBE) has been reported useful in the nonsurgical evaluation of the small intestine in these patients, but findings may be limited because of incomplete small bowel intubation and a lack of tip deflection. Twenty-three patients underwent 25 SBE exams and subsequently had 25 IOE exams during surgical exploration for continued bleeding. Patients' bleeding histories averaged 2 yr, with an average transfusion requirement of 27 units. Findings on IOE were the same as with SBE in 17/22 (77%) of examinations. We conclude that SBE and IOE are comparable in depth of insertion and ability to detect small vascular ectasias. Both procedures missed pathology due to limited visibility and the evanescent nature of ectasias. Long-term success in abolishing bleeding with these combined techniques can be expected in 55% of these patients. SBE should precede surgery, since the finding of diffuse ectasias precludes any benefit from operative intervention.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of age and alarm symptoms for upper GI malignancy in patients with dyspepsia in a GI clinic: a 7-year cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Khademi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether using demographic characteristics and alarm symptoms can accurately predict cancer in patients with dyspepsia in Iran, where upper GI cancers and H. pylori infection are common. METHODS: All consecutive patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology clinic in Tehran, Iran, from 2002 to 2009 were invited to participate in this study. Each patient completed a standard questionnaire and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Alarm symptoms included in the questionnaire were weight loss, dysphagia, GI bleeding, and persistent vomiting. We used logistic regression models to estimate the diagnostic value of each variable in combination with other ones, and to develop a risk-prediction model. RESULTS: A total of 2,847 patients with dyspepsia participated in this study, of whom 87 (3.1% had upper GI malignancy. Patients reporting at least one of the alarm symptoms constituted 66.7% of cancer patients compared to 38.9% in patients without cancer (p<0.001. Esophageal or gastric cancers in patients with dyspepsia was associated with older age, being male, and symptoms of weight loss and vomiting. Each single predictor had low sensitivity and specificity. Using a combination of age, alarm symptoms, and smoking, we built a risk-prediction model that distinguished between high-risk and low-risk individuals with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 and acceptable calibration. CONCLUSIONS: None of the predictors demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy. While our risk-prediction model had reasonable accuracy, some cancer cases would have remained undiagnosed. Therefore, where available, low cost endoscopy may be preferable for dyspeptic older patient or those with history of weight loss.

  9. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...... a stent dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for 12 months, preferable with prasugrel or ticagrelor unless there is an additional indication of warfarin or increased risk of bleeding. In patients with AF, warfarin is recommended...

  10. Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics.

  11. Comparison of a novel bedside portable endoscopy device with nasogastric aspiration for identifying upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hyung Ki; Choi, Wang Yong; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok

    2014-07-07

    To compare outcomes using the novel portable endoscopy with that of nasogastric (NG) aspiration in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients who underwent NG aspiration for the evaluation of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding were eligible for the study. After NG aspiration, we performed the portable endoscopy to identify bleeding evidence in the UGI tract. Then, all patients underwent conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy as the gold-standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the portable endoscopy for confirming UGI bleeding were compared with those of NG aspiration. In total, 129 patients who had GI bleeding signs or symptoms were included in the study (age 64.46 ± 13.79, 91 males). The UGI tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) was the most common site of bleeding (81, 62.8%) and the cause of bleeding was not identified in 12 patients (9.3%). Specificity for identifying UGI bleeding was higher with the portable endoscopy than NG aspiration (85.4% vs 68.8%, P = 0.008) while accuracy was comparable. The accuracy of the portable endoscopy was significantly higher than that of NG in the subgroup analysis of patients with esophageal bleeding (88.2% vs 75%, P = 0.004). Food material could be detected more readily by the portable endoscopy than NG tube aspiration (20.9% vs 9.3%, P = 0.014). No serious adverse effect was observed during the portable endoscopy. The portable endoscopy was not superior to NG aspiration for confirming UGI bleeding site. However, this novel portable endoscopy device might provide a benefit over NG aspiration in patients with esophageal bleeding.

  12. Taeniasis: A possible cause of ileal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settesoldi, Alessia; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tarantino, Ottaviano

    2017-12-16

    Taenia spp. are flatworms of the class Cestoda, whose definitive hosts are humans and primates. Human infestation (taeniasis) results from the ingestion of raw meat contaminated with encysted larval tapeworms and is considered relatively harmless and mostly asymptomatic. Anemia is not recognized as a possible sign of taeniasis and taeniasis-induced hemorrhage is not described in medical books. Its therapy is based on anthelmintics such praziquantel, niclosamide or albendazole. Here we describe a case of acute ileal bleeding in an Italian man affected with both Taenia spp. infestation resistant to albendazole and Helicobacter pylori -associated duodenal ulcers.

  13. Enabling interoperability in Geoscience with GI-suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Santoro, Mattia; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    GI-suite is a brokering framework targeting interoperability of heterogeneous systems in the Geoscience domain. The framework is composed by different brokers each one focusing on a specific functionality: discovery, access and semantics (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem). The brokering takes place between a set of heterogeneous publishing services and a set of heterogeneous consumer applications: the brokering target is represented by resources (e.g. coverages, features, or metadata information) required to seamlessly flow from the providers to the consumers. Different international and community standards are now supported by GI-suite, making possible the successful deployment of GI-suite in many international projects and initiatives (such as GEOSS, NSF BCube and several EU funded projects). As for the publisher side more than 40 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. Dublin Core, OAI-PMH, OGC W*S, Geonetwork, THREDDS Data Server, Hyrax Server, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific GI-suite components, called accessors. As for the consumer applications side more than 15 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. ESRI ArcGIS, Openlayers, OGC W*S, OAI-PMH clients, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific profiler components. The GI-suite can be used in different scenarios by different actors: - A data provider having a pre-existent data repository can deploy and configure GI-suite to broker it and making thus available its data resources through different protocols to many different users (e.g. for data discovery and/or data access) - A data consumer can use GI-suite to discover and/or access resources from a variety of publishing services that are already publishing data according to well-known standards. - A community can deploy and configure GI-suite to build a community (or project-specific) broker: GI-suite can broker a set of community related repositories and

  14. Anaesthesia in patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy for suspected bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsø, Ida; Risom, Martin; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency. Currently, there are no agreed guidelines on the level of anaesthetic support required in patients undergoing acute esophago-gastro-duodendoscopy (EGD). METHODS: An online questionnaire comprising 19 questions...

  15. Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngu, JH; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Chin, YK

    2017-01-01

    Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study.......Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study....

  16. Anaesthesia in patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy for suspected bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsø, Ida; Risom, Martin; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency. Currently, there are no agreed guidelines on the level of anaesthetic support required in patients undergoing acute esophago-gastro-duodendoscopy (EGD). METHODS: An online questionnaire comprising 19 questions was distrib......INTRODUCTION: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency. Currently, there are no agreed guidelines on the level of anaesthetic support required in patients undergoing acute esophago-gastro-duodendoscopy (EGD). METHODS: An online questionnaire comprising 19 questions...

  17. Beliefs About GI Medications and Adherence to Pharmacotherapy in Functional GI Disorder Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Benjamin; Gyawali, C. Prakash; Kushnir, Vladimir M.; Gott, Britt M.; Nix, Billy D.; Sayuk, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Pharmacotherapy is a mainstay in functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (FGID) management, but little is known about patient attitudes toward medication regimens. Understanding patient concerns and adherence to pharmacotherapy is particularly important for off-label medication use (e.g., anti-depressants) in FGID. METHODS Consecutive tertiary GI outpatients completed the Beliefs About Medications questionnaire (BMQ). Subjects were categorized as FGID and structural GI disease (SGID) using clinician diagnoses and Rome criteria; GI-specific medications and doses were recorded, and adherence to medication regimens was determined by patient self-report. BMQ domains (overuse, harm, necessity, and concern) were compared between FGID and SGID, with an interest in how these beliefs affected medication adherence. Psychiatric measures (depression, anxiety, and somatization) were assessed to gauge their influence on medication beliefs. RESULTS A total of 536 subjects (mean age 54.7±0.7 years, range 22–100 years; n=406, 75.7% female) were enrolled over a 5.5-year interval: 341 (63.6%) with FGID (IBS, 64.8%; functional dyspepsia, 51.0%, ≥2 FGIDs, 38.7%) and 142 (26.5%) with SGID (IBD, 28.9%; GERD, 23.2%). PPIs (n=231, 47.8%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (n=167, 34.6%), and anxiolytics (n=122, 25.3%) were common medications prescribed. FGID and SGID were similar across all BMQ domains (P>0.05 for overuse, harm, necessity, and concern). SGID subjects had higher necessity-concern framework (NCF) scores compared with FGID subjects ( P=0.043). FGID medication adherence correlated negatively with concerns about medication harm (r=−0.24, P<0.001) and overuse (r=−0.15, P=0.001), whereas higher NCF differences predicted medication compliance (P=0.006). Medication concern and overuse scores correlated with psychiatric comorbidity among FGID subjects (P<0.03 for each). FGID patients prescribed TCAs (n=142, 41.6%) expressed a greater medication necessity (17.4

  18. Clenbuterol-Stimulated Glucose Uptake Activates both GS and GI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β2-adrenoceptors activated by adrenaline can also couple to both Gs and Gi proteins. The former is associated with an increase in cAMP to illicit the effect of the catecholamine. In the later, β2-AR induces PKA-catalysed phosphorylation of the receptor, which intends couples to Gi, at high concentration. We proposed that ...

  19. Õhuvägi loobus USA pakutud lennukitest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Eesti õhuvägi loobus USA poolt kingituseks pakutud kahest sõjaväe transportlennukist Sherpa C-23B+. Põhjalikuma analüüsi tulemusel on kaalumisel alternatiivsed variandid ja Sherpasid õhuvägi praeguse seisuga kasutusse ei võta, ütles kaitseväe peastaabi pressiesindaja

  20. Internationally recognised armed forces / Urmas Roosimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosimägi, Urmas

    1999-01-01

    Eesti Kaitseväe juhataja kohusetäitja kolonel Urmas Roosimägi Eesti kaitseväest, osalemisest NATO-PFP (NATO-Partnership for Peace) programmis ja sõjalisest koostööst NATO partnerriikidega. Urmas Roosimägi biograafia. Programm Partnerlus Rahu Nimel

  1. Management of bleeding in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Y E; Liu, S E; Irwin, M G

    2016-09-01

    Management of acute coagulopathy and blood loss during major vascular procedures poses a significant haemostatic challenge to anaesthetists. The acute coagulopathy is multifactorial in origin with tissue injury and hypotension as the precipitating factors, followed by dilution, hypothermia, acidemia, hyperfibrinolysis and systemic inflammatory response, all acting as a self-perpetuating spiral of events. The problem is confounded by the high prevalence of antithrombotic agent use in these patients and intraoperative heparin administration. Trials specifically examining bleeding management in vascular surgery are lacking, and much of the literature and guidelines are derived from studies on patients with trauma. In general, it is recommended to adopt permissive hypotension with a restrictive fluid strategy, using a combination of crystalloid and colloid solutions up to one litre during the initial resuscitation, after which blood products should be administered. A restrictive transfusion trigger for red cells remains the mainstay of treatment except for the high-risk patients, where the trigger should be individualized. Transfusion of blood components should be initiated by clinical evidence of coagulopathy such as diffuse microvascular bleeding, and then guided by either laboratory or point-of-care coagulation testing. Prophylactic antifibrinolytic use is recommended for all surgery where excessive bleeding is anticipated. Fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrates administration are recommended during massive transfusion, whereas rFVIIa should be reserved until all means have failed. While debates over the ideal resuscitative strategy continue, the approach to vascular haemostasis should be scientific, rational, and structured. As far as possible, therapy should be monitored and goal directed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Tranexamic Acid for Lower GI Hemorrhage: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R; Murray, David; Pockney, Peter G; Bendinelli, Cino; Draganic, Brian D; Carroll, Rosemary

    2018-01-01

    Lower GI hemorrhage is a common source of morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic that has been shown to reduce blood loss in a variety of clinical conditions. Information regarding the use of tranexamic acid in treating lower GI hemorrhage is lacking. The aim of this trial was to determine the clinical efficacy of tranexamic acid when used for lower GI hemorrhage. This was a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral university hospital in Australia. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with lower GI hemorrhage requiring hospital admission from November 2011 to January 2014 were screened for trial eligibility (N = 265). A total of 100 patients were recruited after exclusions and were randomly assigned 1:1 to either tranexamic acid or placebo. The primary outcome was blood loss as determined by reduction in hemoglobin levels. The secondary outcomes were transfusion rates, transfusion volume, intervention rates for bleeding, length of hospital stay, readmission, and complication rates. There was no difference between groups with respect to hemoglobin drop (11 g/L of tranexamic acid vs 13 g/L of placebo; p = 0.9445). There was no difference with respect to transfusion rates (14/49 tranexamic acid vs 16/47 placebo; p = 0.661), mean transfusion volume (1.27 vs 1.93 units; p = 0.355), intervention rates (7/49 vs 13/47; p = 0.134), length of hospital stay (4.67 vs 4.74 d; p = 0.934), readmission, or complication rates. No complications occurred as a direct result of tranexamic acid use. A larger multicenter trial may be required to determine whether there are more subtle advantages with tranexamic acid use in some of the secondary outcomes. Tranexamic acid does not appear to decrease blood loss or improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage in the context of this trial. see Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A453.

  3. CHOBS: Color Histogram of Block Statistics for Automatic Bleeding Detection in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tonmoy; Fattah, Shaikh Anowarul; Wahid, Khan A

    2018-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is the most advanced technology to visualize whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a non-invasive way. But the major disadvantage here, it takes long reviewing time, which is very laborious as continuous manual intervention is necessary. In order to reduce the burden of the clinician, in this paper, an automatic bleeding detection method for WCE video is proposed based on the color histogram of block statistics, namely CHOBS. A single pixel in WCE image may be distorted due to the capsule motion in the GI tract. Instead of considering individual pixel values, a block surrounding to that individual pixel is chosen for extracting local statistical features. By combining local block features of three different color planes of RGB color space, an index value is defined. A color histogram, which is extracted from those index values, provides distinguishable color texture feature. A feature reduction technique utilizing color histogram pattern and principal component analysis is proposed, which can drastically reduce the feature dimension. For bleeding zone detection, blocks are classified using extracted local features that do not incorporate any computational burden for feature extraction. From extensive experimentation on several WCE videos and 2300 images, which are collected from a publicly available database, a very satisfactory bleeding frame and zone detection performance is achieved in comparison to that obtained by some of the existing methods. In the case of bleeding frame detection, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtained from proposed method are 97.85%, 99.47%, and 99.15%, respectively, and in the case of bleeding zone detection, 95.75% of precision is achieved. The proposed method offers not only low feature dimension but also highly satisfactory bleeding detection performance, which even can effectively detect bleeding frame and zone in a continuous WCE video data.

  4. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  5. Risk of bleeding in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with different combinations of aspirin, clopidogrel, and vitamin K antagonists in Denmark: a retrospective analysis of nationwide registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Hansen, Morten L; Abildstrøm, Steen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combinations of aspirin, clopidogrel, and vitamin K antagonists are widely used in patients after myocardial infarction. However, data for the safety of combinations are sparse. We examined the risk of hospital admission for bleeding associated with different antithrombotic regimens...... according to the following groups: monotherapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, or vitamin K antagonist; dual therapy with aspirin plus clopidogrel, aspirin plus vitamin K antagonist, or clopidogrel plus vitamin K antagonist; or triple therapy including all three drugs. Risk of hospital admission for bleeding...... was 2.6% for the aspirin group, 4.6% for clopidogrel, 4.3% for vitamin K antagonist, 3.7% for aspirin plus clopidogrel, 5.1% for aspirin plus vitamin K antagonist, 12.3% for clopidogrel plus vitamin K antagonist, and 12.0% for triple therapy. With aspirin as reference, adjusted hazard ratios...

  6. Management of bleeding and open wounds in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Smith, Danny

    2012-06-01

    Bleeding or open wounds of the integumentary system occur frequently in athletics. Integumentary wounds vary from minor scrapes, blisters, and small punctures to more serious lacerations and arterial wounds that could threaten the life of the athlete. The Sports physical therapist (PT) must realize that integumentary wounds and subsequent bleeding can occur in many sports, and assessment and care of such trauma is an essential skill. The purpose of this "On the Sidelines" clinical commentary is to review types of integumentary wounds that may occur in sport and their acute management. 5.

  7. Spironolactone use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem E; Lassen, Annmarie T; Aalykke, Claus

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in spironolactone users. * We conducted this population-based case-control study to confirm the association between spironolactone use and acute nonvaricose UGB alone...... is not modified by high cumulative doses or by concurrent use of antithrombotic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AIMS Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in spironolactone users. The aim was to confirm the association, identify the risk factors...

  8. Recurrent Bleeding After Perimesencephalic Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-12-01

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only 1 well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. We describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. To validate the radiologic findings, we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and 2 neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had 2 episodes after the onset headache with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CT scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on 2 subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, the prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Similar Efficacy of Proton-Pump Inhibitors vs H2-Receptor Antagonists in Reducing Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding or Ulcers in High-Risk Users of Low-Dose Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Kyaw, Moe; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Lee, Vivian; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Naito, Yuji; Watanabe, Toshio; Ching, Jessica Y L; Lam, Kelvin; Lo, Angeline; Chan, Heyson; Lui, Rashid; Tang, Raymond S Y; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tse, Yee Kit; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Handa, Osamu; Nebiki, Hiroko; Wu, Justin C Y; Abe, Takashi; Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Ng, Siew C; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether H 2 -receptor antagonists (H2RAs) reduce the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in aspirin users at high risk. We performed a double-blind randomized trial to compare the effects of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) vs a H2RA antagonist in preventing recurrent upper GI bleeding and ulcers in high-risk aspirin users. We studied 270 users of low-dose aspirin (≤325 mg/day) with a history of endoscopically confirmed ulcer bleeding at 8 sites in Hong Kong and Japan. After healing of ulcers, subjects with negative results from tests for Helicobacter pylori resumed aspirin (80 mg) daily and were assigned randomly to groups given a once-daily PPI (rabeprazole, 20 mg; n = 138) or H2RA (famotidine, 40 mg; n = 132) for up to 12 months. Subjects were evaluated every 2 months; endoscopy was repeated if they developed symptoms of upper GI bleeding or had a reduction in hemoglobin level greater than 2 g/dL and after 12 months of follow-up evaluation. The adequacy of upper GI protection was assessed by end points of recurrent upper GI bleeding and a composite of recurrent upper GI bleeding or recurrent endoscopic ulcers at month 12. During the 12-month study period, upper GI bleeding recurred in 1 patient receiving rabeprazole (0.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-5.1%) and in 4 patients receiving famotidine (3.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.1%) (P = .16). The composite end point of recurrent bleeding or endoscopic ulcers at month 12 was reached by 9 patients receiving rabeprazole (7.9%; 95% CI, 4.2%-14.7%) and 13 patients receiving famotidine (12.4%; 95% CI, 7.4%-20.4%) (P = .26). In a randomized controlled trial of users of low-dose aspirin at risk for recurrent GI bleeding, a slightly lower proportion of patients receiving a PPI along with aspirin developed recurrent bleeding or ulcer than of patients receiving an H2RA with the aspirin, although this difference was not statistically significant. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT01408186. Copyright © 2017 AGA

  11. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with depression receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Saaraswat, Tanuj; Sengupta, S N; Mehrotra, Saurabh

    2009-02-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in the normal clotting phenomenon and is released by platelets. Platelets are dependent on a serotonin transporter for the uptake of serotonin, as they cannot synthesize it themselves. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) block the uptake of serotonin into platelets and can cause problems with clotting leading to bleeding. This case report highlights the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the index case on initiating SSRI therapy for depression and the prompt resolution of the same on its discontinuation on two separate occasions. SSRIs may cause upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Physicians should be aware of the same and should try to rule out previous episodes of upper GI bleed or the presence of other risk factors which might predispose to it before prescribing SSRIs; they should also warn the patients about this potential side effect. Also, the presence of thalassemia trait in the index patient deserves special attention and needs to be explored to see if it might in any way contribute in potentiating this side effect of SSRIs.

  12. Fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne; Lunde, Jens; Johansen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Hypofibrinogenaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but the optimal treatment level, the use of preemptive treatment and the preferred source of fibrinogen remain disputed. Fibrinogen concentrate is increasingly used and recommended for bleeding with acquired haemostatic...

  13. Side Effects: Bleeding and Bruising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapy, can increase patients’ risk of bleeding and bruising, also called thrombocytopenia. Learn about steps to take if you are at increased risk of a low platelet count.

  14. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign ulcer. Mallory-Weiss tear .... pressure and direct thermal coagulation. Alternatively, use ... Forrest classification of peptic ulcer bleeding related to risks of rebleeding. (NBVV - non- .... esomeprazole for prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer ...

  15. Effect of antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on survival time after neutron and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Antibiotic decontaminated and conventional rats were whole-body irradiated with 8 MeV neutrons (1.5 to 13 Gy) or 137 Cs gamma radiation (9 to 20 Gy). The animals were checked for survival at four hour intervals from the second to the seventh day postirradiation and at eight hour intervals on other days. Decontamination of the GI tract increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this range of dose dependency, whereas the effect of decontamination was negligible for doses that produced mostly intestinal death. These results suggest that sepsis and endotoxin produced by bacteria from the intestinal tract play little role in acute intestinal radiation death

  16. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vomiting of blood almost always proximal to the ligament of Treitz is the upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been estimated to be 50-100 per 1,00,000 person per year, with an annual hospitalization rate of approximately 100 per 1, 00,000 hospital admission. This study is to find out the prevalence of nature of lesion on Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in patients admitted for Gastrointestinal bleeding. (UGI Bleed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Place of Study- Department of General Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India. Type of Study- Prospective study. Period of Study- July 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS The Results Study on Endoscopic Findings in Upper Gastro Intestinal Bleed are 1. The peptic ulcer disease was the most common lesion found on endoscopy with prevalence of 54%. 2. Varices contributes second common lesion, next to peptic ulcer disease in UGI bleed with prevalence of 16%. 3. Minor UGI bleed was the commonest presentation. Majority of lesions (60% presented with minor UGI bleed, 28% lesions presented as moderate UGI bleed. Only 8% presented as major UGI bleed. 4. Varices account for the most common cause for major UGI bleed contributing 50%. 5. Gastric ulcer was commonest lesions accounting for 37 cases (37% among 72 cases having single acid peptic lesions on endoscopy. The second most common is duodenal ulcer (31%. 6. Multiple lesions were found in 10% of cases. Peptic ulcer lesions were found in 20% of total number of varices cases. CONCLUSION Peptic ulcer disease was found to be most common lesion causing UGI bleed, with most common presentation as minor UGI bleed and variceal bleed being most common cause of major UGI bleed.

  17. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) KidsHealth / For Teens / Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) ... Print en español Sangrado uterino anormal What Is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name doctors ...

  18. Prothrombin complex concentrate for reversal of vitamin K antagonist treatment in bleeding and non-bleeding patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathias; Wikkelsø, Anne; Lunde, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Reversal therapy with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is used increasingly and is recommended in the treatment of patients with bleeding complications undertaking surgical interventions......, as well as patients at high risk of bleeding. Evidence is lacking regarding indication, dosing, efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the benefits and harms of PCC compared with fresh frozen plasma in the acute medical and surgical setting involving vitamin K antagonist-treated bleeding and non...... finding a beneficial effect of PCC in reducing the volume of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfused to reverse the effect of vitamin K antagonist treatment. The number of new occurrences of transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) did not seem to be associated with the use of PCC (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.82 to 1...

  19. Vasks: Cantabile per archi, Paul Mägi / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Vasks: Cantabile per archi; Botschaft: Musica Dolorosa, Sinfonie für Streicher (Stimmen). Latvijas Nicionalais Simfoniskais Orkestris, Latvijas Filharmonijas Kamerorkestris. Pauls Megi [Paul Mägi]", Tovijs Lifsics. Wergo CD 6220-2

  20. Bleeding aneurysms of the celiac trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziviello, M.; D'Isa, L.; Siani, A.; Maglione, F.; Cataldo, B.; Ziviello, R.; Capalbogiliberti, R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience in the study of bleeding aneurysms of the celiac arteries. Eleven patients were examined with US,CT, and angiography (8 hepatic artery aneurysms and 3 splenic artery aneurysms). Clinical findings included digestive bleeding, upper abdominal pain, palpable pulsating masses, and jaundice. Patient history included blunt abdominal trauma, penetrating trauma due to gunshot, acute pancreatitis, recent hepatic biospy. In all cases US showed an abdominal mass ranging in size from 2 to 10 cm. US findings included cyst-like lesions (8 cases), anobulated solid-like lesion, and complex lesion (2 cases). Continuity of the lesion with adjancent arterial vessels was noted in 5/11 cases, and pulsing activity in 3/11 cases. US patterns, although not specific, play an important role in the diagnosis when associated to other elements such as arterial continuity, mass pulsatility, patient history, and gastrointestinal bleeding. They suggest the need for more specific imaging exams, i.e. CT and angiography, and help avoid dangerous diagnostic biopsies. CT was performed to confirm US findings in 5 cases, and detected either hypodense cystic masses, or inhomogeneous masses with arterial enhancement after bolus injection of cm. CT was used to better demonstrate the lumen, patency of the vessel, the walls of the vessel, and the parietal thrombotic component. The typical arterial enhancement was the decisive finding for the diagnosis, even though a total continuity with arterial vessels was never observed. Angiography was the method of choice for the preoperative demonstration of hepatic artery aneurysms (10 cases) and for occlusive treatment with Gianturco coils (3 cases)

  1. Extending the GI Brokering Suite to Support New Interoperability Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Papeschi, F.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The GI brokering suite provides the discovery, access, and semantic Brokers (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem) that empower a Brokering framework for multi-disciplinary and multi-organizational interoperability. GI suite has been successfully deployed in the framework of several programmes and initiatives, such as European Union funded projects, NSF BCube, and the intergovernmental coordinated effort Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Each GI suite Broker facilitates interoperability for a particular functionality (i.e. discovery, access, semantic extension) among a set of brokered resources published by autonomous providers (e.g. data repositories, web services, semantic assets) and a set of heterogeneous consumers (e.g. client applications, portals, apps). A wide set of data models, encoding formats, and service protocols are already supported by the GI suite, such as the ones defined by international standardizing organizations like OGC and ISO (e.g. WxS, CSW, SWE, GML, netCDF) and by Community specifications (e.g. THREDDS, OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, ESRI APIs). Using GI suite, resources published by a particular Community or organization through their specific technology (e.g. OPeNDAP/netCDF) can be transparently discovered, accessed, and used by different Communities utilizing their preferred tools (e.g. a GIS visualizing WMS layers). Since Information Technology is a moving target, new standards and technologies continuously emerge and are adopted in the Earth Science context too. Therefore, GI Brokering suite was conceived to be flexible and accommodate new interoperability protocols and data models. For example, GI suite has recently added support to well-used specifications, introduced to implement Linked data, Semantic Web and precise community needs. Amongst the others, they included: DCAT: a RDF vocabulary designed to facilitate interoperability between Web data catalogs. CKAN: a data management system for data distribution, particularly used by

  2. [Late complications of liver cirrhosis - management of gastrointestinal bleeding in the presence of portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejda, Václav

    Cirrhosis is the end stage of progressive development of different liver diseases and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Cirrhosis is associated with a number of potential complications, in particular with development of portal hypertension. Portal hypertension with the production of ascites, hepatic and gastric varices bleeding in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, presents the breakpoint in the natural course of cirrhosis, and it is associated with a considerably worse prognosis of patients, with a dramatically increased risk of mortality. A major progress was reached during the past 10-20 years in diagnosing liver cirrhosis (including non-invasive methods), in primary prevention of the initial episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and in the therapy of acute bleeding due to modern pharmacotherapy, with regard to expanding possibilities of therapeutic endoscopy and relatively new options for management of acute bleeding (esophageal stents, TIPS and suchlike). However acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with portal hypertension still presents a considerable risk of premature death (15-20 %). Early diagnosing and causal treatment of numerous liver diseases may lead to slowing or regression of fibrosis and cirrhosis and possibly even of the degree of portal hypertension and thereby also the risk of bleeding.Key words: cirrhosis - esophageal varices - treatment of bleeding - portal hypertension.

  3. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: fatima.rsreis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Cardia, P.P. [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. (author)

  4. Transcatheter arterial embolization for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širvinskas, Audrius; Smolskas, Edgaras; Mikelis, Kipras; Brimienė, Vilma; Brimas, Gintautas

    2017-12-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization is a possible treatment for patients with recurrent bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract after failed endoscopic management and is also an alternative to surgical treatment. To analyze the outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization and identify the clinical and technical factors that influenced the rates of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective analysis was carried out, based on the data of 36 patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 2013 to 2015 in our center. An analysis was performed between early rebleeding rates, mortality and the following factors: patient sex, age, number of units of packed red blood cells and packed plasma administered to the patients, length of hospital stay, therapeutic or prophylactic embolization. The technical success rate of the embolization procedure was 100%. There were 15 (41.70%) therapeutic embolizations and 21 (58.3%) prophylactic embolizations. There was a 77.8% clinical success rate. Following embolization, 10 (27.80%) patients had repeated bleeding and 9 (25.0%) patients died. Significant associations were found between rebleeding and prophylactic embolization (OR = 10.53; p = 0.04) and between mortality and prophylactic embolization (OR = 10.53; p = 0.04) and units of packed red blood cells (OR = 1.25; p < 0.01). In our experience, transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe treatment method for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a possible alternative to surgery for high-risk patients.

  5. Scintigraphic and Endoscopic Evaluation of Radiation-induced Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Micro-pig Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jin; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Noo-Ri; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young-Hoon; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    Micro-pig model can be served as a proper substitute for humans in studying acute radiation syndrome following radiation-exposure accidents, especially showing similar clinico-pathologic response of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome to human. Among acute GI syndrome induced by radiation, GI motility disturbance has not been studied, however, it would be important in a viewpoint of affecting infectious progression from GI tract. Here, we employed scintigraphy of GI transit time and sequential endoscopic examination and tissue sampling in micropigs followed by abdominal radiation exposure. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate objective evidence of GI motility disturbance by scintigraphic evaluation and to find corresponding clinicoapthologic changes in radiation-induced acute GI syndrome

  6. On the number of observable customers, served during he busy period of GI/GI/infinity queue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is proved that the number of observable customers, served during the busy period of the GI/GI infinity queue with infinitely many servers has a geometric distribution. The parameter of this distribution is determined, too. It is shown that the normalized distributions converge to the exponential distribution. As a particular result is obtained that the distribution of the number of nonabsorbing streamers in a streamer blob has a geometric distribution

  7. Safety and efficacy of lansoprazole injection in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a postmarketing surveillance conducted in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari F; Setiawati, Arini

    2013-04-01

    to assess the safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole injection (Prosogan®) in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis. this study was a multicenter observational postmarketing study of lansoprazole (Prosogan®) injection. Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis were given intravenous lansoprazole for a maximum of 7 days or until the bleeding stopped and the patients were able to take oral doses of lansoprazole. Primary outcome of the study was cessation of bleeding. Some laboratory parameters were also measured. among a total of 204 patients evaluable for safety, there was no adverse event reported during the study. A total of 200 patients were eligible for efficacy evaluation, 125 patients (62.5%) were males. Among these patients, upper GI bleeding stopped in 20 patients (10.0%) on day 1, in 71 patients (35.5%) on day 2, 75 patients (37.5%) on day 3, 24 patients (12.0%) on day 4, and 7 patients (3.5%) on day 5, making a cumulative of 197 patients (98.5%) on day 5. The hemostatic effect was rated as 'excellent' if the bleeding stopped within 3 days, and 'good' if the bleeding stopped within 5 days. Thus, the results were 'excellent' in 166 patients (83.0%) and 'good' in 31 patients (15.5%). These results were not different between males and females, between age below 60 years and 60 years and above, and between baseline Hb below 10 g/dL and 10 g/dL and above. the results of this observational postmarketing study in 200 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis demonstrated that intravenous lansoprazole twice a day was well tolerated and highly effective.

  8. Determination of frequency and treatment outcome in patients of fundal varices presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.; Khan, A.U.; Gillani, F.M.; Saeed, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of fundal varices and treatment outcome with histoacryl in patients presenting with upper GI bleeding. Design: Single centre, retrospective study. Place and duration of study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi from Jan 2009 to July 2011. Methods: Total 1327 patients were included in the study. In 41(3.1%) patients fundal varices were diagnosed on upper GI endoscopy. The mean age of the patients was 48.1+-16.96 years. Minimum age was 12 years and maximum age was 85 years. Out of 41 patients 29 (70.73%) were male and 12 (29.3%) were female. GOV1 was seen in 28 (68.3%) patients, GOV2 in 10 (24.4%) patients, IGV1 in 2 (4.87%) patients, and IGV2 in 1 patient (2.43%). Conclusion: The frequency of fundal varices in our study was 3.1%, diagnosed on upper GI endoscopy. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate sclerotherapy was found to be highly effective for the treatment of active bleeding gastric varices. (author)

  9. Scintigraphic diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding with 99μTc-labeled blood-pool agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskowiak, J.; Nielsen, S.; Munck, O.

    1981-01-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with 99 μTc-labeled albumin or red blood cells was used in 68 patients to localize gastrointestinal bleeding or confirm that it had stopped. Acute, active bleeding was identified in 33 patients; characteristic patterns of bleeding from the stomach, biliary passages, small intestine, and colon are shown. Sensitivity was 0.86 (95% confidence limits, 0.57-0.98) and specificity was 1.0 (95% confidence limits, 0.82-1.0) in 33 patients who had scintigraphy and endoscopy performed in succession. Abdominal scintigraphy appears to be a valuable supplement to conventional diagnostic methods. In upper gastrointestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be considered when endoscopy fails. In lower intestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be the method of choice

  10. Scintigraphic diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding with 99mTc-labeled blood-pool agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskowiak, J.; Nielsen, S.L.; Munck, O.

    1981-01-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with 99 mTc-labeled albumin or red blood cells was used in 68 patients to localize gastrointestinal bleeding or confirm that it had stopped. Acute, active bleeding was identified in 33 patients; characteristic patterns of bleeding from the stomach, biliary passages, small intestine, and colon are shown. Sensitivity was 0.86 (95% confidence limits, 0.57-0.98) and specificity was 1.0 (95% confidence limits, 0.82-1.0) in 33 patients who had scintigraphy and endoscopy performed in succession. Abdominal scintigraphy appears to be a valuable supplement to conventional diagnostic methods. In upper gastrointestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be considered when endoscopy fails. In lower intestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be the method of choice

  11. Artificial liver support with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system: activation of coagulation and bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachli, Esther B; Schuepbach, Reto A; Maggiorini, Marco; Stocker, Reto; Müllhaupt, Beat; Renner, Eberhard L

    2007-05-01

    Numerous, mostly uncontrolled, observations suggest that artificial liver support with the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) improves pathophysiologic sequelae and outcome of acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure. MARS is felt to be safe, but extracorporeal circuits may activate coagulation. To assess the frequency of and risk factors for activation of coagulation during MARS treatment. Retrospective analysis of coagulopathy/bleeding complications observed during 83 consecutive MARS sessions in 21 patients (11 men; median age 46 years; median three sessions per patient; median duration of session 8 h). Nine clinically relevant episodes of coagulopathy/bleeding were observed in eight patients, forced to premature cessation of MARS in seven and ended lethal in four. Four complications occurred during the first, five during later (third to seventh) MARS sessions and two bleeders tolerated further sessions without complications. Coagulation parameters worsened significantly also during MARS sessions not associated with bleeding (PMARS therapy, potentially leading to bleeding complications and mortality.

  12. The Clinical Outcomes of Transcatheter Microcoil Embolization in Patients with Active Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Small Bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Soo Teik

    2009-01-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes of the transcatheter microcoil embolization in patients with active lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding in the small bowel, as well as to compare the mortality rates between the two groups based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus determined by an angiography. We retrospectively evaluated all of the consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for treatment of acute LGI bleeding between January 2003 and October 2007. In total, the study included 36 patients who underwent a colonoscopy and were diagnosed to have an active bleeding in the LGI tracts. Based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus, determined by an angiography, the patients were classified into two groups. The clinical outcomes included technical success, clinical success (no rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (> 30 days), as well as the major and minor complication rates. Of the 36 patients, 17 had angiography-proven bleeding that was distal to the marginal artery. The remaining 19 patients did not have a bleeding focus based on the angiography results. The technical and clinical success rates of performing transcatheter microcoil embolizations in patients with active bleeding were 100% and 88%, respectively (15 of 17). One patient died from continued LGI bleeding and one patient received surgery to treat the continued bleeding. There was no note made on the delayed bleeding or on the major or minor complications. Of the 19 patients without active bleeding, 16 (84%) did not have recurrent bleeding. One patient died due to continuous bleeding and multi-organ failure. The superselective microcoil embolization can help successfully treat patients with active LGI bleeding in the small bowel, identified by the results of an angiography. The mortality rate is not significantly different between the patients of the visualization and non-visualization groups on angiography

  13. Bleeding Risks With Aspirin Use for Primary Prevention in Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Evelyn P; Burda, Brittany U; Williams, Selvi B; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle M; Evans, Corinne V

    2016-06-21

    The balance between potential aspirin-related risks and benefits is critical in primary prevention. To evaluate the risk for serious bleeding with regular aspirin use in cardiovascular disease (CVD) primary prevention. PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2010 through 6 January 2015), and relevant references from other reviews. Randomized, controlled trials; cohort studies; and meta-analyses comparing aspirin with placebo or no treatment to prevent CVD or cancer in adults. One investigator abstracted data, another checked for accuracy, and 2 assessed study quality. In CVD primary prevention studies, very-low-dose aspirin use (≤100 mg daily or every other day) increased major gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding risk by 58% (odds ratio [OR], 1.58 [95% CI, 1.29 to 1.95]) and hemorrhagic stroke risk by 27% (OR, 1.27 [CI, 0.96 to 1.68]). Projected excess bleeding events with aspirin depend on baseline assumptions. Estimated excess major bleeding events were 1.39 (CI, 0.70 to 2.28) for GI bleeding and 0.32 (CI, -0.05 to 0.82) for hemorrhagic stroke per 1000 person-years of aspirin exposure using baseline bleeding rates from a community-based observational sample. Such events could be greater among older persons, men, and those with CVD risk factors that also increase bleeding risk. Power to detect effects on hemorrhagic stroke was limited. Harms other than serious bleeding were not examined. Consideration of the safety of primary prevention with aspirin requires an individualized assessment of aspirin's effects on bleeding risks and expected benefits because absolute bleeding risk may vary considerably by patient. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound coil placement of gastric varices: Emerging modality for recurrent bleeding gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Harwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are the probable source of bleeding in 10-36% of patients, with acute variceal bleeding and carry high mortality and rebleeding rates. Till date, cyanoacrylate glue injection is considered as the standard of care but has high complication rate. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided coil placement is a new emerging technique of management of gastric varices. In this case report, we detail the EUS guided coil placement for management of gastric varices after failed glue injections.

  15. Bleeding frequency and characteristics among hematologic malignancy inpatient rehabilitation patients with severe thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jack B; Tennison, Jegy M; Rutzen-Lopez, Isabel M; Silver, Julie K; Morishita, Shinichiro; Dibaj, Seyedeh S; Bruera, Eduardo

    2018-03-28

    To identify the frequency and characteristics of bleeding complications during acute inpatient rehabilitation of hematologic malignancy patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Retrospective descriptive analysis. Comprehensive cancer center acute inpatient rehabilitation unit. Consecutive hematologic malignancy patients with a platelet count of less than or equal to 20,000/microliter (μL) on the day of acute inpatient rehabilitation admission from 1/1/2005 through 8/31/2016. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, laboratory, and medical data. Patients were rehabilitated using the institutional exercise guidelines for thrombocytopenic patients. Bleeding events noted in the medical record. Out of 135 acute inpatient rehabilitation admissions, 133 unique patients were analyzed with a total of 851 inpatient rehabilitation days. The mean platelet count was 14,000/μL on the day of admission and 22,000/μL over the course of the rehabilitation admission. There were 252 days of inpatient rehabilitation where patients had less than 10,000/μL platelets. A total of 97 bleeding events were documented in 77/135 (57%) admissions. Of the 97 bleeding events, 72 (74%), 14 (14%), and 11 (11%) were considered to be of low, medium, and high severity, respectively. There were 4/97 (4%) bleeding events that were highly likely attributable to physical activity but only 1/4 was considered high severity. Bleeding rates were .09, .08, .17, and .37 for > 20,000, 15-20,000, 10-15,000, and rehabilitation in severely thrombocytopenic hematologic cancer patients. Bleeding rates increased with lower platelet counts. However, using the exercise guidelines for severely thrombocytopenic patients, the risk of severe exercise-related bleeding events was low.

  16. Neurosurgical management in children with bleeding diathesis: auditing neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zaitun; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Crimmins, Darach; Caird, John

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of neurosurgical treatment in children with bleeding diathesis and also to evaluate the current management plan applied in the authors' service. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed all cases in which neurosurgical procedures were performed in pediatric patients presenting with intracranial hematoma due to an underlying bleeding tendency over a 5-year period at their institution. They evaluated the patients' neurological symptoms from the initial referral, hematological abnormalities, surgical treatment, neurological outcome, and scores on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E Peds) obtained 1 year after the last operation. RESULTS Five patients with a bleeding diathesis who underwent surgery for intracranial hematoma were identified; the diagnosis was hemophilia A in 3 cases, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 1 case, and severe aplastic anemia in 1 case. Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) (n = 4) and acute subdural hematoma (n = 1) were confirmed on radiological investigations. In 2 of the 4 patients with ICH, the diagnosis of bleeding diathesis was made for the first time on presentation. Four patients (all male) were younger than 2 years; the patient with severe aplastic anemia and spontaneous ICH was 15 years old and female. The duration of symptoms varied from 24 hours to 5 days. Neurological examination at 1 year's follow-up showed complete recovery (GOS-E Peds score of 1) in 3 cases and mild weakness (GOS-E Peds score of 2) in 2 cases. CONCLUSIONS Neurosurgical management of patients with bleeding diathesis should be carried out in a tertiary-care setting with multidisciplinary team management, including members with expertise in neuroimaging and hematology, in addition to neurosurgery. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a bleeding diathesis is crucial for full neurological recovery.

  17. Bleeding diathesis in Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudt, Joost M.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Peters, Marjolijn; Melis, Paris

    2005-01-01

    An 18-year-old girl with Noonan syndrome was operated on for prominent ears. Subcutaneous haematomas developed on both sides, and coagulation tests reported a bleeding diathesis. This is seldom mentioned in descriptions of the syndrome, but it has been shown that one-third of all patients with the

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  19. The Application of Hemospray in Gastrointestinal Bleeding during Emergency Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Hagel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal bleeding represents the main indication for emergency endoscopy (EE. Lately, several hemostatic powders have been released to facilitate EE. Methods. We evaluated all EE in which Hemospray was used as primary or salvage therapy, with regard to short- and long-term hemostasis and complications. Results. We conducted 677 EE in 474 patients (488 examinations in 344 patients were upper GI endoscopies. Hemospray was applied during 35 examinations in 27 patients (19 males, 33 during upper and 2 during lower endoscopy. It was used after previous treatment in 21 examinations (60% and in 14 (40% as salvage therapy. Short-term success was reached in 34 of 35 applications (97.1%, while long-term success occurred in 23 applications (65.7%. Similar long-term results were found after primary application (64,3% or salvage therapy (66,7%. Rebleeding was found in malignant and extended ulcers. One major adverse event (2.8% occurred with gastric perforation after Hemospray application. Discussion. Hemospray achieved short-term hemostasis in virtually all cases. The long-term effect is mainly determined by the type of bleeding source, but not whether it was applied as first line or salvage therapy. But, even in the failures, patients had benefit from hemodynamic stabilization and consecutive interventions in optimized conditions.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Bleeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Bleeding Problems “My nurse said that chemotherapy could make ... with a clean cloth. Keep pressing until the bleeding stops. If you bruise: Put ice on the ...

  1. SSAT Presidential Address 2017 "Passion and the GI Surgeon".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Nathaniel J

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is a dynamic, exciting field that has dramatically evolved over the past three decades. According to a survey of leaders in GI surgery, the development of minimally invasive surgery has been the most significant advance during this period of time. The author traces his pursuit of minimally invasive surgery and its impact on his career satisfaction. Discovering one's passion within surgery and developing "flow" during operative procedures is important to help prevent burnout. Surgical educators must transmit this sense of passion to their trainees such that they can understand the true meaning of the surgical vocation.

  2. A fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 240 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaka, Hyasinta; Koy, Mheta; Liwa, Anthony; Kabangila, Rodrick; Mirambo, Mariam; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Mkongo, Eliasa; McHembe, Mabula D; Chalya, Phillipo L

    2012-07-03

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P bleeding, shock, hepatic decompensation, HIV infection, comorbidities, malignancy, age > 60 years and in patients with

  3. Lenz, Eestis unustatud geenius / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2001-01-01

    Tartus toimunud rahvusvahelise Lenzi-konverentsi (Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz) publik nägi väljasõidul Põltsamaale Lenzi kirjutatud näidendit "Haavatud peigmees", mis esitati Tartu üliõpilasteatri poolt Põltsamaa lossihoovis. Lav. Kalev Kudu

  4. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  5. Eesti uued helid / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Tristan Priimägi kuulab digitaalselt uusi kodumaiseid demosalvestisi: Nevesis "Demo", Queennaive "My Soul / EuroPop", DND "Den Rozhdenija EP", Uncandy "Lovecool / Diskobliss / Libidinal Economy", S.I.N. "Year Zero EP" (Omblu) / "Steppin Headz" (XDubz), Spice Mouse "Unreleased"

  6. The queue-length in GI/G/s queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gall Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the queue-length in the stationary symmetrical GI/G/s queue is given with an application to the M/G/s queue, particularly in the case of the combination of several packet traffics, with various constant service times, to dimension the buffer capacity.

  7. Empty Promise: Black American Veterans and the New GI Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Alford H.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 GI Bill offers college funds for veterans. Yet Black male vets are not taking advantage of these benefits. This chapter examines personal and societal problems that hinder access to higher education for Black vets, and suggests some ways adult educators can advocate for these young men.

  8. G.I. Taylor and the Trinity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2011-01-01

    The story is often told of the calculation by G.I. Taylor of the yield of the first ever atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico in 1945. It has indeed become a staple of the classroom whenever dimensional analysis is taught. However, while it is true that Taylor succeeded in calculating this figure at a time when it was still classified, most versions…

  9. Management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2012-01-01

    Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved by the D......Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved......) again as soon as cardiovascular risks outweigh gastrointestinal risks. Patients in need of continued treatment with ASA or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be put on prophylactic treatment with PPI at standard dosage. The combination of 75mg ASA and PPI should be preferred to monotherapy...

  10. CoGI: Towards Compressing Genomes as an Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaojing; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Genomic science is now facing an explosive increase of data thanks to the fast development of sequencing technology. This situation poses serious challenges to genomic data storage and transferring. It is desirable to compress data to reduce storage and transferring cost, and thus to boost data distribution and utilization efficiency. Up to now, a number of algorithms / tools have been developed for compressing genomic sequences. Unlike the existing algorithms, most of which treat genomes as one-dimensional text strings and compress them based on dictionaries or probability models, this paper proposes a novel approach called CoGI (the abbreviation of Compressing Genomes as an Image) for genome compression, which transforms the genomic sequences to a two-dimensional binary image (or bitmap), then applies a rectangular partition coding algorithm to compress the binary image. CoGI can be used as either a reference-based compressor or a reference-free compressor. For the former, we develop two entropy-based algorithms to select a proper reference genome. Performance evaluation is conducted on various genomes. Experimental results show that the reference-based CoGI significantly outperforms two state-of-the-art reference-based genome compressors GReEn and RLZ-opt in both compression ratio and compression efficiency. It also achieves comparable compression ratio but two orders of magnitude higher compression efficiency in comparison with XM--one state-of-the-art reference-free genome compressor. Furthermore, our approach performs much better than Gzip--a general-purpose and widely-used compressor, in both compression speed and compression ratio. So, CoGI can serve as an effective and practical genome compressor. The source code and other related documents of CoGI are available at: http://admis.fudan.edu.cn/projects/cogi.htm.

  11. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy (whipple procedure) for massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by a diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratigos, Panagiotis; Kouskos, Efstratios; Kouroglou, Maria; Chrisafis, Ioannis; Fois, Lucia; Mavrogiorgis, Anastasios; Axiotis, Efthimios; Zamtrakis, Sotirios

    2007-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of a massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, caused by high-grade diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum, secondary to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and treated with an emergency partial pancreatoduodenectomy. A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of hematemesis. Upper GI endoscopy was unrevealing because of the copious bleeding. Initially, the patient underwent conservative treatment, thus resulting in the temporary cessation of the bleeding. Later, the hemorrhage massively relapsed. An urgent abdominal ultrasound raised the suspicion of a large, possibly bleeding, neoplasm of the duodenum, which was finally confirmed by abdominal computed tomography. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, during which a partial pancreatoduodenectomy was performed (Whipple procedure). Histologically, the tumor was a high-grade B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum. The nearby small intestinal mucosa was suggestive of IPSID. A massive upper GI hemorrhage from a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the duodenum, which develops secondary to IPSID, is a very rare clinical demonstration of this disease. Our case is one of the few reports in the English literature, for which the Whipple procedure has been performed as a curative treatment.

  12. Common data items in seven European oesophagogastric cancer surgery registries: towards a European upper GI cancer audit (EURECCA Upper GI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, W O; Henneman, D; Allum, W H; Dikken, J L; van Sandick, J W; Reynolds, J; Mariette, C; Jensen, L; Johansson, J; Kolodziejczyk, P; Hardwick, R H; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-03-01

    Seven countries (Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom) collaborated to initiate a EURECCA (European Registration of Cancer Care) Upper GI project. The aim of this study was to identify a core dataset of shared items in the different data registries which can be used for future collaboration between countries. Item lists from all participating Upper GI cancer registries were collected. Items were scored 'present' when included in the registry, or when the items could be deducted from other items in the registry. The definition of a common item was that it was present in at least six of the seven participating countries. The number of registered items varied between 40 (Poland) and 650 (Ireland). Among the 46 shared items were data on patient characteristics, staging and diagnostics, neoadjuvant treatment, surgery, postoperative course, pathology, and adjuvant treatment. Information on non-surgical treatment was available in only 4 registries. A list of 46 shared items from seven participating Upper GI cancer registries was created, providing a basis for future quality assurance and research in Upper GI cancer treatment on a European level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models.

  14. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  15. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  16. Valoración del pronóstico a corto y largo plazo de pacientes con cirrosis y hemorragia digestiva por hipertensión portal Assessing the short- and long-term prognosis of patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sempere

    2009-04-01

    -term survival in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. Material and methods: prognostic indicators were calculated for a cohort of 201 cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding hospitalized in our center, a third-level teaching hospital. The studied variables were: age, sex, etiology of cirrhosis, endoscopic findings, previous variceal bleeding episodes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, infection during episode, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores within 24 hours of bleeding onset. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months until death, liver transplantation, or end of observation. Results: median follow-up was 66.85 weeks (range 0-432.4. The 6-week, 3-month, 12-month and 36-month mortality rates were 22.9, 24.9, 34.3, and 39.8%, respectively. Age ≥ 65 years, presence of HCC, CTP score ≥ 10, and MELD score ≥ 18 were the variables associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. The accuracy of MELD scores as predictors of 6-week, 3-month, 12-month, and 36-month mortality was better than that of CTP scores (c-statistics: 6 week MELD 0.804, CTP 0.762; 3-month MELD 0.794, CTP 0.760; 12-month MELD 0.766, CTP 0.741; 36 month MELD 0.737, CTP 0.717. Conclusion: MELD and CTP scores together with age and a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma are useful indicators to assess the short- and long-term prognosis of patients with acute variceal bleeding.

  17. Frequecy of different causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding using endoscopic procedure at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, F.; Ullah, R.S.; Khan, J.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the outcome of early endoscopy in terms of frequency of different causes of upper Gastrointestinal bleeding at a tertiary care hospital.Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Outpatients / indoor patients, Department of Medicine Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 1st Jan 2010 to 30th June 2010. Patients and Methods: Study was carried out in department of medicine Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Two hundred and forty four after cosen. Patients of upper gastrointestinal bleeding fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Haemodynamically stable patients were kept empty stomach for at least 6 -8 hours before procedure. A detailed history and thorough physical examination was carried out. Protocols for endoscopic examination were followed. Mandatory baseline investigations were obtained. Endoscopic findings were documented on a proforma. pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were 174 males (71.3%) and 70 females (28.7%). The age of the patients ranged from 15 years to 75 years, mean age was 52.23 years (SD = 14.78). The most common cause of upper GI bleed was varices in 176 (72.1%) patients; followed by gastric ulcer in 24 (9.8%) patients. Other causes in order of decreasing frequency included gastritis 16(6.55%), duodenal ulcer 14(5.73%), esophagitis 6(2.45%), Mallory Weiss tear 2(0.81%) and miscellaneous 6(2.45%). Conclusion: Esophageal varices is the most common cause of upper GI bleed in our set up reflecting high prevalence of liver cirrhosis secondary to chronic HBV and HCV infection. (author)

  18. Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/pubmed/24641269 . Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 52. ...

  19. A STUDY ON ENDOSCOPIC EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranaya Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the commonest gastrointestinal emergencies encountered by clinicians. Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Endoscopy has become the preferred method for diagnosis in patients with acute UGIB. This study is done in a diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE setup of a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the causes of UGIB prevalent in this part of our country which might differ from other studies. AIM To ascertain prevalent causes of UGIB in patients of this part of India admitted to a Govt. Tertiary Hospital with a provisional diagnosis of UGIB. METHOD One hundred consecutive patients with UGIB were subjected to UGIE to find out the aetiology. The clinical profile and endoscopic findings were analysed and compared with the data on UGIB from other studies. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 47.03 years with male: female ratio of 2.33:1. 58% of patients were first time bleeders. Majority of patients presented with melaena. Visualisation of active bleeding achieved to 85.7% when endoscopy was done within first 24 hrs. The commonest cause of UGIB was duodenal ulcer (DU which accounted for 41% cases. Gastric ulcer was responsible in 13% of cases. Portal hypertension was responsible for bleed in only 13%. Neoplasms accounted for 25% of cases. Other less common causes were erosive gastritis (3%, gastric polyp (3%, Mallory-Weiss tear (1%, and Dieulafoy’s lesion (1%. Among bleeding peptic ulcers, 27.8% of cases were classified as Forrest IIa and 20.4% in Forrest IIb & IIc each. Acid peptic disease was past history elicited in majority (33% followed by NSAID (26% and alcohol (26%. CONCLUSION The present study has diagnosed various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this part of country. The incidence of gastric carcinoma as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is significantly high compared to those in other studies. UGI endoscopy should be done in every case

  20. The practical management of bleedings during treatment with direct oral anticoagulants: the emergency reversal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding represents the most feared complication of the new oral anticoagulants, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs, as well as all the antithrombotic therapies. During the acute phase of bleeding in patients taking anticoagulants, restoration of an effective hemostasis represents the cornerstone of practical management. While vitamin K antagonists are effectively and promptly reversed by specific antidotes such as prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs, fresh frozen plasma or vitamin K, it is still not clear how to manage the urgent reversal of DOACs during life-threatening or major bleedings due to the lack of specific antidotes. However, in vitro and ex vivo studies have suggested some potential strategies to reverse DOACs in clinical practice, other than general support measures that are always recommended. Activated charcoal could be used in subjects with DOAC-related bleedings presenting to the emergency department within two hours of the last oral intake. Non-activated or activated PCCs (FEIBA and recombinant activated Factor VII (raFVII seem to be the optimal strategy for urgent reversal of dabigatran, while non-activated PCCs seem to have efficacy in reversing rivaroxaban. Due to its low plasma protein binding, dabigatran could be also dialyzed in urgent cases. Clinically relevant non-major bleedings and minor bleedings should be treated with general and local measures, respectively, and, when necessary, with dose delay or drug withdrawal. In this article, the Authors describe the practical approach to bleedings occurring during DOACs treatment.

  1. Recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of bleeds and for the prevention of surgery-related bleeding in congenital haemophilia with inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagostino, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Ozelo, Margareth; Solimeno, Luigi; Arkhammar, Per; Lee, Hye Youn; Rosu, Gabriela; Giangrande, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The availability of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, eptacog alfa activated) has greatly advanced the care of patients with haemophilia A or B who have developed inhibitors against the infused replacement factor. Recombinant FVIIa is licensed for the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes and the prevention of bleeding in surgery or invasive procedures in patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors. This article attempts to review in detail the extensive evidence of rFVIIa in congenital haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Patients with acute bleeding episodes are best treated on demand at home, to achieve the short- and long-term benefits of rapid bleed control. Key prospective studies have shown that rFVIIa achieves consistently high efficacy rates in the management of acute (including joint) bleeds in inhibitor patients in the home treatment setting. Substantial post-approval data from key registries also support the on-demand efficacy profile of rFVIIa established by the prospective clinical trials. The availability of rFVIIa has allowed major surgery to become a reality for inhibitor patients. Studies in key surgery, including orthopaedic procedures, have found that rFVIIa provides consistently high efficacy rates. Importantly, the wealth of data does not raise any unexpected safety concerns surrounding rFVIIa use; this is likely because rFVIIa is a recombinant product with a localised mechanism of action at the site of vascular injury. In summary, rFVIIa is established as an effective and well-tolerated first-line treatment for on-demand bleeding control and bleed prevention during minor and major (including elective orthopaedic) surgery in inhibitor patients. Use of rFVIIa has been a major step towards narrowing the gap in outcomes between inhibitor patients and non-inhibitor patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of GI dysmotility in scleroderma with the new enterokinetic agent prucalopride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Bartelsman, J. F. W. M.; Lauwers, L.; Tytgat, G. N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Scleroderma is a multisystem disorder frequently resulting in disturbed GI motility. Although, especially early in the disease, symptomatic improvement is achieved with prokinetic agents, more severe GI manifestations of scleroderma may be difficult to treat, leading to parenteral feeding and

  3. Early initiation of beta blockers following primary endoscopic therapy for bleeding esophageal varices in cirrhotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, A.; Malik, K.; Farooq, M.O.; Butt, U.; Butt, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of rebleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of beta-blockers. Methods: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given I.V vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients with only esophageal varices as source of bleed were recruited. Vasoactive agents were discontinued following variceal banding. The patients were observed for 12-18 hours, discharged on oral carvedilol 6.25 mg BID and monitored for 6 weeks for rebleeding and mortality. Results: 50 patients were included, 27 (54%) male and 23 (46%) female. Average age was 43+3 years. Etiology of cirrhosis was HCV in 42 (84%), HBV in 6 (12%), HCV and HBV in 2 (4%) and indeterminate in 1 (2%) patient. 17 (34%) patients had Child A, 22 (44%) Child B and 11 (22%) had Child C disease. Hospital stay was under 24 hours in 24 (48%), 24-48 hours in 15 (30%) and 48-72 hours in 11 (22%) patients. 5 (10%) patients underwent EGD within 6 hours of admission, 28 (56%) within 12 hours, 14 (28%) within 24 hours and 3 (6%) within 36 hours. No rebleeding, mortality or drug related adverse effects were noted during 6 weeks after discharge. Conclusions:Our study proves possibility of shorter management of variceal bleeding by having a 12-18 hour monitoring after endoscopic banding, followed by beta-blocker initiation and discharge. This will safely reduce physical and financial burden on health services. Background: Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of re-bleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of beta-blockers. Methods: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given intravenous vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients

  4. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-06-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  5. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-01-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas

  6. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Evaluating compliance to a low glycaemic index (GI diet in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiomo William

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low Glycaemic Index (GI diet may decrease some long-term health risks in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS such as endometrial cancer. This study was performed to assess compliance to a low GI diet in women with PCOS. Food diaries prospectively collected over 6 months from women on a low GI diet or healthy eating diet were analysed retrospectively. The women were recruited for a pilot randomised control trial investigating whether a low GI diet decreased the risk of Endometrial Cancer. Nine women with PCOS completed 33 food diaries (17 from women on a low GI diet and 16 from women on a healthy eating diet recording 3023 food items (low GI group:n = 1457; healthy eating group:n = 1566. Data was analysed using Foster-Powell international values inserted into an SPSS database as no scientifically valid established nutrition software was found. The main outcome measures were mean item GI and Glyacemic Load (GL, mean meal GL, percentage high GI foods and mean weight loss. Findings Women allocated the low GI diet had a statistically significant lower GI of food items (33.67 vs 36.91, p Conclusion Women with PCOS on a low GI diet consumed food items with a significantly lower mean GI and GL compared to the healthy eating diet group. Longer term compliance needs evaluation in subsequent studies to ascertain that this translates to reduced long term health risks. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN86420258

  8. Serendipity in scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review of 80 scintigraphic bleeding studies performed with Tc-99m sulfur colloid or Tc-99m labeled red blood cells showed five cases where there were abnormal findings not related to bleeding. In some cases, the abnormalities were initially confused with bleeding or could obscure an area of bleeding, while in other cases, the abnormalities represented additional clinical information. These included bone marrow replacement related to tumor and radiation therapy, hyperemia related to a uterine leiomyoma and a diverticular abscess, and a dilated abdominal aorta (aneurysm). Recognition of such abnormalities should prevent an erroneous diagnosis and the additional information may be of clinical value

  9. Locations and Mucosal Lesions Responsible for Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients on Warfarin or Dabigatran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Flack, Kathryn Friedman; Chatterjee-Murphy, Prapti; Desai, Jay; Wallentin, Lars C; Ezekowitz, Michael; Connolly, Stuart; Reilly, Paul; Brueckmann, Martina; Ilgenfritz, John; Aisenberg, James

    2018-03-27

    Different oral anticoagulants may be associated with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) from different locations or mucosal lesions. We aimed to test this hypothesis. Two blinded gastroenterologists independently analyzed source documents from the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial of dabigatran 150 mg BID (D150), dabigatran 110 mg BID (D110) versus warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Major GIB events (total n = 546) and life-threatening GIB events (n = 258) were more common with D150 versus warfarin (RR 1.57 [1.28-1.92] and RR 1.62 [1.20-2.18], respectively) and similar for D110 compared to warfarin (RR 1.11 [0.89-1.38] and RR 1.16 [0.84-1.61], respectively). Fatal bleeding was similarly rare across treatment groups. Lower GI major bleeding and life-threatening bleeding were more common with D150 compared to warfarin (RR 2.23 [1.47, 3.38] and RR 2.64 [1.36, 5.13], respectively) and with D110 compared to warfarin (RR 1.78 [1.16, 2.75] and RR 2.00 [1.00, 4.00], respectively). MGIB from colonic angiodysplasia was increased with dabigatran versus warfarin (P < 0.01 for both dose comparisons). Subacute and chronic MGIB events were more common with D150 than with warfarin (RR 1.72 [1.06, 2.78] and RR 1.66 [1.12, 2.45], respectively), as were hematochezia or melena (RR 1.67 [1.18, 2.36] and RR 1.72 [1.20, 2.47], respectively). In a chronic NVAF population, D150 but not D110 is associated with increased major and life-threatening GI bleeding in comparison with warfarin. At both dabigatran doses, increased bleeding from the colorectum, in particular from angiodysplasia, is seen.

  10. Life-threatening bleeding in a case of autoantibody-induced factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, K; Ishii, M

    1999-02-01

    A male patient presented with life-threatening bleeding induced by autoantibody-induced factor VII (F.VII) deficiency. This patient had macroscopic hematuria, skin ecchymosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and a neck hematoma that was causing disturbed respiration. He developed acute renal failure and acute hepatic failure, probably due to obstruction of the ureters and the biliary tract, respectively. Although activated partial thromboplastin time was normal, prothrombin time (PT) was remarkably prolonged at 71.8 seconds compared to 14.0 seconds in a normal control. Both the immunoreactive level of F.VII antigen and the F.VII activity of the patient's plasma samples were VII activity. These findings suggested the presence of a plasma inhibitor for F.VII. After administration of large doses of methylprednisolone, PT was gradually shortened and plasma levels of F.VII increased over time. Bleeding, acute renal failure, and acute hepatic failure improved markedly following the steroid treatment. These observations suggest that life-threatening bleeding can be induced by autoantibody-induced F.VII deficiency and that immunosuppressive therapy using large doses of steroid can be successful in inhibiting the production of the autoantibody.

  11. Minor Bleeds Alert for Subsequent Major Bleeding in Patients Using Vitamin K Antagonists.

    OpenAIRE

    Veeger , Nic J.G.M.; Piersma-Wichers , Margriet; Meijer , Karina; Hillege , Hans L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) have shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of thromboembolism, but the associated risk of bleeding is an important limitation. The majority of the bleeds are clinically mild. In this study, we assessed whether these minor bleeds are associated with major bleeding, when controlling for other important risk indicators, including the achieved quality of anticoagulation. For this, 5898 patients of a specialised anticoagulation cl...

  12. Provocative Endoscopy to Identify Bleeding Site in Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Novel Approach in Transarterial Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Minobu; Fuwa, Sokun; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    This report describes a novel approach to endoscopically induce bleeding by removing a clot from the bleeding site during angiography for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage. This procedure enabled accurate identification of the bleeding site, allowing for successful targeted embolization despite a negative initial angiogram. Provocative endoscopy may be a feasible and useful option for angiography of obscure bleeding sites in patients with UGI arterial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Menstrual Patterns and Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescents with Bleeding Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlut-McElroy, Tazim; Williams, Karen B; Carpenter, Shannon L; Strickland, Julie L

    2015-12-01

    To characterize menstrual bleeding patterns and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents with bleeding disorders. We conducted a retrospective review of female patients aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders who attended a pediatric gynecology, hematology, and comprehensive hematology/gynecology clinic at a children's hospital in a metropolitan area. Prevalence of heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche, prolonged menses, and irregular menses among girls with bleeding disorders and patterns of initial and subsequent treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in girls with bleeding disorders. Of 115 participants aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders, 102 were included in the final analysis. Of the 69 postmenarcheal girls, almost half (32/69, 46.4%) noted heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche. Girls with von Willebrand disease were more likely to have menses lasting longer than seven days. Only 28% of girls had discussed a treatment plan for heavy menstrual bleeding before menarche. Hormonal therapy was most commonly used as initial treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Half (53%) of the girls failed initial treatment. Combination (hormonal and non-hormonal therapy) was more frequently used for subsequent treatment. Adolescents with bleeding disorders are at risk of heavy bleeding at and after menarche. Consultation with a pediatric gynecologist and/or hematologist prior to menarche may be helpful to outline abnormal patterns of menstrual bleeding and to discuss options of treatment in the event of heavy menstrual bleeding. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. C-reactive protein as a prognostic indicator for rebleeding in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Hee; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, Soon-Wook; Kang, Seung Hun; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, Bo-In; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-05-01

    In patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, rebleeding after an initial treatment is observed in 10-20% and is associated with mortality. To investigate whether the initial serum C-reactive protein level could predict the risk of rebleeding in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This was a retrospective study using prospectively collected data for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Initial clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and C-reactive protein levels were compared between those with and without 30-day rebleeding. A total of 453 patients were included (mean age, 62 years; male, 70.9%). The incidence of 30-day rebleeding was 15.9%. The mean serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in these patients than in those without rebleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding, indicating a possible role as a useful screening indicator for predicting the risk of rebleeding. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and dermatological toxicity during dose-escalated 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) using an intrarectal balloon for prostate gland localization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woel, Rosemonde; Beard, Clair; Chen, Ming-Hui; Hurwitz, Mark; Loffredo, Marian; McMahon, Elizabeth; Ching, Jane; Lopes, Lynn; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the acute gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary (GU), and dermatologic (D) toxicity during dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). A modified intrarectal balloon (Medrad) was used for prostate gland localization and immobilization. Methods: Forty-six men with clinical category T1c to T3a, and at least one high-risk feature (PSA >10, Gleason ≥7, or MRI evidence of extracapsular extension or seminal vesical invasion) comprised the study cohort. Treatment consisted of hormonal therapy and 4-field 3DCRT using an intrarectal balloon for the initial 15 of 40 treatments. Planning treatment volume dose was 72 Gy (95% normalization). A Mantel-Haenzel Chi-square test compared the distribution of GU, GI, and D symptoms at baseline and at end of treatment (EOT). Results: There was no significant difference between the 2 time points in the proportion of patients with bowel symptoms (p = 0.73), tenesmus (p = 0.27), nocturia (p = 1.00), or GU urgency (p = 0.40). However, there was a significant decrease in GU frequency (70% vs. 50%, p = 0.46) as a result of medical interventions and a significant increase in hemorrhoidal irritation (4% vs. 20%, p = 0.02) and anal cutaneous skin reaction (0% vs. 70%, p < 0.001). By 3 months after EOT compared to baseline, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing hemorrhoidal bleeding (4% vs. 8%, p = 0.52), requiring intervention for hemorrhoidal symptoms (7% vs. 5%, p = 0.8), or experiencing persistent anal cutaneous skin reaction (0% vs. 3%, p = 0.31). Conclusion: Dose-escalated 3DCRT using an intrarectal balloon for prostate localization and immobilization was well tolerated. Acute GU, GI, and D symptoms resolved with standard dietary or medical interventions by the EOT or shortly thereafter

  16. Tomotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma: A report on acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiler, Louis; Dobbins, Donald; Kulasekere, Ravi; Einstein, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the impact of Tomotherapy (TOMO) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The records of 55 consecutively treated TOMO patients were reviewed. Additionally a well-matched group of 43 patients treated with LINAC-based step and shoot IMRT (LINAC) was identified. Acute toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity criterion. Results: The grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity rates for the TOMO vs. LINAC groups were 51% vs. 28% (p = 0.001). Acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 25% vs. 40% (p = 0.024), with no grade 3 GI toxicity in either group. In univariate analysis, androgen deprivation, prostate volume, pre-treatment urinary toxicity, and prostate dose homogeneity correlated with acute GI and GU toxicity. With multivariate analysis use of Tomotherapy, median bladder dose and bladder dose homogeneity remained significantly correlated with GU toxicity. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity for prostate cancer is improved with Tomotherapy at a cost of increased acute GU toxicity possibly due to differences in bladder and prostate dose distribution

  17. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  18. Rectal bleeding in children: endoscopic evaluation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, Lissy; van Lingen, Anna V.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Rectal bleeding is an alarming event both for the child and parents. It is hypothesized that colonoscopy instead of sigmoidoscopy and adding esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy in case of accompanying complaints, improves the diagnostic accuracy in children with prolonged rectal bleeding. Study

  19. RESEARCH Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portal hypertension due to intrahepatic disease or extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is an important cause of upper gastro- intestinal bleeding in children. About 50% of children with EHPVO present with bleeding from oesophageal varices.1-3 Improvements in the management of children with intrahepatic ...

  20. Duodenal diverticular bleeding: an endoscopic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valdivielso-Cortázar

    Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.

  1. Bleeding ectopic duodenal varix: use of a new microvascular plug (MVP) device along with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Richa; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Bee, Erik; Karagozian, Raffi

    2017-08-16

    Ectopic varices (ECV) occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract outside the common variceal sites and represent 2%-5% of all GI variceal bleeds with mortality rates up to 40%. Management is challenging because of inaccessibility and increased risk of rebleeding. We report what is to our knowledge the first clinical use of a new microvascular plug (MVP) with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) for a bleeding duodenal varix (DV). A 68-year-old man presented with melena. Endoscopy demonstrated a grade II varix in the second part of the duodenum with red wale sign. TIPSS was performed and portogram revealed a single DV. Poststent placement venogram revealed a persistent varix and hence a 5-7 mm MVP was deployed. Subsequent imaging showed cessation of blood through the DV. The patient had no further bleeding. TIPSS with embolisation is an effective treatment for ECV. This MVP offers advantages due to its size and compatibility and can be redeployed in case of suboptimal placement. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Red blood cell transfusion is associated with further bleeding and fresh-frozen plasma with mortality in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Kavitha; Spilsbury, Katrina; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T; Latchmiah, Faye; Mukhtar, Syed A; Semmens, James B; Leahy, Michael F; Olynyk, John K

    2016-04-01

    Blood products are commonly transfused for patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). While concerns exist about further bleeding and mortality in subsets of patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, the impact of non-RBC blood products has not previously been systematically investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between blood products transfusion, further bleeding, and mortality after acute NVUGIB. A retrospective cohort study examined further bleeding and 30-day and 1-year mortality in adult patients who underwent gastroscopy for suspected acute NVUGIB between 2008 and 2010 in three tertiary hospitals in Western Australia. Survival analysis was performed. A total of 2228 adults (63% male) with 2360 hospital admissions for NVUGIB met the inclusion criteria. Median age at presentation was 70 years (range, 19-99 years). Thirty-day mortality was 4.9% and 1-year mortality was 13.9%. Transfusion of 4 or more units of RBCs was associated with greater than 10 times the odds of further bleeding in patients with a hemoglobin level of more than 90 g/L (odds ratio, 11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-45.7; p ≤ 0.001), but was not associated with mortality. Administration of 5 or more units of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) was associated with increased 30-day (hazard ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9; p = 0.008) and 1-year (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0; p = 0.005) mortality after adjusting for coagulopathy, comorbidity, Rockall score, and other covariates. In this large, multicenter study of NVUGIB, RBC transfusion was associated with further bleeding but not mortality, while FFP transfusion was associated with increased mortality in a subset of patients. © 2015 AABB.

  3. The effect of periodontal therapy on neopterin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels in chronic periodontitis patients with and without acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut Çankaya, Zeynep; Bodur, Ayşen; Taçoy, Gülten; Ergüder, Imge; Aktuna, Derya; Çengel, Atiye

    2018-04-05

    The presence of neopterin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a marker for local and acute immune activation, and the presence of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) in GCF is accepted as a marker for chronic vascular inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate effects of periodontal treatment on GCF levels of neopterin and VCAM-1 in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with systemically healthy CP patients. Sixty subjects (20 CP patients with AMI, 20 healthy CP patients, and 20 healthy controls) were included. GCF samples were analyzed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months, and the probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing, gingival (GI) and plaque (PI) indices were recorded. We determined neopterin and VCAM-1 levels (concentration and total amount) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were seen between the AMI+CP and CP groups for PI, GI, GCF levels of neopterin and VCAM-1 at baseline. The number of teeth with 5 mm≤CALperiodontal inflammation and the presence of neopterin and VCAM-1 in GCF prior to and following periodontal treatment, and between the GCF volume and clinical parameters. Data suggest that the total amount and concentration of neopterin and VCAM-1 in GCF seemed to be closely associated with periodontal disease severity in CP patients with AMI. Moreover, the results of our study demonstrate that the past periodontal status is potentially correlated between groups, with similar periodontal disease severity.

  4. Diagnostic role of capsule endoscopy in patients of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after negative CT enterography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh Sodhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Computed tomographic enterography (CT-EG has emerged a useful tool for the evaluation of small bowel in patients of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. However, CT-EG may be negative in about 50-60% of patients. We aimed to see the efficacy of capsule endoscopy (CE in patients of OGIB, who had initial negative CT-EG. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients of OGIB after initial hemodynamic stabilization were subjected to CT-EG. Those having negative CT-EG were further evaluated with CE. Results: Fifty-five patients of OGIB with mean standard deviation age, 52.7 (19.0, range 18-75 years, women 31/55 (56.4% were subjected to CT-EG. Nine (17.6% patients had positive findings on CT-EG, which included mass lesions in six, thickened wall of distal ileal loops, narrowing, and wall enhancement in two and jejunal wall thickening with wall hyperenhancement in one patient. Forty-two patients had negative CT-EG of which 25 underwent CE for further evaluation. CE detected positive findings in 11 of 25 (48% patients which included vascular malformations in three, ulcers in seven, and fresh blood without identifiable source in one. The diagnostic yield of CE in overt OGIB was more compared to occult OGIB ((7/14, 50% vs (4/11, 36.4% P = 0.2 and was higher if performed within 2 weeks of active gastrointestinal (GI bleed (P = 0.08. Conclusions: In conclusion, CE is an additional tool in the evaluation of obscure GI bleed, especially mucosal lesions which can be missed by CT-EG.

  5. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghelfi, Julien, E-mail: JGhelfi@chu-grenoble.fr; Frandon, Julien, E-mail: JFrandon2@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Barbois, Sandrine, E-mail: SBarbois@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Digestive et d’Urgences (France); Vendrell, Anne, E-mail: AVendrell@chu-grenoble.fr; Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr; Sengel, Christian, E-mail: CSengel@chu-grenoble.fr; Bricault, Ivan, E-mail: IBricault@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France); Arvieux, Catherine, E-mail: CArvieux@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Digestive et d’Urgences (France); Ferretti, Gilbert, E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr; Thony, Frédéric, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (France)

    2016-05-15

    IntroductionMesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, and the complications of embolization.ResultsSix endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration.ConclusionIn mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.

  6. A splenic artery aneurysm presenting with multiple episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, W S L; Gamlaksha, D S; Jayasekara, D P; Rajamanthri, S D

    2017-05-03

    Splenic artery aneurysm is rare and its diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific nature of the clinical presentation. We report a case of a splenic artery aneurysm in which the patient presented with chronic dyspepsia and multiple episodes of minor intragastric bleeding. A 60-year-old, previously healthy Sri Lankan man presented with four episodes of hematemesis and severe dyspeptic symptoms over a period of 6 months. The results of two initial upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and an abdominal ultrasound scan were unremarkable. A third upper gastrointestinal endoscopy detected a pulsatile bulge at the posterior wall of the gastric antrum. A contrast-enhanced computed tomogram of his abdomen detected a splenic artery aneurysm measuring 3 × 3 × 2.5 cm. While awaiting routine surgery, he developed a torrential upper gastrointestinal bleeding and shock, leading to emergency laparotomy. Splenectomy and en bloc resection of the aneurysm with the posterior stomach wall were performed. Histology revealed evidence for a true aneurysm without overt, acute, or chronic inflammation of the surrounding gastric mucosa. He became completely asymptomatic 2 weeks after the surgery. Splenic artery aneurysms can result in recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The possibility of impending catastrophic bleeding should be remembered when managing patients with splenic artery aneurysms after a minor bleeding. Negative endoscopy and ultrasonography should require contrast-enhanced computed tomography to look for the cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Long-term prognosis in patients continuing taking antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Xu; Dong, Bo; Hong, Biao; Gong, Yi-Qun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Wei-Jun

    2017-01-28

    To investigate the long-term prognosis in peptic ulcer patients continuing taking antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding, and to determine the risk factors that influence the prognosis. All clinical data of peptic ulcer patients treated from January 1, 2009 to January 1, 2014 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into either a continuing group to continue taking antithrombotic drugs after ulcer bleeding or a discontinuing group to discontinue antithrombotic drugs. The primary outcome of follow-up in peptic ulcer bleeding patients was recurrent bleeding, and secondary outcome was death or acute cardiovascular disease occurrence. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2014. Basic demographic data, complications, and disease classifications were analyzed and compared by t - or χ 2 -test. The number of patients that achieved various outcomes was counted and analyzed statistically. A survival curve was drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was compared using the log-rank test. COX regression multivariate analysis was applied to analyze risk factors for the prognosis of peptic ulcer patients. A total of 167 patients were enrolled into this study. As for the baseline information, differences in age, smoking, alcohol abuse, and acute cardiovascular diseases were statistically significant between the continuing and discontinuing groups (70.8 ± 11.4 vs 62.4 ± 12.0, P peptic ulcer bleeding, continuing antithrombotics increases the risk of recurrent bleeding events, while discontinuing antithrombotics would increase the risk of death and developing cardiovascular disease. This suggests that clinicians should comprehensively consider the use of antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding.

  8. Universal definition of perioperative bleeding in adult cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Cornelius; Aronson, Solomon; Dietrich, Wulf; Hofmann, Axel; Karkouti, Keyvan; Levi, Marcel; Murphy, Gavin J.; Sellke, Frank W.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; von Heymann, Christian; Ranucci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative bleeding is common among patients undergoing cardiac surgery; however, the definition of perioperative bleeding is variable and lacks standardization. We propose a universal definition for perioperative bleeding (UDPB) in adult cardiac surgery in an attempt to precisely describe and

  9. Usefulness of angiographic embolization endoscopic metallic clip placement in patient with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min Jae; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Ho Jun; Cho, Young Jun; Bae, Seok Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of angiographic embolization after endoscopic metallic clip placement around the edge of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. We have chosen 41 patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (22 gastric ulcers, 16 duodenal ulcers, 3 malignant ulcers) between January 2010 and December 2012. We inserted metallic clips during the routine endoscopic treatments of the bleeding ulcers. Subsequent transcatheter arterial embolization was performed within 2 hours. We analyzed the angiographic positive rates, angiographic success rates and clinical success rates. Among the 41 patients during the angiography, 19 patients (46%) demonstrated active bleeding points. Both groups underwent embolization using microcoils, N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA), microcoils with NBCA or gelfoam particle. There are no statistically significant differences between these two groups according to which embolic materials are being used. The bleeding was initially stopped in all patients, except the two who experienced technical failures. Seven patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding within two weeks. Among them, 4 patients were successful re-embolized. Another 3 patients underwent gastrectomy. Overall, clinical success was achieved in 36 of 41 (87.8%) patients. The endoscopic metallic clip placement was helpful to locate the correct target vessels for the angiographic embolization. In conclusion, this technique reduced re-bleeding rates, especially in patients who do not show active bleeding points.

  10. Usefulness of angiographic embolization endoscopic metallic clip placement in patient with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min Jae; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Ho Jun; Cho, Young Jun; Bae, Seok Hwan; Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Kang, Chae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of angiographic embolization after endoscopic metallic clip placement around the edge of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. We have chosen 41 patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (22 gastric ulcers, 16 duodenal ulcers, 3 malignant ulcers) between January 2010 and December 2012. We inserted metallic clips during the routine endoscopic treatments of the bleeding ulcers. Subsequent transcatheter arterial embolization was performed within 2 hours. We analyzed the angiographic positive rates, angiographic success rates and clinical success rates. Among the 41 patients during the angiography, 19 patients (46%) demonstrated active bleeding points. Both groups underwent embolization using microcoils, N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA), microcoils with NBCA or gelfoam particle. There are no statistically significant differences between these two groups according to which embolic materials are being used. The bleeding was initially stopped in all patients, except the two who experienced technical failures. Seven patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding within two weeks. Among them, 4 patients were successful re-embolized. Another 3 patients underwent gastrectomy. Overall, clinical success was achieved in 36 of 41 (87.8%) patients. The endoscopic metallic clip placement was helpful to locate the correct target vessels for the angiographic embolization. In conclusion, this technique reduced re-bleeding rates, especially in patients who do not show active bleeding points.

  11. Transcatheter arterial embolisation in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a sample of 29 patients in a gastrointestinal referral center in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heining-Kruz, S; Finkenzeller, T; Schreyer, A; Dietl, K H; Kullmann, F; Paetzel, C; Schedel, J

    2015-09-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of interventional embolisation performed with catheter angiography in 29 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of a secondary care hospital. From April 2007 to February 2013, 29 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding underwent endovascular diagnostics and treatment. The diagnosis was established by endoscopy, computed tomography or clinically based on a significant decrease in hemoglobin. Transcatheter arterial embolisation was performed with coils, liquid embolic agents, and particles. The technical and clinical outcomes were assessed by postinterventional endoscopy, hemoglobin concentrations, number of necessary transfusions, or surgical interventions, as well as by post-interventional mortality within 28 days after the procedure. Selective angiographic embolisation in upper gastrointestinal bleeding was primarily successful technically and clinically in 22 of 29 patients. In 4/29 cases an angiographic reintervention was performed, which was successful in 3 cases. In 3 cases of primarily technically unsuccessful procedures reintervention was not attempted. No catheterisation-related complications were recorded. Peri-interventional mortality was 31%, but only 2 of these patients died due to uncontrolled massive bleeding, whereas the lethal outcome in the other 7 patients was due to their underlying diseases. Transcatheter arterial embolisation is an effective and rapid method in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Radiological endovascular interventions may considerably contribute to reduced mortality in GI bleeding by avoiding a potential surgical procedure following unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. The study underlines the importance of the combination of interventional endoscopy with interventional radiology in secondary care hospitals for patient outcome in complex and complicated upper gastrointestinal bleeding situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. GiSAO.db: a database for ageing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillari Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related gene expression patterns of Homo sapiens as well as of model organisms such as Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of ageing. For an effective analysis and interpretation of expression profiles it is necessary to store and manage huge amounts of data in an organized way, so that these data can be accessed and processed easily. Description GiSAO.db (Genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress database is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving ageing-related experimental data. Expression data of genes and miRNAs, annotation data like gene identifiers and GO terms, orthologs data and data of follow-up experiments are stored in the database. A user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. KEGG pathways were incorporated and links to external databases augment the information in GiSAO.db. Search functions facilitate retrieval of data which can also be exported for further processing. Conclusions We have developed a centralized database that is very well suited for the management of data for ageing research. The database can be accessed at https://gisao.genome.tugraz.at and all the stored data can be viewed with a guest account.

  13. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: the Usefulness of Rotational Angiography after Endoscopic Marking with a Metallic Clip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to assess the usefulness of rotational angiography after endoscopic marking with a metallic clip in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients with no extravasation of contrast medium on conventional angiography. In 16 patients (mean age, 59.4 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (13 gastric ulcers, 2 duodenal ulcers, 1 malignant ulcer), a metallic clip was placed via gastroscopy and this had been preceded by routine endoscopic treatment. The metallic clip was placed in the fibrous edge of the ulcer adjacent to the bleeding point. All patients had negative results from their angiographic studies. To localize the bleeding focus, rotational angiography and high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip were used. Of the 16 patients, seven (44%) had positive results after high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip and they underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with microcoils. Nine patients without extravasation of contrast medium underwent TAE with microcoils as close as possible to the clip. The bleeding was stopped initially in all patients after treatment of the feeding artery. Two patients experienced a repeat episode of bleeding two days later. Of the two patients, one had subtle oozing from the ulcer margin and that patient underwent endoscopic treatment. One patient with malignant ulcer died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation one month after embolization. Complete clinical success was achieved in 14 of 16 (88%) patients. Delayed bleeding or major/minor complications were not noted. Rotational angiography after marking with a metallic clip helps to localize accurately the bleeding focus and thus to embolize the vessel correctly.

  14. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: the Usefulness of Rotational Angiography after Endoscopic Marking with a Metallic Clip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to assess the usefulness of rotational angiography after endoscopic marking with a metallic clip in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients with no extravasation of contrast medium on conventional angiography. In 16 patients (mean age, 59.4 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (13 gastric ulcers, 2 duodenal ulcers, 1 malignant ulcer), a metallic clip was placed via gastroscopy and this had been preceded by routine endoscopic treatment. The metallic clip was placed in the fibrous edge of the ulcer adjacent to the bleeding point. All patients had negative results from their angiographic studies. To localize the bleeding focus, rotational angiography and high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip were used. Of the 16 patients, seven (44%) had positive results after high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip and they underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with microcoils. Nine patients without extravasation of contrast medium underwent TAE with microcoils as close as possible to the clip. The bleeding was stopped initially in all patients after treatment of the feeding artery. Two patients experienced a repeat episode of bleeding two days later. Of the two patients, one had subtle oozing from the ulcer margin and that patient underwent endoscopic treatment. One patient with malignant ulcer died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation one month after embolization. Complete clinical success was achieved in 14 of 16 (88%) patients. Delayed bleeding or major/minor complications were not noted. Rotational angiography after marking with a metallic clip helps to localize accurately the bleeding focus and thus to embolize the vessel correctly.

  15. Reoccurrence of Bleeding of a Chronic Subdural Haematoma Following a Fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Rafael García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 60-year-old patient who presented with an acute-on-chronic subdural haematoma is reported. Chronic haematoma usually remains asymptomatic, and this is considered to be an unusual course of events. Trivial or minor injury may cause the cortical bridge veins and fragile vessels in the former haematoma to rupture with concomitant reoccurrence of bleeding. Old age, repeated traumatic brain injuries, brain atrophy, antiplatelet agents and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin are considered to be the underlying conditions to cause the reoccurrence of bleeding. However, our patient did not have any of those conditions.

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding in women receiving direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Richard; Marcoux, Violaine; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postpartum bleeding: efficacy of endovascular management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization for the treatment of massive postpartum bleeding. Transcatheter arterial embolization was attempted in 25 patients with massive postpartum bleeding. After identification at bilateral internal iliac arteriography, the bleeding artery was embolized using gelfoam, polyvinyl alcohol particles or microcoils, and to prevent rebleeding through collateral pathways, the contralateral uterine artery or anterior division of the internal iliac artery was also embolized. Clinical success and complications were retrospectively assessed and documented. Active bleeding foci were detected in 13 patients (52%), and involved the unilateral (n=10) or bilateral (n=2) uterine artery and unilateral vaginal artery (n=1). Twelve (92%) of the 13 patients recovered completely following embolization, but one underwent hysterectomy due to persistent bleeding. The focus of bleeding was not detected in 12 patients (48%), but 11 (92%) of these also recovered following embolization of the bilateral uterine or internal iliac arteries. One patient, however, died due to sepsis. Two of the 12 patients underwent hysterectomy due ro rebleeding on the 12 th and 13 th day, respectively, after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is relatively safe and effective for the treatment massive postpartum bleeding

  18. Postpartum bleeding: efficacy of endovascular management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young; Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization for the treatment of massive postpartum bleeding. Transcatheter arterial embolization was attempted in 25 patients with massive postpartum bleeding. After identification at bilateral internal iliac arteriography, the bleeding artery was embolized using gelfoam, polyvinyl alcohol particles or microcoils, and to prevent rebleeding through collateral pathways, the contralateral uterine artery or anterior division of the internal iliac artery was also embolized. Clinical success and complications were retrospectively assessed and documented. Active bleeding foci were detected in 13 patients (52%), and involved the unilateral (n=10) or bilateral (n=2) uterine artery and unilateral vaginal artery (n=1). Twelve (92%) of the 13 patients recovered completely following embolization, but one underwent hysterectomy due to persistent bleeding. The focus of bleeding was not detected in 12 patients (48%), but 11 (92%) of these also recovered following embolization of the bilateral uterine or internal iliac arteries. One patient, however, died due to sepsis. Two of the 12 patients underwent hysterectomy due ro rebleeding on the 12{sup th} and 13{sup th} day, respectively, after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is relatively safe and effective for the treatment massive postpartum bleeding.

  19. THROMBIN GENERATION AND BLEEDING IN HEMOPHILIA A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Whelihan, Matthew F.; Gissel, Matthew; Mann, Kenneth G.; Rivard, Georges E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A displays phenotypic heterogeneity with respect to clinical severity. Aim To determine if tissue factor (TF)-initiated thrombin generation profiles in whole blood in the presence of corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) are predictive of bleeding risk in hemophilia A. Methods We studied factor(F) VIII deficient individuals (11 mild, 4 moderate and 12 severe) with a well-characterized five-year bleeding history that included hemarthrosis, soft tissue hematoma and annual FVIII concentrate usage. This clinical information was used to generate a bleeding score. The bleeding scores (range 0–32) were separated into three groups (bleeding score groupings: 0, 0 and ≤9.6, >9.6), with the higher bleeding tendency having a higher score. Whole blood collected by phlebotomy and contact pathway suppressed by 100μg/mL CTI was stimulated to react by the addition of 5pM TF. Reactions were quenched at 20min by inhibitors. Thrombin generation, determined by ELISA for thrombin – antithrombin was evaluated in terms of clot time (CT), maximum level (MaxL) and maximum rate (MaxR) and compared to the bleeding score. Results Data are shown as the mean±SD. MaxL was significantly different (phemophilia A. PMID:19563500

  20. [The causes of recurrent ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnitsky, E M; Alekberzade, A V; Gasanov, M R

    To explore microcirculatory changes within the first 48 hours after admission, to compare them with clinical manifestations of bleeding and to define the dependence of recurrent bleeding from the therapy. The study included 108 patients with ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding who were treated at the Clinical Hospital #71 for the period 2012-2014. There were 80 (74.1%) men and 28 (25.9%) women. Age ranged 20-87 years (mean 54.4±16.8 years). Patients younger than 45 years were predominant (33.4%). J. Forrest classification (1974) was used in endoscopic characterization of bleeding. Roccal Prognostic Scale for gastroduodenal bleeding was applied in all patients at admission to assess the risk of possible recurrence. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 53 (49.1%) patients without recurrent bleeding; group 2-55 (50.1%) patients who had recurrent bleeding within the first two days of treatment. Investigation of microcirculation showed the role of vegetative component including blood circulation centralization, blood flow slowing, blood cells redistribution providing sufficient blood oxygenation. By the end of the first day we observed pronounced hemodilution, decreased blood oxygenation, blood flow restructuring with its acceleration above 1 ml/s, violation of tissue oxygenation, signs of hypovolemia. These changes were significantly different from group 2 and associated with circulatory decentralization with possible pulmonary microcirculation disturbances and interstitial edema. This processes contribute to disruption of tissue oxygenation. We assume that recurrent bleeding in group 2 was caused by fluid therapy in larger volumes than it was necessary in this clinical situation. Infusion therapy should be significantly reduced for the debut of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding. Sedative therapy is advisable to reduce the influence of central nervous system.

  1. A comparative study of digital GI and CT in diagnosis of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiangrong; Chen Guoqin; Ding Xinmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital GI and CT in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Methods: Total 42 patients with gastric carcinoma received digital GI and CT examination. The digital GI and CT findings were analyzed comparatively. Results: 42 cases of patients with gastric carcinoma were examined with digital GI and CT. Digital GI demonstrated mucosal erosion in 40 cases, narrowed gastric lumen in 12, malignant ulceration in 10, filling defect in 12 and abnormal peristalsis in 36. CT revealed gastric wall thickening in 30 cases, intra-gastric masses in 36, narrowed gastric lumen in 36, regional lymphadenopathy and/or distant metastases in 19 and pyloristenosis in 4. Conclusion: The lesions in stomach could be demonstrated on digital GI, the imaging is clear and precise. CT is valuable for assessing the extra-gastric involvement, lymphadenopathy and distant metastases, which is an important pre-operative examination

  2. Bleeding and starving: fasting and delayed refeeding after upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Meira, Tânia; Nunes, Ana; Santos, Carla Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Early refeeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is safe and reduces hospital stay/costs. The aim of this study was obtaining objective data on refeeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. From 1 year span records of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients that underwent urgent endoscopy: clinical features; rockall score; endoscopic data, including severity of lesions and therapy; feeding related records of seven days: liquid diet prescription, first liquid intake, soft/solid diet prescription, first soft/solid intake. From 133 patients (84 men) Rockall classification was possible in 126: 76 score ≥5, 50 score bleeding, eight rebled, two underwent surgery, 13 died. Ulcer was the major bleeding cause, 63 patients underwent endoscopic therapy. There was 142/532 possible refeeding records, no record 37% patients. Only 16% were fed during the first day and half were only fed on third day or later. Rockall upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients must be refed earlier, according to guidelines.

  3. Management of Acute Gastric Ulcer Bleeding | van Rensburg | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Is tranexamic acid effective for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Flores

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia digestiva alta corresponde a una emergencia médico-quirúrgica debido a la alta morbilidad y mortalidad que conlleva. El ácido tranexámico, un antifibrinolítico, podría ayudar a lograr un control precoz del sangrado, sin embargo existe controversia sobre su real utilidad. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen ocho estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que el ácido tranexámico probablemente disminuye el resangrado y la mortalidad, y no aumenta los efectos adversos tromboembólicos en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta.

  5. Esophageal variceal ligation for hemostasis of acute variceal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Endoscopic variceal ligation is widely accepted as the optimum endoscopic treatment for esophageal variceal hemorrhage. In Morocco, there are no data regarding the efficacy of this technique. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic variceal ligation in the management of ...

  6. Pelvic artery embolization in gynecological bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausegger, K.A.; Schreyer, H.; Bodhal, H.

    2002-01-01

    The most common reasons for gynecological bleeding are pregnancy-related disorders, fibroids of the uterus, and gynecological malignances. Transarterial embolization is an effective treatment modality for gynecological bleeding regardless of its etiology. Depending on the underlying disease, a different technique of embolization is applied. In postpartal bleeding a temporary effect of embolization is desired, therefore gelatine sponge is used as embolizing agent. In fibroids and malignant tumors the effect should permanent, therefore PVA particles are used. Regardless the etiology, the technical and clinical success of transarterial embolization is at least 90%. In nearly every patient a post-embolization syndrome can be observed, represented by local pain and fever. This post-embolization syndrome usually does not last longer than 3 days. If embolization is performed with meticulous attention to angiographic technique and handling of embolic material, ischemic damage of adjacent organs is rarely observed. Transarterial embolization should be an integrative modality in the treatment of gynecological bleeding. (orig.) [de

  7. AL Amyloidosis Complicated by Persistent Oral Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Liarte Marconcini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of amyloid light chain (AL amyloidosis is presented here with uncontrolled bleeding after a nonsurgical dental procedure, most likely multifactorial in nature, and consequently treated with a multidisciplinary approach.

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; alarming variables for postoperative bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawan H.A. Said

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: According to our present results stone complexity (GSS grade 3 and 4, history of ipsilateral renal stone surgery, and occurrence of intraoperative pelvicalyceal perforation are alarming variables for post-PCNL bleeding.

  9. Chronic rectal bleeding after high-dose conformal treatment of prostate cancer warrants modification of existing morbidity scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Movsas, Benjamin; Peter, Ruth S.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Serious late morbidity (Grade (3(4))) from the conformal treatment of prostate cancer has been reported in <1% to 6% of patients based on existing late gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity scales. None of the existing morbidity scales include our most frequently observed late GI complication, which is chronic rectal bleeding requiring multiple fulgerations. This communication documents the frequency of rectal bleeding requiring multiple fulgerations and illustrates the variation in reported late serious GI complication rates by the selection of morbidity scale. Methods and Materials: Between May 1989 and December 1993, 352 patients with T1-T3 nonmetastatic prostate cancers were treated with our four-field conformal technique without special rectal blocking. This technique includes a 1-cm margin from the clinical target volume (CTV) to the planning target volume (PTV) in all directions. The median follow-up for these patients was 36 months (range 2-76), and the median center of prostate dose was 74 Gy (range 63-81). Three morbidity scales are assessed: the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), the Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force (LENT), and our modification of the LENT (FC-LENT). This modification registers chronic rectal bleeding requiring at least one blood transfusion and/or more than two coagulations as a Grade 3 event. Estimates for Grade (3(4)) late GI complication rates were determined using Kaplan-Meier methodology. The duration of severe symptoms with chronic rectal bleeding is measured from the first to the last transrectal coagulation. Latency is measured from the end of radiotherapy to surgery, first blood transfusion, or third coagulation procedure. Results: Sixteen patients developed Grade (3(4)) complications by one of the three morbidity scales. Two patients required surgery (colostomy or sigmoid resection), three required multiple blood transfusions, two required one or two blood transfusions, and nine required at least three

  10. MODEL PERENCANAAN KAPASITAS DI PT GI DIVISI FRAGRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudrajat .

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on MTO strategy in fragrance division of PT GI which has a number of workstations with multiple tools, resources and products profile. The aims are developing a mathematic model of capacity planning system and analyzing the maximum production capacity and flexibility of resources to meet demand. The method is using RCCP technique that consists of product-load profiles, bills of capacity and labors. Cluster technical of sampling and probability plot are used for measuring and analyzing the output of each process and validating the mathematic model of capacity plan in order to establish certain specific sources, especially those expected to be a potential barrier (potential bottleneck, is sufficient to cover the expected demand till one year ahead.

  11. Pengembangan SMS Gateway Layanan Informasi Akademik di STMIK GI MDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Prihatini Sihotang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology can be utilized in education such as e-Learning and Academic Information System. STMIK GI MDP has applied information technology that provides ease for the dissemination of academic information to students. However, the parents of the students have not obtained the academic information of their children due to the lack of internet-related knowledge. Therefore, this study aims to create a service that is able to convey information to parents directly with SMS Gateway service. This research begins with the collection of user needs through observation techniques and interviews to academic staff and parents. Then performed the required feature analysis. Then the design of SMS Gateway application that will be embedded in existing academic applications and coding system. Gammu is used as a link between applications with mobile phones. The result of this research is the application of SMS Gateway service that can give the student academic information to the parents.

  12. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...

  13. Management of patients with ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Loren; Jensen, Dennis M

    2012-03-01

    This guideline presents recommendations for the step-wise management of patients with overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status is first assessed, and resuscitation initiated as needed. Patients are risk-stratified based on features such as hemodynamic status, comorbidities, age, and laboratory tests. Pre-endoscopic erythromycin is considered to increase diagnostic yield at first endoscopy. Pre-endoscopic proton pump inhibitor (PPI) may be considered to decrease the need for endoscopic therapy but does not improve clinical outcomes. Upper endoscopy is generally performed within 24h. The endoscopic features of ulcers direct further management. Patients with active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessels receive endoscopic therapy (e.g., bipolar electrocoagulation, heater probe, sclerosant, clips) and those with an adherent clot may receive endoscopic therapy; these patients then receive intravenous PPI with a bolus followed by continuous infusion. Patients with flat spots or clean-based ulcers do not require endoscopic therapy or intensive PPI therapy. Recurrent bleeding after endoscopic therapy is treated with a second endoscopic treatment; if bleeding persists or recurs, treatment with surgery or interventional radiology is undertaken. Prevention of recurrent bleeding is based on the etiology of the bleeding ulcer. H. pylori is eradicated and after cure is documented anti-ulcer therapy is generally not given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are stopped; if they must be resumed low-dose COX-2-selective NSAID plus PPI is used. Patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin should start PPI and generally re-institute aspirin soon after bleeding ceases (within 7 days and ideally 1-3 days). Patients with idiopathic ulcers receive long-term anti-ulcer therapy.

  14. SAGES's advanced GI/MIS fellowship curriculum pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joshua J; Goldblatt, Matthew; Pryor, Aurora; Dunkin, Brian J; Brunt, L Michael; Jones, Daniel B; Scott, Daniel J

    2018-06-01

    The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015. These data were used to propose new criteria designed to provide adequate exposure to core content. The working group also proposed using video assessment of an MIS case to provide objective assessment of competency. Case log data were available for 326 fellows with a total of 85,154 cases logged (median 227 per fellow). The working group proposed new criteria starting with minimum case volumes for five defined categories including foregut (20), bariatrics (25), inguinal hernia (10), ventral hernia (10), and solid organ/colon/thoracic (10). Fellows are expected to perform an additional 75 complex MIS cases of any category for a total of 150 required cases overall. The proposal also included a minimum volume of flexible endoscopy (50) and submission of an MIS foregut case for video assessment. The new criteria more clearly defined which surgeon roles count for major credit within individual categories. Fourteen fellowships volunteered to pilot these new criteria for the 2017-2018 academic year. The new SAGES Advanced GI/MIS fellowship has been crafted to better define the core content that should be contained in these fellowships, while still allowing sufficient heterogeneity so that individual learners can tailor their training to specific areas of interest. The criteria also introduce innovative, evidence-based methods for assessing competency. Pending the results of the pilot program, SAGES will consider broad implementation of the new fellowship criteria.

  15. A rare cause of anemia due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Cameron lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Özaydın

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic large hiatal hernias may lead to iron deficiency anemia due to occult and massive bleeding from linear gastric erosions or ulcers on the mucosal folds at the level of the diaphragm called the Cameron lesions. The diagnosis is usually made during upper gastrointestinal system endoscopies. Current therapy includes the medication with proton pump inhibitors in combination with oral iron supplements and in some cases surgical reconstruction of hiatal hernia with fundoplication. We present a case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted to the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia without signs of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. She was treated with medication and her follow-up gastroscopy showed a total cure. She is asymptomatic for two years after treatment with proton pump inhibitors and iron supplements. Cameron lesions should be kept in mind as an unusual cause of iron deficiency anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding

  16. Hemosuccus pancreaticus as a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding: a report of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodratollah Maddah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic diseases are known to be associated with complications such as pseudocyst and abscess. A pseudoaneurysm associated with pancreatitis may develop as well. The pseudoaneurysm may rupture into various parts of the gastrointestinal tract; the peritoneal cavity, or the retroperitoneum. We report two cases of Hemosuccus pancreaticus admitted to our center in the past five years. One case was associated with acute pancreatitis, and another case was associated with chronic pancreatitis. A pseudocyst was found in two cases. Both were successfully managed by emergency surgery. So, Hemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding with difficult diagnosis, and surgery is the effective treatment for the patient with severe bleeding. However in cases with no life-threatening bleeding angiography and embolization can be performed.

  17. Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding from a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Caused by a Penetrating Gastric Ulcer: Case Report and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Marlicz, Wojciech; Czapla, Norbert; Łokaj, Marek; Skoczylas, Michał M.; Donotek, Maciej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm are rare pathologies. True aneurysms are usually asymptomatic. Aneurysm rupture occurring in 2–3% of cases results in bleeding into the lesser sack, peritoneal space or adjacent organs typically presenting as abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability. In contrast, pseudoaneurysms are nearly always symptomatic carrying a high risk of rupture of 37–47% and mortality rate of 90% if untreated. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential in the management of patients with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. Typical causes include pancreatitis and trauma. Rarely, the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm presents as upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding. Among causes, peptic ulcer is the casuistic one. This report describes a very rare case of recurrent UGI bleeding from a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm caused by a penetrating gastric ulcer. After negative results of endoscopy and ultrasound, the diagnosis was established in CT angiography. The successful treatment consisted of surgical ligation of the bleeding vessel and suture of the ulcer with preservation of the spleen and pancreas, which is rarely tried in such situations. The most important factor in identifying a ruptured splenic artery pseudoaneurysm as a source of GI bleeding is considering the diagnosis. UGI hemorrhage from splenic artery pseudoaneurysm can have a relapsing course providing false negative results of endoscopy and ultrasound if performed between episodes of active bleeding. In such cases, immediate CT angiography is useful in establishing diagnosis and in application of proper therapy before possible recurrence

  18. Transcatheter arterial embolization for traumatic bleeding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Choon Wook; Lee, Sang Kwon; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duck Sik

    1989-01-01

    Angiography is essential for the detection of bleeding vessels in traumatic vascular injury. Immediately after the diagnosis, transcatheter embolization can be performed for the control of bleeding effectively and easily with proper use of embolic materials. Transcatheter embolization is believed to be the treatment of choice when emergency control is needed, where surgical approach is difficult and in those who are poor candidate for surgery. We have tried bleeding control in 18 cases of trauma over recent 4 years. The results were as follows; 1. Causes of bleeding(cases): Blunt or penetrating trauma (10), latrogenic trauma (8), (Postoperative (5), Needle biopsy (2), Percutaneous hepatic procedure (1)) 2. Embolized vessels: Renal artery branches (8), Hepatic artery branches (2), Arteries supplying chest wall (2), External carotid artery branches (3), Internal carotid artery (1), Circumflex humeral artery (1), Internal iliac artery branches (1). 3. Embolic agents: Gelfoam cubes (16), Stainless steel coils (3), Detachable latex balloon (1). 4. Successful bleeding control was achieved in 17 cases and reduction of the amount of bleeding in one case without significant complications

  19. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  20. Transcatheter emboilization therapy of massive colonic bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G. H.; Oh, J. H.; Yoon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    To evaulate the efficacy and safety of emergent superselective transcatheter embolization for controlling massive colonic bleeding. Six of the seven patients who had symptom of massive gastrointestinal bleeding underwent emergent transcatheter embolization for control of the bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients was originated from various colonic diseases: rectal cancer(n=1), proctitis(n=1), benign ulcer(n=1), mucosal injury by ventriculoperitoneal shunt(n=1), and unknown(n=2). All patients except one with rectal cancer were critically ill. Superselective embolization were done by using Gelfoam particles and/or coils. The vessels embolized were ileocolic artery(n=1). superior rectal artery(n=2), inferior rectal artery (n=1), and middle and inferior rectal arteries(n=1). Hemostasis was successful immediately in all patients. Two underwnet surgery due to recurrent bleeding developed 3 days after the procedure(n=1) or in associalion with underlying rectal cancer(n=1). On surgical specimen of two cases, there was no mucosal ischemic change. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and effective treatment of method for the control of massive colonic bleeding

  1. Bleeding from gastrointestinal angioectasias is not related to bleeding disorders - a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lärfars Gerd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angioectasias in the gastrointestinal tract can be found in up to 3% of the population. They are typically asymptomatic but may sometimes result in severe bleeding. The reasons for why some patients bleed from their angioectasias are not fully understood but it has been reported that it may be explained by an acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS. This condition has similar laboratory findings to congenital von Willebrand disease with selective loss of large von Willebrand multimers. The aim of this study was to find out if AVWS or any other bleeding disorder was more common in patients with bleeding from angioectasias than in a control group. Methods We compared bleeding tests and coagulation parameters, including von Willebrand multimers, from a group of 23 patients with anemia caused by bleeding from angioectasias, with the results from a control group lacking angioectasias. Results No significant differences between the two groups were found in coagulation parameters, bleeding time or von Willebrand multimer levels. Conclusion These results do not support a need for routine bleeding tests in cases of bleeding from angioectasias and do not show an overall increased risk of AVWS among these patients.

  2. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Rapport De Cas: Nous mettons un cas d'un homme de 79 ans quiàprésente une hémorragie rectal massive ... cause of overt lower gastrointestinal (GI) ... vessels into the intestinal lumen results in ... placed on a high fibre diet, and intravenous.

  3. Dynamic study on digital cineangiography of acute digestive tract hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianming; Feng Gansheng; Zeng Jun; Xu Caiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study dynamically acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage with digital cine angiography. Methods: Fifty patients with acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage were performed with digital cineangiography and observed dynamically during arterial, capillary and venous phases. Results: Among 50 cases, there were positive results in 44 ones including gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 14, biliary hemorrhage in 2, splenic arterial bleeding in 3, left gastric arterial bleeding in 4, right gastroepiploic arterial bleeding in 5, SMA bleeding in 7 and IMA bleeding in 9.17 cases underwent a permanent embolization through artery and 11 with temporary embolization as well as 9 with infusion of hemostatic agent via artery. Conclusions: Serial digital cineangiogram can dynamically show acute digestive tract hemorrhage within different phase. It is helpful to detect the location and cause of hemorrhage

  4. Antifibrinolytics for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Smith, Alison C; Lethaby, Anne; Farquhar, Cindy; Hickey, Martha

    2018-04-15

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important physical and social problem for women. Oral treatment for HMB includes antifibrinolytic drugs, which are designed to reduce bleeding by inhibiting clot-dissolving enzymes in the endometrium.Historically, there has been some concern that using the antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TXA) for HMB may increase the risk of venous thromboembolic disease. This is an umbrella term for deep venous thrombosis (blood clots in the blood vessels in the legs) and pulmonary emboli (blood clots in the blood vessels in the lungs). To determine the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic medications as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and two trials registers in November 2017, together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antifibrinolytic agents versus placebo, no treatment or other medical treatment in women of reproductive age with HMB. Twelve studies utilised TXA and one utilised a prodrug of TXA (Kabi). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were menstrual blood loss (MBL), improvement in HMB, and thromboembolic events. We included 13 RCTs (1312 participants analysed). The evidence was very low to moderate quality: the main limitations were risk of bias (associated with lack of blinding, and poor reporting of study methods), imprecision and inconsistency.Antifibrinolytics (TXA or Kabi) versus no treatment or placeboWhen compared with a placebo, antifibrinolytics were associated with reduced mean blood loss (MD -53.20 mL per cycle, 95% CI -62.70 to -43.70; I² = 8%; 4 RCTs, participants = 565; moderate-quality evidence) and higher rates of improvement (RR 3.34, 95% CI 1.84 to 6.09; 3 RCTS, participants = 271; moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that

  5. Enteroscopic Tattooing for Better Intraoperative Localization of a Bleeding Jejunal GIST Facilitates Minimally Invasive Laparoscopically-assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Razvan; Dimitriu, Anca; Stanciulea, Oana; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old man that was admitted for melena and severe anemia. Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy failed to identify the lesion responsible for bleeding, and enteroCT scan was also non-contributive to the diagnosis. Capsule endoscopy indicated possible jejunal bleeding but could not indicate the source of bleeding, recommending anterograde enteroscopy. Single balloon enteroscopy identified a 2 cm submucosal tumour in the distal part of the jejunum, with a macroscopic appearance suggesting a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The tumor location was marked using SPOT tattoo and subsequently easily identified by the surgeon and resected via minimally invasive laparoscopic-assisted approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis indicated a low risk GIST. The unusual small size of the GIST as a modality of presentation, with digestive bleeding and anemia and the ability to use VCE/enteroscopy to identify and mark the lesion prior to minimally invasive surgery, represent the particularities of the presented case.

  6. Octreotide in the Control of Post-Sclerotherapy Bleeding from Oesophageal Varices, Ulcers and Oesophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A. Jenkins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from oesophageal varices, oesophageal ulcers or oesophagitis is occasionally massive and difficult to control. Octreotide, a synthetic analogue of somatostin lowers portal pressure and collateral blood flow including that through varices, increases lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, and inhibits the gastric secretion of acid as well as pepsin. Our current experience suggests it is effective in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage. Therefore we have examined the efficacy of octreotide in the control of postsclerotherapy bleeding from oesophageal varices, oesophageal ulcers and oesophagitis. During the study period 77 patients experienced a significant gastrointestinal bleed (blood pressure 100 beats per min or the need to transfuse 2 or more units of blood to restore the haemoglobin level following injection sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices. The source of bleeding was varices in 42 patients, oesophageal ulcers in 31 and oesophagitis in 4. All patients received a continuous intravenous infusion of octreotide (50 μg/h for between 40–140h. If bleeding was not controlled in the first 12h after commencing octreotide hourly bolus doses (50 μg for 24h were superimposed on the continuous infusion. Haemorrhage was successfully controlled by an infusion of octreotide in 38 of the 42 patients with bleeding from varices, in 30 of 31 patients with oesophageal ulceration, and all patients with oesophagitis. In the 1 patient with persistent bleeding from oesophageal ulceration and in 2 of the 4 with continued haemorrhage from varices, haemostasis was achieved by hourly boluses of 50 μg octreotide for 24h in addition to the continuous infusion. No major complications were associated with octreotide administration. The results of this study clearly indicate that octreotide is a safe and effective treatment for the control of severe haemorrhage after technically successful injection sclerotherapy.

  7. What Impact Does Venous Thromboembolism and Bleeding Have on Cancer Patients' Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Andrew J; Dewilde, Sarah; Noble, Simon; Reimer, Elisabeth; Lee, Agnes Y Y

    2018-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients and its treatment is associated with a high risk of recurrent VTE (rVTE) and bleeding. To analyze data from the Comparison of Acute Treatments in Cancer Hemostasis (CATCH) trial to describe the impact of rVTE and bleeding events on health-related quality of life. The three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) data were collected monthly for up to 7 months in patients starting anticoagulation for newly diagnosed VTE. Analyses were designed to describe the impact of rVTE and bleeding on EQ-5D scores while controlling for effects of covariates such as background and clinical variables and longitudinal changes. A repeated-measures model with specification of the variance-covariance matrix to characterize the intrapatient correlation was used to estimate the utility values. The impact of an rVTE or a bleeding event was assumed to be reflected in the utility value when it occurred within 2 weeks from a planned data collection point. Data were available from 883 patients. A total of 76 rVTE and 159 bleeding events occurred during follow-up. rVTE had a significant impact on EQ-5D scores, with a decrement of -0.075 on the basis of our reference case (male, no metastasis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score = 1, Western European), but different patients might have different decrements. Bleeding events had a smaller (nonstatistically significant) impact on EQ-5D scores. This data set study has quantified the decline in EQ-5D scores associated with experiencing rVTE or bleeding events in cancer patients. These results indicate the net gain in quality of life and impact on cost-effectiveness of secondary VTE prevention. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcome of the Pediatric Patients with Portal Cavernoma: The Retrospective Study for 10 Years Focusing on Recurrent Variceal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Portal cavernoma (PC is the most critical condition with risk or variceal hemorrhage in pediatric patients. We retrospectively investigated the patients with PC focusing on the predictors for recurrent variceal bleeding. Methods. Between July 2003 and June 2013, we retrospectively enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of PC without abdominal malignancy or liver cirrhosis. The primary endpoint of this observational study was recurrent variceal bleeding. Independent predictors of recurrent variceal bleeding were identified using the logistic regression model. Results. A total of 157 patients were enrolled in the study. During the follow-up period, 24 patients exhibited onset of recurrent variceal bleeding. Acute variceal bleeding was subjected to conservative symptomatic treatment and emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy. Surgical procedure selection was based on the severity of vascular dilation and collateral circulation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of ascites, collateral circulation, and portal venous pressure were independent prognostic factors of recurrent variceal bleeding for patients with portal cavernoma. Conclusions. The presence of ascites, collateral circulation, and portal venous pressure evaluation are important and could predict the postsurgical recurrent variceal bleeding in patients with portal cavernoma.

  9. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  10. Diagnostic evaluation and aggressive surgical approach in bleeding pseudoaneurysms associated with pancreatic pseudocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaeranta, P.; Haapiainen, R.; Kivisaari, L.; Schroeder, T.

    1991-01-01

    Hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. When gastrointestinal bleeding or intra-abdominal hemorrhage is associated with a pancreatic pseudocysts and the usual sources of bleeding are not detected by endoscopy, the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm inside the pseudocyst should be suspected. The article present 13 cases, 11 associated with chronic and 2 with late complications after acute necrotizing pancreatitis. On the basis of sonographic findings, bleeding site was suspected in 8 of 11 patients. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 10, and bleeding was suspected in 8. The pseudoaneurysm itself was detected by CT in one and by ultrasonography in none. Visceral angiography was performed on five patients, and the pseudoaneurysm was evident in all. External drainage with arterial ligation was done as a primary operation in five patients; four of them later underwent pancreatic resection because of rebleeding. In eight cases pancreatic resection was the initial operation; none of these patients continued to bleed or needed reoperation because of the same pseudoaneurysm. There were no intraoperative deaths, but one patient died postoperatively. Aggressive diagnostic evaluation and surgical approach are associated with a reduction in mortality and morbidity in this serious complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Failure of ethamsylate to reduce aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmend, T K; Stein, A G; Bhaskar, N K; Hawkey, C J

    1989-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the haemostatic agent ethamsylate on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding. 2. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied three times: at the end of 48 h periods of treatment with (a) placebo, (b) aspirin 600 mg four times daily, (9 doses) and (c) aspirin 600 mg four times daily with each dose preceded by ethamsylate 500 mg. 3. At the end of each treatment period gastric mucosal bleeding into timed gastric washings was quantified using the orthotolidine reaction. 4. Aspirin increased bleeding from a rate on placebo of 1.2 microliters 10 min-1 geometric mean (95% confidence limits) (0.7-1.8) microliters 10 min-1 to 20.0 (11.6-34.2) microliters 10 min-1, (P less than 0.01). The rate of bleeding after aspirin preceded by ethamsylate [14.1 (8.5-23.4) microliters 10 min-1] was not significantly different from that after aspirin alone. 5. We conclude that ethamsylate does not reduce acute aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in healthy humans.

  12. Emergency transcatheter arterial embolization for critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Li Yiyun; Zhao Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (ETAE) in treating critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer. Methods: ETAE was carried out in seven patients with acute massive bleeding due to endoscopically-proved duodenal bulb ulcer, who failed to respond conservative measures and were critically ill clinically. Super-selective catheterization of gastroduodenal artery or right gastroepiploic artery was performed, which was followed by arterial angiography to identify the bleeding site. According to the angiographic findings, ETAE with Gelfoam particles and coils was carried out. After the operation medical management was given and endoscopy re-examination was conducted. All the patients were follow up for 3∼6 months. Results: Angiographically, gastroduodenal artery bleeding was detected in all seven patients. ETAE was successfully accomplished in all cases. Complete clinical effectiveness was obtained in six patients while partial effectiveness in one case. No procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: For critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer ETAE is a highly effective and safe treatment, which can be regarded as an alternative to surgery. It is worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  13. Analysis of Risk Factors for Colonic Diverticular Bleeding: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yuusaku; Kudo, Shin-ei; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Misawa, Masashi; Okoshi, Shogo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2016-03-01

    Diverticular bleeding can occasionally cause massive bleeding that requires urgent colonoscopy (CS) and treatment. The aim of this study was to identify significant risk factors for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 26,602 patients underwent CS at our institution. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent an urgent CS due to acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Seventy-two patients were diagnosed with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. One hundred forty-nine age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the patients with nonbleeding diverticula who underwent CS during the same period. The relationship of risk factors to diverticular bleeding was compared between the cases and controls. Uni- and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio [OR], 14.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.89 to 55.80; pdisease (OR, 8.66; 95% CI, 2.33 to 32.10; p=0.00126), and hyperuricemia (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 1.74 to 138.00; p=0.014) remained statistically significant predictors of diverticular bleeding. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cerebrovascular disease and hyperuricemia were significant risks for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. The knowledge obtained from this study may provide some insight into the diagnostic process for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  14. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients in Nile Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mamdouh Ahmed; Tawfik, Mohamed Abd El-Raouf; El-Sawy, Abd Allah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in cirrhotic patients occurs mainly from esophageal and gastric varices; however, quite a large number of cirrhotic patients bleed from other sources as well. The aim of the present work is to determine the prevalence of non-variceal UGIB as well as its different causes among the cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients in Nile Delta. Emergency upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for AUGIB was done in 650 patients. Out of these patients, 550 (84.6%) patients who were proved to have cirrhosis were the subject of the present study. From all cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients, 415 (75.5%) bled from variceal sources (esophageal and gastric) while 135 (24.5%) of them bled from non-variceal sources. Among variceal sources of bleeding, esophageal varices were much more common than gastric varices. Peptic ulcer was the most common non-variceal source of bleeding. Non-variceal bleeding in cirrhosis was not frequent, and sources included peptic ulcer, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and erosive disease of the stomach and duodenum.

  15. Radiologic findings of acute spontaneous subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Bae, Won Kyong; Gyu, Cha Jang; Kim, Gun Woo; Cho, Won Su; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Kyung Suk [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of). Chonan Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT and cerebral angiographic findings in patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematomas and correlate these imaging findings with causes of bleeding and clinical outcome. Twenty-one patients with nontraumatic acute spontaneous subdural hematoma presenting during the last five years underwent CT scanning and cerebral angiography was performed in twelve. To determine the cause of bleedings, CT and angiographic findings were retrospectively analysed. Clinical history, laboratory and operative findings, and final clinical outcome were reviewed. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and the mortality rate is high. In patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematoma, as seen on CT, associated subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage is strongly indicative of intracerebral vascular abnormalities such as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral angiography is necessary. To ensure proper treatment and thus markedly reduce mortality, the causes of bleedings should be prompty determined by means of cerebral angiography. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. Burden of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Gálvez, Argentina, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Enrique; Majowicz, Shannon E.; Reid-Smith, Richard; Albil, Silvia; Monteverde, Marcos; McEwen, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude and distribution of acute gastrointestinal illness (GI) in Gálvez, Argentina, and assessed the outcome of a seven-day versus 30-day recall period in survey methodology. A cross-sectional population survey, with either a seven-day or a 30-day retrospective recall period, was conducted through door-to-door visits to randomly-selected residents during the ‘high’ and the ‘low’ seasons of GI in the community. Comparisons were made between the annual incidence rates obtained using the seven-day and the 30-day recall period. Using the 30-day recall period, the mean annual incidence rates was 0.43 (low season of GI) and 0.49 (high season of GI) episodes per person-year. Using the seven-day recall period, the mean annual incidence rate was 0.76 (low season of GI) and 2.66 (high season of GI) episodes per person-year. This study highlights the significant burden of GI in a South American community and confirms the importance of seasonality when investigating GI in the population. The findings suggest that a longer recall period may underestimate the burden of GI in retrospective population surveys of GI. PMID:20411678

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of unexplained anemia with iron deficiency without overt bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eivindson, Martin; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius

    2015-01-01

    A general overview is given of the causes of anemia with iron deficiency as well as the pathogenesis of anemia and the para-clinical diagnosis of anemia. Anemia with iron deficiency but without overt GI bleeding is associated with a risk of malignant disease of the gastrointestinal tract; upper...... gastrointestinal cancer is 1/7 as common as colon cancer. Benign gastrointestinal causes of anemia are iron malabsorption (atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, chronic inflammation, and bariatric surgery) and chronic blood loss due to gastrointestinal ulcerations. The following diagnostic strategy is recommended...... for unexplained anemia with iron deficiency: conduct serological celiac disease screening with transglutaminase antibody (IgA type) and IgA testing and perform bidirectional endoscopy (gastroscopy and colonoscopy). Bidirectional endoscopy is not required in premenopausal women

  18. Transcription of gD and gI genes in BHV1-infected cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) are contiguous genes with 141 bp region between the two open reading frames (ORFs). Expression of gD and gI from a bicistronic construct containing complete gD and gI gene has been reported either through internal ribosome entry site ...

  19. Mari Rahumägi kui särav piksevarras / Katri Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Katri

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa suurima postimüügi kontserni Karstadt-Quelle Eesti tütarfirma tegevjuhi karjäärist, oma äri alustamisest ja siirdumisest palgatööle. Kommenteerivad Jaanus Rahumägi, Helina Tuuna, Matthias Fink

  20. SMV1, an extremely stable thermophilic virus platform for nanoparticle trafficking in the mammalian GI tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch; Walk, S. T.; Olshefsky, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    undetectable inflammatory response. Finally, we used human intestinal organoids (HIOs) to show that labelled SMV1 did not invade or otherwise perturb the human GI tract epithelium. Conclusion: Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 appeared stable and safe during passage though the mammalian GI tract. Significance...

  1. Prügi tekkekohas sortimise kavatsus on läbi kukkunud / Anti Ronk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ronk, Anti

    2004-01-01

    Korteriühistute ja prügifirmade kogemuste kohaselt ei ole Eesti inimesed harjunud prügi sorteerima ega kasuta vastavaid konteinereid. Kommentaarid Lauka korteriühistu eksjuhilt Nelli Vahemetsalt ja Ragn-Sellsi müügijuhilt Maren Pärnalt. Lisa: Prügi

  2. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding (heavy menstrual bleeding and post-menopausal bleeding): a decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Natalie A. M.; Barton, Pelham M.; Breijer, Maria; Caffrey, Orla; Opmeer, Brent C.; Timmermans, Anne; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.; Clark, T. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and post-menopausal bleeding (PMB) together constitute the commonest gynaecological presentation in secondary care and impose substantial demands on health service resources. Accurate diagnosis is of key importance to realising effective treatment, reducing morbidity

  3. Intracranial hemorrhage in congenital bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian, Shadi; Motlagh, Hoda; Naderi, Majid; Dorgalaleh, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    : Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), as a life-threatening bleeding among all kinds of congenital bleeding disorders (CBDs), is a rare manifestation except in factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency, which is accompanied by ICH, early in life, in about one-third of patients. Most inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs) are mild to moderate bleeding disorders that can never experience a severe bleeding as in ICH; however, Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, a common and severe inherited platelet function disorder, can lead to ICH and occasional death. This bleeding feature can also be observed in grey platelet syndrome, though less frequently than in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. In hemophilia, intracerebral hemorrhage is affected by various risk factors one of which is the severity of the disease. The precise prevalence of ICH in these patients is not clear but an estimated incidence of 3.5-4% among newborns with hemophilia is largely ascertained. Although ICH is a rare phenomenon in CBDs, it can be experienced by every patient with severe hemophilia A and B, FXIII deficiency (FXIIID), FVIID, FXD, FVD, FIID, and afibrinogenemia. Upon observing the general signs and symptoms of ICH such as vomiting, seizure, unconsciousness, and headache, appropriate replacement therapies and cranial ultrasound scans must be done to decrease ICH-related morbidity and mortality.

  4. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia.

  5. Radiological evaluation of G-I tract diverticulum in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Jun; Park, Joong Wha; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon

    1986-01-01

    We reviewed 887 cases of esophagogram, 8863 cases of UGI series, 174 cases of small bowel series and 1926 cases of double contrast barium enema performed at the department of Radiology, Wonju College of Medicine from Jan. 1982 to Dec. 1984 to analyzed diverticular disease pattern of the GI tract in Korean. The results were as follows: 1. Esophageal diverticular. The incidence was 3.27% and the sex ratio of male to female was 2.22:1 Age distribution was relatively even and most common in 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, above 6mm sized and common in middle one third of both lateral side of esophagus. 2. Stomach diverticular. The incidence was 0.07% and the sex ratio of male to female was equal. Multiplicity was single in all cases. Most of them were above 11mm sized and common in gastric fundic area of greater curvature site of stomach. 3. Duodenal diverticular. The incidence was 1.51% and relatively even distribution in sex and age and common in after 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, 11-30mm sized and common in medial margin of 2nd portion of duodenum. 4. Colonic diverticular. The incidence was 2.34% and predominant in male and common in 5th. and 6th. decade. Most of them showed single in number, below 5mm sized and common in right sided colon.

  6. Radiological evaluation of G-I tract diverticulum in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Jun; Park, Joong Wha; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon [Yeonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    We reviewed 887 cases of esophagogram, 8863 cases of UGI series, 174 cases of small bowel series and 1926 cases of double contrast barium enema performed at the department of Radiology, Wonju College of Medicine from Jan. 1982 to Dec. 1984 to analyzed diverticular disease pattern of the GI tract in Korean. The results were as follows: 1. Esophageal diverticular. The incidence was 3.27% and the sex ratio of male to female was 2.22:1 Age distribution was relatively even and most common in 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, above 6mm sized and common in middle one third of both lateral side of esophagus. 2. Stomach diverticular. The incidence was 0.07% and the sex ratio of male to female was equal. Multiplicity was single in all cases. Most of them were above 11mm sized and common in gastric fundic area of greater curvature site of stomach. 3. Duodenal diverticular. The incidence was 1.51% and relatively even distribution in sex and age and common in after 5th decade. Most of them showed single in number, 11-30mm sized and common in medial margin of 2nd portion of duodenum. 4. Colonic diverticular. The incidence was 2.34% and predominant in male and common in 5th. and 6th. decade. Most of them showed single in number, below 5mm sized and common in right sided colon.

  7. Abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer by gastric bleeding during 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    1998-01-01

    We present a case in which a patient with acute hemorrhagic gastritis demonstrated abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer during 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy. A hemorrhagic gastritis was subsequently demonstrated by endoscopy. The mechanism for the intestinal localization of 99m Tc-MDP in this patients is not clear, but we guess that the extravasated blood containing the radiopharmaceutical cannot recirculate and stays at the bleeding site, so we can see the intestinal activity

  8. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  9. Fibrinogen concentrate for bleeding - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, J; Stensballe, J; Wikkelsø, A

    2014-01-01

    Fibrinogen concentrate as part of treatment protocols increasingly draws attention. Fibrinogen substitution in cases of hypofibrinogenaemia has the potential to reduce bleeding, transfusion requirement and subsequently reduce morbidity and mortality. A systematic search for randomised controlled...... trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies investigating fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients was conducted up to November 2013. We included 30 studies of 3480 identified (7 RCTs and 23 non-randomised). Seven RCTs included a total of 268 patients (165 adults and 103 paediatric), and all were...... determined to be of high risk of bias and none reported a significant effect on mortality. Two RCTs found a significant reduction in bleeding and five RCTs found a significant reduction in transfusion requirements. The 23 non-randomised studies included a total of 2825 patients, but only 11 of 23 studies...

  10. Bleeding stomal varices in portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Tran-Harding, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 50-year-old man with a history of liver cirrhosis and colon cancer post end colostomy presenting to the emergency department with stomal bleeding and passage of clots into the colostomy bag. The patient was treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS and concomitant embolization of the stomal varices via the TIPS shunt using N-butyl cyanoacrylate mixed with ethiodol. Although stomal variceal bleeding is uncommon, this entity can have up to 40% mortality upon initial presentation, given the challenges in diagnosis and management. Currently, there are no established standard treatments for stomal variceal bleeding. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, there are no cases in the current literature in which treatment of this entity is performed with a combination of TIPS shunt placement and N-butyl cyanoacrylate variceal embolization. Keywords: Stomal varices, TIPS, Cirrhosis, Colon cancer, Embolization, NBCA

  11. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  12. Prolonged effect of a new O-glycoPEGylated FVIII (N8-GP) in a murine saphenous vein bleeding model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastoft, Anne Engedahl; Ezban, M.; Tranholm, M.

    2013-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and prolonged effects of a new glycoPEGylated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) (N8-GP) in a venous bleeding model in haemophilia A mice and to compare the efficacy and potency to turoctocog alfa (rFVIII). Following intravenous administration of turoctocog...

  13. Successful Management of Neobladder Variceal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwal, Dinesh; Chatterjee, Kshitij, E-mail: kchatterjee@uams.edu [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Residency Program: Slot 634 (United States); Osborne, Scott [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kakkera, Krishna; Deas, Steven [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Residency Program: Slot 634 (United States); Li, Ruizong [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Erbland, Marcia [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Residency Program: Slot 634 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Hematuria from a neobladder can occur due to a variety of pathologies including tumors, stones, and fistulas. Variceal bleeding in a neobladder is a very rare condition with only one case reported in literature. We present a case of a patient with cirrhosis and portal hypertension and an ileocolic orthotopic neobladder presenting with hematuria. Computed tomographic angiography showed dilated varices around the neobladder which were successfully embolized. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report case of variceal bleeding in a neobladder successfully managed with the combination of TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) procedure and embolization.

  14. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  15. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  16. Prospective analysis of delayed colorectal post-polypectomy bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Min-Gu; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Kim, Hungdai; Kim, Hyung Ook; Jung, Kyung Uk; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2018-01-17

    Although post-polypectomy bleeding is the most frequent complication after colonoscopic polypectomy, only few studies have investigated the incidence of bleeding prospectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding and its associated risk factors prospectively. Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were prospectively enrolled in this study. Trained nurses contacted patients via telephone 7 and 30 days after polypectomy and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding the development of bleeding. Delayed post-polypectomy bleeding was categorized as minor or major and early or late bleeding. Major delayed bleeding was defined as a > 2-g/dL drop in the hemoglobin level, requiring hospitalization for control of bleeding or blood transfusion; late delayed bleeding was defined as bleeding occurring later than 24 h after polypectomy. A total of 8175 colonoscopic polypectomies were performed in 3887 patients. Overall, 133 (3.4%) patients developed delayed post-polypectomy bleeding. Among them, 90 (2.3%) and 43 (1.1%) patients developed minor and major delayed bleeding, respectively, and 39 (1.0%) patients developed late delayed bleeding. In the polyp-based multivariate analysis, young age ( 10 mm (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.38-4.36) were significant risk factors for major delayed bleeding, while young age (< 50 years; OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.35-5.12) and immediate bleeding (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.49-7.30) were significant risk factors for late delayed bleeding. Young age, aspirin use, polyp size, and immediate bleeding were found to be independent risk factors for delayed post-polypectomy bleeding.

  17. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  18. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M.; Els, T.

    2001-01-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  19. Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: Variceal and Nonvariceal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is generally defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz, which leads to hematemesis. There are several causes of UGI bleeding necessitating a detailed history to rule out comorbid conditions, medications, and possible exposures. In addition, the severity, timing, duration, and volume of the bleeding are important details to note for management purposes. Despite the source of the bleeding, acid suppression with a proton-pump inhibitor has been shown to be effective in minimizing rebleeding. Endoscopy remains the interventional modality of choice for both nonvariceal and variceal bleeds because it can be diagnostic and therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TC-325 versus the conventional combined technique for endoscopic treatment of peptic ulcers with high-risk bleeding stigmata: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Ang, Tiing Leong; Ong, Peng Lan Jeannie; Tan, Yi Lyn Jessica; Ang, Shih Wen Daphne; Law, Ngai Moh; Thurairajah, Prem Harichander; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2017-06-01

    Preliminary studies on a new topical hemostatic agent, TC-325, have shown its safety and effectiveness in treating active upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. However, to date there have been no randomized trials comparing TC-325 with the conventional combined technique (CCT). Our pilot study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of TC-325 with those of CCT in treating peptic ulcers with active bleeding or high-risk stigmata. This was a comparative randomized study of patients with upper GI bleeding who had Forrest class I, IIA or IIB ulcers. Altogether 20 patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 23-87 years) were recruited, including 16 men, with a mean hemoglobin of 97 g/L. Initial hemostasis was successful in 19 (95.0%) patients, including 90.0% (9/10) in the TC-325 group and 100% (10/10) in the CCT group. TC-325 monotherapy failed to stop bleeding in a patient with Forrest IB posterior duodenal wall ulcer. Rebleeding was seen in 33.3% (3/9) of the patients in the TC-325 group and 10.0% (1/10) in the CCT group. One patient required angio-embolization therapy while three had successful conventional endotherapy. Two patients from the TC-325 group had serious adverse events that were not procedure- or therapy-related. In patients with Forrest IIA or IIB ulcers, five received TC-325 monotherapy; none had rebleeding. Our pilot study showed that TC-325 has a tendency towards a higher rebleeding rate than CCT, when treating actively bleeding ulcers. Larger trials are necessary for definitive results. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ≥grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following

  2. Henoch-Schönlein purpura in an older man presenting as rectal bleeding and IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth Charles B; Jirajariyavej Teeranun; Cheungpasitporn Wisit; Rosen Raquel M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. Typical presentations are palpable purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis, and hematuria. This vasculitic syndrome can present as an uncommon cause of rectal bleeding in older patients. We report a case of an older man with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. He presented with rectal bleeding and acute kidney injury secondary to IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Case presentation A 75-year-old Pol...

  3. Bleeding 'downhill' esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael; Anderson, Sharon; Schlansky, Barry

    2016-10-24

    Proximal or 'downhill' esophageal varices are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Unlike the much more common distal esophageal varices, which are most commonly a result of portal hypertension, downhill esophageal varices result from vascular obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC). While SVC obstruction is most commonly secondary to malignant causes, our review of the literature suggests that benign causes of SVC obstruction are the most common cause actual bleeding from downhill varices. Given the alternative pathophysiology of downhill varices, they require a unique approach to management. Variceal band ligation may be used to temporize acute variceal bleeding, and should be applied on the proximal end of the varix. Relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of definitive treatment of downhill varices. A young woman with a benign superior vena cava stenosis due to a tunneled internal jugular vein dialysis catheter presented with hematemesis and melena. Urgent upper endoscopy revealed multiple 'downhill' esophageal varices with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. As there was no active bleeding, no endoscopic intervention was performed. CT angiography demonstrated stenosis of the SVC surrounding the distal tip of her indwelling hemodialysis catheter. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the stenotic SVC segment with resolution of her bleeding and clinical stabilization. Downhill esophageal varices are a distinct entity from the more common distal esophageal varices. Endoscopic therapies have a role in temporizing active variceal bleeding, but relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of treatment and should be pursued as rapidly as possible. It is unknown why benign, as opposed to malignant, causes of SVC obstruction result in bleeding from downhill varices at such a high rate, despite being a less common etiology of SVC obstruction.

  4. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G X Wong

    Full Text Available Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients.We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188, and those without (n = 4,195. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization.On admission, female gender (p38°C (p38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27-2.61, nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94-2.12, ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15-1.46, ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25-0.64, hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-1.002 and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988-0.998. At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98.Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant bleeding were identified. This model may be useful to complement clinical judgement in triaging adult dengue patients given the dynamic nature of acute dengue, particularly in pre-identifying those less likely to develop clinically significant bleeding.

  5. Anti-metallothionein IgG and levels of metallothionein in autistic children with GI disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A J Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A J RussoMount Saint Mary’s University, Emmitsburg, MD, USAAim: To assess both serum concentration of metallotionein (MT and anti-metallothionein (anti-MT immunoglobulin G (IgG in autistic children with gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and controls, and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between the presence of MT, anti-MT IgG, and inflammatory GI disease seen in many children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD.Subjects and methods: ELISAs were used to measure serum MT and anti-MT IgG in 41 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (many with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia [LNH] and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel, and/or stomach, and 33 controls (17 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease and 16 age-matched children without autism or GI disease.Results: Ten of 41 autistic children with chronic digestive disease had high serum concentration of MT compared to only one of the 33 controls (p < 0.01. Thirteen of the 41 autistic children with chronic digestive disease had anti-MT IgG compared to only four of 33 controls (p < 0.01. Nine of 10 (90% of autistic children with GI disease with high MT levels had a regressive onset (compared to the expected 25 of 41, or 61%, in this group (p < 0.05, whereas only nine of 13 of the autistic children with GI disease and anti-MT IgG had a regressive onset (70% which was not significantly higher than the expected. We didn’t find any correlation between severity of GI disease and MT concentration or anti-MT IgG.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between MT, anti-MT IgG and GI disease seen in many ASD individuals.Keywords: autism, metallothionein, anti-metallothionein, GI disease

  6. Inhibidores de la bomba de protones por vía intravenosa en la hemorragia por úlcera péptica: ¿es necesaria la supresión ácida máxima para disminuir el resangrado? Intravenous proton-pump for acute peptic ulcer bleeding: is profound acid supression beneficial to reduce the risk of rebleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar dos pautas de pantoprazol por vía intravenosa en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA ulcerosa de alto riesgo para presentar persistencia o recidiva hemorrágica. Material y método: se randomizaron los pacientes en dos grupos: grupo 0: tratamiento con bolo de 80 mg i.v. de pantoprazol y perfusión continua a 8 mg/h durante 72 horas; grupo 1: tratamiento con 40 mg i.v. de pantoprazol diarios. Se analizó el porcentaje de persistencia/recidiva hemorrágica entre ambos grupos, requerimientos transfusionales, necesidad de cirugía y mortalidad del episodio hemorrágico. Resultados: se incluyeron 20 pacientes en el grupo 0 y 21 en el grupo 1. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto al sexo, edad, hábito tabáquico, consumo de AINE, presencia de inestabilidad hemodinámica, estigma sobre el nicho ulceroso (Forrest Ia 5 vs. 14,3%, p = 0,322; Forrest Ib 30 vs. 33,3%, p = 0,819; Forrest IIa 60 vs. 50,1%, p = 0,753. El 90% de los pacientes del grupo 0 recibió tratamiento endoscópico vs. el 100% del grupo 1, p = 0,232. El 50% de los pacientes del grupo 0 recibió transfusión vs. el 52,4% del grupo 1, p = 0,879. Dos pacientes (10,5% del grupo 0 presentaron recidiva hemorrágica vs. 3 pacientes (14,3% del grupo 1, precisando cirugía 1 paciente de cada grupo y falleciendo 1 paciente del grupo 0. Conclusiones: la inhibición ácida máxima de la secreción ácida gástrica mediante bolo e infusión continua de pantoprazol no ofrece resultados superiores al tratamiento con dosis convencionales en el episodio hemorrágico agudo.Objective: to compare two regimens of pantoprazole administered intravenously in patients with ulcerative gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB, and a high risk of presenting with persitent or recurrent hemorrhage. Material and method: patients were randomized into two groups: group 0 - treatment with a 80 mg bolus of pantoprazole administered intravenously, followed by continuous infusion of

  7. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    barium enema studies have indicated increasing world prevalence ... Other diagnostic modalities include barium enema, computerised ... This is in contrast to the findings in our patient when colonoscopy was carried out, in which the diverticula were more at the descending colon-left sided, and were found to be bleeding.

  8. Medical treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, is subjectively defined as a “complaint of a large amount of bleeding during menstrual cycles that occurs over several consecutive cycles” and is objectively defined as menstrual blood loss of more than 80 mL per cycle that is associated with an anemia status (defined as a hemoglobin level of <10 g/dL. During their reproductive age, more than 30% of women will complain of or experience a heavy amount of bleeding, which leads to a debilitating health outcome, including significantly reduced health-related quality of life, and a considerable economic burden on the health care system. Although surgical treatment might be the most important definite treatment, especially hysterectomy for those women who have finished bearing children, the uterus is still regarded as the regulator and controller of important physiological functions, a sexual organ, a source of energy and vitality, and a maintainer of youth and attractiveness. This has resulted in a modern trend in which women may reconsider the possibility of organ preservation. For women who wish to retain the uterus, medical treatment may be one of the best alternatives. In this review, recent trends in the management of women with heavy menstrual bleeding are discussed.

  9. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our

  10. Endometrial biopsy findings in postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study endometrial histopathology in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. A two-year study from January 2003 to December 2004 of 100 cases of postmenopausal bleeding was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Sialkot. The histopathology of endometrial biopsy specimens was done to find out the causes of postmenopausal bleeding in these ladies. All these 100 patients had confirmed menopause and the average age was 55 years and above. The most common histopathological diagnosis was senile endometrial atrophy (27%), followed by simple cystic hyperplasia in (17%). Three cases of simple cystic hyperplasia had coexistent ovarian tumors. Glandular hyperplasia without atypia was seen in 6% and with atypia in 4%. Other causes were endometritis (13%), endometrial polyps (8%), proliferative phase endometrium (6%) and secretary phase endometrium (5%). Endometrial carcinoma was seen in (6%) cases, (8%) biopsy specimens were non-representative. Although senile endometrial atrophy was most commonly found in these ladies but a significant percentage of endometrial hyperplasia and endometr