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Sample records for acute exposure nuclear

  1. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  2. Atrazine in sub-acute exposure results in sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab-Ali Sadrkhanloo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the detrimental effect of atrazine (ATR on germinal epitheliums (GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate (CH and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA ratio and to clarify the effect of ATR on serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin-B (INH-B. The impact of ATR exposure on total antioxidant capacity (TAC, sperm DNA packing and integrity were also investigated. Seventy two Wistar rats were used. The rats in control group received vehicle and the animals in test groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW of ATR orally on daily bases for 12, 24 and 48 days. In ATR-received groups the spermatogenesis cell were presented with dense reactive sites for lipidophilic staining associated with faint cytoplasmic CH accumulation. Dissociated germinal epithelium, negative tubular and repopulation indexes were manifested. The serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and INH-B decreased by 85% after 48 days exposure to high dose of ATR. TAC was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The sperm DNA damage was marked in animals which exposed to high dose of ATR (72.50 ± 2.25% and the percentage of nuclear immature sperm increased up to 83.40 ± 0.89%. In conclusion, ATR not only induced its detrimental effect on the endocrine function of the testes and pituitary gland but also affected the cytoplasmic CH ratio and consequently leads to inadequate energy supplement in spermatogenesis cells. Therefore the imbalanced oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue, which in turn enhances the sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity.

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  4. Development of the drug for acute treatment of emergent exposure to radiation by nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Described is a flow of authors' studies on the drug development in the title, aiming to save the life after the emergent exposure to peri-lethal dose. Medicals with radioprotective properties have been essentially those to be given before the exposure. Authors have studied the mechanism of bystander effect of non-exposed cells where they, localizing around the directly radiation-exposed cells, acquire the radioresistance; have found that nitrogen oxide (NO) is one of mediators for the effect; and have thought to apply the NO generating agents for the drug already clinically available, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), isosorbide nitrate (ISDN), nicolandil (NC), nitroglycerin (NG), and nipradilol (NP). ISDN, NC, NG and NP exhibited no in vitro-toxicity in colony formation of human fibroblast AG1522 cells up to 30 micro-M whereas SNP was toxic at the level >3 micro-M due to the formation of cyanide which could be detoxicated in vivo. Actually, the 5 agents were not toxic in vivo. When male jcl/ICR mice were irradiated with lethal dose of 7.5 Gy X-ray and the 5 agents were given to make their level 30 micro-M immediately, 1, 2 and 7 days after the exposure, 3/5 animals given SNP survived. With the half lethal dose of 6.5 Gy X-ray and 50 animals, SNP was further examined in details: survival was found to be 75-85% in mice given SNP in contrast to 30-40% in the control and the life-saving effect was suggested to be due to suppression of intestinal and marrow death with the improved feature of peripheral platelet and leukocyte. Thus SNP, a drug for angina pectoris, is found radioprotective even post exposure. (T.T.)

  5. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl 2 , 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  6. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  7. Acute Hemolysis Caused by Incidental Trichlorfon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Wu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichlorfon (o-o-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloro-hydroxyethylphosphate, an organophosphate, has a moderately potent anti-cholinesterase activity. Organophosphate poisoning is well known for its characteristic symptoms and signs, but acute hemolysis caused by trichlorfon is rarely reported. We present a patient who developed acute hemolysis and renal function impairment after percutaneous trichlorfon exposure. A 54-year-old man applied trichlorfon powder to his dog to kill its parasites. Half an hour later, the dog was suspected to die of cholinergic crisis and the patient felt abdominal cramping pain. Later, he developed severe nausea, vomiting, chills, high fever, and cold sweat. Laboratory work-up disclosed a picture of acute hemolysis, jaundice, renal function impairment and leukocytosis. However, there were no clinical features of acute cholinergic syndrome except gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood cholinesterase activities were also normal. He eventually had a full recovery. Trichlorfon should be added to the toxins known to cause acute hemolysis.

  8. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  9. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  10. Comprehensive proteome analysis of nasal lavage samples after controlled exposure to welding nanoparticles shows an induced acute phase and a nuclear receptor, LXR/RXR, activation that influence the status of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neserin; Ljunggren, Stefan; Karlsson, Helen M; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Pagels, Joakim; Isaxon, Christina; Gudmundsson, Anders; Rissler, Jenny; Nielsen, Jörn; Lindh, Christian H; Kåredal, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed. Such mediators will be helpful to clarify the pathomechanisms behind welding fume particle-induced effects. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with work-related symptoms in the lower airways during the last month were exposed to mild-steel welding fume particles (1 mg/m 3 ) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Nasal lavage samples were collected before, immediately after, and the day after exposure. The proteins in the nasal lavage were analyzed with two different mass spectrometry approaches, label-free discovery shotgun LC-MS/MS and a targeted selected reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS analyzing 130 proteins and four in vivo peptide degradation products. The analysis revealed 30 significantly changed proteins that were associated with two main pathways; activation of acute phase response signaling and activation of LXR/RXR, which is a nuclear receptor family involved in lipid signaling. Connective tissue proteins and proteins controlling the degradation of such tissues, including two different matrix metalloprotease proteins, MMP8 and MMP9, were among the significantly changed enzymes and were identified as important key players in the pathways. Exposure to mild-steel welding fume particles causes measurable changes on the proteome level in nasal lavage matrix in exposed welders, although no clinical symptoms were manifested. The

  11. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals contains a detailed and comprehensive methodology for developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs...

  12. Exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.; Isac, R.

    2002-01-01

    According to our last national study on population exposures from natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation, 16% of overall annual collective effective dose represent the contribution of diagnostic medical exposures. Of this value, 92% is due to diagnostic X-ray examinations and only 8% arise from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. This small contribution to collective dose is mainly the result of their lower frequency compared to that of the X-ray examinations, doses delivered to patients being, on average, ten times higher. The purpose of this review was to reassess the population exposure from in vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures and to evaluate the temporal trends of diagnostic usage of radiopharmaceuticals in Romania. The current survey is the third one conducted in the last decade. As in the previous ones (1990 and 1995), the contribution of the Radiation Hygiene Laboratories Network of the Ministry of Health and Family in collecting data from nuclear medicine departments in hospitals was very important

  13. Population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpen, E.L.; Chester, R.O.; Fisher, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this volume reflect the latest research on the nature and degree of exposure to human populations from ionizing radiation that results from the production of commercial nuclear power. The conference comprised representatives from such notable organizations as Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Issues addressed include the effects on humans of the mining and extraction of uranium and the fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors, the decommissioning and disposal of facilities that are no longer useful or efficient and the likelihood of major nuclear accidents. Each document will have to be cataloged separately

  14. Occupational exposure of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, M.

    1982-01-01

    The results are given of measurements of the radiation burden of personnel in departments of nuclear medicine in the years 1979 to 1981 using film dosemeters and ring thermoluminescence dosemeters evaluated by the national personnel dosemeter service. The relations are examined of the exposure of hands and the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and especially their use for examinations. Certain organizational measures are indicated for reducina radiation burden in a laboratory for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. The results of measurements and evaluations of radiation burden of personnel of nuclear medicine departments are confronted with conclusions published in the literature. (author)

  15. Nuclear Cardiology in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging is very effective in the evaluation of patients with suspicious acute coronary syndrome (ACS), for adequate diagnosis and treatment. There have been many clinical evidences to support the efficacy and cost-effectiveness. In addition, many authoritative guidelines support the utility of myocardial perfusion imaging in ACS with an appropriate diagnostic protocol. However, with the development of other cardiac imaging modalities, the choice of modality for the diagnosis of suspicious ACS now depends on the availability of each modality in each institute. Newly developed imaging technologies, especially including molecular imaging, are expected to have great potential not only for diagnosis but also for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of ACS.

  16. Nuclear Cardiology in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging is very effective in the evaluation of patients with suspicious acute coronary syndrome (ACS), for adequate diagnosis and treatment. There have been many clinical evidences to support the efficacy and cost-effectiveness. In addition, many authoritative guidelines support the utility of myocardial perfusion imaging in ACS with an appropriate diagnostic protocol. However, with the development of other cardiac imaging modalities, the choice of modality for the diagnosis of suspicious ACS now depends on the availability of each modality in each institute. Newly developed imaging technologies, especially including molecular imaging, are expected to have great potential not only for diagnosis but also for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of ACS

  17. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  18. Occupational exposure to solvents and acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Altogether, this study comprises 15 332 incident cases of AML diagnosed in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland from 1961-2005 and 76...

  19. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  20. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  1. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  2. Occupational exposure in a commercial nuclear pharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Ruiz, A.; Baro, J.; Piera, C.; Ramirez de Arellano, I.

    2002-01-01

    Central Radiopharmacy Services (CRS) prepare radiopharmaceuticals in individual dispensed activity (IDA) and deliver them to different Nuclear Medicine Services. CADISA is a CRS which approximately produces 100,000 IDA per year. The ALARA principle was first present during the facility design. The distribution, shielding and dimensions of the different areas were chosen to provide ergonomic and well protected working places. This design together with good laboratory practices and personal training have led to a reasonably low collective dose due to external exposure. During the first working year, 1996, the collective dose per IDA was 0.45 μSv-man. In the following years, due to some design improvement and mainly to the skill of personnel, this indicator has hand an asymptotical reduction. In 2001 its value has been of 0.18μSv-man/IDA. (Author)

  3. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  4. Mathematical Models of Human Hematopoiesis Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    response of 11 subjects from Chernobyl 1986 . . . . . . 104 B.8 Chernobyl case studies: Platelet data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 B...9 Chernobyl case studies: Granulocyte data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 B.10 Chernobyl case studies: Lymphocyte data...information for use in nuclear disaster preparedness planning. Understanding how biological systems change after radiation exposure provides insight on the

  5. Hand exposure of nuclear medicine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, J.; Wrzesien, M.; Olszewski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Workers of Nuclear Medicine units labelling radiopharmaceuticals with technetium 99mTc are exposed to gamma radiation. The general opinion that individual dosimetry, with the aid of personal dose meters worn on the radiopharmacists' body, reflects true exposure of that occupational group is false. The use of ring dose meters worn on the fingers does not provide a true indication of the exposure of the radiopharmacists' hands. Measurements performed in 2001 - 2005 by the Institute of Occupational Medicine, with the use of dose meters placed on radiopharmacists' fingers, revealed that the equivalent dose to the hands ranged from 5.5 mSv to 95 mSv. Mean annual dose was 29 mSv. The finger dose meter is usually worn at the base of the middle finger, even if it is the fingertips that are most exposed to the radiation. In 2004-2005, we determined the distributions of the doses to the radiopharmacists' hands. The determinations were performed during one working day. During those determinations, thermo luminescence detectors were placed at 19 locations on the left and right hands. The subjects were 13 workers of 5 nuclear medicine units. The recorded doses ranged from 0.02 to 28 mSv for the left hand, and from 0.01 to 18 mSv for the right hand. The results show that the tips of the thumb, index finger and middle finger were the most exposed areas. The chances that the skin of those three fingertips receives yearly doses in excess of the current limit of 500 mSv are fairly high. It is recommended, therefore, to use annual dose constraints for the dose recorded by the ring dose meter at the level of 100 mSv per year as a safe limit to protect workers from the risk of exceeding the limit value for the dermal exposure. Whenever the dose value approaches 100 mSv/u, where u is the number of determinations of the partial doses performed during the period of one year, steps must be undertaken to explain the reasons why such a level has been reached and suitable

  6. Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, J; Holford-Strevens, V; Cheang, M; Warren, C P

    1986-01-01

    History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:3709486

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and environmental exposures in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.M.; Keating, M.J.; Trujillo, J.M.; Labarthe, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are present in bone marrow of approximately 50% of newly diagnostic acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL) patients, but their etiologic significance, if any, is unclear. The frequency of environmental exposures, gathered by questionnaire from patients or relatives, was compared in 127 newly diagnosed ANLL patients with marrow abnormalities (AA) and 109 ANLL patients with cytogenetically normal marrow. These represented 73% of de novo patients treated at M. D. Anderson Hospital between 1976 and 1983. AA patients were more likely than NN patients to: report cytotoxic treatment for prior medical conditions, smoke cigarettes, drink alcoholic beverages, and work at occupations with possible exposure to mutagens. No statistically significant associations between aneuploidy and use of other tobacco, avocational exposure to chemicals or exposure to animals were present. Associations between specific abnormalities and prior cytotoxic therapy (deletion of chromosome 7), smoking (extra chromosome 8, inversion chromosome 16), and occupation at the time of diagnosis (translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21) were noted. No association between occupational exposure to benzene or ionizing radiation and the 6 most common chromosomal abnormalities in ANLL patients were noted, although these agents are known to be leukemogenic. Problems with interpreting the above associations, including the high nonresponse rate, a high proportion of surrogate respondents, and the large number of significance tests that were performed, are discussed. These results are consistent with those from previously reported series, and suggest that tumor-specific markers may be present for some exposures in this disease

  8. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, U.C. E-mail: ucmishra@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a

  9. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  10. GPU Nuclear Corporation's radiation exposure management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodien, M.J.; Bovino, A.A.; Perry, O.R.; Hildebrand, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corporation has developed a central main frame (IBM 3081) based radiation exposure management system which provides real time and batch transactions for three separate reactor facilities. The structure and function of the data base are discussed. The system's main features include real time on-line radiation work permit generation and personnel exposure tracking; dose accountability as a function of system and component, job type, worker classification, and work location; and personnel dosemeter (TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeters) data processing. The system also carries the qualifications of all radiation workers including RWP training, respiratory protection training, results of respirator fit tests and medical exams. A warning system is used to prevent non-qualified persons from entering controlled areas. The main frame system is interfaced with a variety of mini and micro computer systems for dosemetry, statistical and graphics applications. These are discussed. Some unique dosemetry features which are discussed include assessment of dose for up to 140 parts of the body with dose evaluations at 7,300 and 1000 mg/cm 2 for each part, tracking of MPC hours on a 7 day rolling schedule; automatic pairing of TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeter values, creation and updating of NRC Forms 4 and 5, generation of NRC required 20.407 and Reg Guide 1.16 reports. As of July 1983, over 20 remote on-line stations were in use with plans to add 20-30 more by May 1984. The system provides response times for on-line activities of 2-7 seconds and 23 1/2 hours per day ''up time''. Examples of the various on-line and batch transactions are described

  11. Using plutonium excretion data to predict dose from chronic and acute exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Wilde, J.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using fission track analysis (FTA) in conjunction with a composite theoretical model of the transport of plutonium (Pu) in the human body creates a new opportunity to estimate the exposure and dose to the general population due to plutonium in the environment. For the purposes of this study, data derived from FTA performed at the University of Utah's Center for Excellence in Nuclear Technology, Engineering and Research (CENTER) has been used to predict doses for two populations. Both population groups have no known history of plutonium exposures. Therefore, two exposure scenarios (acute and chronic) were assumed to provide boundaries for dose estimates. Dose predictions focus on equivalent dose to lung, liver, and skeletal systems and range from 0.01 mSv to 560 mSv as a function of organ, sample collection interval and exposure type. Additionally, these reconstructions demonstrate the sensitivity of dose calculations to time of sample collection and duration of exposure. As anticipated for a class Y particle, the predicted average equivalent tissue dose to the lungs represents the highest dose to the evaluated compartments. Furthermore, the data imply that the general population receives a dose one order of magnitude lower than a radiation worker with no history of exposure for the equivalent exposure scenario. (author)

  12. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  13. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  14. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. 131 I OIH, 67 gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease

  15. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  16. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  17. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, Ahmed; Montuelle, Bernard; Berard, Annette; Bouchez, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  18. Effects of asphalt fume condensate exposure on acute pulmonary responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.Y.C.; Barger, M.W.; Castranova, V. [Health Effects Lab. Div., National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kriech, A.J. [Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the effects of in vitro exposure to paving asphalt fume condensate (AFC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions and to monitor acute pulmonary responses to in vivo AFC exposure in rats. Methods: For in vitro studies, rat primary AM cultures were incubated with various concentrations of AFC for 24 h at 37 C. AM-conditioned medium was collected and assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production were assayed in AM-conditioned medium to monitor AM function. The effect of AFC on chemiluminescence (CL) generated by resting AM or AM in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation was also determined as a marker of AM activity. For in vivo studies, rats received either (1) a single intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline, or 0.1 mg or 0.5 mg AFC and were killed 1 or 3 days later; or (2) IT instillation of saline, or 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg AFC for three consecutive days and were killed the following day. Differential counts of cells harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were measured to monitor inflammation. Acellular LDH and protein content in the first lavage fluid were measured to monitor damage. CL generation, TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 production by AM were assayed to monitor AM function. Results: In vitro AFC exposure at <200 {mu}g/ml did not induce cytotoxicity, oxidant generation, or IL-1 production by AM, but it did cause a small but significant increase in TNF-{alpha} release from AM. In vitro exposure of AM to AFC resulted in a significant decline of CL in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation. The in vivo studies showed that AFC exposure did not induce significant neutrophil infiltration or alter LDH or protein content in acellular lavage samples. Macrophages obtained from AFC-exposed rats did not show significant differences in oxidant production or cytokine secretion at rest or in response to LPS in comparison with control

  19. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; van Hulst, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and submarine escape. In the underwater environment, CAGE is caused by trapped air, which expands and leads to lung vessel rupture when ambient pressure decreases during ascent. Pressure decrease also occurs during hypobaric activities such as flying and, therefore, CAGE may theoretically be a risk in hypobaric exposure. We reviewed the available literature on this subject. Identified were 12 cases of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. Based on these cases, we discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. The low and slow pressure decrease during most hypobaric activities (as opposed to diving) account for the low incidence of CAGE during these exposures and suggest that severe air trapping must be present to cause barotrauma. This is also suggested by the large prevalence of air filled cysts in the case reports reviewed. We recommend considering CAGE in all patients presenting with acute central neurological injury during or shortly after pressure decrease such as flying. A CT scan of head and chest should be performed in these patients. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be initiated as soon as possible in cases of proven or probable CAGE.

  20. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  3. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein.

  4. Trends in occupational exposure within the UK civil nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The UK civil nuclear industry was established in the 1950s and workers in the industry have received occupational radiation exposures since that time. Data on occupational exposures over this period show a reduction in annual doses. This trend was initiated by more restrictive statutory dose limitation requirements, and was achieved by greater emphasis on radiation protection methods. (Author)

  5. Nuclear cardiology in acute coronary syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulow, H.; Schwaiger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are a frequent manifestation of a coronary artery disease, usually being associated with chest pain and presenting as a medical emergency. Since a considerable number of patients with chest pain, however, have a non cardiac etiology of trier pain, properly triaging these patients represents a diagnostic challenge for physicians in the emergency department. As the available diagnostic procedures have limited accuracy, many different diagnostic strategies have been evaluated. Among these, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at rest or in combination with stress procedures has been investigated in many trails. MPI has been proven to be useful, especially in a patient population with a low to intermediate probability of an ischemic event. Perfusion scintigraphy has a high sensitivity in the detection of myocardial infarction and reveals an excellent negative predictive value, allowing a safe discharge strategy of patients with a negative scan result. Moreover, it enables risk stratification and provides incremental and independent prognostic information regarding short to long term future cardiac adverse events. Several cost effectiveness studies have shown that perfusion imaging leads to lower overall direct costs, mainly by a reduction of unnecessary hospital admissions and diagnostic angiograms, without worsening of the clinical outcome of these patients. As a possible study endpoint, myocardial perfusion imaging in the acute setting enables the quantification of salvaged myocardium and therefore the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Besides perfusion agents, several infarcts avid radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, which in part show promising results. However, larger randomized trials evaluating these tracers in clinical settings are needed to warrant routine clinical application

  6. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  7. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  8. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  9. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  10. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, F.R.; Holliday, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC 50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  11. Radiation exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnova, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an interdisciplinary department that deals with diagnosis and therapy using open sources. Therefore workers in nuclear medicine are in daily contact with ionizing radiation and thus it is essential to monitor a radiation load. Each work must therefore carry out monitoring of workers. It monitors compliance with the radiation limits set by law, allows an early detection of deviations from normal operation and to demonstrate whether the radiation protection at the workplace is optimized. This work describes the principles of monitoring of workers in nuclear medicine and monitoring methods for personal dosimetry. In the next section the author specifically deals with personal dosimetry at the Department of Nuclear Medicine St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava (KNM-Ba-OUSA). The main part of the work is to evaluate the results of a one-year monitoring of radiation workers KNM-Ba-OUSA. (author)

  12. Radiation exposure due to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information brochure contains 12 earlier papers of leading experts on the radiation hazard the population incurs during normal operation of nuclear facilities and the radiation-biological fundamentals of the effects of ionizing radio humans. (HP) [de

  13. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.; Muth, H.; Keller, K.D.; Hector, G.; Lehnen, H.

    1982-01-01

    In a large hospital (University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, 2000 beds) the use of radionuclides was determined with the aim of a balance of the radionuclide flow through the clinic and the resulting radiation exposure for the persons involved. (author)

  15. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  16. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  17. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H 0 ) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  18. Acute exposure to air pollution triggers atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Mark S; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Schwartz, Joel; Mittleman, Murray A; Wessler, Benjamin; Gold, Diane R; Dockery, Douglas W; Laden, Francine

    2013-08-27

    This study sought to evaluate the association of air pollution with the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). Air pollution in general and more specifically particulate matter has been associated with cardiovascular events. Although ventricular arrhythmias are traditionally thought to convey the increased cardiovascular risk, AF may also contribute. Patients with dual chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) were enrolled and followed prospectively. The association of AF onset with air quality including ambient particulate matter pollution between 2 and 48 h prior to the AF were examined. Of 176 patients followed for an average of 1.9 years, 49 patients had 328 episodes of AF lasting ≥ 30 s. Positive but nonsignificant associations were found for PM2.5 in the prior 24 h, but stronger associations were found with shorter exposure windows. The odds of AF increased by 26% (95% confidence interval: 8% to 47%) for each 6.0 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 in the 2 h prior to the event (p = 0.004). The odds of AF were highest at the upper quartile of mean PM2.5. PM was associated with increased odds of AF onset within hours following exposure in patients with known cardiac disease. Air pollution is an acute trigger of AF, likely contributing to the pollution-associated adverse cardiac outcomes observed in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Present situation of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imabori, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The present situation of the radiation exposure of workers, including both employes and subcontractors, in the nuclear power plants in Japan, is presented. Twenty seven nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction are tabulated with the name, the owner, the electric output and the commissioning year of each plant. The results of exposure of the workers in these plants are shown, classifying the dose rate into less than 0.5 rem, 0.5 - 1.5 rem, 1.5 - 2.5 rem, 2.5 - 5 rem and more than 5 rem, and the workers into employes and subcontractors. It is noted that the exposure dose of the subcontractors occupies about 88% of all exposure dose, and the exposure is concentrated during regular inspection period. The exposure dose of about 80% of the workers is less than 0.5 rem, and no one was irradiated more than 5 rem in a year. The total exposure dose, which has especially the tendency of increasing with extended maintenance period and decreasing during plant operation period, shows also the trend of increasing with the lapse of operation years. As for the point of view of whole exposure dose, the value is 0.06 -- 0.43 man-rem/10 6 kWh in 1976 FY. It is considered to be necessary to grasp the total exposure dose of each worker wandering from one plant to another, and the central registration center for the workers in radioactive environment was established in 1978. The whole exposure dose data of each worker are stored in the central computer in this center. This system is highly appreciated in radiation exposure management. The total exposure dose is related to the rate of utilization of nuclear plants, and it is expected to decrease with the decrease of plant outage. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of ∼ 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  1. Radiation exposure in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1981-01-01

    The individual and collective doses in German nuclear power stations have decreased remarkably since the beginning of the commercial nuclear power production. The paper discusses the influencing factors, that have caused this development and points out areas where improvements are possible in the future. Moreover the interaction between radiation protection practice and the relevant legal regulations is considered. Usually the recording of job related doses is regarded as the most direct access to possible improvements. Concluding, it is therefore demonstrated by some examples how the evaluation of such information has taken effect in practice. (orig.) [de

  2. Biological effects of nuclear war: Acute effects of radiation; the LD-50 value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.; Rotblat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys carried out in Japan in connection with the reassessment of the dosimetry for long-term effects provided an opportunity for another look at the acute effects of radiation and a recalculation of the LD-50 value. The recalculation gave an LD-50 value which is two to three times lower than had been assumed before. It means that in a nuclear war the number of fatalities due to exposure to radiation would be considerably higher than thought hitherto. 11 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  4. Radiation exposure of nuclear medicine procedures in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine procedures offer the possibility to detect abnormalities on the basis of physiological and metabolic changes and to treat a growing number of diseases in human beings. However, the use of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine examinations causes a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. In Germany it is an essential task of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to determinate and assess radiation exposure of the population due to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy. An important input for this task is the frequency of nuclear-medical examinations with application of ionising radiation and the radiation exposure of patients related to the various procedures. Additional implementation of age- and gender-specific data today allows more exact risk stratification in focusing on different subgroups of patients. Moreover, the collective effective dose as well as the per caput effective dose of the German population may be estimated and compared with earlier collected data or foreign countries. These data reveal where the indication should be questioned particularly critically and if the dose for the various examinations can be reduced and, thus, contribute to the definition of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany with the aim of both a sufficient image quality and a minimum of radiation exposure. Exceeding the high- as well as the low-values requires documentation and explanation. (orig.)

  5. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R.

    1993-01-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min)

  6. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, S., E-mail: up201208875@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Correia, A.T. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, 4200–150, Porto (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  7. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Antunes, S.C.; Correia, A.T.; Nunes, B.

    2016-01-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  8. Residual insufficiency of hematopoiesis after acute or chronic exposure to gamma radiation or neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.H. v.; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of the stem cell quality is possible after acute exposure to 500 rad γ radiation up to a period of 6 months. Beyond this data, a significant residual damage remains. The same applies to quantitative stem cell recovery. Chronic γ exposure leads to less radiation damage than acute exposure. After a total accumulation of 500 rad, the proliferation factors after chronic exposure were, on an average 20% higher than after acute radiation exposure. 6 MeV neutron exposure reduced the stem cell quality and stem cell count much more efficiently than γ exposure. The relative biological effect of neutrons is at least 2.5 times as high as the γ effect, both for the stem cell count and the stem cell quality. (orig.) [de

  9. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  10. Prolonged exposure to particulate chromate inhibits RAD51 nuclear import mediator proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-09-15

    Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a human lung carcinogen and a human health concern. The induction of structural chromosome instability is considered to be a driving mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. Homologous recombination repair protects against Cr(VI)-induced chromosome damage, due to its highly accurate repair of Cr(VI)-induced DNA double strand breaks. However, recent studies demonstrate Cr(VI) inhibits homologous recombination repair through the misregulation of RAD51. RAD51 is an essential protein in HR repair that facilitates the search for a homologous sequence. Recent studies show prolonged Cr(VI) exposure prevents proper RAD51 subcellular localization, causing it to accumulate in the cytoplasm. Since nuclear import of RAD51 is crucial to its function, this study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) on the RAD51 nuclear import mediators, RAD51C and BRCA2. We show acute (24h) Cr(VI) exposure induces the proper localization of RAD51C and BRCA2. In contrast, prolonged (120h) exposure increased the cytoplasmic localization of both proteins, although RAD51C localization was more severely impaired. These results correlate temporally with the previously reported Cr(VI)-induced RAD51 cytoplasmic accumulation. In addition, we found Cr(VI) does not inhibit interaction between RAD51 and its nuclear import mediators. Altogether, our results suggest prolonged Cr(VI) exposure inhibits the nuclear import of RAD51C, and to a lesser extent, BRCA2, which results in the cytoplasmic accumulation of RAD51. Cr(VI)-induced inhibition of nuclear import may play a key role in its carcinogenic mechanism since the nuclear import of many tumor suppressor proteins and DNA repair proteins is crucial to their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri van

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: This symposium forms an essential part of the continuing tradition of subjecting nuclear energy to periodic review to assess the adequacy of radiation protection practices and experiences and to identify those areas needing further study and development. Specifically, the symposium focused on a review of statistical data on radiation exposure experience to workers in the nuclear fuel cycle through 1978. The technical sessions were concerned with occupational exposures: experienced in Member States; in research and development facilities; in nuclear power plants; in nuclear Fuel reprocessing facilities; in waste management facilities; and techniques to minimize doses. A critical review was made of internal and external exposures to the following occupational groups: uranium miners; mill workers; fuel fabricators; research personnel, reactor workers; maintenance staff; hot cell workers; reprocessing plant personnel; waste management personnel. In particular, attention was devoted to the work activities causing the highest radiation exposures and successful techniques which have been used to minimize individual and collective doses. Also there was an exchange of information on the trends of occupational exposure over the lifespan of individual nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. During the last session there was a detailed panel discussion on the conclusions and future needs highlighted during the symposium. While past symposia on nuclear power and its fuel cycle have presented data on occupational dose statistics, this symposium was the first to focus attention on the experience and trends of occupational exposure in recent years. The papers presented an authoritative account of the status of the levels and trends of the average annual individual dose as well as the annual collective dose for occupational workers in most of the world up to 1979. From the data presented it became evident that considerable progress has been

  13. Internal exposure in French nuclear power plants : 10 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C.; Gonin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Collectively speaking, internal exposure in French nuclear power plants is negligible. However, some quite high individual doses have been recorded. The details of cases of significant contamination are presented here in table form. A brief discussion of a few particular cases underscores the problems involved. (author)

  14. Occupational radiation exposures at radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.; Pardo, G.; Melis, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of occupational radiation exposures at relevant radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina, for 1996. The facilities send this information to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority due to the requirements included in their operation licenses and authorizations. Dose distributions of 1891 workers and their parameters are presented. The analysis is performed for each type of the following practices: nuclear power plants, research reactors, radioisotope production, fuel fabrication, industrial irradiation and research in the nuclear fuel cycle. Trends of occupational exposure in different practices are analysed and the highest doses have been identified. Following the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina updated the dose limits for workers in 1995. The individual dose limits are 20 mSv per year averaged over five consecutive years (100 mSv in 5 years), not exceeding 50 mSv in a single year. To evaluate the occupational radiation exposure trend, without taking into account practices, an analysis of the distribution of individual doses accumulated in the period 1995/96, for all workers, is performed. Individual doses received during 1996 were all below 50 mSv and doses accumulated in the period 1995/96 were below 100 mSv. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Controlling occupational radiation exposure at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical development of the philosophy of keeping the radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is presented. A review is made of some of the ALARA activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and various nuclear installations. Data compiled by the NRC show that routine and special maintenance at light-water reactors accounts for 72 percent of all occupational exposure at these sites. The role that Oak Ridge National Laboratory has taken in ALARA research is presented, with emphasis placed on a study of valve malfunctions at light-water reactors. The valve study indicates a trend toward decreasing valve reliability over the past few years. Finally a cost--benefit analysis of radiation dose reduction is discussed. The rationale for assigning a cost per man-rem based on the radiation exposure level that is encountered is presented

  16. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Calhoun, William J., E-mail: William.Calhoun@utmb.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  17. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  18. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  19. Evaluation of exposure limits to toxic gases for nuclear reactor control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Sasser, L.B.

    1991-07-01

    We have evaluated ammonia, chlorine, Halon (actually a generic name for several halogenated hydro-carbons), and sulfur dioxide for their possible effects during an acute two-minute exposure in order to derive recommendations for maximum exposure levels. To perform this evaluation, we conducted a search to find the most pertinent literature regarding toxicity in humans and in experimental animals. Much of the literature is at least a decade old, not an unexpected finding since acute exposures are less often performed now than they were a few years ago. In most cases, the studies did not specifically examine the effects of two-minute exposures; thus, extrapolations had to be made from studies of longer-exposure periods. Whenever possible, we gave the greatest weight to human data, with experimental animal data serving to strengthen the conclusion arrived at from consideration of the human data. Although certain individuals show hypersensitivity to materials like sulfur dioxide, we have not attempted to factor this information into the recommendations. After our evaluation of the data in the literature, we held a small workshop. Major participants in this workshop were three consultants, all of whom were Diplomates of the American Board of Toxicology, and staff from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Our preliminary recommendations for two-minute exposure limits and the rationale for them were discussed and consensus reached on final recommendations. These recommendations are: (1) ammonia-300 to 400-ppm; (2) chlorine-30 ppm; (3) Halon 1301-5%; Halon 1211-2%; and (4) sulfur dioxide-100 ppm. Control room operators should be able to tolerate two-minute exposures to these levels, don fresh-air masks, and continue to operate the reactor if the toxic material is eliminated, or safely shut down the reactor if the toxic gas remains. 96 refs., 9 tabs

  20. Radiation exposures from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, G M

    1958-12-01

    A summary of the pertinent data on radiation exposures from nuclear tests in Nevada is presented. The data are presented in categories of external ..gamma.. radiation, activity concentrations in air, and activity concentrations in water. Methods used to estimate exposure and to evaluate data are described. The data are tabulated. The maximum external exposure was 7 to 8 r for 15 persons involved. In terms of relatively large populations, the average exposure for the 1,000,000 people living nearest the site was at the rate of 1/2 r/30 yr. The highest concentration of fallout activity in the air was about 1.3 ..mu..c/m/sup 3/ averaged over the 30 hr that the activity was present in significant quantities. The highest concentration of fallout activity in a potential drinking water supply was about 1.4 x 10/sup -/ ..mu..c/me extrapolated to D + 3 days. Evaluation of these data is given.

  1. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  2. Exposure to Acute Stress Enhances Decision-Making Competence: Evidence for the Role of DHEA

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Lam, Jovian C. W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations b...

  3. 75 FR 14153 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ..., the various aspects of the acute toxicity and the development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels... request. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mark Hopkins Inter- Continental Hotel, Number One Nob... Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number of the EPA/DC Public Reading Room is (202) 566...

  4. Deterministic Effects of Occupational Exposures in the Mayak Nuclear Workers Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azinova, T. V.; Okladnikova, N. D.; Sumina, M. V.; Pesternikova, V. S.; Osovets, V. S.; Druzhimina, M. B.; Seminikhina, N. g.

    2004-01-01

    A wide spread and utilization of nuclear energy in the recent decade leads to a stable increasing of contingents exposed to ionizing radiation sources. in order to predict radiation risks it's important to have and apply all the experience in assessment of health effects due to radiation exposures generated by now in different countries. the proposed report will present results of the long-term follow-up for a cohort of nuclear workers at the Mayak Production Association, with was the first nuclear facility in Russia. The established system of individual dosimetry of external exposure, monitoring of internal radiation and special system of medical follow-up of healthy nuclear workers during the last 50 years allowed collecting of the unique primary data to study radiation effects, their patterns and mechanisms specific of exposure dose. The study cohort includes 61 percent of males and 39 percent of females. The vital status is known for 90 percent of cases, 44 percent of workers are still alive and undergo regular medical examination in our Clinic. Unfortunately, by now 50 percent of workers have died. 6 percent of workers were lost for the follow-up. total doses from chronic external gamma rays in the cohort ranged from 0.6 to 10.8 Gy (annual exposure doses were from 0.001 to 7.4 Gy), Pu body burden was from 0.3 to 72.3 kBq. Most intensive chronic exposure of workers was registered during 1948 to 1958. At this time, 19 radiation accidents occurred at the Mayak PA. Thus, the highest incidence of deterministic effects was observed right at this period. In the cohort of Mayak nuclear workers there were diagnosed 60 cases of acute radiation syndrome (I to IV degrees of severity); 2079 cases of chronic radiation sickness; 120 cases of plutonium pneumoscelarosis; 5 cases of radiation cataracts; and over 400 cases of local radiation injuries. The report will present dependences of the observed effects on absorbed radiation dose and dose rate in terms of acute radiation

  5. Pediatric radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshandar Asli, I.; Tabeie, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide survey to estimate population exposure to radiation from diagnostic nuclear medicine in Iran, this paper presents the pediatric population radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine examinations in Tehran. Patients and methods: the effective dose equivalent, H E , was used to calculate the collective effective dose in pediatric patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures, and the corresponding data were obtained from thirty out of thirty seven active nuclear medicine departments in Tehran. Results: annually about 5.26% of nuclear medicine examinations were performed on patients under 15 years of age in Tehran. The most frequent was renal examinations (38.2%), followed y thyroid (27.4%) and bone (26.7%). The annual collective H E for patients under 15 was 19.03 human-Sv, which contributed 3.96% to the collective H E for all patients. The contribution of renal, bone and thyroid examinations to the pediatric collective H E were 24.6% 48.8% and 13.5% respectively. The mean effective dose equivalent per pediatric patient was 3.75 mSv.Conclusion: Among the three most frequent examinations, the bone with a relative frequency of 27.4% constituted 48.8% of the collective H E , which was the highest absorbed dose per examination. The mean effective dose per examination for patients younger than 15 years was 67.9% of the adults

  6. Comprehensive analysis of the renal transcriptional response to acute uranyl nitrate exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiles Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and radiological toxicities related to uranium acute exposure have been widely studied in nuclear fuel workers and military personnel. It is well known that uranyl nitrate induces acute renal failure (ARF. However, the mechanisms of this metal-induced injury are not well defined at the molecular level. Results Renal function and histology were assessed in mice receiving uranyl nitrate (UN(+ and controls (UN(-. To identify the genomic response to uranium exposure, serial analysis gene expression (SAGE of the kidney was performed in both groups. Over 43,000 mRNA SAGE tags were sequenced. A selection of the differentially expressed transcripts was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. UN(+ animals developed renal failure and displayed the characteristic histological lesions of UN nephropathy. Of the >14,500 unique tags identified in both libraries, 224 had a modified expression level; they are known to participate in inflammation, ion transport, signal transduction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, metabolism, and catabolism. Several genes that were identified had not previously been evaluated within the context of toxic ARF such as translationally controlled tumor protein, insulin like growth factor binding protein 7 and ribosomal protein S29, all apoptosis related genes. Conclusion We report a comprehensive description of the UN induced modifications in gene expression levels, including the identification of genes previously unrelated to ARF. The study of these genes and the metabolisms they control should improve our understanding of toxic ARF and enlighten on the molecular targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

  7. Radiation exposures to technologists from nuclear medicine imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloboda, R.S.; Schmid, M.G.; Willis, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposures incurred by nuclear medicine technologists during diagnostic imaging and gamma camera quality control (QC) were measured on a procedural basis over a three-month period using a portable, low-range, self-reading ion chamber. A total of more than 400 measurements were made for 15 selected procedures. From these, mean procedural exposures and standard deviations were calculated. The results show that daily flood phantom QC, at 0.58 mR, and gated cardiac studies, at 0.45 mR, were the two greatest sources of exposure. Other procedures resulted in exposures varying roughly from 0.10 to 0.20 mR. Difficult patients were responsible for a doubling of technologist exposure for many procedures. Standard deviations were large for all procedures, averaging 65% of the mean values. Comparison of technologist exposure inferred from the procedural measurements with the time coincident collective dose equivalent recorded by the TLD service of the Radiation Protection Bureau indicates that approximately half of the collective technologist exposure arose from patient handling and flood QC

  8. Prediction of gamma exposure rates in large nuclear craters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tami, Thomas M; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    In many civil engineering applications of nuclear explosives there is the need to reenter the crater and lip area as soon as possible after the detonation to carry out conventional construction activities. These construction activities, however, must be delayed until the gamma dose rate, or exposure rate, in and around the crater decays to acceptable levels. To estimate the time of reentry for post-detonation construction activities, the exposure rate in the crater and lip areas must be predicted as a function of time after detonation. An accurate prediction permits a project planner to effectively schedule post-detonation activities.

  9. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed th...

  10. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    ... Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, origina...

  11. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  12. Potential exposure in nuclear safety. INSAG-9. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report defines potential exposure in terms of probability of its occurrence and possible consequences. Individual risk is expressed as the probability of the exposure and the conditional probability of death resulting from the exposure. Societal risk is more than the sum of individual risks. This report explores the relationship between individual risk and societal risk and the relevant criteria. For accidents causing serious damage to a nuclear power plant or having off-site consequences, individual risk is not sufficiently limiting because of the many aspects of societal impact. The approach to dealing with potential exposures in nuclear safety results in risks that are consistent with or more stringent than the ICRP's recommendations in its recent publications. 10 refs

  13. Radiation exposure from nuclear medicine studies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, A.; Reber, H.; Hahn, K.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear medical examinations of children have to be performed with special regard to the problems of radiation protection because of the high radiation sensitivity esp. of infants and young children. The present contribution describes how any unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the correct choice and planning of a nuclear medical study, by using the appropriate radiopharmaceutical as well as by the exact calculation of the amount of activity applied, depending on body surface resp. body weight of the child. A technically optimized method which employs the best technical equipment and personnel, being specially trained for working with children, are important conditions to achieve optimal results of nuclear medical tests. Due to the difficulties of direct dose measurements, large variations in the biokinetic behaviour of radiopharmaceuticals and the restriction to standard phantoms, individual dose calculations or dose estimations in pediatrics cause great problems. This is reflected by often large variations of dosimetrical data given in the literature. (orig.) [de

  14. Role of American Nuclear Insurers in reducing occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1957 the nuclear insurance pools have provided liability and property insurance for the nation's nuclear power generating stations as mandated by the Price-Anderson Act. Although the insurance was originally structured to give financial protection to the insured in the event of a major accident, the potential for third-party claims arising from routine occupational exposure is becoming a more realistic pathway for a loss to the pools. In order to give maximum protection to the pools' assets, the Liability Engineering Department of American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) performs periodic inspections of the power plants. By concentrating on programs and management areas, ANI inspections complement regulatory inspections so that all major areas of common interest are reviewed. This paper presents the nature, results, and findings of those periodic inspections particularly in the general area of plant radiation protection

  15. Occupational radiation exposures at Canadian CANDU nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Taylor, G.F.

    1982-09-01

    In Canada, methods to reduce the radiation exposure to workers at nuclear power reactors have been studied and implemented since the early days of the CANDU reactor program. Close collaboration between the designers, the operators, and the manufacturers has reduced the total exposure at each station, the dose requirement to operate and maintain each successive station compared with earlier stations, and the average annual exposure per worker. Specific methods developed to achieve dose reduction include water chemistry; corrosion resistant materials; low cobalt materials; decontamination; hot filtration, improved equipment reliability, maintainability, and accessibility; improved shielding design and location; planning of work for low exposure; improved operating and maintenance procedures; removal of tritium from D 2 O systems and work environments; improved protective clothing; on-power refuelling; worker awareness and training; and many other small improvements. The 1981 occupational dose productivity factors for Pickering A and Bruce A nuclear generating stations were respectively 0.43 and 0.2 rem/MW(e).a

  16. Assessment of Patient Exposure in Nuclear Medicine (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Lassmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation exposure of a patient in diagnostic nuclear medicine is influenced by different factors, which may be separated into direct and indirect determinants of exposure. The radiation burden is directly related to the radionuclide used (beta, gamma radiation, energy of radiation, physical half-life) and the activity used. In addition, the radiation exposure is strongly influenced by the type of radiolabelled compound (radiopharmaceutical) and its metabolic behaviour. The metabolism of a radio-pharmaceutical, however, depends not only on the general principles of its biodistribution but also on individual parameters of its biokinetics (i.e. patient's age, sex, weight, organ uptake and excretion). Optimisation in radiation protection requires a careful selection of activity, radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical compound for a patient. The radiation exposure of a patient may be influenced considerably by disturbance factors which can be controlled by means of quality assurance measures. Concerning the radiopharmaceutical, radiochemical and chemical impurities have to be ruled out before administration. Activity meters and gamma cameras must be checked by appropriate quality control procedures. The check of the gamma cameras includes background, efficiency, uniformity, linearity and resolution and has to be an integral part of a routine quality control programme in a nuclear medicine department. (author)

  17. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  18. Acute and chronic effects from pulse exposure of D. magna to silver and copper oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Rasmussen, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs...... is an environmentally relevant exposure scenario for NPs, which for AgNPs and CuONPs enables more stable exposures and cause acute immobility of D. magna comparable to continuous 24 h exposures. Pulse exposure is likely relevant and applicable for other toxic and dissolving metal NPs, but this requires further research....

  19. Induction of glutathione synthesis in human hepatocytes by acute and chronic arsenic exposure: Differential roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Huihui; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic exposure increased intracellular levels of glutathione. • Mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in glutathione homeostasis. • ERK contributed to glutathione synthesis during acute arsenic exposure. • Glutathione synthesis was regulated by p38 at least in part independent of NRF2 during chronic arsenic exposure. - Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a vital component of antioxidant defense which protects cells from toxic insults. Previously we found intracellular GSH was involved in cell resistance against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. However, molecular mechanisms of GSH homeostasis during arsenic exposure are largely undefined. Here, we investigated roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in GSH synthesis pathway with two arsenic exposure strategies by using Chang human hepatocytes. In one strategy, acute arsenic exposure (20 μM, 24 h) was applied, as MAPK signaling is generally considered to be transient. In the other one, chronic arsenic exposure (500 nM, 20 weeks) was applied, which mimicked the general human exposure to arsenic. We found that acute arsenic exposure activated extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 kinases (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in parallel with increased transcription and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), resulting in elevated intracellular GSH levels. Specific ERK inhibitor abolished arsenic-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and GSH synthesis. During chronic arsenic exposure which induced a malignant cellular phenotype, continuous p38 activation and NRF2 nuclear translocation were observed with enhanced GSH synthesis. Specific p38 inhibitor attenuated arsenic-enhanced GSH synthesis without changing NRF2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate MAPK pathways play an important role in cellular GSH homeostasis in response to arsenic. However, the

  20. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  1. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Yoshitake

    1995-01-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data

  2. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Yoshitake [ISOGO Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data.

  3. Radiation exposure on residents due to semipalatinsk nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, J.; Hoshi, M.; Nagatomo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated external radiation doses for residents near Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of the first study by thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements between 1995 and 1997. The external doses which we evaluated from brick dose were up to ∼100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk city were ∼60 cGy that was remarkably high comparing with the previously reported value based on the military data. A total of 459 nuclear explosions were conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1949 to 1989 at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) Kazakhstan, including 87 atmospheric, 26 on the ground, and 364 underground explosions. Total energy release of about 18 Mt equivalent of trinitrotoluene is eleven hundreds times of Hiroshima atomic bomb. However previous reports concerning the effects of radiation on residents near the SNTS based on data provided by the Defense Department of the former USSR do not have direct experimental data concerning effective equivalent dose. They just measured some doses for particular settlements after some nuclear explosions. These do not indicate integrated dose for the residents due to the whole explosions. The technique of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) which had been successfully applied to the dosimetry on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, enabled us to evaluate accumulated external gamma ray doses at specific places due to whole nuclear explosions in the Semipalatinsk test site. TLD technique is well-established one for not only instantaneous exposure like in A-bombs (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) but also prolonged exposure like in dating. Moreover this technique was applicable for dosimetry study of radioactive fallout as shown in studies of Chernobyl accident. The way of external dose estimation from TLD doses for brick will be discussed in case of radioactive fallout. We will

  4. Pulmonary CT findings in acute mercury vapour exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Sato, Kimihiko; Heianna, Jyouiti; Hirano, Yoshinori; Omachi, Kohiti; Izumi, Jyunichi; Watarai, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    AIM: We describe the pulmonary computed tomography (CT) findings in acute mercury poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial (n= 8) and follow-up (n= 6) chest CT examinations in eight patients exposed to mercury vapour while cutting pipes in a sulphuric acid plant were reviewed. Of the eight patients, two were asymptomatic and had normal CT results, two were asymptomatic but had abnormalities on CT, and four had both acute symptoms and positive CT results. The patients were all men whose ages ranged from 37 to 54 years (mean, 49 years). RESULTS: Poorly defined nodules were present in five of six patients with positive CT findings, present alone in two patients or as part of a mixed pattern in three. They were random in distribution. Alveolar consolidation (n= 3) and areas of ground-glass opacity (n= 4) were observed and were more prominent in the most severely affected patients with the highest blood and urine level of mercury, predominantly in the upper and/or middle zone. These abnormal findings on CT resolved with (n= 1) or without (n= 5) steroid therapy. Pathological findings (n= 1) demonstrated acute interstitial changes predominantly with oedema. CONCLUSION: We report CT findings in eight patients acutely exposed to mercury vapour. The pulmonary injury was reversible on CT in these cases. Hashimoto, M. (2001)

  5. Exposure dose in recent treatment of nuclear medicine and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive pharmaceuticals widely used for the diagnosis in nuclear medicine utilize radiation as tracer for dynamic behavior measurement and locality diagnosis, and the exposure due to their use has very little chance to attain the maximum permissible dose of ICRP. The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) method tends to be adopted for the measurement of internally absorbed dose due to radio-pharmaceuticals in future. The feature of the MIRD method is that the targeted object is not a critical organ but the region of interest, and the source organ and target organ are fully taken into consideration. Recently, the exposure of patients has been significantly lowered by applying sup(99m)Tc and the like. Though the contribution to national dose is small, it is required to perform immediate conversion from the older nuclear medicine typified with conventional 131 I, 198 Au and 203 Hg to modern one centering around sup(99m)Tc. The problems in calculating the absorbed dose due to nuclear medicine diagnosis are very low accuracy of biological data though the high accuracy of data in physics has been achieved, and the difficulty to obtain data for calculating patients' absorbed dose in routine inspection. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Cea-Expo: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle-Lamberton, M.; Bouville, P.; Bergot, D.; Gagneau, M.; Marot, S.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Giraud, J.M.; Gelas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 'Facility-Exposure Matrix' (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. An assessment of the acute dietary exposure to glyphosate using deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A; Clarke, R

    2018-02-01

    Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however, in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially treated crops grown in the EU and imported third-country food sources. European Union and global deterministic models were used to make estimates of short-term dietary exposure (generally defined as up to 24 h). Estimates were refined using food-processing information, residues monitoring data, national dietary exposure models, and basic probabilistic approaches to estimating dietary exposure. Calculated exposures levels were compared to the ARfD, considered to be the amount of a substance that can be consumed in a single meal, or 24-h period, without appreciable health risk. Acute dietary intakes were Probabilistic exposure estimates showed that the acute intake on no person-days exceeded 10% of the ARfD, even for the pessimistic scenario.

  8. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  9. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Frame, Elizabeth R; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D; Kendrick, Preston S; Beyer, Richard P; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Frederico M; Hiolski, Emma M; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  10. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  11. Personnel exposure estimates associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Rogers, B.W.

    1983-08-01

    The operation design of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) calls for shipment of its wastes to either a low-level waste disposal site or to a Federal repository. This study analyzes the probable radiation dose accrued to the personnel involved in handling waste packages from all identified waste streams of the BNFP from generation to reception at destination and including transportation. The shielding characteristics of the transport packages were derived by assuming packaging in existing or prototyped casks. Possible combinations of waste forms and packages for which the projected dose exceeded DOT or NRC regulations for transport of radioactive materials were rejected. Legal weight truck and legal weight rail transport modes were assumed. Potential ways for reducing overall personnel exposure are considered, concentrating on the particular streams with the largest dose contributions. The personnel exposure estimates were determined using a computer program specifically designed for this purpose. This program is described in Appendix A. 9 references, 3 figures, 19 tables

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaaimi, M.; Alkhorayef, M.; Omar, M.; Abughaith, N.; Alduaij, M.; Salahudin, T.; Alkandri, F.; Sulieman, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with eye lens opacities and cataracts. Radiation workers with heavy workloads and poor protection measures are at risk for vision impairment or cataracts if suitable protection measures are not implemented. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear medicine (NM) department. The annual average effective doses (Hp[10] and Hp[0.07]) were measured using calibrated thermos-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; MCP-N [LiF:Mg,Cu,P]). Five categories of staff (hot lab staff, PET physicians, NM physicians, technologists, and nurses) were included. The average annual eye dose (Hp[3]) for NM staff, based on measurements for a typical yearly workload of >7000 patients, was 4.5 mSv. The annual whole body radiation (Hp[10]) and skin doses (Hp[0.07]) were 4.0 and 120 mSv, respectively. The measured Hp(3), Hp(10), and Hp(0.07) doses for all NM staff categories were below the dose limits described in ICRP 2014 in light of the current practice. The results provide baseline data for staff exposure in NM in Kuwait. Radiation dose optimization measures are recommended to reduce NM staff exposure to its minimal value.

  13. The acute exposure effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles on murine endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-08-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures, such as increases in vascular inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen species, altered vasomotor tone and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500 µg/m(3) of nickel nanoparticles for 5 h, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. These data provide new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs and exacerbate cardiovascular disease states.

  14. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Commuters’ air pollution exposure and acute health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    People spend a substantial proportion of their time in traffic. In Europe, the average daily time in traffic is one to one and a half hour. Because of high in-traffic exposures and because most of the journeys are made during rush hours, the one to one and a half hour in traffic contributes

  16. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...... of printers occupationally exposed to mixtures of solvents were compared with a matched unexposed control group. There was no difference between printers and controls in the performance in the psychological test, but in two of the tests there were tendencies to increased sensitivity to toluene in the group...

  17. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  18. Acute and chronic exposure in mussel (aulacomya ater) and clam (semelle solida) with Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two of the most common Peruvian benthonic molluscs, have been shown to be effective concentrators of Cesium-137 and have also proven useful as indicators of that radionuclide in their natural environment, according with results in this paper. However the clam is a better indicator, when determining environmental acute release of Cesium-137 due to reactor accidents, nuclear tests, accidents in nuclear ships, submarines and radioactive material transport, and the mussel for a continuous monitoring of environmental radio contaminant levels. (author). 11 refs

  19. Radiation exposure of inhabitants around Semipalatinsk nuclear weapon test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1997-01-01

    This paper described and reviewed the data reported by Russia and Kazakhstan and authors' studies on the exposed doses as follows. History of nuclear explosion tests in Semipalatinsk: From 1949 to 1989 in old Russia, 459 explosion tests involving 26 on the ground, 87 in the air and 346 in underground were performed, of which TNT equivalence was 0.6 Mt, 6 Mt and 11 Mt, respectively. A mystery in the reports of radiation doses by Russia and Kazakhstan. Present status of the regions after the end of nuclear weapon tests: Environment radiation doses in μSv/h in following regions were 0.06 in Mostik, 0.1 in Dolon and Semipalatinsk, 0.07 in Izvyestka and Znamenka, 0.08 in Tchagan and 21 in Atomic Lake. Evaluation of external exposure dose of the living regions with thermoluminescence method: External exposure dose was estimated to be about 90 cGy in a certain village and 40 cGy in Semipalatinsk which being 150 km far from the test site. (K.H.)

  20. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  1. Pathogenesis of Acute and Delayed Corneal Lesions after Ocular Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    14. ABSTRACT See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mustard gas keratopathy, ocular toxicity , vapor exposure , sulfur mustard, chemical warfare agent, medical...had poor outcomes . Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae...the appearance of BCN between one and two weeks suggests that necrosis is either due to delayed SM toxicity or a second-order effect indirectly

  2. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  3. Cement dust exposure and acute lung function: A cross shift study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Bente E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out on acute effects of cement dust exposure. This study is conducted to investigate the associations between current "total" dust exposure and acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function among cement factory workers. Methods A combined cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in Dire Dawa cement factory in Ethiopia. 40 exposed production workers from the crusher and packing sections and 20 controls from the guards were included. Personal "total" dust was measured in the workers' breathing zone and peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured for all selected workers before and after the shift. When the day shift ended, the acute respiratory symptoms experienced were scored and recorded on a five-point Likert scale using a modified respiratory symptom score questionnaire. Results The highest geometric mean dust exposure was found in the crusher section (38.6 mg/m3 followed by the packing section (18.5 mg/m3 and the guards (0.4 mg/m3. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms for the high exposed workers was stuffy nose (85% followed by shortness of breath (47% and "sneezing" (45%. PEF decreased significantly across the shift in the high exposed group. Multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between the percentage cross-shift change in PEF and total dust exposure. The number of years of work in high-exposure sections and current smoking were also associated with cross-shift decrease in PEF. Conclusions Total cement dust exposure was related to acute respiratory symptoms and acute ventilatory effects. Implementing measures to control dust and providing adequate personal respiratory protective equipment for the production workers are highly recommended.

  4. Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma biochemistry and liver histopathology of albino rat. Christopher Efe Oritseweyinmi Ikanone, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse, Olusola Lawrence Ajayi, Tolumide Michael Shopein ...

  5. Openness to experience and adapting to change: Cardiovascular stress habituation to change in acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Súilleabháin, Páraic S; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of effect linking openness to experience to health outcomes, and particularly cardiovascular well-being, are unknown. This study examined the role of openness in the context of cardiovascular responsivity to acute psychological stress. Continuous cardiovascular response data were collected for 74 healthy young female adults across an experimental protocol, including differing counterbalanced acute stressors. Openness was measured via self-report questionnaire. Analysis of covariance revealed openness was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = .016), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = .036) responsivity across the protocol. Openness was also associated with heart rate (HR) responding to the initial stress exposure (p = .044). Examination of cardiovascular adaptation revealed that higher openness was associated with significant SBP (p = .001), DBP (p = .009), and HR (p = .002) habituation in response to the second differing acute stress exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest persons higher in openness are characterized by an adaptive cardiovascular stress response profile within the context of changing acute stress exposures. This study is also the first to demonstrate individual differences in cardiovascular adaptation across a protocol consisting of differing stress exposures. More broadly, this research also suggests that future research may benefit from conceptualizing an adaptive fitness of openness within the context of change. In summary, the present study provides evidence that higher openness stimulates short-term stress responsivity, while ensuring cardiovascular habituation to change in stress across time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  7. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  8. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  9. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Time Varying Toxic Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-12

    loading rates between the density values given as Arho(b-1,k) and Arho(b,k). The line labeled ‘ extrap .’above b = 1 in Table 3 records the derived...exposure times and an inverse quadratic law for densities lower than 8.26 mg/m3. The line labeled ‘ extrap .’ at the bottom of the table gives the...6 (labeled “ extrap .” above) are simply duplicated from the adjacent band b = 5. This exponent is also used to define the lowest density value Brho

  10. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  11. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1979-11-01

    An updated compilation is presented of occupational radiation exposures at commercial nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1978. Data received from the 64 light water cooled reactors (LWRs) that had completed at least one year of commercial operation as of December 31, 1978 are included. This represents an increase of seven reactors over the number contained in last year's report. The total number of personnel monitored at LWRs during 1978 increased by approximately 12% to 76,121. The number of workers that received measurable doses, however, increased only 8% to 45,978. The total collective dose for 1978 is estimated to be 31,806 man-rems, a small decrease from last year's value of 32,511, which results in the average dose per worker decreasing slightly to 0.69 rems. The average collective dose per reactor also decreased, by approximately 15%, to a value of 497 man-rems

  12. Acute Exposure to Low-to-Moderate Carbon Dioxide Levels and Submariner Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Chabal, Sarah; Clarke, John M; Fothergill, David M

    2018-06-01

    Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2. The objective of this study was to determine if submariner decision-making performance is impacted by acute exposure to levels of CO2 routinely present in the submarine atmosphere during sea patrols. Using a subject-blinded balanced design, 36 submarine-qualified sailors were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 CO2 exposure conditions (600, 2500, or 15,000 ppm). After a 45-min atmospheric acclimation period, participants completed an 80-min computer-administered SMS test as a measure of decision making. There were no significant differences for any of the nine SMS measures of decision making between the CO2 exposure conditions. In contrast to recent research demonstrating cognitive deficits on the SMS test in students and professional-grade office workers, we were unable to replicate this effect in a submariner population-even with acute CO2 exposures more than an order of magnitude greater than those used in previous studies that demonstrated such effects.Rodeheffer CD, Chabal S, Clarke JM, Fothergill DM. Acute exposure to low-to-moderate carbon dioxide levels and submariner decision making. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):520-525.

  13. Recommendations to reduce hand exposure for standard nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sans-Merce, M.; Ruiz, N.; Barth, I.; Carnicer, A.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fulop, M.; Ginjaume, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Krim, S.; Mariotti, F.; Ortega, X.; Rimpler, A.; Vanhavere, F.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine was the aim of the Work Package 4 (WP4) of the ORAMED project, a Collaborative Project (2008–2011) supported by the European Commission within its 7th Framework Programme. Hand doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments were evaluated through an extensive measurement program involving 32 hospitals in Europe and 139 monitored workers. The study included the most frequently used radionuclides, 99m Tc- and 18 F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and 90 Y-labelled Zevalin ® and DOTATOC for therapy. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in different predefined scenarios to evaluate separately the efficacy of different radiation protection measures by comparing hand dose distributions according to various parameters. The present work gives recommendations based on results obtained with both measurements and simulations. This results in nine practical recommendations regarding the positioning of the dosemeters for an appropriate skin dose monitoring and the best protection means to reduce the personnel exposure.

  14. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  15. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  16. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  17. Neuromotor effects of acute ethanol inhalation exposure in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Véronique; Lamoureux, Daniel; Beuter, Anne; Charbonneau, Michel; Tardif, Robert

    2003-07-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) is added to unleaded gasoline to decrease environmental levels of carbon monoxide from automobiles emissions. Therefore, addition of ETOH in reformulated fuel will most likely increase and the involuntarily human exposure to this chemical will also increase. This preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuromotor effects resulting from acute ETOH exposure by inhalation in humans. Five healthy non-smoking adult males, with no history of alcohol abuse, were exposed by inhalation, in a dynamic, controlled-environment exposure chamber, to various concentrations of ETOH (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 ppm in air) for six hours. Reaction time, body sway, hand tremor and rapid alternating movements were measured before and after each exposure session by using the CATSYS 7.0 system and a diadochokinesimeter. The concentrations of ETOH in blood and in alveolar air were also measured. ETOH was not detected in blood nor in alveolar air when volunteers were exposed to 250 and 500 ppm, but at the end of exposure to 1,000 ppm, blood and alveolar air concentrations were 0.443 mg/100ml and 253.1 ppm, respectively. The neuromotor tests did not show conclusively significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that acute exposure to ethanol at 1,000 ppm or lower or to concentrations that could be encountered upon refueling is not likely to cause any significant neuromotor alterations in healthy males.

  18. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloy, J., E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lozano, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Alpan, L.; Masereel, B. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, J. M. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lucas, S. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  19. Acute Illness Among Surfers After Exposure to Seawater in Dry- and Wet-Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Steele, Joshua A; Griffith, John F; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Paul; McGee, Charles D; Wilson, Richard; Nelsen, Chad; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2017-10-01

    Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  20. The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, P.; Houpert, P.; Bussy, C.; Dhieux, B.; Gourmelon, P.; Paquet, F.

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of depleted uranium (DU) are mainly caused by its chemical toxicity. Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium toxicity, uranium can also reach the brain. In this paper, the central effects of acute exposure to DU were studied in relation to health parameters and the sleep-wake cycle of adult rats. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 144 ± 10 μg DU kg -1 as nitrate. Three days after injection, the amounts of uranium in the kidneys represented 2.6 μg of DU g -1 of tissue, considered as a sub-nephrotoxic dosage. The central effect of uranium could be seen through a decrease in food intake as early as the first day after exposure and shorter paradoxical sleep 3 days after acute DU exposure (-18% of controls). With a lower dosage of DU (70 ± 8 μg DU kg -1 ), no significant effect was observed on the sleep-wake cycle. The present study intends to illustrate the fact that the brain is a target organ, as are the kidneys, after acute exposure to a moderate dosage of DU. The mechanisms by which uranium causes these early neurophysiological perturbations shall be discussed

  1. The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestaevel, P; Houpert, P; Bussy, C; Dhieux, B; Gourmelon, P; Paquet, F

    2005-09-01

    The health effects of depleted uranium (DU) are mainly caused by its chemical toxicity. Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium toxicity, uranium can also reach the brain. In this paper, the central effects of acute exposure to DU were studied in relation to health parameters and the sleep-wake cycle of adult rats. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 144+/-10 microg DU kg-1 as nitrate. Three days after injection, the amounts of uranium in the kidneys represented 2.6 microg of DU g-1 of tissue, considered as a sub-nephrotoxic dosage. The central effect of uranium could be seen through a decrease in food intake as early as the first day after exposure and shorter paradoxical sleep 3 days after acute DU exposure (-18% of controls). With a lower dosage of DU (70+/-8 microg DU kg-1), no significant effect was observed on the sleep-wake cycle. The present study intends to illustrate the fact that the brain is a target organ, as are the kidneys, after acute exposure to a moderate dosage of DU. The mechanisms by which uranium causes these early neurophysiological perturbations shall be discussed.

  2. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  3. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.tewari-singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Orlicky, David J [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  4. Radiation exposure of employees in nuclear fuel facilities in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The enterprises of nuclear fuel refining, fabrication, reprocessing and usage are obligated by law to keep the radiation exposure dose of the employees below the permissible level. The radiation exposure dose in the respective enterprises in the fiscal year 1982 is summarized in a table as follows: radiation exposure dose distribution, the number of employees, total exposure dose, and average dose. The radiation exposure dose was all well below the permissible level. The enterprises covered were one refining (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation), five fabrication (Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., etc.), one reprocessing (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation), and ten usage (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc.). (Mori, K.)

  5. Acute behavioral effects of exposure to some organic solvents -psychophysiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winneke, G

    1982-01-01

    Acute low-level exposure to organic solvent vapours may result in prenarcotic states of CNS-depression, often characterized by behavioral dysfunction. Behavioral findings from experimental acute human exposures to toluene, trichloroethylene (TCE), and methylene chloride (MC) are covered in this review. Perceptual measures (e.g. critical flicker fusion . CFF), measures of sustained attention (vigilance), measures of psychomotor performance (as e.g. reaction time, motor speed, coordination) as well as EEG-measures (sensory evoked potentials) are used to illustrate the main effects from such studies. Progressive increase of reaction time was observed at toluene-exposures of only 300 ppm (30 minutes). No consistent behavioral deficit has been reported for trichloroethylene below 300 ppm; instead, visual and auditory evoked potentials were found to be affected at TCE vapour-concentrations between 50 and 100 ppm (3 1/2 - 7 1/2 hours of exposure). CFF-depression, vigilance-decrement and disruption of psychomotor performance has been observed during MC-exposure (200 - 800 ppm; 2-4 hours). Although such behavioral effects are usually considered reversible and of no demonstrated pathological impact, they may nevertheless contribute to accident-prone behavior in occupational settings.

  6. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halton, D M

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC{sub LO}, LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 50} levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC LO , LC 10 and LC 50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Radiation Exposure by Nuclear Medicine Imaging Procedures: Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Marovic, G.; Prlic, I.; Sencar, J.; Zeljezic, D.; Ramic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using high-resolution gamma spectrometry, we investigated the activity concentrations of thallium radioisotopes in a urine sample collected during a period of 24 h following nuclear medicine cardiac imaging. As part of a thallium stress test the subject of the study received a radiopharmaceutical preparation with 201Tl (activity 111 MBq). In order to assess whether the cardiac imaging procedure resulted in lymphocyte genome damage, we studied the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and lymphocyte cell kinetics in the blood samples collected before and after the cardiac imaging. The highest activity concentration (538960.9 ± 405.9 Bq/L u rine) was estimated for 201Tl, followed by 1770.54 ± 3.57 Bq/L u rine for 202Tl, and 422.035 ± 2.091 Bq/Lurine for 200Tl. The applied radiopharmaceutical contained 99.595 % of 201Tl, 0.078 % of 200Tl and 0.327 % of 202Tl. The estimated effective dose received through a single exposure to the radiopharmaceutical and calculated for a period of two days was mostly affected by 201Tl (0.0453 mSv). Due to its half-life of 12.2 days, the contribution of 202Tl (0.0008 mSv) to the effective dose was also significant. Results of the cytogenetic analysis indicate that a single diagnostic exposure to thallium caused an increase of SCE frequency and decrease of the proliferation rate index (PRI). Both parameters normalized steadily 14 days after the cardiac imaging procedure, which is also in accord with data obtained in previous studies. Our results indicate the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical which should contain only 201Tl. This calls for a stricter process of quality control for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medical diagnostic procedures. In this particular case, we emphasize 'contamination' with 202Tl, whose contribution to the effective dose cannot be ignored if one takes into account that it has the longest half-life of all three thallium radioisotopes detected in the urine sample.(author)

  9. Control of occupational exposure in nuclear facilities for terrestrial support to marine vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, E.G.; Pinheiro, A.R.M.; Borsoi, S.S.; Silva, T.P.; Baroni, D.B.; Santos, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses some basic requirements for exposure control of occupational exposure during the design phase of ground-based nuclear facilities for marine vessels. US regulatory guidelines, CNEN standards and experiences acquired in conventional nuclear installations were used. The installation design should consider the provision of mobile devices for monitoring and decontamination. Finally, it is observed that the establishment of additional exposure control criteria can directly impact the civil, architectural and electromechanical projects of the facility, from the conceptual phase

  10. Exposure to Acute Stress Enhances Decision-Making Competence: Evidence for the Role of DHEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S.; Lam, Jovian C. W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  11. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  13. Task-specific monitoring of nuclear medicine technologists' radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the exposure of nuclear medicine technologists arises primarily from radioactive patients rather than from preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. However, in order to devise strategies to reduce staff exposure, it is necessary to identify the specific tasks within each procedure that result in the highest radiation doses. An ESM Eberline FH41B-10 radiation dosemeter, which records the ambient dose equivalent rate, was used to monitor the radiation exposure of a technologist and to record the dose rate in μSv per hour every 32 s throughout a working day. The technologist recorded the procedures that were being performed so that the procedures that resulted in higher doses could be identified clearly. The measured doses clearly showed that the major contributions to the technologist's dose were the following: (1) transferring incapacitated patients from the imaging table to a hospital trolley; (2) difficult injections without syringe shields; and (3) setting up patients for gated myocardial scans. The average dose to the technologist from transferring patients after a bone scan was 0.54 μSv, 40% of the total dose of 1.3 μSv for the complete bone scan procedure. The average dose received injecting 900 MBq of 99 Tc m -HDP using a tungsten syringe shield was 0.57 μSv, but the highest dose was 1.6 μSv, in a patient in whom the injection was difficult. A 0.5 mm lead apron was found to reduce the dose when setting up a patient for a gated stress 99 Tc m -sestamibi myocardial scan by approximately a factor of 2. The average dose per patient for this task was reduced from 1.1 to 0.6 μSv. It is recommended that staff waiting for assistance with patient transfers stand away from the patient, that tungsten syringe shields be used for all radiopharmaceutical injections and that a 0.5 mm lead apron be worn when attending patients containing high activities of 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals, such as those having myocardial imaging. (authors)

  14. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghab, Masoud; Delikhoon, Mahdieh; Norouzian Baghani, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-10-01

    Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41), 0.13 (0.1), and 1.56 (0.41) mg/m 3 , respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 7 , PM 10 , and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was 3.31 (2.6), 12.21 (5.9), 44.16 (16.6), 57 (21.55) μg/m 3 , and 1.31 (1.11) mg/m 3 , respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (pcooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  15. Nuclear liability interest in population and environmental exposures from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for costly nuclear liability claims is often a hidden dimension to the operation of a nuclear power plant. There are two predominant modes for this to occur: either from on-site exposures to plant workers and alleged bodily injury; or from the release of plant effluents to the environment and alleged property damage and bodily injury. ANI/MAELU recently received 2 multi-million dollar nuclear liability claims alleging environmental damage caused by the routine release of radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities. In both cases, the release of radionuclides appeared to be within appropriate regulations. Two important goals of the regulations are to monitor releases and to ensure that releases are within limits intended to protect the public. While, in fact radionuclide releases are normally within regulatory limits, this does not address the growing perception that radiation at any level is harmful. ANI/MAELU is concerned because this perception impacts the possibility of tort litigation. ANI/MAELU conducted a partial review of the nuclear industry environmental monitoring programs. One general conclusion of this effort is that the industry is adequately monitoring environmental releases, thereby protecting the public. They have also generally concluded that the industry is not well poised to protect itself from some of the consequences of potential liability claims alleging property damage or bodily injury from radiation released to the environment. ANI/MAELU Bulletin 86-1, Environmental Monitoring Programs was issued in February of 1986 addressing this concern. The Bulletin identifies five areas where improvements can be made in environmental monitoring programs to reduce the potential for litigation

  16. [Myocardial ultrastructural changes in rats following different levels of acute +Gz exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Cheng-gang; Ren, Li; Xiao, Xiao-guang; Xu, Shu-xuan; Wang, Ping; Ji, Gui-ying

    2004-06-01

    To observe the effects of different levels of acute +Gz exposure on myocardial ultrastructure of rats and provide experimental basis for further development of anti-G measures. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5): normal control group, +20 Gz group, +10 Gz group and +5 Gz group. Profile of the centrifuge +Gz exposure was trapezoidal, in which +20 Gz lasted for 30 s, +10 Gz for 1.5 min. +5 Gz exposure was repeated for 3 times with 30 min interval and each for 1.5 min. Myocardial tissue of left ventricle was sampled for transmission electron microscopy 5 h after exposure. +20 Gz and +10 Gz exposure caused obvious edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, myofibril disorder and injuries of mitochondria and nucleus. Breaks of myocardial fiber, formation of contraction bands and rupture of mitochondria were also observed in +20 Gz group. In +5 Gz group, there was still slight edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, while organic changes of myocardial ultrastructure were not observed. High +Gz exposure can cause myocardial ultrastructural injury in rats. Slight reversible injured response can also be observed in myocardial cell after repeated moderate level of +Gz exposure. This indicates that attention should be paid to the study of the effect of high +Gz on heart in pilots.

  17. Exposure and acute exposure-effects before and after modification of a contaminated humidification system in a synthetic-fibre plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; de Monchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Objective: Follow-up study of exposure and acute exposure-effects after modification to steam humidification of a contaminated cold water system which had caused an outbreak of humidifier fever in a synthetic-fibre plant. Methods: Before and after modification of the system aerobiological

  18. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Djurasevic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since the correlation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to various stressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production and morphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38 °C for 20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The results obtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentration increased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescent immunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitary well corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage of ACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acute heat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slender cytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity of endothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  19. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minqi; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yingying; Su, Ying-Chu; Chen, Qingwei; Hsiao, Fan-Chi; Ji, Yanran; Yang, Chien-Ming; Zhou, Guofu

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  20. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqi Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K three times; continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE and total sleep time (TST. Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  1. Prior exposure to repeated immobilization or chronic unpredictable stress protects from some negative sequels of an acute immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Rabasa, Cristina; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Sanchís-Ollè, Maria; Gabriel-Salazar, Marina; Ginesta, Marta; Belda, Xavier; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is gaining acceptance as a putative animal model of depression. However, there is evidence that chronic exposure to stress can offer non-specific stress protection from some effects of acute superimposed stressors. We then compared in adult male rats the protection afforded by prior exposure to CUS with the one offered by repeated immobilization on boards (IMO) regarding some of the negative consequences of an acute exposure to IMO. Repeated exposure to IMO protected from the negative consequences of an acute IMO on activity in an open-field, saccharin intake and body weight gain. Active coping during IMO (struggling) was markedly reduced by repeated exposure to the same stressor, but it was not affected by a prior history of CUS, suggesting that our CUS protocol does not appear to impair active coping responses. CUS exposure itself caused a strong reduction of activity in the open-field but appeared to protect from the hypo-activity induced by acute IMO. Moreover, prior CUS offered partial protection from acute IMO-induced reduction of saccharin intake and body weight gain. It can be concluded that a prior history of CUS protects from some of the negative consequences of exposure to a novel severe stressor, suggesting the development of partial cross-adaptation whose precise mechanisms remain to be studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehinto, Alvine C.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S.; Vulpe, Christopher D.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  3. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  4. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  5. Influence of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex onto gamma-exposure with low doses and acute stressful reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Tarasenko, P.D.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Gorovoj, L.F.; Varlamov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Possibilities of prevention and reduction of consequences of acute exposure on the background of immobilization stress with the help of chitosan preparations and of melanin - glucan complex of highest bazidiomicetes (fungi) were studied. Tested preparations were capable to protect hematological and immunological homeostasis of line BALB/c mice from stressful reaction provoked by acute exposure and two-hour immobilization. The most expressed normalizing and adapting effect had the mixture composed of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex

  6. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  7. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinto, Alvine C; Prucha, Melinda S; Colli-Dula, Reyna C; Kroll, Kevin J; Lavelle, Candice M; Barber, David S; Vulpe, Christopher D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level - 2.6μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly increased in the liver including genes encoding for the rate limiting steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the catalytic enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Integration of the transcriptomic data using functional enrichment analyses revealed a number of enriched gene networks associated with previously reported adverse outcomes of cadmium exposure such as liver toxicity and impaired reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism following acute exposures to ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, R.B.; Driscoll, K.E.; Gunnison, A.F.; Zelikoff, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are common air pollutants, and exposure to these gases has been shown to affect pulmonary physiology, biochemistry, and structure. This study examined their ability to modulate arachidonic acid metabolites (eicosanoids) in the lungs. Rabbits were exposed for 2 h to O 3 at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 ppm; NO 2 at 1, 3, or 10 ppm; or to a mixture of 0.3 ppm O 3 and 3 ppm NO 2 . Groups of animals sacrificed either immediately or 24 h after each exposure underwent broncho-pulmonary lavage. Selected eicosanoids were assessed in lavage fluid by radioimmunoassay. Increases in prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) were found immediately after exposure to 1 ppm O 3 . Exposure to 10 ppm NO 2 resulted in a depression of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, while thromboxane B2 (TxB2) was elevated after exposure to 1 ppm NO 2 and depressed following 3 and 10 ppm. The O 3 /NO 2 mixture resulted in synergistic increases in PGE2 and PGF2 alpha, with the response appearing to be driven by O 3 . This study has demonstrated that acute exposure to either O 3 or NO 2 can alter pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism and that the responses to these oxidants differ, both quantitatively and qualitatively

  9. Nuclear medicine and ultrasonography in the acute cholecystitis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmillevitch, J.; Serson, D.; Camera, A.J.; Oliveira Nunes, J.E. de; Bazzo, J.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Newer modalities for the evaluation of gallbladder include cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography. The IDA-Tc 99m presents functional informations with regard to cystic duct patency. The ultrasonography demonstrates the topographic anatomy of gallbladder, and morfologic alterations. Both analysis are preconized in acute cholecystitis. (Author) [pt

  10. Monitoring of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations concerning the monitoring of radiation doses of nuclear power plant workers and the reporting of radiation doses to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are specified in the guide. (10 refs.)

  11. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Neghab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. Objective: To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. Results: The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41, 0.13 (0.1, and 1.56 (0.41 mg/m3, respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs was 3.31 (2.6, 12.21 (5.9, 44.16 (16.6, 57 (21.55 μg/m3, and 1.31 (1.11 mg/m3, respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (p<0.05 more prevalent in exposed group. No significant difference was noted between the pre-shift mean of spirometry parameters of exposed and unexposed group. However, exposed workers showed cross-shift decrease in most spirometry parameters, significantly lower than the pre-shift values and those of the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to cooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  12. Chromosomal Bands Affected by Acute Oil Exposure and DNA Repair Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa, Ana; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Verea, Hector; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Gómez, Federico P.; Antó, Josep M.; Coll, Maria Dolors; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. Objectives We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. Methods Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. Results Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016). Conclusion The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas) reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure. PMID:24303039

  13. Risk communication for existing exposure situation after the nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The title subject is explained for its better understanding and recognition. The present state (Oct. 2011) where crisis of Fukushima Nuclear Accident has reached a settlement with release of 0.1 GBq/hr from the reactor container, is called the existing exposure situation. Radiation risk must be reduced under such a situation as people have to live in. Risk is defined to be a probability of matters undesirable, its size is assessed by various conditions and assumptions, it is manageable on its assessment, but its realization largely depends on subjectivity. Measures for lessening the risk usually accompany a load and disadvantage, leading to an antinomy structure (trade-off), of which problem is ultimately an ethical task of public health and cannot be solved in the form everybody agrees with. Therefore, a mutual consent among concerned people is required for deciding the principle of the risk management, for which the risk communication is essential. Risk communication about radiation is an unavoidable task of medical staffs as guided by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (2001), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2008) reports, World Health Organization (WHO), etc. However, the communication about radiation has now become also a task of the ordinary public under the present situation. For this, medical staffs are expected to play their role by acquiring the statistical literacy as well as with the radiological concept because the risk assessment accompanies the uncertainty. The author concludes that the risk communication is a problem of resolution to act, not of coping with. (T.T.)

  14. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  15. Effect of Acute, Subacute, and Repeated Exposure to High Altitude (5050 m on Psychomotor Vigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiram Pun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High altitude (HA hypoxia may affect cognitive performance and sleep quality. Further, vigilance is reduced following sleep deprivation. We investigated the effect on vigilance, actigraphic sleep indices, and their relationships with acute mountain sickness (AMS during very HA exposure, acclimatization, and re-exposure.Methods: A total of 21 healthy altitude-naive individuals (25 ± 4 years; 13 females completed 2 cycles of altitude exposure separated by 7 days at low altitude (LA, 520 m. Participants slept at 2900 m and spent the day at HA, (5050 m. We report acute altitude exposure on Day 1 (LA vs. HA1 and after 6 days of acclimatization (HA1 vs. HA6. Vigilance was quantified by reaction speed in the 10-min psychomotor vigilance test reaction speed (PVT-RS. AMS was evaluated using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire Cerebral Score (AMS-C score. Nocturnal rest/activity was recorded to estimate sleep duration using actigraphy.Results: In Cycle 1, PVT-RS was slower at HA1 compared to LA (4.1 ± 0.8 vs. 4.5 ± 0.6 s-1, respectively, p = 0.029, but not at HA6 (4.6 ± 0.7; p > 0.05. In Cycle 2, PVT-RS at HA1 (4.6 ± 0.7 and HA6 (4.8 ± 0.6 were not different from LA (4.8 ± 0.6, p > 0.05 and significantly greater than corresponding values in Cycle 1. In both cycles, AMS scores were higher at HA1 than at LA and HA6 (p < 0.05. Estimated sleep durations (TST at LA, 1st and 5th nights were 431.3 ± 28.7, 418.1 ± 48.6, and 379.7 ± 51.4 min, respectively, in Cycle 1 and they were significantly reduced during acclimatization exposures (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.012; and 1st vs. 5th night, p = 0.054. LA, 1st and 5th nights TST in Cycle 2 were 477.5 ± 96.9, 430.9 ± 34, and 341.4 ± 32.2, respectively, and we observed similar deteriorations in TST as in Cycle 1 (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.001; and 1st vs. 5th night, p < 0.0001. At HA1, subjects who reported higher AMS-C scores exhibited slower

  16. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  17. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke S. Reichwaldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

  18. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Practical methods for exposure control/management at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twiggs, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure management/reduction is very important to Duke Power Company. Practical exposure control/reduction techniques applied to their reactor vessel head disassembly outage activity have consistently reduced personnel exposure for this task. The following exposure control methods have worked for use and will be the industry's direction for the 1990's. A summary of these methods includes: (a) move the responsibility of exposure management from the Radiation Protection group to the Maintenance group; (b) reduce area source term by removal of source; (c) improve working environments in radiation areas by minimizing protective clothing usage; and (d) maximize the use of electronic instruments to allow remote monitoring

  20. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Differential Microclimate Exposure: Comparison of Acute vs. Repeated Drug Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lucas M; Unger, Kirk A; Watterson, James H

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of dextromethorphan (DXM) and its metabolite dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletal remains of rats following acute (ACU, 75 mg/kg, IP, n = 10) or three repeated (REP, 25 mg/kg, IP, n = 10, 40-min interval) doses of DXM is described. Following dosing and euthanasia, rats decomposed outdoors to skeleton in two different microclimate environments (n = 5 ACU and n = 5 REP at each site): Site A (shaded forest microenvironment) and Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Two drug-free rats at each site served as negative controls. Skeletal elements (vertebrae, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, skulls and scapulae) were recovered, pulverized and underwent methanolic microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Extracts were analyzed by GC-MS following clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels (RRDXT/RRDXM) were compared between drug exposures, microclimate sites, and across skeletal elements. DXM levels differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (5/7-site A; 4/7-site B), but no significant differences in DXT levels were observed between corresponding elements. RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (6/7-site A; 5/7-site B). No significant differences were observed in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM between corresponding elements from either group between sites. When data from all bone elements was pooled, levels of DXM and RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly between exposure groups at each site, while those of DXT did not. For both exposure groups, comparison of pooled data between sites showed no significant differences in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM. Different decomposition microclimates did not impede the discrimination of DXM exposure patterns from the analyses of DXM, DXT and RRDXT/RRDXM in bone samples. © The Author 2017

  1. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  2. Behavioural responses of Acroneuria lycoria (Ins. Plecopt. ) Larvae to acute and chronic acid exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNichol, R.E.; Scherer, E.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the responses of a perlid stonefly, Acroneuria lycorias (Newman), to acute and chronic acid exposure. Larvae of this species are common in streams and rivers impacted by acidic precipitation. It is also a suggested standard toxicity test species, which in previous studies has proven to be very sensitive to some toxicants. The effects of acute and chronic acid exposure on the locomotor activity, microdistribution, and drift behaviour of the stonefly larvae were studied in laboratory streams. When subjected to a reduction in pH from 8.1 to 2.5 over an 8-h period, larvae showed little behavioural response down to pH 4.2. As the pH fell to 3.0, head-rubbing activity appeared and increased in frequency. At pH 3.0 and below, larvae showed increased gill-ventilatory movements and locomotor activity. Most larvae died within 14 h of exposure to pH 2.5; however, they did not abandon their preferred refuges before death. Larvae exposed to 5 pH levels between 4.5 and 8.2 for 30-50 d displayed no significant changes in locomotor activity, drift behaviour or microdistribution when compared to control animals. Results indicate that later instar larvae of this species are relatively acid tolerant. 29 refs 4 figs 1 tab

  3. Acute Cocaine Exposure elicits rises in calcium in Arousal Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Mads; Ipsen, Theis; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine has strong reinforcing properties, which underlie its high addiction potential. Reinforcement of use of addictive drugs is associated with rises in dopamine (DA) in mesoaccumbal circuitry. Excitatory afferent input to mesoaccumbal circuitry sources from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...... (LDT). Chronic, systemic cocaine exposure has been shown to have cellular effects on LDT cells, but acute actions of local application have never been demonstrated. Using calcium imaging, we show that acute application of cocaine to mouse brain slices induces calcium spiking in cells of the LDT....... Spiking was attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and low calcium solutions, and abolished by prior exhaustion of intracellular calcium stores. Further, DA receptor antagonists reduced these transients, whereas DA induced rises with similar spiking kinetics. Amphetamine, which also results in elevated levels...

  4. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  5. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  6. Acute exposure to crystalline silica reduces macrophage activation in response to bacterial lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Lee Beamer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the relationship between alveolar macrophages (AM and crystalline silica (SiO2 using in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity models; however, exactly how exposure to SiO2 alters the functionality of AM and the potential consequences for immunity to respiratory pathogens remains largely unknown. Because recognition and clearance of inhaled particulates and microbes is largely mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR on the surface of AM, we hypothesized that exposure to SiO2 limits the ability of AM to respond to bacterial challenge by altering PRR expression. Alveolar and bone marrow-derived macrophages downregulate TLR2 expression following acute SiO2 exposure (e.g. 4 hours. Interestingly, these responses were dependent upon interactions between SiO2 and the class A scavenger receptor CD204, but not MARCO. Furthermore, SiO2 exposure decreased uptake of fluorescently labeled Pam2CSK4 and Pam3CSK4, resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β, but not IL-6. Collectively, our data suggest that SiO2 exposure alters AM phenotype, which in turn affects their ability to uptake and respond to bacterial lipoproteins.

  7. Radiation exposure of personnel in nuclear fuel facilities in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The owners of refining enterprises, fabrication enterprises and reprocessing enterprises and users are obligated by the law to keep the radiation exposure dose of personnel below the permissible level. In fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982), the personnel exposure was far below this level. Exposure dose distribution, total exposure dose and average in the fiscal year are given for the personnel of the following enterprises and other personnel, respectively: refining enterprise - Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation; fabrication enterprises - Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., and four others; reprocessing enterprise - Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation; users - Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and four others. (Mori, K.)

  8. Evaluation of three physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tools for emergency risk assessment after acute dichloromethane exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, R. Z.; Olie, J. D N; van Eijkeren, J. C H; Bos, P. M J; Hof, B. G H; de Vries, I.; Bessems, J. G M; Meulenbelt, J.; Hunault, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models may be useful in emergency risk assessment, after acute exposure to chemicals, such as dichloromethane (DCM). We evaluated the applicability of three PBPK models for human risk assessment following a single exposure to DCM: one model

  9. Population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, including incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  11. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  12. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  13. Exposures resulting from nuclear power production. Annex F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex assesses the releases of radioactive materials from the nuclear fuel cycle and their resulting dose commitments to the public. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to nuclear fuel materials, fabrication of fuel elements, production of power in the nuclear reactor, reprocessing of irradiated fuel and recycling of fissile and fertile nuclides recovered, and disposal of radioactive wastes. This Annex also reviews reactor accidents which have led to unplanned releases of activity into the environment, together with estimates of the resulting collective doses.

  14. Acute cataract in the rat after exposure to radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data indicate a correlation between exposure to UV radiation and cataract morbidity. UV radiation induced cataract is thought to be evoked by photochemical mechanisms. The present investigation resolves the macroscopical events in the rat lens after a one dose exposure to spectrally and radiometrically well defined UV radiation, as revealed in light- and dark-field illumination. The macroscopic sequence of events is related to the morphology as revealed by light- and electron microscopy. The radiation was found to alter the chromation pattern and to induce morphological changes indicating a disturbance of the cellular water balance. The latter is assumed to cause the acute UV radiation induced opacification of the lens. It is suggested that future investigations of the toxic effects of UV radiation in the lens should focus on how UV radiation effects the chromatin and the cellular water balance. (author)

  15. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  16. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Baer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014 with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648.

  17. Current status of personnel exposure at nuclear power plants and other medical, industrial and educational facilities in JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumiaki

    1991-01-01

    The state of radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works in Japanese nuclear power stations, the factors of the radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works, the countermeasures for reducing exposure in nuclear power stations, the state of radiation exposure of doctors, the workers engaging in radiation works, researchers and others in medical, industrial, research and educational and other facilities in Japan, the factors of their radiation exposure and the countermeasures for reducing the exposure, and the comparison of the exposure in nuclear power stations with that in medical, industrial, research and educational facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  19. Ways of reducing radiation exposure in a future nuclear power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.

    1976-01-01

    The reasons for attempting to reduce radiation exposure in a future nuclear power economy are first discussed. This is followed by a detailed examination of ways for reducing exposures. The entire fuel cycle from uranium mining through fuel reprocessing is covered but special attention is devoted to reactors, fuel and waste shipping and fuel reprocessing

  20. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  1. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoikhet, Y N; Kiselev, V I; Zaitsev, E V; Kolyado, I B; Konovalov, B Y; Bauer, S; Grosche, B; Burkart, W

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues.

  2. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu.; Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W.

    1999-01-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  3. Third EC/ISOE workshop on occupational exposure management at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, Mike; Morris, Simon

    2002-01-01

    The third workshop was jointly sponsored by the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It was organised by the European Commission Directorate-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection and the ISOE European Regional Technical Centre. The workshop provided a forum for Health Physics practitioners and operators to exchange information and experience on occupational exposure issues at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). There were approximately 130 participants of whom 63% were from utilities, 11% from contractors and 26% from regulatory bodies

  4. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Jasnic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since thecorrelation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to variousstressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production andmorphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38°C for20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The resultsobtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentrationincreased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescentimmunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitarywell corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage ofACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acuteheat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slendercytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity ofendothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  5. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pexposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  7. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO 2 on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO 2 levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO 2 exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO 2 -induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO 2 did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with 32 P-labeled staphylococci

  8. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Fourteenth annual report of the ISOE programme, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 478 operating and shutdown commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90% of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Fourteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2004 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  9. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Eleventh annual report of the Isoe programme, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 452 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Eleventh Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2001 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  10. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  11. Caffeine improves performance in double poling during acute exposure to 2,000-m altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadheim, H K; Nossum, E M; Olsen, R; Spencer, M; Jensen, J

    2015-12-15

    There is limited research on the physiological effects of caffeine (CAF) ingestion on exercise performance during acute hypoxia. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the effect of placebo (PLA) and CAF (4.5 mg/kg) on double poling (DP) performance during acute hypoxia. Thirteen male subelite cross-country skiers (V̇o2max 72.6 ± 5.68 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were included. Performance was assessed as 1) an 8-km cross-country DP time-trial (C-PT), and 2) time until task failure at a set workload equal to ∼90% of DP V̇o2max. Testing was carried out in a hypobaric chamber, at 800 mbar (Pio2: ∼125 mmHg) corresponding to ∼2,000 m above sea level in a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. CAF improved time to task failure from 6.10 ± 1.40 to 7.22 ± 1.30 min (P performance during acute exposure to altitude. Mechanisms underpinning improvements seem related to reduced pain RPE and increased heart rate during CAF C-PTs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Validity evaluation of internal exposure in nuclear facility decommission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoli; Chen Dahua; You Zeyun

    2012-01-01

    During nuclear facility decommission under construction, it is very important for workers to wear respirator to avoid harm of Am aerosols. So the protection effect of respirator is very important. The protection effect of respirator was calculated and evaluated according to the data achieved from engineering practice. The result shows that the protection effect is better than target management value and the respirator is effective to protect workers from harm of Am aerosols. The respirator is applied to other nuclear facility decommission. (authors)

  13. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  14. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  15. Analysis of changed bio-signal to radiation exposure of nuclear medicine worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwun Jae; Lee, Sang Bock

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we are evaluated about bio-signal between general workers and nuclear medicine workers which is more radiation exposure relatively. In order to reciprocal evaluated two group, we experimented nuclear medicine workers in Chung-Buk National University Hospital at department of nuclear medicine and worker in Chon-Nam National University Hospital at CT room, general radiographic room, medical recording room, receipt room, general office room. Used of experimental equipments as follows, for a level of radiation measurement by pocket dosimeter which made by Arrow-Tech company, for heart rate and blood pressure measurement by TONOPORT V which made by GE medical systems company, for heat flux and skin temperature and energy expenditure measurement by Armband senseware 2000 which made by Bodymedia company. Result of experiment obtains as follows : 1) Individual radiation exposure is recorded 3.05 uSv at department of nuclear medicine and order as follows CT room, general radiograpic room, medical recording room, receipt room, general office room. Department of nuclear medicine more 1.5 times than other places. 2) Radiation accumulated dose is not related to Heat flux, Skin temperature, Energy expenditure. 3) Blood pressure is recorded equal to nuclear medical workers, general officer, general people about systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Compared to blood pressure between nuclear medical works which is more radiation exposure and other workers was not changed. Consequently, more radiation exposed workers at nuclear medicine field doesn't have hazard

  16. Acute and recent air pollution exposure and cardiovascular events at labour and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Mendola, Pauline; Grantz, Katherine Laughon; Leishear, Kira; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sherman, Seth; Ying, Qi; Liu, Danping

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between acute air pollution exposure and cardiovascular events during labour/delivery. Methods The Consortium on Safe Labor (2002–2008), an observational US cohort with 223 502 singleton deliveries provided electronic medical records. Air pollution exposure was estimated by modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Cardiovascular events (cardiac failure/arrest, stroke, myocardial infarcts and other events) were recorded in the hospital discharge records for 687 pregnancies (0.3%). Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations estimated the relationship between cardiovascular events and daily air pollutant levels for delivery day and the 7 days preceding delivery. Results Increased odds of cardiovascular events were observed for each IQR increase in exposure to nitric oxides at 5 and 6 days prior to delivery (OR=1.17, 99% CI 1.04 to 1.30 and OR=1.15, 1.03 to 1.28, respectively). High exposure to toxic air pollution species such as ethylbenzene (OR=1.50, 1.08 to 2.09), m-xylene (OR=1.54, 1.11 to 2.13), o-xylene (OR=1.51, 1.09 to 2.09), p-xylene (OR=1.43, 1.03 to 1.99) and toluene (OR=1.42, 1.02 to 1.97) at 5 days prior to delivery were also associated with cardiovascular events. Decreased odds of events were observed with exposure to ozone. Conclusions Air pollution in the days prior to delivery, especially nitrogen oxides and some toxic air pollution species, was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during the labour/delivery admission. PMID:26105036

  17. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 mu g kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children...

  18. Assessment of locomotion behavior in adult Zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess locomotor behavior of adult zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds. Materials and Methods: Adult zebrafish of 4-5-months-old were exposed to different concentrations of known reference compounds for 15 min. The test was conducted separately for each drug concentration as well as control. Locomotor activity parameters viz. distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time were recorded for each animal during the exposure period. Results: Out of 11 compounds tested, nine compounds showed decrease in locomotor behavior with significant changes in distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time. Caffeine exhibited biphasic response in locomotion behavior, while scopolamine failed to induce any significant changes. Conclusion: In view of the above findings, these results suggested that exposure of adult zebrafish with different known compounds produce the expected changes in the locomotion behavior; therefore, adult zebrafish can be used an alternative approach for the assessment of new chemical entities for their effect on locomotor behavior.

  19. Content of carbon monoxide in the tissues of rats intoxicated with carbon monoxide in various conditions of acute exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Majka, J.; Palus, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tissue carbon monoxide (CO) content was investigated in rats severely intoxicated with CO under various exposure conditions: 1% CO for 4 min, 0.4% CO for 40 min and 0.12% CO for 12 h. Extravascular CO was determined in the heart and skeletal muscles immediately after termination of exposure, and carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) percent saturation was calculated. Total brain CO was estimated immediately after termination of exposure and after the time periods of restitution. After the same exposure conditions, MbCO percent saturation was higher in the heart than in skeletal muscle. In both types of muscle, saturation on myoglobin (Mb) with CO depended on blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level and not on the duration of exposure. The time course of CO elimination was the same for blood and brain, irrespective of CO exposure conditions. The results obtained showed that acute CO intoxication induced by long duration exposures did not involve CO accumulation in the tissues.

  20. The role of nuclear medicine in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.

    1993-01-01

    In most patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, endoscopy will locate the site and cause of bleeding, and also provide an opportunity for local therapy. The cause of lower GI bleeding is often difficult to attribute, even when pathology is found by colonoscopy or barium enema. Nuclear medicine techniques can be used to identify the site of bleeding in those patients in whom the initial diagnostic procedures are negative or inconclusive. Methods using transient labelling of blood (e.g. 99 Tc m -sulphur colloid) produce a high target-to-background ratio in positive cases, give quick results and localize bleeding sites accurately, but depend upon bleeding being active at the time of injection. Techniques using stable blood labelling (e.g. 99 Tc m -labelled red blood cells) may be positive even with intermittent bleeding but may take several hours to produce a result and are less precise in localization. The most useful application is in patients with recurrent or prolonged bleeding, those with inconclusive endoscopy or barium studies, and those who are high-risk surgical candidates. (author)

  1. The role of nuclear medicine in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P. (Saint James' s Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-10-01

    In most patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, endoscopy will locate the site and cause of bleeding, and also provide an opportunity for local therapy. The cause of lower GI bleeding is often difficult to attribute, even when pathology is found by colonoscopy or barium enema. Nuclear medicine techniques can be used to identify the site of bleeding in those patients in whom the initial diagnostic procedures are negative or inconclusive. Methods using transient labelling of blood (e.g. [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-sulphur colloid) produce a high target-to-background ratio in positive cases, give quick results and localize bleeding sites accurately, but depend upon bleeding being active at the time of injection. Techniques using stable blood labelling (e.g. [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-labelled red blood cells) may be positive even with intermittent bleeding but may take several hours to produce a result and are less precise in localization. The most useful application is in patients with recurrent or prolonged bleeding, those with inconclusive endoscopy or barium studies, and those who are high-risk surgical candidates. (author).

  2. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ambruosi

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM, CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05. This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001 and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001. At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM, DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001 and ROS increase (P<0.0001 in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity, intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05, possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into

  3. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Liu

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3 expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001. Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (p<0.05 and a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER by 180.0% (p<0.001. While the expression of tight junctional protein did not change in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05. Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  4. Telomere dynamics in human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to acute oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M.; Koelvraa, S.; Serakinci, N.

    2012-01-01

    mesenchymal stem cells, either primary or hTERT immortalized, were exposed to sub-lethal doses of hydrogen peroxide, and the short term effect on telomere dynamics was monitored by Universal STELA and TRF measurements. Both telomere measures were then correlated with the percentage of senescent cells......A gradual shortening of telomeres due to replication can be measured using the standard telomere restriction fragments (TRF) assay and other methods by measuring the mean length of all the telomeres in a cell. In contrast, stress-induced telomere shortening, which is believed to be just...... estimated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. The exposure to acute oxidative stress resulted in an increased number of ultra-short telomeres, which correlated strongly with the percentage of senescent cells, whereas a correlation between mean telomere length and the percentage...

  5. BIS impulsivity and acute nicotine exposure are associated with discounting global consequences in the Harvard game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Stillwell, David J; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) provides a transdiagnostic marker for a number of psychiatric conditions and drug abuse, but the precise psychological trait(s) tapped by this questionnaire remain obscure. To address this, 51 smokers completed in counterbalanced order the BIS, a delay discounting task and a Harvard game that measured choice between a response that yielded a high immediate monetary payoff but decreased opportunity to earn money overall (local choice) versus a response that yielded a lower immediate payoff but afforded a greater opportunity to earn overall (global choice). Individual level of BIS impulsivity and self-elected smoking prior to the study were independently associated with increased preference for the local over the global choice in the Harvard game, but not delay discounting. BIS impulsivity and acute nicotine exposure reflect a bias in the governance of choice by immediate reward contingencies over global consequences, consistent with contemporary dual-process instrumental learning theories. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  7. Two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masanori; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Ryuichi; Endo, Yoko

    2008-04-01

    We experienced two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead. The patients were engaged in stripping off antirust compounds including Pb from a bridge and re-painting it at the same work place. Both patients exhibited colic, arthralgia, and anemia. Blood lead levels were 73.1 microg/dl and 96.3 microg/dl. Intravenous CaEDTA chelation therapy was therefore performed. After chelation, blood lead levels decreased and symptoms gradually disappeared. Although the patients were working with protective equipment, the workplace was in the mountains and there was no water for washing. The patients were thus unable to washing their hands and faces. We assume that they swallowed lead dust left on their hands and faces when they removed their clothing, and believe that this poisoning occurred due to lack of knowledge sufficient for protection.

  8. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Twelfth annual report of the Isoe programme, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE Programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 465 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the Programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Twelfth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2002 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  9. Methods for reducing occupational exposures during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older facilities which have been or soon will be retired from service. This report is a review of the current state of knowledge concerning methods for reducing occupational exposures during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This report focuses on water cooled nuclear power plants but, in addition, other major nuclear facilities are briefly discussed to determine how they differ from nuclear power plants in this regard. The information presented should be useful to those responsible for or interested in designing or constructing nuclear facilities or in the planning or implementing of the decommissioning of such installations. 59 refs, 1 tab

  10. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Feriche

    Full Text Available When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17 in conditions of normoxia (N1 and hypobaric hypoxia (HH and G2 (n = 11 in conditions of normoxia (N2 and normobaric hypoxia (NH. Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax was recorded as the highest P(mean obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max (∼ 3% and maximal strength (1 RM (∼ 6% in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05. We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean and P(peak in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01 and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001. No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press.

  11. Effects of Acutely Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Running Economy and Physical Performance in Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Dobson, Bryan P; Ikeda, Erika

    2016-07-01

    Kilding, AE, Dobson, BP, and Ikeda, E. Effects of acutely intermittent hypoxic exposure on running economy and physical performance in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2033-2042, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short duration intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) on physical performance in basketball players. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled group design, 14 trained basketball players were subjected to 15 days of passive short duration IHE (n = 7), or normoxic control (CON, n = 7), using a biofeedback nitrogen dilution device. A range of physiological, performance, and hematological variables were measured at baseline, and 10 days after IHE. After intervention, the IHE group, relative to the CON group, exhibited improvements in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (+4.8 ± 1.6%; effect size [ES]: 1.0 ± 0.4) and repeated high-intensity exercise test performance (-3.5 ± 1.6%; ES: -0.4 ± 0.2). Changes in hematological parameters were minimal, although soluble transferrin receptor increased after IHE (+9.2 ± 10.1%; ES: 0.3 ± 0.3). Running economy at 11 km·h (-9.0 ± 9.7%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.7) and 13 km·h was improved (-8.2 ± 6.9%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.5), but changes to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, HRpeak, and lactate were unclear. In summary, acutely IHE resulted in worthwhile changes in physical performance tests among competitive basketball players. However, physiological measures explaining the performance enhancement were in most part unclear.

  12. Acute Noise Exposure Is Associated With Intrinsic Apoptosis in Murine Central Auditory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gröschel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Noise that is capable of inducing the hearing loss (NIHL has a strong impact on the inner ear structures and causes early and most obvious pathophysiological changes in the auditory periphery. Several studies indicated that intrinsic apoptotic cell death mechanisms are the key factors inducing cellular degeneration immediately after noise exposure and are maintained for days or even weeks. In addition, studies demonstrated several changes in the central auditory system following noise exposure, consistent with early apoptosis-related pathologies. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, the present study focused on the noise-induced gene and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF1 and the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 related protein a1a (BCL2A1A in the cochlear nucleus (CN, inferior colliculus (IC and auditory cortex (AC of the murine central auditory pathway. The expression of Bcl2a1a mRNA was upregulated immediately after trauma in all tissues investigated, whereas the protein levels were significantly reduced at least in the auditory brainstem. Conversely, acute noise has decreased the expression of Apaf1 gene along the auditory pathway. The changes in APAF1 protein level were not statistically significant. It is tempting to speculate that the acoustic overstimulation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis by regulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The inverse expression pattern on the mRNA level of both genes might reflect a protective response to decrease cellular damage. Our results indicate the immediate presence of intrinsic apoptosis following noise trauma. This, in turn, may significantly contribute to the development of central structural deficits. Auditory pathway-specific inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute (noise-induced hearing loss to prevent irreversible neuronal injury in auditory brain structures

  13. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioresi, M.; Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I.; Vassallo, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na + ,K + -ATPase and myosin Ca 2+ -ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na + ,K + -ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension

  14. Elemental carbon exposure at residence and survival after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Klot, Stephanie; Gryparis, Alexandros; Tonne, Cathryn; Yanosky, Jeffrey; Coull, Brent A; Goldberg, Robert J; Lessard, Darleen; Melly, Steven J; Suh, Helen H; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-07-01

    Particulate air pollution has been consistently related to cardiovascular mortality. Some evidence suggests that particulate matter may accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Effects of within-city variations of particulate air pollution on survival after an acute cardiovascular event have been little explored. We conducted a cohort study of hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction (MI) from the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area to investigate the long-term effects of within-city variation in traffic-related air pollution on mortality. The study builds on an ongoing community-wide investigation examining changes over time in MI incidence and case-fatality rates. We included confirmed cases of MI in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003. Long-term survival status was ascertained through 2005. A validated spatiotemporal land use regression model for traffic-related air pollution was developed and annual averages of elemental carbon at residence estimated. The effect of estimated elemental carbon on the long-term mortality of patients discharged after MI was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model, controlling for a variety of demographic, medical history, and clinical variables. Of the 3895 patients with validated MI, 44% died during follow-up. Exposure to estimated elemental carbon in the year of entry into the study was 0.44 microg/m on average. All-cause mortality increased by 15% (95% confidence interval = 0.03%-29%) per interquartile range increase in estimated yearly elemental carbon (0.24 microg/m) after the second year of survival. No association between traffic-related pollution and all-cause mortality was observed during the first 2 years of follow-up. Chronic traffic-related particulate air pollution is associated with increased mortality in hospital survivors of acute MI after the second year of survival.

  15. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Hand exposure to ionising radiation of nuclear medicine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrzesien, M.; Olszewski, J.; Jankowski, J.

    2008-01-01

    The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of an equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Standard nuclear medicine department uses ring dosemeters placed usually at the base of the middle finger. The main aim of the study was to find out whether a relationship exists between the doses recorded by thermoluminescent detectors placed at various locations on the radio-pharmacists' hands and the doses recorded by the ring detectors, and to determine the character of that relationship. The correction factor represents a correction value to be used to calculate the doses which might be received by locations on the hand from the dose recorded by the ring dosemeter. The dose recorded by the ring dosemeter is on the average five times lower than that received by the fingertips of thumb, index and middle fingers. (authors)

  17. Agmatine inhibits nuclear factor-jB nuclear translocation in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study compared the effectiveness of Agm therapy and decompression laminectomy (DL) in functional recovery, oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic responses, and modulation of NF-jB activation in acute SCCI rat model. Rats were either sham-operated or subjected to SCCI at T8–9, using 2-Fr. catheter.

  18. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-01-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  19. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  20. Dose factors to calculate the radiation exposure due to radioactive waste air from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the environmental impact of nuclear plants according to paragraph 45 of the Radiation Protection Directive of the Federal Republic of Germany requires the calculation of dose conversion factors indicating the correlation between the contaminated medium and individual radiation exposure. The present study is to be conceived as a contribution to discussion on this subject. For the determination of radiation exposure caused by the waste air of nuclear plants, models are being specified for computing the dose conversion factors for the external exposure pathways of β-submersion, γ-submersion and γ-radiation from contaminated ground as well as the internal exposure pathways of inhalation and ingestion, which further elaborate and improve the models previously applied, especially as far as the ingestion pathway is concerned, which distinguishes between 6 major food categories. The computer models are applied to those radionuclides which are significan for nuclear emitters, in particular nuclear light-water power stations. The results obtained for the individual exposure pathways and affected organs are specified in the form of tables. For this purpose, calculations were first of all carried out for the so-called 'reference man'. The results can be transferred to population groups with different consumption habits (e.g. vegetarians) by the application of correction factors. The models are capable of being extended with a view to covering other age groups. (orig.) [de

  1. Internal exposure monitoring of personnel of a nuclear power plant with pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Poulheim, K.F.; Rueger, G.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the GDR a programme for monitoring the internal radiation exposure of personnel has been established in the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant, Greifswald, which allows one to estimate the effective dose equivalent in the way recommended by the ICRP. The measuring equipment used, and the methods of calibration and of evaluation of results are described. At present about 400 persons are monthly monitored with a thorax monitor in the nuclear power plant. If an investigation level - corresponding to an effective dose equivalent of 0.3mSv/month - is exceeded, a more exact measurement is made in the whole-body counter at the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. In addition, a selected group of 50 persons is measured twice yearly in the whole-body counter. The measurements show the high effectiveness of the protective measures against radionuclide intake by workers in the nuclear power plant, resulting in a contribution of less than 1% to the collective dose of the personnel. A correlation has been found between external and internal exposure indicating that, in general, there will be a higher intake only under conditions resulting also in higher external exposures. The highest individual values of internal exposure found are below 0.5mSv/month and thus within the range of the lower detection limit of dosimeter films used for monitoring the external exposure. (author)

  2. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  3. Review of experience with plutonium exposure assessment methodologies at the nuclear fuel reprocessing site of British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, R.

    1988-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc and its predecessors have provided a complete range of nuclear fuel services to utilities in the UK and elsewhere for more than 30 years. Over 30,000 ton of Magnox and Oxide fuel have been reprocessed at Sellafield. During this time substantial experience has accumulated of methodologies for the assessment of exposure to actinides, mainly isotopes of plutonium. For most of the period monitoring of personnel included assessment of systemic uptake deduced from plutonium-in-urine results. The purpose of the paper is to present some conclusions of contemporary work in this area

  4. Effects of acute exposure to magnetic field on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, A.; Hafedh, A.; Mohsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the possible interaction between magnetic field and cadmium on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve. Design: The combined effect of magnetic field and cadmium (1.5mg/kg; in lymphatic sac) were studied in frog sciatic nerves (Rana Esculenta). Sciatic nerve samples were extracted, weighed and mixed in bidistilled water in order to analyze by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionic composition. Setting: Frogs (Rana Esculenta) were reared in swimming-pool (Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Tunisia). Frogs were cared for under the Tunisian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific purpose and the Experimental Protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee. Subjects: Treated and control groups (n=6) weighing 50-100g at the time of experiments were housed in the same condition three weeks before the beginning of the experiments. Results: Acute exposure to magnetic field increased significantly the calcium (+298%, p<0.05) and iron (+50%, p<0.05) contents of frog sciatic nerve, whereas magnesium and copper contents remained unchanged. The association between magnetic field and cadmium, induced marked increase of calcium (+360%, p<0.05), whereas magnesium content remained stable. Conclusions: Magnetic field exposure alters the ionic composition in the frog sciatic nerve, especially calcium and iron. Magnetic field magnifies the effect of cadmium on calcium homeostasis. (author)

  5. Administrative and research needs associated with the control of occupational exposures in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    This review of occupational exposures in commercial nuclear power plants in the United States of America has revealed that, although many problem areas are being adequately addressed, there is a need for additional work. Areas relative to exposure evaluation that need attention include better data collection and analysis as to when and where exposures occur, improved information on exposures from internally deposited radionuclides, improved techniques for monitoring occupational neutron exposures, and an upgrading in quality control procedures in the manufacture, calibration, use and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Areas relative to exposure control that need attention include the development of additional design and manufacturing approaches for preventing the production and build-up of key radionuclides within reactor cooling systems, the development and testing of techniques for removing those radionuclides that do accumulate in such systems, the application of risk/benefit assessments to procedures for the maintenance, repair, modification, replacement and disposal of major nuclear power plant components, such as steam generators, and the development of design features to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Professional radiation workers also have to be aware of the impact that the proposed major reductions in occupational dose limits would have on their operations. This impact is compounded by the fact that the number of people receiving graduate education in radiation protection in the USA is decreasing. (author)

  6. Telephone consultations on exposure to nuclear disaster radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Sachiko; Chida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. For about six weeks, I worked as a counselor for phone consultations regarding radiation risk. I analyzed the number of consultations, consultations by telephone, and their changing patterns with elapse of time, to assist with consultations about risk in the future. There were a large number of questions regarding the effects of radiation, particularly with regard to children. We believe that counseling and risk communication are the key to effectively informing the public about radiation risks. (author)

  7. Bittersweet: Real-Time, Dynamic Changes in Blood Glucose Levels during an Acute Ozone Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    In humans and rats, acute exposures to ozone have been shown to activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes to induce multi-organ metabolic alterations including impaired glucose homeostasis. These findings have largely been gleaned from on...

  8. Acute stress exposure preceding transient global brain ischemia exacerbates the decrease in cortical remodeling potential in the rat retrosplenial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuna, Nobuo; Yamashita, Akiko; Eriguchi, Takashi; Oshima, Hideki; Suma, Takeshi; Sakatani, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive (-ir) cells are candidates that play key roles in adult cortical remodeling. We have previously reported that DCX-ir cells decrease after stress exposure or global brain ischemia (GBI) in the cingulate cortex (Cg) of rats. Herein, we investigate whether the decrease in DCX-ir cells is exacerbated after GBI due to acute stress exposure preconditioning. Twenty rats were divided into 3 groups: acute stress exposure before GBI (Group P), non-stress exposure before GBI (Group G), and controls (Group C). Acute stress or GBI was induced by a forced swim paradigm or by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, respectively. DCX-ir cells were investigated in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and retrosplenial cortex (RS). The number of DCX-ir cells per unit area (mm(2)) decreased after GBI with or without stress preconditioning in the ACC and in the RS (ANOVA followed by a Tukey-type test, P<0.001). Moreover, compared to Group G, the number in Group P decreased significantly in RS (P<0.05), though not significantly in ACC. Many of the DCX-ir cells were co-localized with the GABAergic neuronal marker parvalbumin. The present study indicates that cortical remodeling potential of GABAergic neurons of Cg decreases after GBI, and moreover, the ratio of the decrease is exacerbated by acute stress preconditioning in the RS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of acute exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military firemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of acute short-term exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military fireman living and working in the city of Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-five healthy non-smoking firemen aged 24 to 45 years had about 1 h of exposure to low and high levels of air pollution. The tests consisted of two phases: phase A, in Bertioga, a town with low levels of air pollution, and phase B, in Cubatão, a polluted town, with a 7-day interval between phases. The volunteers remained in the cities (Bertioga/Cubatão only for the time required to perform the tests. Cumulative load 10 ± 2 min-long exertion tests were performed on a treadmill, consisting of a 2-min stage at a load of 7 km/h, followed by increasing exertion of 1 km h-1 min-1 until the maximum individual limit. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 in anaerobic threshold (AT between Cubatão (35.04 ± 4.91 mL kg-1 min-1 and Bertioga (36.98 ± 5.62 mL kg-1 min-1; P = 0.01, in the heart rate at AT (AT HR; Cubatão 152.08 ± 14.86 bpm, Bertioga 157.44 ± 13.64 bpm; P = 0.001, and in percent maximal oxygen consumption at AT (AT%VO2max; Cubatão 64.56 ± 6.55%, Bertioga 67.40 ± 5.35%; P = 0.03. However, there were no differences in VO2max, maximal heart rate or velocity at AT (ATvel observed in firemen between towns. The acute exposure to pollutants in Cubatão, SP, caused a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion.

  10. Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C O; Weaver, M F; Eissenberg, T

    2010-10-01

    Non-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific's Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. 28 overnight abstinent cigarette smokers (17 men, 14 non-white) each completed seven, Latin-squared ordered, approximately 2.5 h laboratory sessions that differed by product administered: Ariva, Marlboro Snus (Philip Morris, USA), Camel Snus (RJ Reynolds, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA), Commit nicotine lozenge (GlaxoSmithKline; 2 mg), own brand cigarettes, Quest cigarettes (Vector Tobacco; delivers very low levels of nicotine) and sham smoking (ie, puffing on an unlit cigarette). In each session, the product was administered twice (separated by 60 min), and plasma nicotine levels, expired air CO and subjective effects were assessed regularly. Non-combustible products delivered less nicotine than own brand cigarettes, did not expose smokers to CO and failed to suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms as effectively as combustible products. While decreased toxicant exposure is a potential indicator of harm reduction potential, a failure to suppress abstinence symptoms suggests that currently marketed non-combustible PREPs may not be a viable harm reduction strategy for US smokers. This study demonstrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the short-term effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers.

  11. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed.

  12. Patient and population exposure from clinic nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liangan; Chang Hexin; Zhang Wenyi; Sun Kai

    1993-01-01

    In the work, a method of epidemiological stratified sampling was adopted. The sampling covers 200 hospitals throughout 24 provinces. The patient doses were estimated by MIRD method. The survey data were statistic analysis by a computer, and main results of the annual frequencies, patient dose and collective dose were reported. The annual frequency of clinic nuclear medicine in China was 0.62 cases per 1000 inhabitant. The highest frequency was found in thyroid uptake procedure, it is 0.26 cases per 1000 population. The patient dose per examination is changed with various radiopharmaceuticals administered mainly. In nuclear medical examination, the highest effective dose per examination was found in the procedure of thyroid scintigraphy, it is about 93.8 mGy lexam with 131 I, and this is 312 times as that with 99m Tc. In hyperthyroidism, the patient dose is very high, the effective dose is 2.6 Gy lexam, the thyroid dose is 86.0 Gy lexam. (5 tabs.)

  13. Agmatine inhibits nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation in acute spinal cord compression injury rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. Samy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary damage after acute spinal cord compression injury (SCCI exacerbates initial insult. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB-p65 activation is involved in SCCI deleterious effects. Agmatine (Agm showed neuroprotection against various CNS injuries. However, Agm impact on NF-κB signaling in acute SCCI remains to be investigated. The present study compared the effectiveness of Agm therapy and decompression laminectomy (DL in functional recovery, oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic responses, and modulation of NF-κB activation in acute SCCI rat model. Rats were either sham-operated or subjected to SCCI at T8–9, using 2-Fr. catheter. SCCI rats were randomly treated with DL at T8–9, intraperitoneal Agm (100 mg/kg/day, combined (DL/Agm treatment or saline (n = 16/group. After 28-days of neurological follow-up, spinal cords were either subjected to biochemical measurement of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers or histopathology and immuno-histochemistry for NF-κB-p65 and caspase-3 expression (n = 8/group. Agm was comparable to DL in facilitating neurological functions recovery, reducing inflammation (TNF-α/interleukin-6, and apoptosis. Agm was distinctive in combating oxidative stress. Agm neuroprotective effects were paralleled with inhibition of NF-κB-p65 nuclear translocation. Combined pharmacological and surgical interventions were proved superior in functional recovery. In conclusion, present research suggested a new mechanism for Agm neuroprotection in rats SCCI through inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  14. Plans for a reduction of the radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobschuetz, P. von; Herrmann, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    In order to reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in maintenance and repair jobs in future nuclear installations a study has been carried out to investigate whether planning new facilities on the basis of models could open up possibilities to improve the radiological protection of workers. It has been found that planning, construction, operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities can be carried out much more effectively on the basis of three-dimensional models than by mere two-dimensional drawings. However, it is necessary to align the sizes of the models and their details to the needs of nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  15. Nuclear DNA as Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhvantsev, Valery V; Landoni, Giovanni; Grebenchikov, Oleg A; Skripkin, Yuri V; Zabelina, Tatiana S; Zinovkina, Liudmila A; Prikhodko, Anastasia S; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Zinovkin, Roman A

    2017-12-01

    To measure the release of plasma nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to assess the relationship between nuclear DNA level and acute kidney injury occurrence in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Cardiovascular anesthesiology and intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care university hospital. Prospective observational study. Fifty adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Nuclear DNA concentration was measured in the plasma. The relationship between the level of nuclear DNA and the incidence of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting was investigated. Cardiac surgery leads to significant increase in plasma nuclear DNA with peak levels 12 hours after surgery (median [interquartile range] 7.0 [9.6-22.5] µg/mL). No difference was observed between off-pump and on-pump surgical techniques. Nuclear DNA was the only predictor of acute kidney injury between baseline and early postoperative risk factors. The authors found an increase of nuclear DNA in the plasma of patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, with a peak after 12 hours and an association of nuclear DNA with postoperative acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perinatal radiation exposure due to nuclear medical use of radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.

    1982-01-01

    When the pregnancy is yet undetected, radiation doses were only relevant when given within therapeutic application. Only Hg 203-chloromerodrine and J 131-iodide are relevant for newborns as they cause radiation doses of 40-70 rad. in the organ concerned. As a result of nuclear medicine and the application of radio nuclides not only patients but also ''occupationally exposed'' persons and parts of the population are exposed to radiation. Pregnant women are not admitted in control areas but can only be forbidden to enter when the pregnancy has been established. This is the case after six weeks. The occupational perinatal exposure is therefore about 11% of the annual dose. Evaluation of the figures for exposure to radiation can be done by either comparing them with natural exposure or by estimating the risks. The somatic radiation risk per rad is of the 5th order, the genetic risk of the 4th to 6th order as compared with a spontaneous genetic risk of the 2nd order. According to surveys of STIEVE (1976) the risk involved in various diagnostic and therapeutic measures of complications not due to radiation exposure is of 2nd to fifth order. On an average, the risks of diagnostic measures in nuclear medicine are small in comparison to the radiation risk. A comparison with the range of natural radiation exposure also indicated that only exposures which exceed natural exposure of 0.4 rad have to be considered. (orig.) [de

  17. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  18. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussev, I.A.; Moissev, A.A.; Evtichiev, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  19. Statistics and assessment of individual dose from occupational exposure in nuclear industry (1985-1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunfang; Yang Lianzhen

    1993-01-01

    The summary and main results of individual dose monitoring (1985-1990) from occupational exposure in nuclear industry are presented. The statistical results show that the annual collective dose equivalent from external exposure to workers in six plants and institutes in 1985-1990 are 29.88, 26.95, 19.16, 14.26, 9.08 and 9.22 man · Sv, respectively. The annual average dose equivalent are 4.98, 4.66, 3.65, 2.79, 2.40 and 2,27 mSv, respectively. The general situation for individual dose monitoring from internal exposure is briefly introduced. The internal exposure dose from uranium, plutonium and tritium in some facilities are given. The annual average committed effective dose equivalent are less than 5.0 mSv. The individual dose monitoring results for occupational exposure from uranium mining are depicted. The individual dose monitoring data are analysed preliminarily

  20. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Francés

    251 breakpoints in exposed individuals were identified, showing a non-uniform distribution in the human ideogram. Ten chromosome bands were found to be especially prone to breakage through both statistical methods. By comparing these bands with those observed in certain exposed individuals who had already participated the previous study, it was found in both studies that four bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2 are particularly sensitive to breakage. Additionally, the dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms was not significantly higher in oil-exposed individuals than in non-exposed individuals.The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the high number of individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks.Our findings show the existence of at least four target bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2 with a greater propensity to break over time after an acute exposure to oil. The breaks in these bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, may explain the increase of cancer risk reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, a more efficiency of the DNA repair mechanisms has been detected six years after in fishermen who were highly exposed to the oil spill. To date, only this study, performed by our group on the previous and present genotoxic effects, has analyzed the chromosomal regions affected by breakage after an acute oil exposure.

  1. On exposure of workers in nuclear reactor facilities for test and in nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Law for Regulation on Nuclear Reactor requires the operators of nuclear reactors that the exposure dose of workers engaged in work for nuclear reactors should not exceed the limits specified in official notices that are issued based on the Law. The present article summarizes the contents of the Report on Radiation Management in 1988 submitted by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for test and those of nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage based on the Law, and the Report on Management of Exposure Dose of Workers submitted by them based on administrative notices. The reports demonstrate that the exposure of workers was below the permissible exposure dose in 1988 in all nuclear reactor facilities. The article presents data on the distribution of exposure dose among workers in all facilities with a nuclear reactor for test, and data on personal exposure of employees and non-employees and overall exposure of all workers in the facilities of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (N.K.)

  2. Use of photographic film to estimate exposure near the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuping, R.E.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents the methodology and results of a Bureau of Radiological Health study of the use of photographic film samples for estimating exposure levels near the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The study was conducted to provide an independent assessment of the radiation levels near TMI following the accident on March 28, 1979

  3. Analysis of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants in Western Europe from 1980-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seror, V.; Lefaure, C.; Benedittini, M.

    1989-12-01

    The objective of this study is to establish for the first time the facts concerning professional exposure in nuclear power plants in different European countries. The professionals outside the power plants affected are taken into account as well. Three type of power plants are examined: PWRs, BWRs, and GCRs

  4. Discussion about modeling the effects of neutron flux exposure for nuclear reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    Methods used to calculate the effects of exposure to a neutron flux are described. The modeling of the nuclear-reactor core history presents an analysis challenge. The nuclide chain equations must be solved, and some of the methods in use for this are described. Techniques for treating reactor-core histories are discussed and evaluated

  5. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  6. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  7. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The latest occupational radiation exposure data from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the latest - 2005 occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System. The bulk of the information contained in the paper was compiled from the 2005 annual reports submitted by NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of U.S. regulations (10 CFR 20.2206). Those licensees subject to reporting include commercial nuclear power plants, industrial radiographers, fuel processors, independent spent fuel storage installations, manufacturers and distributors of by-product material, facilities for low-level waste disposal, and geologic repositories for high-level waste. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in terms of collective dose and the distribution of doses by licensee category. (author)

  9. Individual dose monitoring of occupational exposure in nuclear industry system (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lianzhen; Ma Jizeng; Li Taosheng

    2005-01-01

    The summary and main results of individual dose monitoring (1990-2000) from occupational exposure in China Nuclear Industry System are presented in this paper. During ten years, the external collective effective dose to workers in seven plants (not uranium mines and processing mills) and institutes is 98.48 person ·Sv, the per capita effective dose is 1.97 mSv. The general situation for individual dose monitoring from internal exposure is also introduced. The annual average committed effective dose is less than 5.0 mSv. The individual dose monitoring results (1991-1992) for occupational exposure from Uranium mines and processing mills are depicted. In the end, the individual dose monitoring data in nuclear industry system are preliminarily analysed. (authors)

  10. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioresi, M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, D.V. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde de Vitória, Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase and myosin Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension.

  11. Effects of acute chlorpyrifos exposure on in vivo acetylcholine accumulation in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanth, Subramanya; Liu, Jing; Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg) or CPF (84, 156 or 279 mg/kg, sc) and functional signs of toxicity, body weight and motor activity recorded. Microdialysis was conducted at 1, 4 and 7 days after CPF exposure for measurement of acetylcholine levels in striatum. Rats were then sacrificed and the contralateral striatum and diaphragm were collected for biochemical measurements. Few overt signs of cholinergic toxicity were noted in any rats. Body weight gain was significantly affected in the high-dose (279 mg/kg) group only, while motor activity (nocturnal rearing) was significantly reduced in all CPF-treated groups at one day (84 mg/kg) or from 1-4 days (156 and 279 mg/kg) after dosing. Cholinesterase activities in both diaphragm and striatum were markedly inhibited (50-92%) in a time-dependent manner, but there were relatively minimal dose-related changes. In contrast, time- and dose-dependent changes in striatal acetylcholine levels were noted, with significantly higher levels noted in the high-dose group compared to other groups. Maximal increases in striatal acetylcholine levels were observed at 4-7 days after dosing (84 mg/kg, 7-9-fold; 156 mg/kg, 10-13-fold; 279 mg/kg, 35-57-fold). Substantially higher acetylcholine levels were noted when an exogenous cholinesterase inhibitor was included in the perfusion buffer, but CPF treatment-related differences were substantially lower in magnitude under those conditions. The results suggest that marked differences in acetylcholine accumulation can occur with dosages of CPF eliciting relatively similar degrees of cholinesterase inhibition. Furthermore, the minimal expression of classic signs of cholinergic toxicity in the presence of extensive brain acetylcholine accumulation suggests that some

  12. Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine - a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakic, B.; Pajic, J.; Prokic, V.; Mirkov, Z.; Marinkovic, O.; Jovicic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test are standardised techniques used in dose assessment of subjects professionally, medically and accidentally exposed to ionising radiation. At this time, there is no best applicable method for dose assessment in case of internal contamination with radionuclides. Available bioassays are more or less sensitive, depending on particular irradiation. Existing physical methods for dose assessment of subjects operating open sources in most cases are not enough for accurate dose assessment, and there is a need for implementing additional methods, namely, extremity dosimetry. There is, very often, disagreement in dose assessment in physical and biodosimetry in case of exposure to low doses of IR. However, in certain situations, both bioassays and available physical dosimetry methods seem to be quite enough in detecting internal contamination. In this paper are presented values for personal equivalent doses Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) (from Personal Dosimetry Department - SIOH) and results of CA and MN analyses after first and control examinations from Cytogenetic Laboratory of same Institute. This paper also showed that CBMN test is more sensitive technique in case of internal contamination than CA analysis. (author)

  13. Permeabilization of the nuclear envelope following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Gary L., E-mail: gary.l.thompson.3@gmail.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Roth, Caleb C. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX, 78234 (United States); Kuipers, Marjorie A. [Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research Laboratory, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Tolstykh, Gleb P. [General Dynamics IT, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Beier, Hope T. [Optical Radiation Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research Laboratory, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Ibey, Bennett L. [Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research Laboratory, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Permeabilization of cell membranes occurs upon exposure to a threshold absorbed dose (AD) of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). The ultimate, physiological bioeffect of this exposure depends on the type of cultured cell and environment, indicating that cell-specific pathways and structures are stimulated. Here we investigate 10 and 600 ns duration PEF effects on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell nuclei, where our hypothesis is that pulse disruption of the nuclear envelope membrane leads to observed cell death and decreased viability 24 h post-exposure. To observe short-term responses to nsPEF exposure, CHO cells have been stably transfected with two fluorescently-labeled proteins known to be sequestered for cellular chromosomal function within the nucleus – histone-2b (H2B) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). H2B remains associated with chromatin after nsPEF exposure, whereas PCNA leaks out of nuclei permeabilized by a threshold AD of 10 and 600 ns PEF. A downturn in 24 h viability, measured by MTT assay, is observed at the number of pulses required to induce permeabilization of the nucleus. - Highlights: • The ability of nsPEF to damage nuclear structures within cells is investigated. • Leakage of proliferating nuclear antigen from nuclei is induced by nsPEF. • High doses of nsPEF disrupt cortical lamin and cause chromatin decompaction. • Histone H2B remains attached to chromatin following nsPEF exposure. • DNA does not leak out of nsPEF-permeabilized nuclei.

  14. Computerized Registration System of Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Fuel Cycle in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernilogar Radez, M.; Krizman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In early 1999s the SNSA started to develop a computerised registration system of occupational radiation exposure for workers in a nuclear fuel cycle in Slovenia, which arises from four nuclear facilities: nuclear power plant, research reactor, storage facility and uranium mine. In the period 1985-2000 about 5000 workers altogether were monitored due to exposure in a nuclear fuel cycle in Slovenia (about 1200 employees and 3800 outside workers), with an average of 1000 workers being assessed each calendar year. Four dosimetric services regularly perform personal monitoring of the occupational exposure and all of them have been requested to provide data to the SNSA electronically. The computerised register was put into operation in 2000 enabling prompt control of personal exposures, including annual, 5-year and lifetime doses. Besides individual exposure also collective doses can be evaluated, together with size and time distributions and trends over certain periods. Apart from the total dose, the doses received due to external radiation (gamma, neutrons) and due to internal radiation have been separately recorded into the register. In addition, personal data of workers as well as employee and facility data have been also recorded. Some statistics of dose distributions have been evaluated and the results have been compared to international data. More than 80% of workers from the register have been exposed in the NPP. Workers received the major part of their exposure during the annual outage works. It is found out that in recent years, the average individual and collective doses have shown a rising trend. (author)

  15. Acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression after exposure to the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show disaster: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Brundin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute distress-that is, clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression-and to identify predictors of each in a sample of people who witnessed a fatal aircraft collision at the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show. Air Show attendees (N = 157) were recruited by advertisements in the local media and completed an Internet-administered battery of questionnaires. Based on previously established cut-offs, 22 percent respondents had clinically significant PTSS and 24 percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Clinically significant symptoms were associated with posttrauma impairment in social and occupational functioning. Acute distress was associated with several variables, including aspects of Air Show trauma exposure, severity of prior trauma exposure, low posttrauma social support (ie, negative responses by others), indices of poor coping (eg, intolerance of uncertainty, rumination about the trauma), and elevated scores on anxiety sensitivity, the personality trait of absorption, and dissociative tendencies. Results suggest that clinically significant acute distress is common in the aftermath of witnessed trauma. The statistical predictors (correlates) of acute distress were generally consistent with the results of studies of other forms of trauma. People with elevated scores on theoretical vulnerability factors (eg, elevated anxiety sensitivity) were particularly likely to develop acute distress.

  16. Exposure to professional pest control treatments and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Armstrong, Bruce K; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Fritschi, Lin; Attia, John; Scott, Rodney J; Smibert, Elizabeth; Milne, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether professional pest treatments in or around the home before birth or during childhood increased the risk of childhood ALL. Data from 388 cases and 870 frequency-matched controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for study matching variables and potential confounders, to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A meta-analysis of our findings with the published findings of previous studies was also conducted. The ORs for any professional pest control treatments were 1.19 (95% CI 0.83, 1.69) in the year before pregnancy, 1.30 (95% CI 0.86, 1.97) during pregnancy and 1.24 (95% CI 0.93, 1.65) for those done after the child's birth. The ORs for exposure after birth were highest when it occurred between the ages of two and three years. ORs were elevated for termite treatments before birth. ORs were higher for pre-B than T cell ALL and for t(12;21) (ETV6-Runx-1) than other cytogenetic sub-types. The pooled OR from a meta-analysis of our study with three previous studies of professional pest control treatments during pregnancy was 1.37 (95% CI 1.00, 1.88). Our results, and those of our meta-analysis, provide some evidence of a modestly increased risk of ALL for professional pest control treatments done during the index pregnancy and possibly in the child's early years. The analysis of pooled data from international collaborations may provide more certainty regarding these potentially important associations. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  17. Acute vs chronic exposure to high fat diet leads to distinct regulation of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-07-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO). 12-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to a regular diet or HFD and weighed weekly throughout the feeding studies (4 days, 14 weeks; respectively), and during killing. PKA activity and subunit expression were measured in liver, gonadal adipose tissue (AT) and brain. Acute HFD-feeding suppressed basal hepatic PKA activity. In contrast, hepatic and hypothalamic PKA activities were significantly increased after chronic HFD-feeding. Changes in AT were more subtle, and overall, altered PKA regulation in response to chronic HFD exposure was more profound in female mice. The suppression of hepatic PKA activity after 4 day HFD-feeding was indicative of a protective peripheral effect against obesity in the context of overnutrition. In response to chronic HFD-feeding, and with the development of DIO, dysregulated hepatic and hypothalamic PKA signaling was a signature of obesity that is likely to promote further metabolic dysfunction in mice. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Cold exposure rapidly induces virtual saturation of brown adipose tissue nuclear T3 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.C.; Silva, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Cold exposure induces a rapid increase in uncoupling protein (UCP) concentration in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of euthyroid, but not hypothyroid, rats. To normalize this response with exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), it is necessary to cause systemic hyperthyroidism. In contrast, the same result can be obtained with just replacement doses of thyroxine (T 4 ) and, in euthyroid rats, the normal response of UCP to cold occurs without hyperthyroid plasma T 3 levels. Consequently, the authors explored the possibility that the cold-induced activation of the type II 5'-deiodinase resulted in high levels of nuclear T 3 receptor occupancy in euthyroid rats. Studies were performed with pulse injections of tracer T 3 or T 4 in rats exposed to 4 degree C for different lengths of time (1 h-3 wk). Within 4 h of cold exposure, they observed a significant increase in the nuclear [ 125 I]T 3 derived from the tracer [ 125 I]T 4 injections (T 3 [T 4 ]) and a significant reduction in the nuclear [ 125 I]T 3 derived from [ 125 I]T 3 injections (T 3 [T 3 ]). The number of BAT nuclear T 3 receptors did not increase for up to 3 wk of observation at 4 degree C. The mass of nuclear-bound T 3 was calculated from the nuclear tracer [ 125 I]T 3 [T 3 ] and [ 125 I]T 3 [T 4 ] at equilibrium and the specific activity of serum T 3 and T 4 , respectively. By 4 h after the initiation of the cold exposure, the receptors were >95% occupied and remained so for the 3 weeks of observation. They conclude that the simultaneous activation of the deiodinase with adrenergic BAT stimulation serves the purpose of nearly saturating the nuclear T 3 receptors. This makes possible the realization of the full thermogenic potential of the tissue without causing systemic hyperthyroidism

  19. On exposure management of workers in nuclear reactor facilities for test and in nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage in fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Law of Regulation on Nuclear Reactor requires the operators of nuclear reactors that the exposure dose of workers engaged in work for nuclear reactors should not exceed the limits specified in official notices that are issued based on the Law. The present article summarizes the contents of the Report on Radiation Management in 1993 submitted by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for test and those of nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage based on the Law, and the Report on Management of Exposure Dose of Workers submitted by them based on administrative notices. The reports demonstrate that the the exposure of workers was below the permissible exposure dose in 1993 in all nuclear reactor facilities. The article presents data on the distribution of exposure dose among workers in all facilities with a nuclear reactor for test, and data on personal exposure of employees and non-employees and overall exposure of all workers in the facilities of JAERI and PNC. (J.P.N.)

  20. Concerning control of radiation exposure to workers in nuclear reactor facilities for testing and nuclear reactor facilities in research and development phase (fiscal 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear reactor operator is required by the Nuclear Reactor Control Law to ensure that the radiation dose to workers engaged in the operations of his nuclear reactor is controlled below the permissible exposure doses that are specified in notifications issued based on the Law. The present note briefly summarizes the data given in the Reports on Radiation Control, which have been submitted according to the Nuclear Reactor Control Law by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for testing and those in the research and development phase, and the Reports on Control of Radiation Exposure to Workers submitted in accordance with the applicable administrative notices. According to these reports, the measured exposure to workers in 1987 were below the above-mentioned permissible exposure doses in all these nuclear facilities. The 1986 and 1987 measurements of radiation exposure dose to workers in nuclear reactor facilities for testing are tabulated. The measurements cover dose distribution among the facilities' personnel and workers of contractors. They also cover the total exposure dose for all workers in each of four plants operated under the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (N.K.)

  1. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50 were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained.

  2. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi [School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the {sup 131}I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of {sup 131}I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  3. Dysfunctional information processing in individuals with acute exposure to sexual abuse: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Park, Minkyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-06-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after traumatic event and also cause significant life time impairment. P300 event-related potential (ERP) is a potential biological marker for PTSD and can reflect cognitive impairment in information processing and attention. Despite the usefulness of ERP, there are few attempts to reveal relationships between ASD and P300. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the P300 of the patients who were the victims of sexual abuse reflected the quantitative trait of ASD or if P300 is applicable as a state marker for predicting the risk of PTSD.Fifteen female victims of sexual abuse diagnosed with ASD and 18 healthy controls (HCs) without trauma exposure participated in this study. We investigated the P300 ERPs in patients with ASD to compare them with those of HCs. ERPs were acquired from female adults during an auditory oddball task. Between-group differences in amplitudes or latencies of P300 were investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.The ASD groups showed reduced P300 amplitudes at the midline centroparietal site as well as reduced accuracy rates during an auditory oddball task compared with the HCs.These results indicate that ASD have abnormalities in the P300 compared to those in HCs. Moreover, the reduction in P300 could be considered a candidate neurophysiological marker for ASD.

  4. Acute effects of 30 minutes of exposure to a smartphone call on in vitro platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Gelati, Matteo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Significant concerns are now regularly raised about the safety of excessive mobile phone use. This study was aimed to assess the acute effects of radiofrequency waves emitted by a commercial smartphone on platelet function. Two sequential citrated blood samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers recruited from laboratory staff. The first sample was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm distant from a commercial smartphone receiving a 30-min call and emitting 900 MHz radiofrequency waves. The second sample was placed in another plastic rack, isolated from radiofrequency wave sources, for the same period. The platelet count and the mean platelet volume were then assessed in all blood samples, whereas platelet function was evaluated using the platelet function analyser-100 (PFA-100). A 30-min exposure of citrated blood to smartphone radiofrequency waves induced significant prolongation of collagen-epinephrine aggregation (median increase, 10%) and a considerable increase of mean platelet volume (median increase, 5%), whereas collagen-adenosine diphosphate aggregation and platelet count remained unchanged. This study demonstrates that smartphone radiofrequency waves induce significant perturbation of platelet structure and function, thus providing further support to concerns regarding excessive use of mobile phones. Caution should also be taken with regards to blood products containing platelets, which should be kept far away from mobile phones and smartphones throughout the production pipeline and storage period.

  5. Circadian time-dependent antioxidant and inflammatory responses to acute cadmium exposure in the brain of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Ai-Yi

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Gene changed at mRNA, protein and activity levels between exposure time points. • ROS mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses by Nrf2 and NF-κB. • The effect of time of day on Cd-induced toxicity should not be neglected in fish. - Abstract: Up to date, little information is available on effects of circadian rhythm on metal-induced toxicity in fish. In this study, zebrafish were acutely exposed to 0.97 mg L{sup −1} cadmium for 12 h either at ZT0 (the light intensity began to reached maximum) or at ZT12 (light intensity began to reached minimum) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the brain of zebrafish. Profiles of responses of some genes at mRNA, protein and activity levels were different between ZT0 and ZT12 in the normal water. Exposure to Cd induced contrary antioxidant responses and similar inflammatory responses between ZT0 and ZT12. However, the number of inflammatory genes which were up-regulated was significantly greater at ZT12 than at ZT0. And, the up-regulated inflammatory genes were more responsive at ZT12 than at ZT0. At ZT12, antioxidant genes were down-regulated at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Contrarily, antioxidant genes were not affected at mRNA levels but activated at the protein and/or activity levels at ZT0. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) sharply increased and remained relatively stable when fish were exposed to Cd at ZT12 and ZT0, respectively. Positive correlations between ROS levels and mRNA levels of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and between mRNA levels of NF-κB and its target genes were observed, suggesting that ROS may play an essential role in regulating the magnitude of inflammatory responses. Taken together, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain were more serious when fish were exposed to Cd in the evening than in the morning, highlighting the importance of circadian rhythm in Cd-induced neurotoxicity in fish.

  6. Circadian time-dependent antioxidant and inflammatory responses to acute cadmium exposure in the brain of zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Ai-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Gene changed at mRNA, protein and activity levels between exposure time points. • ROS mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses by Nrf2 and NF-κB. • The effect of time of day on Cd-induced toxicity should not be neglected in fish. - Abstract: Up to date, little information is available on effects of circadian rhythm on metal-induced toxicity in fish. In this study, zebrafish were acutely exposed to 0.97 mg L"−"1 cadmium for 12 h either at ZT0 (the light intensity began to reached maximum) or at ZT12 (light intensity began to reached minimum) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the brain of zebrafish. Profiles of responses of some genes at mRNA, protein and activity levels were different between ZT0 and ZT12 in the normal water. Exposure to Cd induced contrary antioxidant responses and similar inflammatory responses between ZT0 and ZT12. However, the number of inflammatory genes which were up-regulated was significantly greater at ZT12 than at ZT0. And, the up-regulated inflammatory genes were more responsive at ZT12 than at ZT0. At ZT12, antioxidant genes were down-regulated at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Contrarily, antioxidant genes were not affected at mRNA levels but activated at the protein and/or activity levels at ZT0. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) sharply increased and remained relatively stable when fish were exposed to Cd at ZT12 and ZT0, respectively. Positive correlations between ROS levels and mRNA levels of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and between mRNA levels of NF-κB and its target genes were observed, suggesting that ROS may play an essential role in regulating the magnitude of inflammatory responses. Taken together, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain were more serious when fish were exposed to Cd in the evening than in the morning, highlighting the importance of circadian rhythm in Cd-induced neurotoxicity in fish.

  7. Occupational exposure at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.; Partington, C.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield employs approximately 6500 people in a wide range of activities involving radioactive materials. The exposure to personnel over the period 1978-1989 is reviewed. Information is presented on collective and average dose exposure which both show significant downward trends. The current annual collective dose for reprocessing operations is 21.4 man Sv and the average whole body exposure 3.7 mSv.y -1 , taking account of both internal and external exposure. The introduction of radiological design targets for new plants and the use of formal ALARP assessments on projects has contributed substantially to the observed reduction in dose uptake. Experience also indicates that significant dose reduction can be achieved by heightening the awareness of both managers and workers of the dose implications of their work and working methods. (author)

  8. Occupational radiation exposure trends in the nuclear industry of NEA/IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.; Horan, J.R.; Franzen, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    After various introductory statements on current occupational radiation exposure trends in nuclear facilities, the authors briefly discuss the problems involved in the application of the ICRP principle of optimization of radiological protection to the design and, in particular, the operation of nuclear plants, with the aim of comparing present exposure trends. To assemble an adequate data base for supporting the technical studies required to optimize radiological protection, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have launched a survey aimed at collecting information on the levels and trends of occupational radiation exposure in the nuclear industry. The features of this study, based on the answers of NEA/IAEA Member States to a questionnaire, are described. The first results of the survey, regarding the situation and time trends of the average individual dose equivalents and collective dose equivalents for different plant types and for several countries, are also given. A preliminary analysis of the data collected allows certain considerations to be made relating to the influence of size, age and plant type, as well as of different national practices in plant operation and maintenance. (author)

  9. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1991. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1991 annual reports submitted by about 436 licensees indicated that approximately 206,732 individuals were monitored, 182,334 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.15 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.31 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 96,231 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 436 covered licensees during 1991. Some 68,115 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 7,763 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.52 rem (cSv)

  10. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC 1 licensees during the years 1969 through 1989. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC 1 licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1989 annual reports submitted by about 448 licensees indicated that approximately 216,294 individuals were monitored 111,000 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual does of 0.18 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of 0.36 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,535 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 448 covered licensees during 1989. Some 76,561 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 10, 344 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.64 rem (cSv)

  11. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1988. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1988 annual reports submitted by about 429 licensees indicated that approximately 220,048 individuals were monitored, 113,00 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.20 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of 0.41 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,072 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 429 covered licensees during 1988. Some 80,211 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 8,760 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.27 rem (cSv). 17 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs

  12. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG)

  13. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huiskamp, R [Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands). Radiobiology and Radio-Ecology Unit

    1991-06-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG).

  14. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Scallet, A C; Paule, M G; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is known to produce psychopharmacological effects in humans. These studies were designed to determine whether acute or chronic exposure to marijuana smoke or THC produces in vitro or in vivo neurochemical alterations in rat or monkey brain. For the in vitro study, THC was added (1-100 nM) to membranes prepared from different regions of the rat brain and muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding was measured. For the acute in vivo study, rats were injected IP with vehicle, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg THC/kg and sacrificed 2 h later. For the chronic study, rats were gavaged with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week for 90 days and sacrificed either 24 h or 2 months later. Rhesus monkeys were exposed to the smoke of a single 2.6% THC cigarette once a day, 2 or 7 days a week for 1 year. Approximately 7 months after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed by overdose with pentobarbital for neurochemical analyses. In vitro exposure to THC produced a dose-dependent inhibition of MCh receptor binding in several brain areas. This inhibition of MCh receptor binding, however, was also observed with two other nonpsychoactive derivatives of marijuana, cannabidiol and cannabinol. In the rat in vivo study, we found no significant changes in MCh or other neurotransmitter receptor binding in hippocampus, frontal cortex or caudate nucleus after acute or chronic exposure to THC. In the monkey brain, we found no alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hypothalamus or brain stem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  16. Exposure of ionizing radiation to non-radiation workers from nuclear medicine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, J.; Smart, R.C.; McKay, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Occasionally, patients are required to have several tests in one day. They may be injected with radio-isotopes in the morning, have other investigations during the absorption period and then return to nuclear medicine for imaging later in the day. Recently, the NSW Department of Health issued a circular concerning exposure to sonographers from ionizing radiation emitted from nuclear medicine patients. The object of this study is to establish a model of emissions from nuclear medicine patients and to measure the exposure to other health workers who may be in close contact with these patients. Dose rate measurements were acquired for patients injected with 99 Tc m and 67 Ga for the following studies: heart, thyroid, lung, bone, biliary and lymphoma. Measurements were taken at 10 cm increments to 1 m and at time intervals of 0,1,2 and 24 h post-injection. In addition, 5 sonographers were issued with TLDs to be worn on the waist and fingers for a period of 3 months. The dose limit for a non-radiation worker is 1000 μSv (ICRP 60). The external dose rate measurements indicate that, assuming a sonographer is seated approximately 30 cm from a patient injected with 800 MBq 99 Tc m -HDP for a bone scan, 1 h post-injection, the sonographer would receive a dose of 11 μSv for a 30 min ultrasound scan. In practice, only 4 nuclear medicine patients were scanned in the ultrasound department during the 5 week monitoring period and the sonographers' TLDs recorded no radiation dose. In conclusion, the average exposure to sonographers from nuclear medicine patients is well within the limits recommended by the ICRP. However, in accordance with the ALARA principle where practicable, any ultrasound examination should be performed prior to nuclear medicine studies

  17. Assessment of 222Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-01-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to 222 Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm 2 , placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The 222 Rn concentrations varied from 196 ± 9 and 2048 ± 81 Bq·m -3 . The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv·y -1 . This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  18. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  19. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  20. PEDIC - A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON POPULATION EXPOSURE FOLLOWING ACUTE RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES TO THE ATOMSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D. L.; Peloquin, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The computer program PEDIC is described for estimation of the effect of evacuation on population exposure. The program uses joint frequency, annual average meteorological data and a simple population evacuation model to estimate exposure reduction due to movement of people away from radioactive plumes following an acute release of activity. Atmospheric dispersion is based on a sector averaged Gaussian model with consideration of plume rise and building wake effects. Appendices to the report provide details of the computer program design, a program listing, input card preparation instructions and sample problems.

  1. Control of the individual exposure in the practice of a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.M.; Castro Crespo, D.; Naranjo Cardentey, O.

    1996-01-01

    In Cuba, since the beginning of the 50 s radioisotopes and radiopharmaceutical have been used for medical purposes to diagnose different diseases. At present about 21 modules of Nuclear Medicine are available for this type of medical assistance service. Use of these substances has increased notably as years passed by, being it an important source of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore we were interested in knowing the behaviour of the distribution of equivalent doses during the procedures that are performed in one of such typical modules of nuclear medicine

  2. The IAEA review of methods of reducing occupational exposures during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejnikov, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    International interest in decommissioning has increased rapidly in the last few years because of the large number of older facilities which are or soon will be retired from service and because of the many hundreds of new facilities which have been built or planned and will eventually require decommissioning. A state-of-the-art review of methods of reducing occupational exposures during decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been prepared recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The report concludes that decommissioning can be carried out without unacceptable impact on man or his environment. However, additional development is required to reduce occupational exposures during decommissioning. (author)

  3. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.

    2005-01-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  4. History of measures taken to reduce radiation exposure at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondou, Masashi; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Yabushita, Kazuo; Dekijima, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station currently has five reactors, Units 1 to 5. Units 1 and 2 halted commercial operation in January 2009 and are now being prepared for decommissioning. Units 3 to 5 are operating at the rated thermal output with the gross electrical output of 3504 MWe. Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station has been operating for about 30 years since Unit 1 started up in 1976. Various measures have been taken to control water chemistry: for controlling SCC in the core internals and structural materials, hydrogen injection and noble metal injection were implemented; and to reduce radiation exposure for workers, condensate filter demineralizers were added, hollow fiber filters and pleated filters were installed in the condensate cleanup system, and zinc injection was performed. This paper describes measures taken at Hamaoka to reduce exposure in terms of water chemistry and techniques to monitor ion impurities in the reactor water. (author)

  5. Experiences in limiting radiation exposure to the embryo/fetus in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of operating nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities in the US. The survey obtained information on the number of women radiation workers in those plants over the last ten years and the number of workers potentially exposed to radiation while pregnant. Information on plant exposure limits for pregnant workers practiced at these plants and whether these limits comply with NCRP guidance and proposed NRC regulatory limits will also be presented. The discussion will include the effects of unions, labor arbitration, and legal actions on these policies. The unique problems of fuel manufacturers in addressing the proposed NRC regulations for embryo/fetus exposure will also be presented

  6. Real-time assessment of exposure dose to workers in radiological environments during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, ByungSeon; Moon, JeiKwon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok; Jeong, SeongYoung; Lee, JungJun; Song, HaeSang; Lee, SangWha; Son, BongKi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The method of exposure dose assessment to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • The environments of simulation were designed under a virtual reality. • To assess exposure dose to workers, human model was developed within a virtual reality. - Abstract: This objective of this paper is to develop a method to simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. To simulate several scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed using virtual reality. To assess exposure dose to workers, a human model was also developed using virtual reality. The exposure dose was measured and assessed under the principle of ALARA in accordance with radiological environmental change. This method will make it possible to plan for the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  7. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  8. Minimizing exposure in nuclear medicine through optimum use of shielding devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, B.L.; King, S.H.; Erdman, M.C.; Miller, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to radiation from nuclear medicine nuclides can be minimized through the use of various shielding devices. This paper reviews the dose reductions achieved through use of various syringe shields, lead aprons, leaded gloves, and several types of eyeglass lenses for 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 131 I and 201 Tl. The authors have found that combination of devices can best provide for minimizing doses

  9. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  10. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  11. Cardioprotection after acute exposure to simulated high altitude in rats. Role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Pablo H; Etchegoyen, Melisa; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Piotrkowski, Barbara; Arnaiz, Silvia Lores; Milei, Jose; Costa, Lidia E

    2018-02-28

    In previous studies, upregulation of NOS during acclimatization of rats to sustained hypobaric hypoxia was associated to cardioprotection, evaluated as an increased tolerance of myocardium to hypoxia/reoxygenation. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia and the role of endogenous NO concerning cardiac tolerance to hypoxia/reoxygenation under β-adrenergic stimulation. Rats were submitted to 58.7 kPa in a hypopressure chamber for 48 h whereas their normoxic controls remained at 101.3 kPa. By adding NOS substrate L-arg, or blocker L-NNA, isometric mechanical activity of papillary muscles isolated from left ventricle was evaluated at maximal or minimal production of NO, respectively, under β-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol, followed by 60/30 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation. Activities of NOS and cytochrome oxidase were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods and expression of HIF1-α and NOS isoforms by western blot. Eosin and hematoxiline staining were used for histological studies. Cytosolic expression of HIF1-α, nNOS and eNOS, and NO production were higher in left ventricle of hypoxic rats. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity was decreased by hypobaric hypoxia and this effect was reversed by L-NNA. After H/R, recovery of developed tension in papillary muscles from normoxic rats was 51-60% (regardless NO modulation) while in hypobaric hypoxia was 70% ± 3 (L-arg) and 54% ± 1 (L-NNA). Other mechanical parameters showed similar results. Preserved histological architecture was observed only in L-arg papillary muscles of hypoxic rats. Exposure of rats to hypobaric hypoxia for only 2 days increased NO synthesis leading to cardioprotection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhalation exposure to three-dimensional printer emissions stimulates acute hypertension and microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; LeBouf, R F; Duling, M G; Yi, J; Abukabda, A B; McBride, C R; Nurkiewicz, T R

    2017-11-15

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM™), or three-dimensional (3D) printing has become routine in industrial, occupational and domestic environments. We have recently reported that 3D printing emissions (3DPE) are complex mixtures, with a large ultrafine particulate matter component. Additionally, we and others have reported that inhalation of xenobiotic particles in this size range is associated with an array of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3DPE aerosols via nose-only exposure for ~3h. Twenty-four hours later, intravital microscopy was performed to assess microvascular function in the spinotrapezius muscle. Endothelium-dependent and -independent arteriolar dilation were stimulated by local microiontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). At the time of experiments, animals exposed to 3DPE inhalation presented with a mean arterial pressure of 125±4mmHg, and this was significantly higher than that for the sham-control group (94±3mmHg). Consistent with this pressor response in the 3DPE group, was an elevation of ~12% in resting arteriolar tone. Endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation was significantly impaired after 3DPE inhalation across all iontophoretic ejection currents (0-27±15%, compared to sham-control: 15-120±21%). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by 3DPE inhalation. These alterations in peripheral microvascular resistance and reactivity are consistent with elevations in arterial pressure that follow 3DPE inhalation. Future studies must identify the specific toxicants generated by FDM™ that drive this acute pressor response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation exposure as a result of radioactivity in the vicinity of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, Deodandus.

    1975-11-01

    The nuclear industry in South Africa is expected to expand dramatically and, as a result, the effects of radioactive effluent from these installations on the environment will be of great practical and scientific importance. The long-term effects of low-level radiation cannot be clinically predicted; physical determination and prediction is therefore the accepted measure of radiation exposure. This study includes a survey of all forms of natural and man-made radiation to which the general public is constantly exposed. An intensive study was made of radioactive fallout over South Africa from nuclear bomb tests. From this the general radiation exposure of the South African public could be calculated. It also led to valuable scientific information on mesometeorology and health physics. The latter includes the relationship between air concentration and deposition, the transfer of airborne iodine-131 to milk, and the accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in human beings as a result of their diets. Thorough environmental studies were conducted at existing nuclear installation sites i.e. Pelinbada which is the site of the National Nuclear Research Centre and Dynefontein which is the proposed site of South Africa's first nuclear power station. These included meso-meteorology, atmospheric dispersion by means of neutron-activable tracers, accumulation factors for important radionuclides in edible marine species by means of stable element tracers, population surveys, background radioactivity surveys etc. From these results critical exposure pathways were established for both sites and the relationship between effluent release and radiation dose to the public was determined. This has lead to the establishment of maximum permissible releases for the operation of the SAFARI-1 research reactor by the Atomic Energy Board and for the specifications of the proposed Koeberg power reactors to be operated by the Electricity Supply Commission at Dynefontein [af

  14. Evaluation of internal exposure of nuclear medicine staff through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, E.A.; Araujo, F.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O.; Corbo, R. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, HU-UFRJ, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/n, ILHA do Fundao, CEP 21945-560, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The manipulation of a wide variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine results in a significant risk of internal exposure of the workers. {sup 131}I should be highlighted among the most frequently used radionuclides because of its large application for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. The increasing use of radionuclides for medical purposes creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Currently in Brazil, there are {approx}300 nuclear medicine centres in operation but individual monitoring is still restricted to the control of external exposure. This work presents the development of in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques aimed to quantify incorporation of radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine. It is also presented the results of a preliminary survey of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in the preparation of therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Workers were monitored with a gamma camera available in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro and at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Whole-Body Counter (IRDWBC). The in vivo detection systems were calibrated with a neck-thyroid phantom developed in IRD. Urine samples from radiopharmacy workers were collected after preparation and administration of therapeutic doses (10-250 mCi) of {sup 131}I and measured with a HPGe detection system available in the Bioassay Laboratory of IRD. The results show that the bioassay methods developed in this work present enough sensitivity for routine monitoring of nuclear medicine workers. All workers monitored in this survey presented positive results for {sup 131}I in urine samples and two workers presented detectable activities in thyroid when measured at the IRD-WBC. The highest committed effective dose per preparation was estimated to be 17 {mu}Sv. (authors)

  15. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  16. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  17. Radiation exposure by radio-iodine release of the planned nuclear power plant Wyhl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck-Neuhaus, J

    1981-01-01

    The radioecology of iodine-131 in the off-air of a nuclear power plant is subject to investigation of the critical exposure pathway air - pasture ground - cow - milk. According to the findings on the factors influencing the radiation exposure of man presented in scientific publication we have to deviate today from static equilibrium models. Such models can no longer satisfy at the present state of the art. The viewing of the short-term time behaviour of the radioecological parameter that is imperative with iodine-131 shows that the conventional calculation, chiefly with mean values of many years, does not satisfy the requirements to replace the calculation of the radiation exposure at the most unfavourable points of exposure demanded by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. This report proves that in a number of possible events under normal operating conditions the radiation exposure is far more important and the limiting dose rates are unmistakably exceeded. If favourable conditions coincide it can in fact be expected that the radiation exposure by radio iodine remains below the limiting close rate.

  18. N-Acetyl Cysteine does not prevent liver toxicity from chronic low dose plus sub-acute high dose paracetamol exposure in young or old mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice-Elizabeth; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; Mach, John; McKenzie, Catriona; Mitchell, Sarah-Jayne; de Cabo, Rafael; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah-Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol is an analgesic commonly used by people of all ages, which is well documented to cause severe hepatotoxicity with acute over-exposures. The risk of hepatotoxicity from non-acute paracetamol exposures is less extensively studied, and this is the exposure most common in older adults. Evidence on the effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for non-acute paracetamol exposures, in any age group, is lacking. This study aimed to examine the effect of long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of paracetamol and sub-acute paracetamol over-exposure, in young and old mice, and to investigate whether NAC was effective at preventing paracetamol hepatotoxicity induced by these exposures. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a paracetamol-containing (1.33g/kg food) or control diet for 6 weeks. Mice were then dosed orally 8 times over 3 days with additional paracetamol (250mg/kg) or saline, followed by either one or two doses of oral NAC (1200mg/kg) or saline. Chronic low-dose paracetamol exposure did not cause hepatotoxicity in young or old mice, measured by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, and confirmed by histology and a DNA fragmentation assay. Sub-acute paracetamol exposure caused significant hepatotoxicity in young and old mice, measured by biochemistry (ALT) and histology. Neither a single nor double dose of NAC protected against this toxicity from sub-acute paracetamol in young or old mice. This finding has important clinical implications for treating toxicity due to different paracetamol exposure types in patients of all ages, and implies a need to develop new treatments for sub-acute paracetamol toxicity. PMID:26821200

  19. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  20. Primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants: contribution to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provens, H.

    2002-01-01

    In every country since the 80's, a clear downward trend is observed concerning the occupational doses at nuclear power plants, as shows the regularly decreasing annual collective dose per operating reactor. Even if technology and work management are improving, the reduction and the control of radiation sources remain one critical point. This paper summarizes the results of an extended study on the primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants and its contribution to workers' exposure. The paper reviews the origin and mechanisms of radiation production and the different ways of radiation control or reduction based on physical and chemical parameters and not organisational or human factors. It underlines that chemistry control of the primary circuit is one essential component of radiation protection optimisation in nuclear power plants. Results reported come from scientific data in open literature and cannot be generalized to all the power plants

  1. Radiation exposure and dosimetry in transplant patients due to Nuclear Medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, T. A. F.; Cairo Univ., Cairo; Camps, J. A. J.; Geleyns, J.; Pauwels, E. K. J.

    2000-01-01

    Organ transplantation is now an accepted method of therapy for treating patients with end stage failure of kidneys, liver, heart or lung. Nuclear Medicine may provide functional data and semi-quantitative parameters. However, one serious factor that hampers the use of nuclear medicine procedures in transplant patients is the general clinical concern about radiation exposure to the patient. This lead the researcher to discuss the effective doses and radiation dosimetry associated with radionuclide procedures used in the management and follow-up of transplant patients. A simple way to place the risk associated with Nuclear Medicine studies in an appropriate context is to compare the dose with that received from more familiar source of exposure such as from a diagnostic X-ray procedure. The radiation dose for the different radiopharmaceuticals used to study transplant organ function ranges between 0.1 and 5.3 mSv which is comparable to X-ray procedures with the exception of 201 Tl and 111 In-antimyosin. Thus Nuclear Medicine studies do not bear a higher radiation risk than the often used X-ray studies in transplant patients

  2. Worldwide activities on the reduction of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    This report is based on analysis of an informational data base set up at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center. It is part of a project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor and evaluate research on dose reduction at nuclear power plants in the US and abroad. The main benefits to be expected from reducing occupational exposures are highlighted in the report, the chief causes of elevated doses are identified, and effective approaches to minimize radiation exposures are proposed. A wide range of research activity is covered, including plant chemistry, cobalt reduction techniques, stress corrosion cracking, decontamination, remote tools and devices, and robotics. Advanced reactors, which are designed for low radiation exposures, are examined, and health physics technology programs which have been effective in reducing occupational exposure at various utilities are discussed. The highlights of the programs on dose reduction conducted by a number of countries are described, and comparisons are made of the collective occupational radiation dose equivalents for selected countries. The short and long term trends such studies are pointing to are evaluated. It is concluded that the efforts to improve dose reduction, both in the US and abroad, remain in a healthy state but require continuing encouragement and further development

  3. Nerve fiber layer (NFL) degeneration associated with acute q-switched laser exposure in the nonhuman primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Harry; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Lund, David J.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    1995-01-01

    We have evaluated acute laser retinal exposure in non-human primates using a Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) equipped with spectral imaging laser sources at 488, 514, 633, and 780 nm. Confocal spectral imaging at each laser wavelength allowed evaluation of the image plane from deep within the retinal vascular layer to the more superficial nerve fiber layer in the presence and absence of the short wavelength absorption of the macular pigment. SLO angiography included both fluorescein and indocyanine green procedures to assess the extent of damage to the sensory retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and the choroidal vasculature. All laser exposures in this experiment were from a Q-switched Neodymium laser source at an exposure level sufficient to produce vitreous hemorrhage. Confocal imaging of the nerve fiber layer revealed discrete optic nerve sector defects between the lesion site and the macula (retrograde degeneration) as well as between the lesion site and the optic disk (Wallerian degeneration). In multiple hemorrhagic exposures, lesions placed progressively distant from the macula or overlapping the macula formed bridging scars visible at deep retinal levels. Angiography revealed blood flow disturbance at the retina as well as at the choroidal vascular level. These data suggest that acute parafoveal laser retinal injury can involve both direct full thickness damage to the sensory and non-sensory retina and remote nerve fiber degeneration. Such injury has serious functional implications for both central and peripheral visual function.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of primary endometrial epithelial cells following acute HIV-1 exposure reveals gene signatures related to innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Woods, Matthew William; Dizzell, Sara; Nazli, Aisha; Mueller, Kristen M; Nguyen, Philip V; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-04-01

    Genital epithelial cells (GECs) line the mucosal surface of the female genital tract (FGT) and are the first cells that interface with both commensal microbiota and sexually transmitted pathogens. Despite the protective barrier formed by GECs, the FGT is a major site of HIV-1 infection. This highlights the importance of studying the interaction of HIV-1 and GECs. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial GECs grown in the presence or absence of physiological levels of E2 (10 -9  mol/L) or P4 (10 -7  mol/L) following acute exposure to HIV-1 for 6 hours. Acute exposure of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 resulted in the expression of genes related to inflammation, plasminogen activation, adhesion and diapedesis and interferon response. Interestingly, exposure to HIV-1 in the presence of E2 and P4 resulted in differential transcriptional profiles, suggesting that the response of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 exposure is modulated by female sex hormones. The gene expression signature of endometrial GECs indicates that the response of these cells may be key to determining host susceptibility to HIV-1 and that sex hormones modulate these interactions. This study allows us to explore possible mechanisms that explain the hormone-mediated fluctuation of HIV-1 susceptibility in women. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management.

  6. Assessment of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation in laboratories of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.; Kocznow, W.; Hawrynski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigations with determination of radioisotopes in urine led to detection of contamination with 99m Tc and radioactive iodine. The measurements and dosimetry of external radiation demonstrated that workers in laboratories of radioisotope diagnosis received a mean annual equivalent doses amounted less than 5% of the permissible dose for persons with occupational exposure. It was also established that external exposure was mainly responsible for this. The data about the levels of internal exposure in laboratories of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy demonstrated that introduction of a permanent central system of control of internal contamination of workers would be useless since the observation of the already accepted principles of radiological protection is sufficient for avoiding contamination. (author)

  7. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  8. Does acute radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Anna; Loughran, Sarah P; Verrender, Adam; Burdon, Catriona A; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J

    2018-05-01

    To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF). A fully randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind design was used. P1 amplitude was reduced (p = .02) and anterior N1 latency was increased (p = .04) during Exposure compared to Sham. There were no effects on any other ERP latencies or amplitudes. RF-EMF exposure may affect early perceptual (P1) and preparatory motor (anterior N1) processes. However, only two ERP indices, out of 56 comparisons, were observed to differ between RF-EMF exposure and Sham, suggesting that these observations may be due to chance. These observations are consistent with previous findings that RF-EMF exposure has no reliable impact on cognition (e.g., accuracy and response speed). Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  10. Acute Toluene Exposure alters expression of genes associated with synaptic structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluene (TOL), a volatile organic compound, is a ubiquitous air pollutant of interest to EPA regulatory programs. Whereas its acute functional effects are well described, several potential modes of action in the CNS have been proposed. Therefore, the genomic response to acute TOL...

  11. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD 50 - 30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  12. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates

  13. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  14. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  15. Does the acute pulmonary response to ozone depend on the cumulative exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In experimental conditions, repeated ozone exposure induces adaptive phenomena that attenuate lung function and inflammatory responses. But this study did not find that lifetime cumulative exposure had a protective effect; indeed, it found the contrary. (author)

  16. The effects of acute alcohol exposure on the response properties of neurons in visual cortex area 17 of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Xia Jing; Li Guangxing; Zhou Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.

  17. Differential effects of 5-HTTLPR genotypes on mood, memory, and attention bias following acute tryptophan depletion and stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firk, Christine; Markus, C Rob

    2009-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) may be associated with increased vulnerability to acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and depression vulnerability especially following stressful life events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ATD in subjects with different 5-HTTLPR profiles before and after stress exposure on affective and cognitive-attentional changes. Eighteen subjects with homozygotic short alleles (S'/S') and 17 subjects with homozygotic long alleles (L'/L') of the 5-HTTLPR participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design to measure the effects of ATD on mood, memory, and attention before and after acute stress exposure. ATD lowered mood in all subjects independent of genotype. In S'/S' genotypes, mild acute stress increased depressive mood and in L'/L' genotypes increased feelings of vigor. Furthermore, S'/S' genotypes differed from L'/L' genotypes on measures of attention independent of treatment and memory following ATD. Polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR differentially affect responses to mild stress and ATD, suggesting greater vulnerability of S'/S' carriers to serotonergic manipulations and supporting increased depression vulnerability.

  18. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-01-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations

  19. Acute Free-Iron Exposure Does Not Explain the Impaired Haemorheology Associated with Haemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony P McNamee

    Full Text Available Given the severity of the current imbalance between blood donor supply and recipient demand, discarded blood drawn from the routine venesections of haemochromatosis (HFE-HH patients may serve as a valuable alternative source for blood banks and transfusion. We investigated whether functional or biochemical differences existed between HFE-HH and control blood samples, with particular focus upon the haemorheological properties, to investigate the viability of venesected blood being subsequently harvested for blood products.Blood samples were collected from HFE-HH patients undergoing venesection treatment (n = 19 and healthy volunteers (n = 8. Moreover, a second experiment investigated the effects of a dose-response of iron (0, 40, 80, 320 mM FeCl3 on haemorheology in healthy blood samples (n = 7. Dependent variables included basic haematology, iron status, haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC aggregation (native and standardised haematocrit and "aggregability" (RBC tendency to aggregate in a standard aggregating medium; 0.4 L/L haematocrit in a Dx70, and RBC deformability.Indices of RBC deformability were significantly decreased for HFE-HH when compared with healthy controls: RBC deformability was significantly decreased at 1-7 Pa (p < 0.05, and the shear stress required for half maximal deformability was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for HFE-HH. RBC aggregation in plasma was significantly increased (p < 0.001 for HFE-HH, although when RBC were suspended in plasma-free Dx70 no differences were detected. No differences in RBC deformability or RBC aggregation/aggregability were detected when healthy RBC were incubated with varying dose of FeCl3.HFE-HH impairs the haemorheological properties of blood; however, RBC aggregability was similar between HFE-HH and controls when cells were suspended in a plasma-free medium, indicating that plasma factor(s may explain the altered haemorheology in HFE-HH patients. Acute exposure to elevated iron levels does

  20. Radioepidemiological studies on the occupational exposure of workers in nuclear industry of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Li Suyun; Yuan Liyun; Wang Yinzhang

    1993-11-01

    The results of retrospective-cohort radioepidemiological studies on the workers exposed to occupational radiation in the uranium and nuclear plants and uranium mines governed by China National Nuclear Corporation is reported. Period of follow-up is 1971 ∼ 1985, total number of observation 40122, person years of follow-up 575411. The per caput dose of external radiation in workers of reactor, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and research units was 57 mSv. For fuel element fabrication and gaseous diffusion plants, it was less than 5 mSv and about 3/4 of which came from the committed effective dose of internal radiation. SMR of total death and cancer death was generally less than 1.0 in exposure group of nuclear plants. There was no evidence of increment of the risk of radiogenic cancer. 31786 offsprings of workers in nuclear plants were subjected to the study on hereditary effects. The results was also negative. The only exception was uranium mines. Owing to the high concentration of radon before the 1960's, the average cumulative exposure of radon daughters of uranium miner was about 80 WLM, relative risk of miner lung cancer was about 2.0. the absolute risk coefficient was about 1/10 to 1/3 of the results of Western countries because of the low baseline rate of lung cancer in China. The excess relative risk coefficient was similar to the value presented by other countries. Radon contamination and increment of miner lung cancer encountered prominently in some non-uranium mines in China

  1. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen responsible for causing DNA strand breaks in all living organisms. Strand breaks thus created can be repaired by different mechanisms, including homologous recombination (HR), one of the key mechanisms maintaining genome stability [A. Britt, DNA damage and repair in plants, Annu. Rev. Plant. Phys. Plant Mol. Biol., 45 (1996) 75-100; H. Puchta, B. Hohn, From centiMorgans to basepairs: homologous recombination in plants, Trends Plant Sci., 1 (1996) 340-348.]. Acute or chronic exposure to IR may have different influences on the genome integrity. Although in a radioactively contaminated environment plants are mostly exposed to chronic pollution, evaluation of both kinds of influences is important. Estimation of the frequency of HR in the exposed plants may serve as an indication of genome stability. We used previously generated Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants, transgenic for non-active versions of the {beta}-glucoronidase gene (uidA) [P. Swoboda, S. Gal, B. Hohn, H. Puchta, Intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants, EMBO J., 13 (1994) 484-489; H. Puchta, P. Swoboda, B. Hohn, Induction of homologous DNA recombination in whole plants, Plant, 7 (1995) 203-210.] serving as a recombination substrate, to study the influence of acute and chronic exposure to IR on the level of HR as example of genome stability in plants. Exposure of seeds and seedlings to 0.1 to 10.0 Gy 60Co resulted in increased HR frequency, although the effect was more pronounced in seedlings. For the study of the influence of chronic exposure to IR, plants were grown on two chemically different types of soils, each artificially contaminated with equal amounts of 137Cs. We observed a strong and significant correlation between the frequency of HR in plants, the radioactivity of the soil samples and the doses of radiation absorbed by plants (in all cases r0.9, n=6, P<0.05). In addition, we noted that plants grown in soils with

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment from potential exposures to the public applied for innovative nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorzhak, Alla; Mora, Juan C.; Robles, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Potential exposures are those that may occur as a result of unanticipated operational performance or accidents. Potential exposure situations are probabilistic in nature because they depend on uncertain events such as equipment failure, operator errors or external initiators beyond the control of the operator. Consequently, there may exist a range of possible radiological impacts that need to be considered. In this paper a Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for a hypothetical scenario relevant to Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (INS) was conducted using computer code MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code Systems). The acceptability of an INS was analyzed taking into account the general requirement that relocation or evacuation measures must not be necessary beyond the site boundary. In addition, deterministic modeling of the accident consequences for the critical meteorological conditions was carried out using the JRODOS decision support system (Real-time On-line Decision Support system for off-site emergency management in Europe). The approach used for dose and risk assessment from potential exposure of accidental releases and their comparison with acceptance criteria are presented. The methodology described can be used as input to the licensing procedure and engineering design considerations to help satisfy relevant health and environmental impact criteria for fission or fusion nuclear installations. - Highlights: • PSA Level-3 based on WinMACCS code is carried out for accidental release. • Family curves of percentiles for radiation exposure doses are constructed. • Risk indicators for potential exposure are defined. • Using of risk acceptance curve criteria is proposed for decision making process.

  3. Acute respiratory syndrome after inhalation of waterproofing sprays: a posteriori exposure-response assessment in 102 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, David; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; De-Batz, Alice; Droz, Pierre; Lazor, Romain

    2006-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely used to protect leather and textiles in both domestic and occupational activities. An outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome following exposure to waterproofing sprays occurred during the winter 2002-2003 in Switzerland. About 180 cases were reported by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between October 2002 and March 2003, whereas fewer than 10 cases per year had been recorded previously. The reported cases involved three brands of sprays containing a common waterproofing mixture, that had undergone a formulation change in the months preceding the outbreak. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in collaboration with the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and the Swiss Registries for Interstitial and Orphan Lung Diseases to clarify the circumstances and possible causes of the observed health effects. Individual exposure data were generated with questionnaires and experimental emission measurements. The collected data was used to conduct numeric simulation for 102 cases of exposure. A classical two-zone model was used to assess the aerosol dispersion in the near- and far-field during spraying. The resulting assessed dose and exposure levels obtained were spread on large scales, of several orders of magnitude. No dose-response relationship was found between exposure indicators and health effects indicators (perceived severity and clinical indicators). Weak relationships were found between unspecific inflammatory response indicators (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) and the maximal exposure concentration. The results obtained disclose a high interindividual response variability and suggest that some indirect mechanism(s) predominates in the respiratory disease occurrence. Furthermore, no threshold could be found to define a safe level of exposure. These findings suggest that the improvement of environmental exposure conditions during spraying alone does not constitute a sufficient measure to prevent future outbreaks of

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BLI6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 lag MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  5. Analyses of human exposures to alpha-emitting radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; McClellan, R.O.; Griffith, W.C.; Hoover, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Human populations may potentially be exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides released to the environment from a variety of activities associated with nuclear fuel cycles. Generally, the most important exposure pathway is by way of inhalation. This can occur soon after release of these substances or after they have been deposited on ground surfaces and resuspended with soil particles. Estimating the potential magnitude of these exposures is usually done through the use of mathematical models accounting for the dispersion of the released material through the environment and its uptake by people living near the nuclear facilities. Studies described in this paper suggest that these exposures can probably be estimated within a factor of 10 based upon our previous experience with measured human organ levels of other trace metals taken up from the environment. It should also be noted that variability among individuals within the population may result in a few percent accumulating more than 10 times the geometric mean of the internal organ radionuclide burdens

  6. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors, 1981. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents an updated compilation of occupational radiation exposures at commercial nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1981. This year's report contains data received from the 70 light water cooled reactors (LWRs) and one high temperature gas cooled reactor that had been declared to be in commercial operation for at least one full year as of December 31, 1981. This represents an increase of two reactors over the number contained in last year's report. The total number of personnel monitored at LWRs in 1981 was 124,504, a slight decrease from that found in 1980. The number of workers that received measurable doses during 1981 was 82,183 which is about 2000 more than that found in 1980. The total collective dose at LWRs for 1981 is estimated to be 54,142 man-rems, which is only about 350 man-rems more than that reported in 1980. The report also presents a summary and some analyses of the exposure data contained in the termination reports that have been submitted by nuclear power licensees to the Commission pursuant to 10 CFR Section 20.408. As of December 31, 1981, personal identification and exposure information had been collected and computerized for some 210,000 of these terminating reactor personnel

  7. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  8. Amiodarone biokinetics, the formation of its major oxidative metabolite and neurotoxicity after acute and repeated exposure of brain cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponio, Giuliana; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Schultz, Luise; Weiss, Dieter G; Romanelli, Luca; Gramowski-Voss, Alexandra; Di Consiglio, Emma; Testai, Emanuela

    2015-12-25

    The difficulty in mimicking nervous system complexity and cell-cell interactions as well as the lack of kinetics information has limited the use of in vitro neurotoxicity data. Here, we assessed the biokinetic profile as well as the neurotoxicity of Amiodarone after acute and repeated exposure in two advanced rodent brain cell culture models, consisting of both neurons and glial cells organized in 2 or 3 dimensions to mimic the brain histiotypic structure and function. A strategy was applied to evidence the abiotic processes possibly affecting Amiodarone in vitro bioavailability, showing its ability to adsorb to the plastic devices. At clinically relevant Amiodarone concentrations, known to induce neurotoxicity in some patients during therapeutic treatment, a complete uptake was observed in both models in 24 h, after single exposure. After repeated treatments, bioaccumulation was observed, especially in the 3D cell model, together with a greater alteration of neurotoxicity markers. After 14 days, Amiodarone major oxidative metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) was detected at limited levels, indicating the presence of active drug metabolism enzymes (i.e. cytochrome P450) in both models. The assessment of biokinetics provides useful information on the relevance of in vitro toxicity data and should be considered in the design of an Integrated Testing Strategy aimed to identify specific neurotoxic alerts, and to improve the neurotoxicity assay predictivity for human acute and repeated exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of acute leukemia in children: causal model, interaction of three factors-susceptibility, environmental exposure and vulnerability period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    Acute leukemias have a huge morphological, cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity and genetic polymorphisms associated with susceptibility. Every leukemia presents causal factors associated with the development of the disease. Particularly, when three factors are present, they result in the development of acute leukemia. These phenomena are susceptibility, environmental exposure and a period that, for this model, has been called the period of vulnerability. This framework shows how the concepts of molecular epidemiology have established a reference from which it is more feasible to identify the environmental factors associated with the development of leukemia in children. Subsequently, the arguments show that only susceptible children are likely to develop leukemia once exposed to an environmental factor. For additional exposure, if the child is not susceptible to leukemia, the disease does not develop. In addition, this exposure should occur during a time window when hematopoietic cells and their environment are more vulnerable to such interaction, causing the development of leukemia. This model seeks to predict the time when the leukemia develops and attempts to give a context in which the causality of childhood leukemia should be studied. This information can influence and reduce the risk of a child developing leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. The state of radioactive waste management and of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power generating facilities in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    (1) The state of radioactive waste management in nuclear power generating facilities: In the nuclear power stations, the released quantities of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes are all below the control objective levels. For the respective nuclear power stations, the released quantities of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes in fiscal 1983 and the objective levels are given in table. And, the quantities of solid wastes taken into storage and the cumulative amounts are given. For reference, the results each year since fiscal 1974 are shown. (2) The state of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power generating facilities: In the nuclear power stations, the personnel radiation exposures are all below the permissible levels. The dose distribution etc. in the respective nuclear power stations are given in table. For reference, the results each year since fiscal 1974 are shown. (Mori, K.)

  11. PML nuclear bodies in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia: active players or innocent bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicola J M; Ramalho, Michal; Pedersen, Eva W; Moravcsik, Eva; Solomon, Ellen; Grimwade, David

    2009-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) encodes a protein which localizes to PML-nuclear bodies (NBs), sub-nuclear multi-protein structures, which have been implicated in diverse biological functions such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and senescence. However, the exact biochemical and molecular basis of PML function up until now has not been defined. Strikingly, over a decade ago, PML-NBs were found to be disrupted in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which PML is fused to the gene encoding retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) due to the t(15;17) chromosomal translocation, generating the PML-RARA chimeric protein. The treatment of APL patients with all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide which target the PML-RARA oncoprotein results in clinical remission, associated with blast cell differentiation and reformation of the PML NBs, thus linking NB integrity with disease status. This review focuses on the current theories for molecular and biochemical functions of the PML-NBs, which would imply a role in the pathogenesis of APL, whilst also discussing the intriguing possibility that their disruption may not be in itself a significant oncogenic event.

  12. The effects of acute waterborne exposure to sublethal concentrations of molybdenum on the stress response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea D Ricketts

    Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.

  13. The Effects of Acute Waterborne Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Molybdenum on the Stress Response in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Chelsea D.; Bates, William R.; Reid, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if molybdenum (Mo) is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo) and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit) and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills) stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73), hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout. PMID:25629693

  14. Effects of acute exercise on fear extinction in rats and exposure therapy in humans: Null findings from five experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Jolene; Roquet, Rheall F; Papini, Santiago; Powers, Mark B; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Monfils, Marie-H

    2017-08-01

    Exposure therapy is an established learning-based intervention for the treatment of anxiety disorders with an average response rate of nearly 50%, leaving room for improvement. Emerging strategies to enhance exposure therapy in humans and fear extinction retention in animal models are primarily pharmacological. These approaches are limited as many patients report preferring non-pharmacological approaches in therapy. With general cognitive enhancement effects, exercise has emerged as a plausible non-pharmacological augmentation strategy. The present study tested the hypothesis that fear extinction and exposure therapy would be enhanced by a pre-training bout of exercise. We conducted four experiments with rats that involved a standardized conditioning and extinction paradigm and a manipulation of exercise. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated vigorous-intensity exercise prior to a standardized virtual reality exposure therapy session among adults with fear of heights. In experiments 1-4, exercise did not facilitate fear extinction, long-term memory, or fear relapse tests. In experiment 5, human participants showed an overall reduction in fear of heights but exercise did not enhance symptom improvement. Although acute exercise prior to fear extinction or exposure therapy, as operationalized in the present 5 studies, did not enhance outcomes, these results must be interpreted within the context of a broader literature that includes positive findings. Taken all together, this suggests that more research is necessary to identify optimal parameters and key individual differences so that exercise can be implemented successfully to treat anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation and describes the procedure in radiation protection monitoring for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation in nuclear installations. This radiation comprises β - radiation, β + radiation and conversion electron radiation as well as photon radiation with energies below 15 keV. This International Standard describes the procedure in radiation protection planning and monitoring as well as the measurement and analysis to be applied. It applies to regular nuclear power plant operation including maintenance, waste handling and decommissioning. The recommendations of this International Standard may also be transferred to other nuclear fields including reprocessing, if the area-specific issues are considered. This International Standard may also be applied to radiation protection at accelerator facilities and in nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities

  16. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  17. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Thompson, Janet A; Kenyon, Allison; Goldsmith, William T; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Jackson, Mark; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7. In summary, acute

  18. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. Methods The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m 3 , five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control. At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. Results No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following metha-choline (MCh inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure

  19. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePalomino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression (CB1 receptors and enzymes that produce (DAGLα/β and NAPE-PLD and degrade (MAGL and FAAH eCB were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system (glutamate synthesizing enzymes LGA and KGA, mGluR3/5 metabotropic receptors, and NR1/2A/2B/2C-NMDA and GluR1/2/3/4-AMPA ionotropic receptor subunits and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-AG production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and glutamate systems. Repeated cocaine results in normalization of glutamate receptor expression, although sustained changes in eCB is observed. We suggest that cocaine-induced alterations to cerebellar eCB should be considered when analyzing the adaptations imposed by psychostimulants that

  20. Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2017-11-15

    The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of 1 H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation exposures associated with shipments of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, C.D.; Messick, C.E.; Mustin, T.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the Record of Decision on a Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (ROD) (DOE, 1996a), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a 13-year program under which DOE accepts foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States. The ROD required that DOE take several steps to ensure low environmental and health impacts resulting from the implementation of the program. These efforts mainly focus on transportation related activities that the analysis of potential environmental impacts in the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (EIS) (DOE, 1996b) identified as having the potential for exceeding current radiation protection guidelines. Consequently, DOE issued a Mitigation Action Plan to reduce the likelihood of potential adverse environmental impacts associated with the policy established in the ROD. As shown in the EIS, incident-free radiation exposures to members of the ship's crew, port workers, and ground transportation personnel due to shipments of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors are expected to be below the radiation exposure limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) per year established to protect the general public. However, the analysis in the EIS demonstrated that port and transportation workers could conceivably receive a cumulative radiation dose above the limit established for the general public if, for example, they are involved in multiple shipments within one year or if the radiation levels outside the casks are at the maximum allowable regulatory limit (10 mrem/hr [0.1 mSv/h] at 2 meters from the surface of the cask). With the program successfully underway, DOE has collected information from the shipments in accordance with the Mitigation Action Plan. The information to date has demonstrated that the analysis in

  2. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  3. An integrated framework for effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyun Moon; Hak, Soo Kim; Young, Ho Cho; Chang, Sun Kang

    1998-01-01

    For effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to identify repetitive high radiation jobs during maintenance and refueling operation and comprehensively assess them. An integrated framework for effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure is proposed in this study. The framework consists of three parts; data collection, statistical analysis, and ALARA findings. A PC-based database program, INSTORE, is used for data collection and reduction, and the Rank Sum Method is used in identifying high radiation jobs. As a case study, the data accumulated in Kori Units 3 and 4 have been analyzed. The results of this study show that the radiation job classifications of SG related work have much effect on annual ORE collective dose in Kori Units 3 and 4. As an example of ALARA findings, hence, the improvements for the radiation job classifications of SG related work are summarized

  4. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, P D

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout.

  5. Development of automated equipment for reduction of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogushi, Akira; Fujii, Masaaki; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.

    1976-01-01

    Described are a mobile remote inspection system and an automatic analyzer for radioactive nuclides in reactor coolant now being developed as a means of reducing personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. In the mobile remote inspection system ''TELEPAT'', a self-propelled vehicle equipped with a thermometer, accelerometer, microphone, ionization chamber, etc. is remote operated from the main control room to inspect the equipment in the reactor building. The automatic analyzer for radioactive nuclides in reactor coolant automates the series of operations ranging from sampling of reactor coolant to measurement of radioactivity and analyses of measured data, with a view to saving labor in radioactivity analysis work while reducing exposure of personnel to radiation. (auth.)

  6. Sizewell nuclear power station: investigation of radiation exposure pathways from liquid effluents. Local habits survey 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Smith, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A habits and consumption survey to review radiation exposure pathways due to liquid effluents released from the CEGB Sizewell site is described. It is relevant to both the Sizewell A and proposed Sizewell B nuclear power stations. The main objectives are to provide input data to a radiological assessment by means of identifying critical groups and to provide data for guidance in a review of environmental monitoring programmes. The way in which data for the different pathways should be combined in order to aid the subsequent radiological assessment is discussed. Recommendations are made for adjustments to the present monitoring programmes. (U.K.)

  7. Cost-effectiveness considerations in reducing occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Maccia, C.; Pages, P.

    1983-01-01

    This article outlines a method of applying the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principle to occupational radiation exposures in nuclear power stations. A set of protective actions already taken at French pressurized-water reactors now in operation were selected, and their cost and effectiveness were assessed, allowing for the possible interdependence of protection and energy-production objectives. The usefulness of such quantitative evaluation is discussed with regard to the problem of using monetary values of the man-sievert in optimization procedures

  8. Occupational exposure at Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power station 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Puebla, J.C.O.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents in its first part the evolution of occupational exposure from plant start-up in May 1971. Also, and in order to obtain standardization of results, correlations with gross energy generated and man-hours worked in the periods in question are presented. From the joint study of these data and the evolution of the radiation levels in various areas of the plan, the tendency may be foreseen. The second part presents some generic resources which would allow the reduction of occupational dose in a nuclear power plant in operation

  9. Radiation exposure control of nuclear power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of exposure records of all persons engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany has shown that annual collective doses increase rapidly with time. The annual gross electrical energy generated from nuclear power also increases rapidly with time, corresponding to about 11% of the total gross electrical energy produced in 1977/78. Therefore, it is obvious that there is an increase of both the risk and the benefit from nuclear power production. Whether in the course of time the situation develops more towards the risk or the benefit side is learned from the history of the annual ratio of the collective dose per gross electrical energy generated. This ratio shows a significant decrease since 1972. The decrease is due to the experience gained from operation of the first-generation plants, which led to several administrative measures aimed at an improved control of the collective doses of power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany. The administrative measures include, among others, the introduction of the following requirements: (a) Everyone who applies for a nuclear power plant construction licence has to provide evidence that, in the design of the plant, full use is made of the experience gained from plants in operation with respect to reduction of collective doses of the power plant personnel. (b) Everyone who engages his employees on radiation work within operations for which an operation licence is required, but which is held by others, requires a special 'contractor licence'. (c) Every person engaged in radiation work on the basis of a contractor licence must carry a special exposure record book which is registered by the competent national authority. (author)

  10. Gamma exposure rate estimation in irradiation facilities of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    There are experimental situations in the nuclear field, in which dose estimations due to energy-dependent radiation fields are required. Nuclear research reactors provide such fields under normal operation or due to radioactive disintegration of fission products and structural materials activation. In such situations, it is necessary to know the exposure rate of gamma radiation the different materials under experimentation are subject to. Detectors of delayed reading are usually used for this purpose. Direct evaluation methods using portable monitors are not always possible, because in some facilities the entrance with such devices is often impracticable and also unsafe. Besides, these devices only provide information of the place where the measurement was performed, but not of temporal and spatial fluctuations the radiation fields could have. In this work a direct evaluation method was developed for the 'in-situ' gamma exposure rate for the irradiation facilities of the RA-1 reactor. This method is also applicable in any similar installation, and may be complemented by delayed evaluations without problem. On the other hand, it is well known that the residual effect of radiation modifies some properties of the organic materials used in reactors, such as density, colour, viscosity, oxidation level, among others. In such cases, a correct dosimetric evaluation enables in service estimation of material duration with preserved properties. This evaluation is for instance useful when applied to lubricating oils for the primary circuit pumps in nuclear power plants, thus minimizing waste generation. In this work the necessary elements required to estimate in-situ time and space integrated dose are also established for a gamma irradiated sample in an irradiation channel of a nuclear facility with zero neutron flux. (author)

  11. Evaluation of external radiation exposure of personnel involved in veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)

  12. Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Baker, Daniel D; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-06-01

    The decline of honeybees and other pollinating insects is a current cause for concern. A major factor implicated in their decline is exposure to agricultural chemicals, in particular the neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid. Honeybees are also subjected to additional chemical exposure when beekeepers treat hives with acaricides to combat the mite Varroa destructor. Here, we assess the effects of acute sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos, on honey bee learning and memory. Imidacloprid had little effect on performance in a six-trial olfactory conditioning assay, while coumaphos caused a modest impairment. We report a surprising lack of additive adverse effects when both compounds were administered simultaneously, which instead produced a modest improvement in learning and memory.

  13. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  14. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Blair, T.; Haya, K.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis.

  15. The state of radioactive waste management and personnel radiation exposure in commercial nuclear power plants in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste management: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the release of gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes below the objective release levels, and to store solid wastes in containers on the site. As for the former, the released (radioactive) quantity in fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982,) together with the objective levels are given for respective nuclear power stations; and as for the latter, the stored quantity and also the cumulative quantity up to the year are given. Radiation exposure: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the personnel exposure below the permissible level. The personnel exposure dose in fiscal 1981 is given for respective nuclear power station. (Mori, K.)

  16. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  17. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F 0 and F 1 Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F 0 Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F 2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F 2 progeny of irradiated F 0 Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F 2 progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F 2 progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  18. A population-based case-control study on statin exposure and risk of acute diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköldberg, Filip; Svensson, Tobias; Olén, Ola; Hjern, Fredrik; Schmidt, Peter T; Ljung, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    A reduced risk of perforated diverticular disease among individuals with current statin exposure has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether statins reduce the risk of acute diverticular disease. A nation-wide population-based case-control study was performed, including 13,127 cases hospitalised during 2006-2010 with a first-time diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease, and 128,442 control subjects (matched for sex, age, county of residence and calendar year). Emergency surgery, assumed to be a proxy for complicated diverticulitis, was performed on 906 of the cases during the index admission, with 8818 matched controls. Statin exposure was classified as "current" or "former" if a statin prescription was last dispensed ≤ 125 days or >125 days before index date, respectively. The association between statin exposure and acute diverticular disease was investigated by conditional logistic regression, including models adjusting for country of birth, educational level, marital status, comorbidities, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug/steroid exposure and healthcare utilisation. A total of 1959 cases (14.9%) and 16,456 controls (12.8%) were current statin users (crude OR 1.23 [95% CI 1.17-1.30]; fully adjusted OR 1.00 [0.94-1.06]). One hundred and thirty-two of the cases subjected to surgery (14.6%), and 1441 of the corresponding controls (16.3%) were current statin users (crude OR 0.89 [95% CI 0.73-1.08]; fully adjusted OR 0.70 [0.55-0.89]). The results do not indicate that statins affect the development of symptomatic diverticular disease in general. However, current statin use was associated with a reduced risk of emergency surgery for diverticular disease.

  19. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M.; Ghasemi, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshi, C.; Parsouzi, Z. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Health Physics and Dosimetry Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  20. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  1. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  2. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  3. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  4. Acute Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress After Exposure to a Deployment-Related Explosive Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Monty T; Moring, John C; Hale, Willie J; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Bryant, Richard A; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T; Villarreal, Robert; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Malach, Steffany L; Lara-Ruiz, Jose M; Isler, William; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-05-18

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure. The current study is the first large study to collect psychological and neuropsychological data from active duty service members within a few days after blast exposure. Recruitment for blast-injured TBI patients occurred at the Air Force Theater Hospital, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, Joint Base Balad, Iraq. Patients were referred from across the combat theater and evaluated as part of routine clinical assessment of psychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms after exposure to an explosive blast. Four measures of neuropsychological functioning were used: the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE); the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS); the Headminder Cognitive Stability Index (CSI); and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4.0 (ANAM4). Three measures of combat exposure and psychological functioning were used: the Combat Experiences Scale (CES); the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M); and the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS). Assessments were completed by a deployed clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or mental health technician. A total of 894 patients were evaluated. Data from 93 patients were removed from the data set for analysis because they experienced a head injury due to an event that was not an explosive blast (n = 84) or they were only assessed for psychiatric symptoms (n = 9). This resulted in a total of 801 blast-exposed patients for data

  5. A study on exposure dose from injection work and elution work for radiation workers and frequent workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yong Jin; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Choi, Eun Jin; Kwak, Jong Gil; Ryu, Jae Kwang

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other occupations, there is a greater risk of exposure to radiation due to the use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine for diagnostic evaluations and therapy. To consider ways to reduce exposure dose for those in nuclear medicine involved in injection work and elution work among radiation workers as well as for sanitation workers and trainees among frequent workers an investigation into exposure dose and situational analysis from changes in yearly exposure dose evaluations, changes in work environment and changes in forms of inspection were conducted. Exposure dose measurements were taken by using EPD MK2 worn during working hours for one injection worker, one elution worker, two sanitation workers, and one trainee at a general hospital in the Seoul area for three days from July 18th to 20th 2016. Radiation from radioisotopes which are a part of nuclear medicine can significantly affect not only radiation workers who deal with radioisotopes directly but also frequency works as well. According to this study the annual dose limit for elution workers and injection workers were considered safe as the amount of exposure was not large enough to have a signifcant effect. The limits of this study consist in the duration of this study and the quantity of participants. Also there was a limitation of the measurement device involving accumulated exposure, where the EPD MK2 cannot check the changes in exposure according to a particular activity

  6. A study on exposure dose from injection work and elution work for radiation workers and frequent workers in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yong Jin; Chung, Woon Kwan [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin; Kwak, Jong Gil [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University Graduate School, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae Kwang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Compared to other occupations, there is a greater risk of exposure to radiation due to the use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine for diagnostic evaluations and therapy. To consider ways to reduce exposure dose for those in nuclear medicine involved in injection work and elution work among radiation workers as well as for sanitation workers and trainees among frequent workers an investigation into exposure dose and situational analysis from changes in yearly exposure dose evaluations, changes in work environment and changes in forms of inspection were conducted. Exposure dose measurements were taken by using EPD MK2 worn during working hours for one injection worker, one elution worker, two sanitation workers, and one trainee at a general hospital in the Seoul area for three days from July 18th to 20th 2016. Radiation from radioisotopes which are a part of nuclear medicine can significantly affect not only radiation workers who deal with radioisotopes directly but also frequency works as well. According to this study the annual dose limit for elution workers and injection workers were considered safe as the amount of exposure was not large enough to have a signifcant effect. The limits of this study consist in the duration of this study and the quantity of participants. Also there was a limitation of the measurement device involving accumulated exposure, where the EPD MK2 cannot check the changes in exposure according to a particular activity.

  7. Nuclear emulsion measurements of the astronauts' radiation exposure on the Apollo-Soyuz mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    On the Apollo-Soyuz mission each astronaut carried one passive dosimeter containing nuclear photographic emulsions, plastic foils, TLD chips, and neutron-activation foils for recording radiation exposure. This report is limited to the presentation of data retrieved from nuclear emulsions. Protons, most of them trapped particles encountered in numerous passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly, contributed by far the largest share to the mission dose. Their linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum was established from track and grain counts in a G.5 emulsion which is used for medium and high energies, and from ender counts in a K.2 emulsion which is used for low energies. The total mission fluence of protons was found to be equivalent to a unidirectional beam of 448,500 square centimeters. The broad spectrum was broken down into small LET intervals, which allowed for the computation of absorbed doses and dose equivalents. The totals are 51 millirad and 74 millirem. Counts of disintegration stars in K.2 emulsion are incomplete at present. While a total of 467 stars were identified, counting their prong numbers is still in progress. It was concluded that the Apollo-Soyuz astronauts' radiation exposure as such did not contain anything out of the ordinary that would seem to require special attention.

  8. Radiation exposure control in back end of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel Reprocessing Plant and Waste Immobilization Plant for management of high level liquid waste, generated during reprocessing, form part of the back end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Both the plants handle annually several million curie of fission products in easily dispersible form. There is potential for significant external exposure and internal contamination to plant workers during plant operations, associated maintenance works and also during outages for carrying out repairs/modifications inside cells where process equipment handling/storing radioactive materials are installed. In view of handling of fissile material (Pu) in a reprocessing plant, special attention has to be paid to ensure that a condition for self sustaining nuclear fission chain reaction (criticality) does not arise even under foreseeable maloperation conditions. The reprocessing plant and Waste Immobilization plant have several engineered safety features such as shielding, ventilation, containment, remote operation etc. These features aim at reducing exposure to plant personnel and keeping the release of radioactive materials to environment below the limits specified in Technical Specifications of the plant. Execution of a comprehensive radiological surveillance programme which includes area monitoring, personal monitoring, effluent monitoring and investigative surveys in connection with safety related unusual occurrences, plays very important role in ensuring radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment. This together with training in radiation safety to plant workers helps reduce 'radiation phobia' in some workers. The paper describes radiological safety considerations and radiological surveillance programme (giving specific examples where required) that is being implemented in reprocessing plants and Waste Immobilization Plants in India. (author)

  9. Clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological effects of xylazine in goats after acute exposure to different environmental temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.M. Mogoa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the influence of xylazine administration on clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables after acute exposure to different environmental conditions. Xylazine hydrochloride was administered intravenously at 0.1 mg/kg body mass to 6 clinically healthy, castrated male goats. All animals were exposed for 60 min to 3 sets of climatic conditions: 14 °C, 33% relative humidity; 24 °C, 55% RH, and 34 °C, 65% RH. The variables that were measured for a period of 60 min after xylazine administration were sedation, analgesia, salivation, urination, ventilation rate, heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oesophageal temperature, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Xylazine induced sedation, analgesia, salivation and urination independently of the 3 environmental conditions. Environment had no influence on the onset, duration and recovery from sedation. In the 14 °C environment, xylazine resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and heart-rate from baseline values. Significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit and red cell count were observed in the 3 environments. Total plasma protein was significantly altered at 24 °C and 34 °C. Acute exposure of goats to different environmental conditions had no significant influence on the clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables. Physiological changes induced by xylazine were therefore independent of the environment.

  10. Oxygen Exposure Resulting in Arterial Oxygen Tensions Above the Protocol Goal Was Associated With Worse Clinical Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil R; Brower, Roy G; Hager, David N; Thompson, B Taylor; Netzer, Giora; Shanholtz, Carl; Lagakos, Adrian; Checkley, William

    2018-04-01

    High fractions of inspired oxygen may augment lung damage to exacerbate lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Participants enrolled in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trials had a goal partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood range of 55-80 mm Hg, yet the effect of oxygen exposure above this arterial oxygen tension range on clinical outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine if oxygen exposure that resulted in a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood above goal (> 80 mm Hg) was associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Longitudinal analysis of data collected in these trials. Ten clinical trials conducted at Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals between 1996 and 2013. Critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. We defined above goal oxygen exposure as the difference between the fraction of inspired oxygen and 0.5 whenever the fraction of inspired oxygen was above 0.5 and when the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood was above 80 mm Hg. We then summed above goal oxygen exposures in the first five days to calculate a cumulative above goal oxygen exposure. We determined the effect of a cumulative 5-day above goal oxygen exposure on mortality prior to discharge home at 90 days. Among 2,994 participants (mean age, 51.3 yr; 54% male) with a study-entry partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen that met acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria, average cumulative above goal oxygen exposure was 0.24 fraction of inspired oxygen-days (interquartile range, 0-0.38). Participants with above goal oxygen exposure were more likely to die (adjusted interquartile range odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.31) and have lower ventilator-free days (adjusted interquartile range mean difference of -0.83; 95% CI, -1.18 to -0.48) and lower hospital-free days (adjusted interquartile range mean difference of -1.38; 95

  11. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  12. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diuron exposure induces systemic and organ-specific toxicity following acute and sub-chronic exposure in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Martins, Priscila Raquel; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2011-05-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is a substitute urea herbicide widely used on agricultural crops with potential mutagenic, teratogenic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. Nonetheless, its toxic potential on the immune system needs a detailed assessment. Thus, in order to evaluate the adverse effect of this herbicide on lymphohematopoietic organs and macrophage activity, male Wistar rats were orally treated with Diuron at 125, 1250 and 2500 ppm for 14, 28 or 90 days. General signs of toxicity were observed in Diuron-treated groups (1250 and 2500 ppm), including reduced food intake and body weight gain, as well as higher relative weights for spleen, kidneys and liver (28 and 90-day toxicity studies) and elevated serum levels of ALT, albumin, total protein, creatinine and urea (28-day toxicity study). Diuron exposure caused a severe depletion of splenic white pulp compartments and cellularity, followed by a decreased number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis and deposition of hemosiderin in red pulp. Despite alteration in macrophage spreading, the macrophagic activity was not significantly affected by the herbicide. Under these experimental conditions, the results suggest that Diuron exerts systemic and target-organ toxicity, mainly at higher concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of acute and long-term exposure to CO 2 on the respiratory physiology and production performance of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Javed Rafiq; Johansen, D.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2018-01-01

    of recovery from stress. They also show that these effects are driven primarily by CO2 exposure, and to a much lesser extent by the associated reduction in pH. Growth and feed conversion experiments during chronic exposure suggest that there is no CO2 concentration where production performance is unaffected.......A high-level of free CO2 is a prevalent feature of intensive RAS and chronic exposure is common for most species during the production process. Currently, standard operating procedures, regulations and “safe” levels of CO2 are based on values that do not necessarily represent a point at, up...... the effects of both; acute increases in dissolved CO2 on the physiological capacity of Atlantic salmon, as well the effects of chronic exposure to different CO2 concentrations on production in freshwater. Results show that acute exposure (up to 40 mg L−1) significantly reduces aerobic capacity and the rate...

  15. Radiation exposure and health damage of residents at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolebay, Rakhypbekov; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takechi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Although the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk (former Soviet Union and presently the Republic of Kazakhstan) stopped nuclear tests 25 years ago, there are presumably more than 200,000 victims near the site, including persons with a low dose and a high dose. Semey Medical University and Shimane University, together with the Kazakh Scientific Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, have been conducting the measurement of radiation concentration of soil and the thyroid screening of residents. The following were surveyed: (1) chromosomal abnormality for 55 female residents (average 45 years in age) in heavily polluted areas and 25 female residents (average 42 years in age) in non-polluted areas, (2) mental abnormality of residents in polluted areas and non-polluted areas of Semey City, and (3) changes in the frequency of surgery cases for cancer between 1989 and 2014 at Semey Medical University Cancer Center. As for chromosomal abnormality, 3-5 times many mutation cases were observed in heavily polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. The nodules of thyroid gland were four times more frequent in heavily polluted areas. The frequency of a whole variety of cancers was nearly twice in polluted areas compared with in non-polluted areas, most of which were digestive system cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer in the order. The frequency of mental abnormality has also increased nearly twice as compared to non-polluted areas, and it included neurological disorder, adjustment disorder, neuralgia, moderate depression, and learning disability. These results suggest that some physical effects can be caused by exposure. In the future, this study will investigate the effects of radiation exposure at the nuclear test site. (A.O.)

  16. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1989-08-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from the 1986 annual statistical reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR section 20.407. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. These six categories of licensees also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR section 20.408, and some analysis of this ''termination'' data is also presented in this report. Annual report for 1986 were received from a total of 482 NRC licensees, 101 of whom were licensed nuclear power reactors. Compilations of the 482 reports indicated that some 227,652 individuals were monitored, 116,241 of whom received a measurable dose (Table 3.1). The collective dose incurred by these individuals was calculated to be 46,366 person-rems (person-cSv) which represents a decrease of 23% from the 1985 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose increased while the collective dose decreased slightly, causing the average measurable dose to decrease from 0.43 rem (cSv) to 0.40 rem (cSv). About 13% of the monitored individuals were found to have received doses greater than 0.50 rem (cSv), which is about the same as the value for 1985. 16 refs., 11 figs., 26 tabs

  17. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.; Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  18. Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: Preliminary results of a European study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merce, M. S.; Ruiz, N.; Barth, I.; Carnicer, A.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fulop, M.; Ginjaume, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Krim, S.; Mariotti, F.; Ortega, X.; Rimpler, A.; Vanhavere, F.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: 99m Tc) and 18 F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin R and DOTATOC (both labelled with 90 Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses. (authors)

  19. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Koln (Germany); Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Institut fur Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik des Klinikums (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  20. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  1. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  2. Comparison of occupational radiation dose exposures in nuclear medicine and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.A.; Binns, D.S.; Johnston, V.K.; Fawcett, M.F.; Greer, B.; Hicks, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: With the increasing use of high-dose 64 Ga, 201 TI and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for scanning in oncology in our centre, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure in a multi-modality department. This study was set up in part to counter 'radio-phobia' (the fear of working with radioactive patients) in allied health professionals. The patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor at various distances and times which replicate typical patient contact scenarios in the Diagnostic Imaging Department. An average exposure rate per hour was calculated and thus the relative radiation hazard was determined for staff who will interact with the patient outside of the hot laboratory. We present our findings from the survey and the implications these have on staff radiation exposure. In conclusion, these data suggest that emerging oncologic techniques such as PET, high-dose 67 Ga and high-dose 201 Tl do not represent a significantly greater occupational radiation hazard than conventional nuclear medicine procedures

  3. Interim report on the special research project 'exposure to environmental radiation due to nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This special research project was started in 1978 as five-year plan. The purposes are to clarify the aspect of radiation exposure in human bodies due to the radioactive substances brought into the environment regarding the utilization of atomic energy, its mechanism and various factors affecting it, and to contribute to the evaluation of exposure dose, the reduction of radiation exposure, the conditions of locating nuclear facilities and the improvement of the method of disposing radioactive wastes. In addition to the fields treated in the previous special research project, the experimental research concerning the metabolism of environmental radioactive nuclides in bodies, namely the problem of the peculiarity of radioactive nuclide kinetics in infants and fetuses different from adults and the possibility of causing the changes in the intake and metabolism of nuclides in foods by the difference in their states of existence, was newly included. Also the research concerning the method of evaluating the absorbed dose in human organs at the time of irradiation outside and inside bodies in a new subject. Accordingly, this special research project is composed of (1) the research concerning the radionuclide kinetics in the environment, (2) the research concerning the radionuclide kinetics in bodies, (3) the research concerning the measurement and evaluation of dose absorbed in internal organs due to environmental radiation, and (4) the research concerning the monitoring of low level environmental radiation. The results obtained so far are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  5. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surry (United Kingdom); Trott, K.R. [Gray Cancer Inst., Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Simon, S.L. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Saito, Hiroshi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and {sup 137}Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  6. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira; Trott, K.R.; Simon, S.L.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137 Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  7. Occupational radiation exposure in the french nuclear industry: impact of 1990'S ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Hubert, P.

    1994-01-01

    The study addresses the issue of the impact the forthcoming regulations derived from ICRP 60 recommendations will have on radiological protection practices. A questionnaire has been sent to companies carrying out tasks involving exposures to ionizing radiation. 55 companies reported the exposures of their personnel (annual collective effective dose equivalent and distribution of individual doses). The reference year is 1991. Results were obtained for a total of 43789 workers, with a corresponding collective dose equivalent of 96 man.Sv and 1100 persons with individual dose in excess of 20 mSv (1800 in excess of 15 mSv). The major part of collective, as well as the higher individual exposures are found in subcontract companies involved in maintenance, cleaning and specialized tasks during reactor shutdown. Based on this inquiry, results have been extrapolated to the whole nuclear fuel cycle. 68000 workers are estimated to be exposed, with a total collective dose of 160 man.Sv. Among them 2200 workers would be exposed to dose equivalent in excess of 20 mSv, 3400 in excess of 15 mSv. Even if higher doses concern few people, they are associated with important tasks at particular steps of the fuel cycle. In the questionnaire, companies were asked for ways and means envisaged or already in use to keep these doses within present or tighter regulatory limits. Some account of the efforts to achieve this goal will be given

  8. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2018-01-01

    New initiatives to send humans to Mars within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. However, as with all exploration, there are risks. The Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts.

  9. Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Alexis J; Le Page, Yann; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Dréan, Yves Le; Saligaut, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Several forthcoming wireless telecommunication systems will use electromagnetic frequencies at millimeter waves (MMWs), and technologies developed around the 60-GHz band will soon know a widespread distribution. Free nerve endings within the skin have been suggested to be the targets of MMW therapy which has been used in the former Soviet Union. So far, no studies have assessed the impact of MMW exposure on neuronal metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of a 24-h MMW exposure at 60.4 GHz, with an incident power density (IPD) of 5 mW/cm², on the dopaminergic turnover of NGF-treated PC12 cells. After MMW exposure, both intracellular and extracellular contents of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were studied using high performance liquid chromatography. Impact of exposure on the dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was also assessed by immunocytochemistry. We analyzed the dopamine turnover by assessing the ratio of DOPAC to DA, and measuring DOPAC accumulation in the medium. Neither dopamine turnover nor DAT protein expression level were impacted by MMW exposure. However, extracellular accumulation of DOPAC was found to be slightly increased, but not significantly. This result was related to the thermal effect, and overall, no evidence of non-thermal effects of MMW exposure were observed on dopamine metabolism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  10. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  11. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  12. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  13. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  15. Level of occupational exposure during daily work in a Nuclear Medicine Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo, E-mail: mschwarcke@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Ferreira, Nadya [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Cardoso, Domingos [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Workers of the Nuclear Medicine Department have a very complex geometric exposition. The source of irradiation is not collimated and irradiated for all direction, the interaction with many structural tissue is inside the body before could be detected outside. The professional who works in a Nuclear Medicine Department is exposed to this condition and different energies. This work proposes a good approach to estimate the mensal dose level according to the dose rate during their daily routine. To measure the dose rate, a Babyline 81 ionization chamber was used, and the most frequent exams using {sup 99m}Tc were chosen. A previous study was conducted to determine the most frequent exams made in the Nuclear Medicine Department at the Central Army Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, and previous environment monitoring determine the places with higher exposure that could interfere in the measurement of this paper. The Renal scintigraphy with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) had an average dose rate of (2.50{+-}0.25) {mu}Sv/h; for the Renal scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), it was of (1.20{+-}0.25) {mu}Sv/h; for Bone scintigraphy using two different protocols, it was (2.63{+-}0.30) {mu}Sv/h and (3.09{+-}0.30) {mu}Sv/h. Exposition during elution, dose preparing and clinical procedure was considered a critical moment in the daily routine of the employee. The dose rate obtained in this study demonstrated that the professional cannot exceed the public dose limit in one day of his work routine. Therefore, for the Radioprotection Department, this is a good approach to make a radioprotection plan in the Nuclear Medicine Department. (author)

  16. Estimation of internal exposure dose from food after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Mari; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Kawai, Masaki; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the internal exposure dose from food due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, total diet study (TDS) has been carried out. TDS is a method for estimating how much of certain chemicals people intake in the normal diet. A wide range of food products are chosen as targets, and the increase or decrease of chemicals depending on processing or cooking is taken into account. This paper glanced at the transition of TDS survey results, and with a focus on the survey results of the market basket (MB) system, which is one of the TDS techniques, it examined a decrease in the committed effective dose per year of radioactive cesium. Although the values of internal exposure dose from food in Fukushima Prefecture and surrounding prefectures are even now in a relatively high tendency compared with those in the distant regions, the difference has been narrowing. According to the attenuation prediction of internal exposure dose in each region of Fukushima Prefecture, the values after 5 years from the accident will be lower than the measured value on the food in market that has been investigated during 1989 and 2005. In addition, the internal exposure dose that was the survey results based on MB system in September - October 2014 was 0.0007 to 0.0022 mSv/year. These values are very small at 1% or less of the upper limit dose of 1 mSv/year as the setting basis of current reference value in Japan. (A.O.)

  17. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an exploratory analysis of alternative exposure metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, A; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Kleinerman, R A; Robison, L L; Kaune, W T; Misakian, M; Niwa, S; Wacholder, S; Tarone, R E

    2000-07-01

    Data collected by the National Cancer Institute-Children's Cancer Group were utilized to explore various metrics of magnetic field levels and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Cases were aged 0-14 years, were diagnosed with ALL during 1989-1993, were registered with the Children's Cancer Group, and resided in one home for at least 70 percent of the 5 years immediately prior to diagnosis. Controls were identified by using random digit dialing and met the same residential requirements. With 30-second ("spot") measurements and components of the 24-hour measurement obtained in the subject's bedroom, metrics evaluated included measures of central tendency, peak exposures, threshold values, and measures of short-term temporal variability. Measures of central tendency and the threshold measures showed good-to-high correlation, but these metrics correlated less well with the others. Small increases in risk (ranging from 1.02 to 1.69 for subjects in the highest exposure category) were associated with some measures of central tendency, but peak exposures, threshold values, measures of short-term variability, and spot measurements demonstrated little association with risk of childhood ALL. In general, risk estimates were slightly higher for the nighttime (10 p.m.-6 a.m.) interval than for the corresponding 24-hour period.

  18. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E. W.; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P.; Gill, Richard J.; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng-1 bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng-1) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  19. Dose-related gene expression changes in forebrain following acute, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Anamika; Liu Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 h following acute CPF exposure in 7-day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following either one of the four CPF dosages studied (546, 505, 522, and 3,066 genes with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg CPF). Genes were grouped according to dose-related expression patterns using K-means clustering while gene networks and canonical pathways were evaluated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (registered) . Twenty clusters were identified and differential expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR. The four largest clusters (each containing from 276 to 905 genes) constituted over 50% of all differentially expressed genes and exhibited up-regulation following exposure to the highest dosage (2 mg/kg CPF). The total number of gene networks affected by CPF also rose sharply with the highest dosage of CPF (18, 16, 18 and 50 with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg CPF). Forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly reduced (26%) only in the highest dosage group. Based on magnitude of dose-related changes in differentially expressed genes, relative numbers of gene clusters and signaling networks affected, and forebrain ChE inhibition only at 2 mg/kg CPF, we focused subsequent analyses on this treatment group. Six canonical pathways were identified that were significantly affected by 2 mg/kg CPF (MAPK, oxidative stress, NFΚB, mitochondrial dysfunction, arylhydrocarbon receptor and adrenergic receptor signaling). Evaluation of different cellular functions of the differentially expressed genes suggested changes related to olfactory receptors, cell adhesion/migration, synapse

  20. Risk Perception of Radiation Exposure of Villagers Living Near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis-Roberts, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    Connecting scientific data to societal needs is particularly important with the complex environmental issues that face us in the near future, such as global warming and natural hazards. Once the scientific data is collected and analyzed, dissemination of the results needs to be communicated to the public in a way that can be easily understood without glossing over the complexity of the issue. An interesting case study derives from the primary nuclear test site for the former Soviet Union, located near the city of Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. Villagers living directly adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were exposed continuously to radioactive clouds from atmospheric, above ground and underground nuclear tests. The people living in the region are still exposed to low levels of radiation through the environmental contamination of their food and water and have experienced a higher incidence of cancers and birth defects than people living in other regions of the country. A database of historical environmental data was collected throughout the nuclear testing period by the Soviet government, tracking radiation concentrations through food, water, and soil samples around the SNTS, but this environmental data was never shared with the villagers. In fact, only after the Soviet Union fell apart in 1989 did the people discover that they had been exposed to radiation during the past 40 years. Through preliminary interviews with villagers, physicians, and scientists who live near the SNTS, it was discovered that the three groups viewed the risk of radiation exposure very differently. By developing a risk perception survey to understand how the different groups perceived radiation risk, and then comparing the scientific data to the survey results, a better way to communicate the risk could be developed. The risk perception survey was given to over 800 people in East Kazakhstan Oblast, including villagers living near the SNTS, scientists who study the

  1. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  2. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  3. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor

  4. Concepts for the calculation of radiation exposure in the environment of nuclear plants for planning and surveillance purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.; Bruessermann, K.; Schwarz, G.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with the release of radioactive substances from nuclear plants, the following requirements are to be met in respect of the assessment of radiation exposure of persons in the environment of the plant: for the purpose of planning and licencing nuclear plants, the release rates of radioactive substances are to be limited to such a degree that the dose limit values specified in the Radiation Protection Ordinance are not exceeded at any time or on any site. This applies possibly under consideration of the pre-exposure rate. For long-lived radionuclides this requirement involves the calculation of annual doses at the end of a period determined by the time of operation of the plant and by the exposure time of the persons. During the operation of nuclear plants it is necessary to calculate the radiation exposure rates resulting from the emission measured for the year of reference. This application requires the calculation of the dose commitment resulting in the future on the basis of annual emissions for persons living in the environment of the plant. In connection with the long-term prediction of the environmental impact caused by the entire nuclear industry, problems will also be arising in conjunction with the case history of the environmental exposure being subject to respective alterations as a result of additional plants

  5. Occupational exposure at the Department of Nuclear Medicine as a work environment: A 19-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Gwardyś, Aleksandra; Supińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H.; Elbl, Bogumiła; Cichoń-Bańkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: This study assessed the radiation safety at Nuclear Medicine Department being a work environment. Ionizing radiation exposure of the employees in the last 19 years and the effects of legislative changes in radiological protection were analyzed. Material/Methods: All employees of the investigated department were regularly and individually monitored using chest badges equipped with Kodak film type 2. Overall, 629 annual doses of the employees of nuclear medicine department, ...

  6. Information relevant to ensuring that occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power stations will be as low as in reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Regulations require that all reasonable efforts must be made to maintain exposure to radiation as far below the limits specified in 10 CFR Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. Information is provided relevant to attaining goals and objectives for planning, designing, constructing, operating and decommissioning a light-water-cooled nuclear power station to meet that criterion. Much of the information presented is also applicable to other than light-water-cooled nuclear power stations

  7. Adequacy of current systems for monitoring extremity exposures at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.D.; Harty, R.

    1985-01-01

    In general, only a small portion of workers at commercial nuclear power plants are limited by extremity exposures, and these workers can be readily identified. There seems to be no need for increased badging among the radiation workers. However, those workers who are extremity limited may not be receiving adequate dosimetry. For workers handling compact sources, unless contrary information is available, the tip of the thumb of the dominant hand can be assumed to be the limiting site, and dose to the thumb tip averaged over one square centimeter at the basal layer of the skin should be measured or estimated. As discussed briefly in this paper, the assessment of dose in high gradient fields can be a difficult task. The particular dosimeter studied is a band-aid type composed of a thermoluminescent material embedded in a carbon matrix under 4 mils of plastic. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are discussed

  8. An influence of occupational exposure on level of chromosome aberrations in nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birute Griciene; Grazina Slapsyte

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective. The workers of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) receive the highest occupational ionising radiation doses in Lithuania. Their occupational exposure results mainly from external low LET gamma radiation. Some workers receive additional internal and neutron exposure. Though exposure doses are generally low and don't exceed the annual dose limit, the higher doses are obtained during outages. The aim of the present study was to analyse chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes of INPP workers exposed to the different types of ionising radiation. Methods. The blood sampling of 52 INPP male workers was performed in 2004-2006. For 29 workers radiation exposure resulted from the external gamma rays only. Their mean annual dose averaged over the 3-year period prior blood sampling was 11.7±8.7 mSv. The mean cumulative dose - 197.7±174.7 mSv. 15 workers had an intake of gamma radionuclides ( 60 Co, 137 Cs), contributing to the doses less than 0.1 mSv. Their mean cumulative dose - 278.2±191.9 mSv. The mean annual dose averaged over the 3-year period prior blood sampling was 11.8±5.3 mSv. For 8 subjects neutron doses below 0.2 mSv were recorded. Their mean annual dose averaged over the 3-year period prior blood sampling was 7.0±2.9 mSv. The mean cumulative dose was 241.8±93.0 mSv. Heparinized venous blood samples were taken and cultures were initiated according to the standard procedures. Phytohaemagglutinin (7.8 μg/ml) stimulated cultures were incubated at 37degC for 72 hours in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 12% heat-inactivated newborn calf serum, 40 μg/ml gentamycin. Colchicine was added to the culture during the initiation at a final concentration of 0,25 μg/ml. The harvested lymphocytes were treated with hypotonic KCl (0,075 M) and then fixed in methanol-glacial acetic acid (3:1). Flame-dried slides were stained with Giemsa, coded and scored blind. Generally 500 first-division cells per individual were

  9. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (pacrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (pacrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  10. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...

  11. KIDNEY TOXICOGENOMICS OF ACUTE SODIUM AND POTASSIUM BROMATE EXPOSURE IN F344 MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromate, used in both the food and cosmetics industry, is a drinking water disinfection by-product that is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic to rodents. To gain insight into the carcinogenic mechanism of action, identify possible biomarkers of exposure, and determine if the cation, po...

  12. Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gminski, Richard; Marutzky, Rainer; Kevekordes, Sebastian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Bürger, Werner; Hauschke, Dieter; Ebner, Winfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-01

    Due to the reduction of air change rates in low-energy houses, the contribution to indoor air quality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from oriented strand boards (OSB) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory irritations, pulmonary effects and odor annoyance of emissions from OSB in healthy human volunteers compared to clean air. Twenty-four healthy non-smokers were exposed to clean air and OSB emissions for 2 h under controlled conditions in a 48 m(3) test chamber at three different time points: to fresh OSB panels and to the same panels after open storage for 2 and 8 weeks. Chemosensory irritation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, eye blink frequency, lung function and subjective perception of irritation of eyes, nose and throat were examined before, during and after exposure. Additionally, olfactory perception was investigated. Total VOC exposure concentrations reached 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/m(3) for the fresh OSB panels. Emissions consisted predominantly of α-pinene, Δ(3)-carene and hexanal. Two-hour exposure to high VOC concentrations revealed no irritating or pulmonary effects. All the subjective ratings of discomfort were at a low level and the medians did not exceed the expression 'hardly at all.' Only the ratings for smell of emissions increased significantly during exposure in comparison to clean air. In conclusion, exposure of healthy volunteers to OSB emissions did not elicit sensory irritations or pulmonary effects up to a VOC concentration of about 9 mg/m(3). Sensory intensity of OSB emissions in the chamber air was rated as 'neutral to pleasant.'

  13. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I. [Department of Biology, Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI, Studgorodok,1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249040 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina Str. 3, 11933 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F{sub 0} and F{sub 1}Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F{sub 0}Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F{sub 2} total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F{sub 2} progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F{sub 2} progeny of irradiated F{sub 0}Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F{sub 1} progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F{sub 2} progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F{sub 1} progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F{sub 2} progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F{sub 2} progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  14. Acute pulmonary toxicity following occupational exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Rusca, Sophie; Vernez, David; Berry, Raymond; Albrecht, Eric; Droz, Pierre-Olivier; Boillat, Marcel-André

    2004-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely applied to leather and textile garments; they are also used as floor stain protectors by professionals. Acute respiratory injury is described in three cases of young healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within 1 or 2 h after exposure they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two of them had hypoxaemia and flu-like reactions. All patients improved with supportive treatment in a few days. The mechanism of toxicity is still under investigation, but experimental data suggest the role of this new acrylate fluoropolymer. Tilers should be warned against spraying floor stain repellents; there is also a need to make consumers aware that the spraying of waterproofing agents in a closed environment and concomitant smoking should be avoided.

  15. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  16. Point-of-care procalcitonin test to reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corti, Caspar; Fally, Markus; Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate whether point-of-care (POC) procalcitonin (PCT) measurement can reduce redundant antibiotic treatment in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). METHODS: One-hundred and twenty adult patients admitted with AECOPD were...... in the PCT-arm vs 8.5 (IQR 1-11) days in the control arm (P=0.0169, Wilcoxon) for the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of patients using antibiotics for ≥5 days within the 28-day follow-up was 41.9% (PCT-arm) vs 67.2% (P=0.006, Fisher's exact) in the intention-to-treat population. For the per...... no apparent difference. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the implementation of a POC PCT-guided algorithm can be used to substantially reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with AECOPD, with no apparent harm....

  17. Acute exposure of mercury chloride stimulates the tissue regeneration program and reactive oxygen species production in the Drosophila midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Wu, Xiaochun; Luo, Hongjie; Zhao, Lingling; Ji, Xin; Qiao, Xianfeng; Jin, Yaping; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila as an animal model to study the digestive tract in response to the exposure of inorganic mercury (HgCl2). We found that after oral administration, mercury was mainly sequestered within the midgut. This resulted in increased cell death, which in turn stimulated the tissue regeneration program, including accelerated proliferation and differentiation of the intestinal stem cells (ISCs). We further demonstrated that these injuries correlate closely with the excessive production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), as vitamin E, an antioxidant reagent, efficiently suppressed the HgCl2-induced phenotypes of midgut and improved the viability. We propose that the Drosophila midgut could serve as a suitable model to study the treatment of acute hydrargyrism on the digestive systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  19. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264·7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-α level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-κB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. PMID:20030669

  20. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and production of TNF-alpha in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-alpha level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS.

  1. Outbreak of Sudden Death with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Among Children Associated with Exposure to Lychee Orchards in Northern Bangladesh, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Saiful; Sharif, Ahmad Raihan; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Khan, A K M Dawlat; Hasan, Murshid; Akter, Shirina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P; Heffelfinger, James D; Gurley, Emily S

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) among children in lychee growing areas in Asia highlight the need to better understand the etiology and the context. We conducted a mixed-methods study to identify risk factors for disease, and behaviors and practices around lychee cultivation in an AES outbreak community in northern Bangladesh in 2012. The outbreak affected 14 children; 13 died. The major symptoms included unconsciousness, convulsion, excessive sweating, and frothy discharge. The median time from illness onset to unconsciousness was 2.5 hours. The outbreak corresponded with lychee harvesting season. Multiple pesticides including some banned in Bangladesh were frequently used in the orchards. Visiting a lychee orchard within 24 hours before onset (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 11.6 [1.02-109.8]) and 3 days (aOR = 7.2 [1.4-37.6]), and family members working in a lychee orchard (aOR = 7.2 [1.7-29.4]) and visiting any garden while pesticides were being applied (aOR = 4.9 [1.0-19.4]) in 3 days preceding illness onset were associated with illness in nearby village analysis. In neighborhood analysis, visiting an orchard that used pesticides (aOR = 8.4 [1.4-49.9]) within 3 days preceding illness onset was associated with illness. Eating lychees was not associated with illness in the case-control study. The outbreak was linked to lychee orchard exposures where agrochemicals were routinely used, but not to consumption of lychees. Lack of acute specimens was a major limitation. Future studies should target collection of environmental and food samples, acute specimens, and rigorous assessment of community use of pesticides to determine etiology.

  2. Availability of treatment resources for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments among various types of hospitals in Palestine: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Bali, Yara I; Al-Sayed, Afnan M; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Background Poisoning exposures continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of facilities, treatment resources, and antidotes in hospitals may affect the treatments provided and outcomes. This study aimed to determine the availability of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources, and antidotes for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments (EDs) among various types of govern...

  3. Estimated population exposure from nuclear power production and other radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are given of the total radiation dose from all forms of ionizing radiation resulting from nuclear power reduction. A power consumption of 1kW per head of population, derived entirely from nuclear energy, would increase the average radiation exposure of the whole population from 100mrem per year from natural sources (plus about 40mrem per year from medical procedures and other artificial causes) by about 6mrem per year. The genetically signifificant component of this increase would be about 4mrem per year. Available estimates of harm from radiation would indicate that this would give a risk per year per million of population of about 1 fatal induced malignancy, about the same number of malignancies fully treatable by operation, and, after many generations, about the same number of inherited defects, of greater or less severity, per year. Accidental injuries, particularly in constructional and mining work, would cause an estimated 1 fatality and 50 other accidents annually. Indications are given of the number of fatalities and accidents involved in equal power production by alternative methods, and of the value and limitations of such numerical comparisons in reaching decisions on the development of future power programmes

  4. Report on the project research 'exposure to environmental radiation due to nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This special research was carried out for five years from fiscal 1978 to fiscal 1982, and its constitution was as follows: the investigation research on the behavior of radioactive substances in ocean and land environments, the investigation research on the metabolism of radioactive substances within bodies, the measurement of the dose absorbed in organs due to environmental radiation and the evaluation, and the investigation research on low level environmental radiation monitoring. As the sources of environmental radiation exposure, not only the release into the atmosphere and sea from nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and other facilities, but also the disposal of radioactive wastes on land and into ocean were considered. As the method of research, the experiment using living things and others, the analysis of the fallout nuclides existing in environment and living things, the analysis of the results of quantitative determination of stable elements and others were used. The detailed results of the above described researches are reported. By having executed this special research, the accumulation of new knowledge was obtained on the behavior of radioactive nuclides in environment and living things. (Kako, I.)

  5. Health transitions, fast and nasty: the case of Marshallese exposure to nuclear radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Nancy J

    2002-09-01

    The concept of health transitions assumes that health status improves with the introduction of western medicine. In this paper I demonstrate that the health of the people of Rongelap, Marshall Islands, has undergone serious damage as a result of nuclear testing, and that women in particular have suffered unduly. Exposure to nuclear radiation over a period of almost fifty years has been recognised by US authorities as a major contributory cause to the high rates of cancers and birth defects suffered by the Rongelap people. Women's reproduction has been severely affected, as evidenced by the many stillbirths and small stature of children born alive. Two generations have been exposed to both background radiation and to radiation ingested with the local foods on which they rely in the absence of other food sources. Clean up has commenced only after this and other communities sought compensation from the United States. The Rongelap people will live with the effects of radiation for generations to come. This transition to ongoing health problems is thus a negative outcome of modern health transition.

  6. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... and lasted longer than hepatic Saal mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  7. Modulation of vasodilator response via the nitric oxide pathway after acute methyl mercury chloride exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanwar, S; Saidullah, B; Ravi, K; Fahim, M

    2013-01-01

    Mercury exposure induces endothelial dysfunction leading to loss of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability via increased oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate whether acute treatment with methyl mercury chloride changes the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the observed effects. Wistar rats were treated with methyl mercury chloride (5 mg/kg, po.). The methyl mercury chloride treatment resulted in an increased aortic vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh). In methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats, the % change in vasorelaxant response of ACh in presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10(-4) M) was significantly increased, and in presence of glybenclamide (10(-5) M), the response was similar to that of untreated rats, indicating the involvement of NO and not of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) + catalase treatment increased the NO modulation of vasodilator response in methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate an increase in the vascular reactivity to ACh in aorta of rats acutely exposed to methyl mercury chloride. Methyl mercury chloride induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and increases the NO production along with inducing oxidative stress without affecting the EDHF pathway.

  8. Modulation of Vasodilator Response via the Nitric Oxide Pathway after Acute Methyl Mercury Chloride Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Omanwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure induces endothelial dysfunction leading to loss of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate whether acute treatment with methyl mercury chloride changes the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the observed effects. Wistar rats were treated with methyl mercury chloride (5 mg/kg, po.. The methyl mercury chloride treatment resulted in an increased aortic vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh. In methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats, the % change in vasorelaxant response of ACh in presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M was significantly increased, and in presence of glybenclamide (10-5 M, the response was similar to that of untreated rats, indicating the involvement of NO and not of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD + catalase treatment increased the NO modulation of vasodilator response in methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate an increase in the vascular reactivity to ACh in aorta of rats acutely exposed to methyl mercury chloride. Methyl mercury chloride induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases the NO production along with inducing oxidative stress without affecting the EDHF pathway.

  9. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MASSEY, CHARLES D.; MESSICK, C.E.; MUSTIN, T.

    1999-01-01

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed

  10. Radiation exposure to the staff of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, 1969-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1983-07-01

    Evaluation of the data from the personnel dosimetry of the staff monitored from 1969 until 1981 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH) gives a total external dose of 6,335 rem including natural radiaiton background. The occupational exposure of the radiation workers within this period comes to 3,076 rem, which gives an average annual external occupational exposure of 0.14 rem. In 1,832 cases an annual dose between 0.5 and 1.5 rem per year and in 353 cases a dose of more than 1.5 rem per year have been measured. The highest value, measured in 1972, amounted to 6.8 rem. During the period from 1969 until 1981 more than 34,000 incorporation measurements were performed with the whole body counter and the lung counter, 1,963 cases with positive findings. In 96% of the cases the values of incorporated activity were inferior to 1% - in 70% even inferior to 0.1% - of the maximum permissible body burden values of ICRP 2. Only 5 cases exceeded these values. (orig.) [de

  11. Micro-organisms and divers exposure to radioactivity in spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz de A, D. [Underwater Construction Corporation, Latin America, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Silva, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gomes N, C. A., E-mail: dmuniz@uccdive.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Environmental Engineering Program, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    Many nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world are in the process of extending their lifespan from 40 to 60 years of operation. The NPP; Angra 1 (Brazil) has performed a thorough evaluation of its Life Extension Engineering project. In this context, the spent fuel pool (SFP) was one of the areas studied in order to demonstrate the plants integrity for a life extension. Micro-organisms growing on the liner of the fuel transfer channel (Ftc) and SFP can form a film of bacteria, which is highly resistant to radiation. This paper aims to compare the micro-organisms found in NPP Angra 1 with those reported to other NPPs and also relates their occurrence with the radiation levels at the sites. It also compares divers exposure to radioactivity during underwater activities in the SFP. Fourteen samples were collected on the surface of the liners of the Ftc, the SFP and the drains within the fuel building (FB) of Angra 1. For the identification of the micro-organisms, a metagenomics analysis was performed by random sequencing (Shotgun) and the use of Ion Torrent PGM Sequence r. Twelve micro-organisms phyla were identified; Acido-bacteria, Actino-bacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyano-bacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Proteo-bacteria, and Verrucomicrobia as well as organisms not classified. In the SFP of Angra 1, the bacteria survived the exposure to a radiation of 0.416 Gy/h (high radiation). Deinococcus-thermus, bacteria identified in Angra 1, has resisted an exposure to 30,000 Gy/h in another plant. (Author)

  12. Micro-organisms and divers exposure to radioactivity in spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz de A, D.; Silva, R.; Gomes N, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    Many nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world are in the process of extending their lifespan from 40 to 60 years of operation. The NPP; Angra 1 (Brazil) has performed a thorough evaluation of its Life Extension Engineering project. In this context, the spent fuel pool (SFP) was one of the areas studied in order to demonstrate the plants integrity for a life extension. Micro-organisms growing on the liner of the fuel transfer channel (Ftc) and SFP can form a film of bacteria, which is highly resistant to radiation. This paper aims to compare the micro-organisms found in NPP Angra 1 with those reported to other NPPs and also relates their occurrence with the radiation levels at the sites. It also compares divers exposure to radioactivity during underwater activities in the SFP. Fourteen samples were collected on the surface of the liners of the Ftc, the SFP and the drains within the fuel building (FB) of Angra 1. For the identification of the micro-organisms, a metagenomics analysis was performed by random sequencing (Shotgun) and the use of Ion Torrent PGM Sequence r. Twelve micro-organisms phyla were identified; Acido-bacteria, Actino-bacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyano-bacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Proteo-bacteria, and Verrucomicrobia as well as organisms not classified. In the SFP of Angra 1, the bacteria survived the exposure to a radiation of 0.416 Gy/h (high radiation). Deinococcus-thermus, bacteria identified in Angra 1, has resisted an exposure to 30,000 Gy/h in another plant. (Author)

  13. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  14. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  15. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits.

  17. Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits

  18. Methods and practice in the evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Franzen, L.F.; Handge, P.; Meurin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The estimation and evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations resulting from airborne and aquatic releases of radioactivity has always been included in the Nuclear Authorization Procedures (atomrechtliches Genehmigungsverfahren) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Basic investigations have shown that first of all the radiological burden is expected via the pathway of external radiation exposure. Since about 1970 the pasture - cow - milk -pathway has been accorded an increased importance by introducing a corresponding dose rate guideline for the thyroid burden. With the rapid increase of energy production from nuclear power plants, a detailed analysis of the environmental radiological burden possibly brought about by these facilities was inserted into the Nuclear Authorization Procedures. In order to estimate in detail the consequences resulting from the release of radioactivity, nowadays the potential radiation exposure for a site is evaluated for exposures resulting from airborne discharges and for exposures resulting from aquatic discharges. Furthermore, some other pathways of exposure depending on local characteristics are taken into account. Particularly, extensive inquiry is needed concerning the deposition of radionuclides and the reconcentration by food chains. The choice of appropriate parameters often is difficult as site-specific values are not available. The determination of critical population groups and critical persons and their behavioral or dietary habits results in comparable difficulties. Therefore, a site-independent model for the evaluation of the potential radiological exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany was worked out and submitted to the nuclear regulatory commission. Moreover, some other groups - among others the Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) and the Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) - are investigating by theory and experiment ecological procedures and parameters

  19. Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Pathway Is Not Only Dominant in Metabolic Modulation but Associated With Phenotypic Variation After Acute Hypoxia Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modulation of arachidonic acid (AA metabolism pathway is identified in metabolic alterations after hypoxia exposure, but its biological function is controversial. We aimed at integrating plasma metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches to systematically explore the roles of the AA metabolism pathway in response to acute hypoxia using an acute mountain sickness (AMS model.Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 53 enrolled subjects before and after exposure to high altitude. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing were separately performed for metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling, respectively. Influential modules comprising essential metabolites and genes were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA after integrating metabolic information with phenotypic and transcriptomic datasets, respectively.Results: Enrolled subjects exhibited diverse response manners to hypoxia. Combined with obviously altered heart rate, oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and Lake Louise Score (LLS, metabolomic profiling detected that 36 metabolites were highly related to clinical features in hypoxia responses, out of which 27 were upregulated and nine were downregulated, and could be mapped to AA metabolism pathway significantly. Integrated analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic data revealed that these dominant molecules showed remarkable association with genes in gas transport incapacitation and disorders of hemoglobin metabolism pathways, such as ALAS2, HEMGN. After detailed description of AA metabolism pathway, we found that the molecules of 15-d-PGJ2, PGA2, PGE2, 12-O-3-OH-LTB4, LTD4, LTE4 were significantly up-regulated after hypoxia stimuli, and increased in those with poor response manner to hypoxia particularly. Further analysis in another cohort showed that genes in AA metabolism pathway such as PTGES, PTGS1, GGT1, TBAS1 et al. were excessively

  20. Radiation exposure by radio-iodine release of the planned nuclear power plant Wyhl. Expert's opinion on thyroid exposure due to radioactive I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck-Neuhaus, J

    1981-01-01

    The radioecology of iodine-131 in the off-air of a nuclear power plant is subject to investigation of the critical exposure pathway air - pasture ground - cow - milk. According to the findings on the factors influencing the radiation exposure of man presented in scientific publication we have to deviate today from static equilibrium models. Such models can no longer satisfy at the present state of the art. The viewing of the short-term time behaviour of the radioecological parameter that is imperative with iodine-131 shows that the conventional calculation, chiefly with mean values of many years, does not satisfy the requirements to replace the calculation of the radiation exposure at the most unfavourable points of exposure demanded by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. This report proves that in a number of possible events under normal operating conditions the radiation exposure is far more important and the limiting dose rates are unmistakably exceeded. If favourable conditions coincide it can in fact be expected that the radiation exposure by radio iodine remains below the limiting close rate.