Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.
Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S
Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nizatidine, 300 mg once nightly, was compared with cimetidine, 800 mg once nightly, for treatment of 212 adult out-patients with acute duodenal ulcers in an eight-week randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial. Patients were endoscoped at weeks 2, 4 and 8, regardless of ulcer healing status. No significant differences in ulcer healing rates between treatment groups were seen at weeks 2 and 4, but at week 8, nizatidine had a significantly higher ulcer healing rate (P=0.036 than cimetidine (86% versus 74%, respectively. Patients with healed ulcers at either week 2 or week 4 had a final endoscopy performed at week 8. The rate of ulcer recurrence was significantly greater (P=0.021 in the cimetidine group at week 8 compared with the nizatidine group: 21% versus 7.3%, respectively. Increasing tolerance to H2 receptor antagonist therapy with prolonged use may explain the higher recurrence rate of cimetidine. Both drugs provided equally rapid and effective symptomatic relief from epigastric pain after two weeks of therapy. Both were equally safe and free from treatment-related adverse effects.
Nicholas E. Kman
Full Text Available History of Present Illness: A 34-year-old HIV positive female presented to the emergency department with a three-week history of swollen, painful gums. She had difficulty eating and chewing, along with aches and general malaise. The patient was an everyday smoker and was not taking any antiretroviral medication. Significant findings: Physical examination revealed inflamed gingiva, ulceration, and soft tissue necrosis (Image 1 along with mandibular lymphadenopathy (not shown. Given her symptoms, poor oral care, and her immunocompromised state, she was given a diagnosis of Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG or Vincent’s Angina. Discussion: Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG, Vincent’s Angina, or Trench Mouth is the only periodontal disease in which bacteria invade non-necrotic tissue. The etiology is usually secondary to fusobacteria and spirochete overgrowth of bacteria which is normally present in the oral cavity. HIV infection, previous necrotizing gingivitis, poor oral hygiene, malnutrition, smoking, and stress are predisposing factors. Antibiotics and improved nutrition have significantly decreased the incidence of ANUG. The prevalence of ANUG among HIV infected patients varies from 4.3% to 16.0%. ANUG is 20.8 times more likely to be seen in AIDS patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3. In developing countries, like those in Sub-Saharan Africa, incidence of ANUG is increasing among children with a prevalence as high as 23% in children under 10 years of age.1 Treatment for ANUG is multifactorial. Patients need good debridement under anesthesia so dental referral is imperative. Pain control with Ibuprofen or low dose opioids is indicated. Oral hygiene instructions include Chlorhexidine 0.12% twice daily, proper nutrition, appropriate fluid intake, and smoking cessation. For signs of systemic involvement, the recommended antibiotics are Amoxicillin and Metronidazole.2 If left untreated, ANUG may lead to rapid
Background: Acute appendicitis has a lot of differential diagnoses. However, when there is perforated duodenal ulcer with the contents tracking into the right iliac fossa, it is often extremely difficult to distinguish this condition from acute appendicitis. Aims of study: To evaluate the diagnostic dilemma encountered in ...
Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan
This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: The pattern of peptic ulcer disease and its complications has changed during the last two to three decades. Objectives: To state the frequency of acute peptic ulcer perforations and outcomes of their management at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. Materials and Methods: This is an audit of patients with acute ...
Muñoz-Corcuera, M; Esparza-Gómez, G; González-Moles, M A; Bascones-Martínez, A
Oral ulcers are generally painful lesions that are related to various conditions developing within the oral cavity. They can be classified as acute or chronic according to their presentation and progression. Acute oral ulcers are be associated with conditions such as trauma, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's disease, bacterial and viral infections, allergic reactions or adverse drug reactions. Chronic oral ulcers are associated with conditions such as oral lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, mycosis and some bacterial and parasitic diseases. The correct differential diagnosis is necessary to establish the appropriate treatment, taking into account all the possible causes of ulcers in the oral cavity. In the first part of this two-part review, acute oral ulcers are reviewed.
Finch, Justin J; Wald, Jenna; Ferenczi, Katalin; Khalid, Saima; Murphy, Michael
Nonsexual acute genital ulceration (NAGU) is a rare vulvar skin condition typically affecting girls and young women, characterized by acute onset of singular or multiple painful vaginal ulcers. The etiology of this ulcerative dermatosis has not been identified, although it has been associated with systemic infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association with Lyme disease. A case of a woman with early disseminated Lyme disease presenting with NAGU is reported. A thorough workup ruled out other causes of genital ulceration, and the ulcers completely resolved after treatment with topical steroids and oral doxycycline. Although the etiology of NAGU is unknown, the vulvar ulcers may result from an exuberant immune response to infection. Most patients with NAGU exhibit nonspecific symptoms such as myalgias and fever, suggesting an infectious agent, but the majority have no identifiable pathogen. In addition to previously reported associations with systemic infection, which are reviewed herein, Lyme disease should be considered in women presenting with acute-onset genital ulcers.
Herzberg, G; Burnier, M
Radiological analysis of acute distal radius fractures (DRF) begins with the initial AP and lateral X-ray views. A CT scan is very often indicated. In addition to the three standard planes, 3D reconstructions are mandatory. We recommend not only AP views of the distal facets of the radius but also a complete 3D view in the surgical position. The distal ulna and carpus should also be analyzed. We describe the radiological sequence and the criteria used. These criteria are recorded in the one-page PAF chart, since they all impact the treatment choice. Clinical outcomes of DRF treatment are rarely addressed in the literature. We review the most commonly used clinical scores and describe the one that we use currently. Copyright Â© 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Okada, Kenji; Yamanaka, Katsuhiro; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Inoue, Takeshi; Matsumori, Masamichi; Kawakami, Fumi; Okita, Yutaka
We present a series of patients who underwent in situ total aortic arch replacement for infected distal aortic arch aneurysms. Between 2002 and 2013, 9 patients with infected distal aortic arch aneurysms underwent total aortic arch replacement using antegrade selective cerebral perfusion. There were 4 male and 5 female patients with a mean age of 72.7±9.0 years. All patients had penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer in the distal aortic arch, which formed saccular aneurysms. Four patients had preoperative hoarseness. Maximum preoperative white blood cell count was 10,211±4375/μL, and mean serum C-reactive protein concentration was 12.7±7.2 mg/dL. Causative microorganisms were identified by blood culture or aortic wall culture and were as follows: Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (2 cases), and unknown (2 cases). Radical debridement with in situ total aortic arch replacement was performed in all patients, followed by the omental flap grafting in 7 patients. All surgery was performed on an urgent or emergency basis. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and lower body circulatory arrest time were 199.7±50.7 minutes and 66.6±13.8 minutes, respectively. There was no in-hospital mortality, but 1 patient died of asphyxia 5 months after hospital discharge. Freedom from recurrence of infection was 100%. Surgical treatment with the combination of radical debridement with in situ total aortic arch replacement using antegrade selective cerebral perfusion and omental flap grafting was a reliable procedure for the treatment of infected distal aortic arch aneurysms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Midttun, M; Azad, B B S; Broholm, R
Distal blood pressure and local skin perfusion pressure were compared to measurement of blood flow rate (BFR) measured by the heat-washout method in orthopaedic patients with and without diabetes, all with a foot ulcer in one foot, compared to healthy controls. The correlation was good between heat......-washout and distal blood pressure in patients with diabetes with and without an ulcer (P = 0·024 and 0·059, respectively). The correlation was weak in patients without diabetes with and without an ulcer, most probably due to power problems (P = 0·118 and 0·116, respectively). The correlation in the healthy controls...... the surrounding tissue, and therefore, measurements are easier made in these subjects. BFR in the first toe increased significantly in all patients when the foot was moved from heart level to 50 cm below heart level (P = between 0·03 and 0·05) as previously seen in patients with claudication...
Cheng, Lei; Wu, Qi; Olesen, Emma T. B.
The kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays an important role in modulating body sodium balance and blood pressure. Long-term effects of aldosterone to increase sodium reabsorption in the DCT are well described. However, potential effects of aldosterone to acutely modulate DCT function via non...... to map global changes in protein phosphorylation in mpkDCT cells following 30 min aldosterone treatment. A total of 8136 unique proteins, containing 14838 different phosphopeptides were identified. Of these, 148 phosphopeptides were significantly up regulated, and 96 phosphopeptides were downregulated...
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical characteristics of acute pancreatitis (AP associated with peptic ulcer (PU and to analyze the risk factors for PU in AP patients. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 156 AP patients who were admitted to our hospital from January 2008 to January 2012. All patients underwent gastroscopy within 48 h after admission to detect PU and Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection. The severity of AP was assessed by Ranson score, APACHE Ⅱ score, and CT severity index. The clinical characteristics of AP patients with or without PU were statistically analyzed using independent samples t-test and chi-square test. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for PU in AP patients. ResultsAmong the 156 AP patients, 88 (56.4% had PU, but only 28 (31.8% of the 88 cases were infected with Hp. Of the 28 patients, 22 had gastric ulcer, and 6 had both gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Of the 60 PU patients not infected with Hp, 25 had gastric ulcer, 26 had duodenal ulcer, and 9 had both gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that male gender, alcohol-induced pancreatitis, smoking, alcohol consumption, high triglyceride level, high C-reactive protein level, and APACHE Ⅱ score ≥8 were significantly associated with PU in AP patients. However, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that APACHE Ⅱ score ≥8 was the independent risk factor for PU in AP patients (OR=8.54, 95% CI: 4.52-16.15, P＜0.01. ConclusionAP patients are susceptible to PU, but the infection rate of Hp is low. APACHE Ⅱ score ≥8 is the independent risk factor for PU in AP patients.
Alkushi, A G R; Elsawy, N A M
Peptic ulcer diseases are common and are induced by many factors, including stress, smoking, and ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quercetin is considered to be an anti-oxidant with healing effects on many experimental toxic injuries. The present study aimed to explore the possible effect of quercetin on acute gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in rats. Three groups received indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight) orally by orogastric gavage on two consecutive days. The rats received famotidine (50 mg/kg body weight), quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle alone for 15 consecutive days by oral gavage. The control group received no indomethacin but received vehicle for 15 days by oral gavage. The ulcer index, volume, and pH of gastric juice were measured, and the stomachs were examined by routine light microscopy. Compared with the control group, the indomethacin-treated rats showed a marked damage of the gastric mucosal surface and a high ulcer index. In the famotidine- and quercetin-treated groups, significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. The congestion, erosions, and necrosis were reduced with mild inflammatory cell infiltration while no major damage of endothelial cells was observed in the treated rats. The findings of the study show that quercetin had antioxidant effect and can protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration than famotidine.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ulcers KidsHealth / For Teens / Ulcers What's in this article? ... is that the real story? What Is an Ulcer? An ulcer is a sore, which means it's ...
Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.
Jae Kyung Kim
Full Text Available Acute genital ulcers (AGU, also known as acute vulvar ulcers or Lipschütz ulcers, is an uncommon, non-sexually transmitted condition characterized by the sudden onset of painful necrotic ulcerations of the vulva or lower vagina. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. They may be preceded by influenza-like symptoms, such as fever, headache or respiratory symptoms. We presented a case of pubertal girl with multiple painful ulcers on the vulva who visited our hospital. Other causes of vulvar ulcers were excluded by history taking, laboratory tests, and skin biopsy. We presented a case report of pubertal girl with nonsexually related AGU.
V. V. Izbitsky
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB is determined in 20-30% of patients with peptic ulcer disease. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is on the first place as the main cause of deaths from peptic ulcer ahead of the other complications. Rebleeding occurs in 30-38% of patients. Materials and Methods For getting of the objective endoscopic picture in patients with bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers we used the classification of J.A. Forrest in our study: Type I - active bleeding: • I a - pulsating jet; • I b - stream. Type II - signs of recent bleeding: • II a - visible (non-bleeding visible vessel; • II b - fixed thrombus - a clot; • II c - flat black spot (black bottom ulcers. Type III - ulcer with a clean (white down. Integrated endoscopic hemostasis included: irrigation of ulcer defect and area around it with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution in a volume of 10 - 30ml; Injection of 2-4 mL of diluted epinephrine (1:10000 for hemostasis; use of Argon plasma coagulation. Results and Discussion Integrated endoscopic stop of bleeding was performed in 57 patients who were examined and treated at the Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2012. In 16 patients bleeding was caused by gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer type I localization according to classification (HD Johnson, 1965 was determined in 9 patients, type II - in 2 patients, type III – in 5 patients. In 31 patients bleeding was caused by duodenal peptic ulcer, in 4 patients - erosive gastritis, 1 - erosive esophagitis, and in 5 patients - gastroenteroanastomosis area peptic ulcer. Final hemostasis was achieved in 55 (96.5% patients. In 50 (87.7% patients it was sufficient to conduct a single session of complex endoscopic treatment. In 5 (8.8% patients – it was done two times. In 2 (3.5% cases operation was performed due to the recurrent bleeding. The source of major bleeding in these patients was: chronic, duodenal ulcer penetrating into the head of the pancreas in one case complicated by subcompensated
Complete mucosal healing of distal lesions induced by twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam promoted clinical remission of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation: double-blind, randomized study.
Naganuma, Makoto; Aoyama, Nobuo; Tada, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Hirai, Fumihito; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi
Budesonide foam is used for the topical treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. This phase III study was performed to confirm mucosal healing and other therapeutic effects of twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis including left-sided colitis and pancolitis. This was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 126 patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with active inflammation in the distal colon were randomized to two groups receiving twice-daily budesonide 2 mg/25 ml foam or placebo foam. The primary endpoint was the percentage of complete mucosal healing of distal lesions (endoscopic subscore of 0) at week 6. Some patients continued the treatment through week 12. Drug efficacy and safety were evaluated. The percentages of both complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission were significantly improved in the budesonide as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0035). Subgroup analysis showed similar efficacy of budesonide foam for complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission regardless of disease type. The clinical remission percentage tended to be higher in patients achieving complete mucosal healing of distal lesions than in other patients. There were no safety concerns with budesonide foam. This study confirmed for the first time complete mucosal healing with twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation. The results also indicated that complete mucosal healing of distal lesions by budesonide foam promotes clinical remission of ulcerative colitis. Clinical trial registration no.: Japic CTI-142704.
Herzberg, G; Atzori, M; Al Saati, M; Izem, Y
Displacements of articular fragments are not always visible on initial radiographs of acute distal radius fractures. Despite the wide use of CT scan, it may be useful to know a simple index that could suggest an articular displaced fracture from the initial standard radiographs. The authors describe an articular sagittal index (ASI) of the distal radius and provide reference values from a study of 100 healthy volunteers. An increase of the ASI index suggests a displaced articular distal radius fracture with possible impaction.
Gencosmanoglu, Rasim; Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Tiftikci, Arzu; Avsar, Erol; Tozun, Nurdan; Oran, Ebru Sen
Tetracyclines may cause esophageal injury. The aims of this study are to describe 2 distinct clinical patterns of esophageal injury induced by tetracycline or its derivate doxycycline and to compare these patterns with respect to demographic, endoscopic, and clinical characteristics of the patients. Forty-eight patients with the diagnosis of doxycycline- or tetracycline-induced esophageal injury by endoscopy were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were considered in 2 groups according to the type and the location of esophageal lesions (Group A: mid-esophageal ulceration, n = 18; Group B: distal esophagitis, n = 30). Patients in Group A were significantly younger than in Group B (P = 0.0014). In Group A, 15 patients (83%) had single ulceration, 2 (11%) double, and 1 (6%) circumferential at the mid-esophagus. In Group B, all patients had multiple micro-ulcerations in the distal esophagus. Development of mid-esophageal ulceration was induced predominantly by doxycycline, whereas distal esophagitis was induced by tetracycline. The description of drug ingestion with little or no water by patients in Group A was significantly more frequent than in Group B (94% vs. 10%, P esophageal candidiasis were significantly more frequent in Group B (P = 0.006, P esophageal injury because mid-esophageal ulceration seems to be more frequently associated with doxycycline and distal esophagitis with or without candidiasis with tetracycline.
Holstein, P; Lassen, N A
The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel ...
Background: The advent of proton pump inhibitors and helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of chronic peptic ulcer disease has reduced the operative treatment of this condition to its complications. Perforated duodenal ulcer remains a major life threatening complication of chronic peptic ulcer disease.
van Netten Jaap J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexor tenotomy is a minimally invasive surgical alternative for the treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers on the distal end of the toe. The influence of infection on healing and time to heal after flexor tenotomy is unknown. Flexor tenotomy can also be used as a prophylactic treatment. The effectiveness as a prophylactic treatment has not been described before. Methods A retrospective study was performed with the inclusion of all consecutive flexor tenotomies from one hospital between January 2005 and December 2011. Results From 38 ulcers, 35 healed (92%, with a mean time to heal of 22 ± 26 days. The longest duration for healing was found for infected ulcers that were penetrating to bone (35 days; p = .042. Cases of prophylactic flexor tenotomies (n=9 did not result in any ulcer or other complications during follow-up. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that flexor tenotomy may be beneficial for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers on the distal end of the toe, with a high healing percentage and a short mean time to heal. Infected ulcers that penetrated to bone took a significantly longer time to heal. Prospective research, to confirm the results of this retrospective study, should be performed.
Matsumoto, T; Inokuma, T
This study was carried out to clarify the clinical features of acute haemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU) and to determine the risks and predictors of AHRU rebleeding. Forty patients with AHRU were retrospectively analysed. Patient characteristics, endoscopic features and clinical course were investigated and predictors of AHRU rebleeding were analysed. All patients were in a bedridden state as a result of various diseases, and many patients had atherosclerosis-related comorbidities such as hypertension (67.4%), diabetes mellitus (40.0%) and chronic kidney disease (42.5%). All patients had hypoalbuminaemia, 75% of patients were using antithrombotic drugs and 25% of patients were using systemic corticosteroids. Based on colonoscopy, all patients developed ulcers in the distal rectum just above the dentate line and 30% of patients developed whole circumferential ulcers. The median interval between the onset of the bedridden state and the first massive haematochezia was 16 days and 50% of all patients developed rebleeding regardless of the presence or absence of haemostatic therapy. The median time from initial haemostasis to rebleeding was 6 days. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that whole circumferential ulcer (P = 0.036) was a significant independent predictor of AHRU rebleeding. In the present study, we elucidated the clinical features of AHRU in detail and reviewed previous reports of AHRU. Rebleeding of AHRU occurred at a high rate and whole circumferential ulcer was a significant independent predictor of AHRU rebleeding. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos
Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.
Rosman, Ilana S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J; White, Andrew J; Merritt, Diane F
Acute genital ulcers rarely occur in nonsexually active young girls. When present, they can cause significant physical and emotional distress for the patient and her parents, and prompt an evaluation for sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. With this review, we aim to further characterize acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder and to offer an approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers based on our understanding and knowledge of this condition. We retrospectively review our understanding and knowledge of acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active girls at a pediatric hospital. A review of the recent literature on acute genital ulcers and a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers are also presented. Twelve patients presented with acute genital ulcers, 11 of which were hospitalized for evaluation and pain management. Extensive work-up failed to reveal a specific infectious or autoimmune etiology in all but one patient, who was diagnosed with acute mycoplasma pneumonia. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls likely represent a form of idiopathic vulvar aphthosis. Evaluation of a first episode of acute genital ulcers with mild prodromal symptoms should be limited. Treatment consists primarily of supportive care and symptom relief. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Model for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Acutely Following Spinal Cord Injury : Biomarkers of Muscle Composition and Resilience 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...with acute spinal cord injury at risk of pressure ulcers. This project will investigate potential linkages between skeletal muscle tissue...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0618 TITLE: Development of a Personalized Model for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Acutely Following Spinal Cord Injury
Recently, a new suture-button fixation device has emerged for the treatment of acute distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injuries and its use is rapidly increasing. The current systematic review was undertaken to compare the biomechanical properties, functional outcome, need for implant removal, and the
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) intervention is associated with a significant incidence of slow flow or no-reflow phenomenon. PercuSurge distal protection device (DPD) has recently been approved as an effective adjunct to AMI intervention within 24 h or in the clinical settings of saphenous vein graft intervention. In this ...
Wang, Zhi-wei; Li, Xiao-guang; Shi, Hai-feng; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-bo; Yang, Ning; Jin, Zheng-yu
To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transarterial embolization for management of acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer. Twenty-two patients with duodenal ulcer underwent transarterial embolization for acute massive hemorrhage in our hospital between January 2007 and December 2012. Embolic agents were coils and gelatin sponge. The clinical data and embolization procedures of these patients were retrospective analyzed. Bleeding was controlled in 20 of 23 patients after the first embolization procedures. In the other 3 patients with rebleeding, one patient was successfully managed by repeat embolization and two patient underwent surgical treatment. The overall clinical success rate for acute hemorrhage after transarterial embolization was 91% (21/23). No severe complication occurred. Transarterial embolization is safe and effective for acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer.
Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Sharma, Virender Kumar; Howden, Colin W
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the clinical effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in peptic ulcer (PU) bleeding yield conflicting results. To evaluate the efficacy of PPIs in acute bleeding from PU using evidence from RCTs. We searched CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2004), EMBASE (1980 to November 2004), proceedings of major meetings to November 2004, and reference lists of articles. We contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field. RCTs of PPI treatment (oral or intravenous) compared with placebo or H(2)-receptor antagonist (H(2)RA) in acute bleeding from PU. Two reviewers extracted data independently, assessed study validity, summarised studies and undertook meta-analysis. The influence of study characteristics on the outcomes was examined by subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-four RCTs comprising 4373 participants in total were included. Statistical heterogeneity was found among trials for rebleeding (P = 0.04), but not for all-cause mortality (P = 0.24) or surgery (P = 0.45). There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality rates between PPI and control treatment; pooled rates were 3.9% on PPI versus 3.8% on control (odds ratio (OR) 1.01; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.40). PPIs significantly reduced rebleeding compared to control; pooled rates were 10.6% with PPI versus 17.3% with control treatment (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.65). PPI treatment significantly reduced surgery compared with control; pooled rates were 6.1% on PPI versus 9.3% on control (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.78). There was no evidence to suggest that results on mortality and rebleeding were dependent on study quality, route of PPI administration, type of control treatment or application of initial endoscopic haemostatic treatment. PPIs significantly reduced surgery compared with placebo but not when compared with H(2)RA. There was no evidence to suggest that study quality, route of PPI administration or application
Atas, Halil; Durmus, Erdal; Sunbul, Murat; Birkan, Yasar; Ozben, Beste
Penetrating atheromatous ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic ulcer penetrating the internal elastic lamina of the aortic wall causing a hematoma within the media layer of aorta. They are commonly located in the descending aorta of the elderly and hypertensive patients. They may rarely be complicated by aortic dissection. We report a relative young normotensive patient presenting with acute aortic dissection due to PAU located in the ascending aorta.
Shapryns'kyĭ, V O; Romanchuk, V D; Koval', V M
Results of treatment of 238 patients, suffering an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, occurring on background of application of medicinal preparations, were adduced. The incidence rate for an acute medicinal ulcers of foregut was analyzed, as well as possibilities for their treatment.
BACKGROUND: Effective medical management of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has reduced the incidence of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) as a complication, but perforation especially in the elderly remains unchanged and is in fact on the increase. There is a changing trend in emergency surgery for perforated duodenal ...
Mensier, Alexandre; Bounoua, Farid; Beretvas, Gabriel; Mosoi, Andreia; Dardenne, Sabrina
Acute pancreatitis is often caused by acute alcoholic intoxication or biliary stone migration. Other etiologies are less frequent. We report an exceptional case of kissing ulcer as the cause of an acute pancreatitis due to the perforation of the posterior ulcus into the pancreas. More remarkable is the association of a left portal branch thrombosis and a portal biliopathy. We describe a case of acute pancreatitis of unusual origin, associated with an equally uncommon pathology which is portal cavernoma. A literature review is then exposed to try to ascertain if there is a connection between these two entities.
Dzyubanovskiy, I Ya; Selskiy, P R; Viytovych, L E
Results of examination of 20 gastric ulcer disease patients were analyzed for delineation of a high risk group for an acute complications occurrence, and in whom the conduction of organ preserving preventive operative interventions is expedient. For prognostication such following indices were applied: quantity of cells-producents of various immunoglobulins, mitotic and apoptotic indices, relative volume of damaged epitheliocytes, the patients' age.
Duodenal ulcer perforation is very uncommon in infants and children, that is why it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in this age group. Moreover, the diagnosis of this condition is usually overlooked because of vague and variable symptoms and low index of suspicion on the part of the ...
Dan-Nielsen, Steffen; Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Paerregaard, Anders
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical response, use of colectomy, and adverse events related to infliximab (IFX) treatment in acute and chronic active ulcerative colitis (UC) in children. METHODS: Children from 3 centers, who had received IFX for UC, were identified, and patie...
Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab
Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates...), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer
Full Text Available Although infliximab (Remicade, Schering Canada Inc, Quebec therapy has been well studied in steroid refractory Crohn’s disease, its use remains controversial in chronic ulcerative colitis. A 24-year-old woman with a 14-year history of well controlled left sided ulcerative colitis presented with an acute flare. Clinical, endoscopic and biopsy evidence of an acute flare of ulcerative pancolitis were present. There was no response to intravenous steroids but improvement was seen after receiving 14 days of intravenous cyclosporine (4 mg/kg/day continuous infusion. The patient was discharged from hospital with azathioprine (2.5 mg/kg/day and low dose oral cyclosporine (4 mg/kg/day. She presented with worsening symptoms seven days after discharge. Because of the patient’s unwillingness for surgery, she instead received two injections of infliximab 5 mg/kg at week 0 and week 2. An initial response occurred, but her clinical improvement was not durable. Colectomy was performed four weeks later. This is the first report of infliximab as a salvage therapy in an acute flare of chronic ulcerative colitis following failure of cyclosporine.
Lehman, Julia S; Bruce, Alison J; Wetter, David A; Ferguson, Sara B; Rogers, Roy S
Reactive nonsexually related acute genital ulcers (RNSRAGU) occur in pubertal girls after an acute systemic infection. We sought to characterize RNSRAGU by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder. We searched our medical index database from 1997 to 2007 for RNSRAGU cases. Questionnaires were mailed to identified patients. The study included 10 patients; 5 responded to the questionnaire. The mean age at onset was 11.5 years. Vulvar ulcers were preceded by viral gastroenteritis (n = 3), viral upper respiratory tract infection (n = 3), streptococcal pharyngitis (n = 1), influenza (n = 1), and other nonspecific febrile illnesses (n = 2). Seven patients had oral involvement also; 6 had at least one recurrence; and 3 were hospitalized for pain control. Analgesics and topical corticosteroids were the most common treatments. Ulcerations resolved within several weeks in all patients. Retrospective study design, small study size, and 50% questionnaire response rate are limitations. Although rare, RNSRAGU should be considered when genital ulceration follows an acute systemic illness. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ungar, B; Mazor, Y; Weisshof, R; Yanai, H; Ron, Y; Goren, I; Waizbard, A; Yavzori, M; Fudim, E; Picard, O; Loebstein, R; Kopylov, U; Dotan, I; Chowers, Y; Eliakim, R; Ben-Horin, S
Infliximab is effective as salvage therapy for patients with steroid refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC). Although current data suggest that the pharmacokinetics of infliximab are influenced by inflammatory burden in patients with acute severe UC, data comparing infliximab trough levels in patients with acute severe UC vs. moderately severe UC are scarce. To compare infliximab trough and anti-infliximab antibody levels at a standard fixed time-point during induction between patients with acute severe and moderately severe UC. A multi-centre retrospective study comparing infliximab drug and antibody levels 14 days after the first infusion in hospitalised acute severe UC versus out-patients with moderately severe UC was performed. Sixteen acute severe UC patients, hospitalised between 2010-2015 and refractory to intravenous corticosteroids, were treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg salvage therapy. They were compared to 16 moderately severe UC out-patient controls. Mean infliximab trough levels at day 14 were significantly lower in patients with acute severe UC compared to moderately severe UC (7.15 ± 5.3 vs. 14.4 ± 11.2 μg/mL, P = 0.007). Seven patients (three acute severe and four moderate severe UC) were primary nonresponders to infliximab induction therapy. Infliximab level at day 14 did not differ between responders and nonresponders (9.8 ± 9 vs. 12.1 ± 10.6 μg/mL, respectively, P = N.S.). However, week 2 median antibody-to-infliximab levels were numerically higher among primary nonresponders (3.4 ± 5.7 vs. 1.2 ± 4 μg/mL-eq, respectively, P = 0.06). Infliximab trough levels at day 14 were lower in patients with acute severe UC compared to moderately severe UC, possibly due to a higher inflammatory burden and/or increased drug clearance. However, drug levels at day 14 were not lower among nonresponders compared with responders. Controlled trials are warranted to examine whether an a-priori-intensified infliximab induction protocol will lead to an
Hillingsø, J G; Kjeldsen, J; Schmidt, P T
rectal administration of a 200-mg dose of ropivacaine- or placebo-gel by use of radioimmunoassays. For comparison with normal conditions, concentrations of neuropeptides were measured in another 19 patients with relapsing ulcerative colitis and 14 controls with non-inflamed colon. RESULTS: No significant...... changes in concentrations of eicosanoids or neuropeptides were observed after ropivacaine or placebo administration. Baseline concentrations of all neuropeptides, except somatostatin, were significantly lower in active ulcerative colitis than in controls with non-inflamed colon. CONCLUSIONS...
Bergmann, O J; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Mogensen, S C; Ellegaard, J
To evaluate (a) the prophylactic effect of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir on oral ulcers in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia receiving remission induction chemotherapy and thus (b), indirectly, the role of herpes simplex virus in the aetiology of these ulcers. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. 74 herpes simplex virus seropositive patients aged 18-84. Thirty seven patients received acyclovir (800 mg by mouth daily) and 37 placebo. The patients were examined daily for 28 days. Occurrence of herpes labialis, intraoral ulcers, and acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis. The two populations were comparable in age, sex, type of antineoplastic treatment, and history of herpes labialis. Acute oral infections occurred in 25 of the acyclovir treated patients and 36 of the placebo treated patients (relative risk 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.87)). This difference was due to a reduction in the incidence of herpes labialis (one case versus eight cases; relative risk 0.13 (0.02 to 0.95)), intraoral ulcers excluding the soft palate (one case versus 13 cases; relative risk 0.08 (0.01 to 0.56)), and acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (one case versus eight cases; relative risk 0.13 (0.02 to 0.95)). However, ulcers on the soft palate were diagnosed with similar frequency in the two groups. Isolation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in saliva was reduced from 15 cases in the placebo group to one case in the acyclovir group (relative risk 0.07 (0.01 to 0.48)). Intraoral ulcers excluding the soft palate are most often due to infection with herpes simplex virus, whereas ulcers on the soft palate have a non-herpetic aetiology. The findings suggest that acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis may also be due to herpes simplex virus. Prophylaxis with acyclovir should be considered for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia during remission induction therapy.
Fiorino, Gionata; Gilardi, Daniela; Naccarato, Patrizia; Sociale, Orsola R; Danese, Silvio
Sodium hyaluronate can contribute to the hydration and maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Restoration of the protective layer with sodium hyaluronate may contribute to the induction of remission of active ulcerative colitis. We investigated the safety and efficacy of sodium hyaluronate enema (IBD98E) in distal active ulcerative colitis, in a prospective, uncontrolled, open-label pilot trial. Subjects with active distal ulcerative colitis (UCDAI ≥ 4 and sigmoidoscopy score ≥ 1) received IBD98E 60 mL enema once a day. Primary endpoints were safety and clinical response rate at Day 28. Secondary endpoints included clinical remission, endoscopic remission, and tolerability of IBD98E. Paired Student's t-test was performed to assess statistically significant differences in subjects between baseline and Day 28. Twenty-one subjects were enrolled. The overall safety profile was good; no serious adverse events were recorded. At Day 28, 9 subjects (42.9%) were clinical responders, and 10 subjects (47.6%) had an endoscopic response. Eight subjects (38.1%) achieved clinical remission, and 10 subjects (47.6%) achieved endoscopic remission. The mean average UCDAI score decreased from 6.10 to 3.81 at Day 28 (p=0.001), and average endoscopic score decreased from 1.57 to 1.10 (p=0.004). IBD98E seems to be safe and effective for the induction of clinical and endoscopic remission. Placebo-controlled studies are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jesada, Elizabeth C; Warren, Joan I; Goodman, Dorothy; Iliuta, Ruth W; Thurkauf, Gail; McLaughlin, Maureen K; Johnson, Joyce E; Strassner, Larry
The aim of this study was to determine if a digital photograph obtained by a staff nurse in the acute care setting could be used to determine staging and wound characteristics of a pressure ulcer when viewed by a panel of wound experts as compared to a bedside assessment by a wound expert. One hundred digital photographs of pressure ulcers were obtained from 69 patients on general and critical care medical-surgical nursing units from 2 Magnet-designated hospitals belonging to a large Mid-Atlantic health care system. Four certified wound ostomy nurses (CWONs), 2 at each hospital site, identified patients with a pressure ulcer for bedside assessment and digital photography. This multisite nonexperimental study compared bedside assessment of wound characteristics and staging of 100 pressure ulcers by the hospital CWON to assessment of the same wound by an expert panel of 3 CWONs via digital photography. This study examined 13 wound characteristics and a total score on the Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BWAT) as well as the staging of a pressure ulcer using the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel definitions. A nonprobability sampling plan used a convenience sample of 69 adult inpatients at the 2 hospitals to obtain photographs of 100 pressure ulcers. : The BWAT, formerly the Pressure Sore Status Tool, was used by the bedside and expert panelists to assess the pressure ulcer characteristics. This tool assesses 13 wound characteristics from best to worst, using a modified Likert scale. Studies examining reliability and validity of the BWAT support it as an effective instrument. Interrater reliability among the hospital CWONs using bedside assessment and panelist CWONs using digital photography assessment for the BWAT 13 characteristics ranged from slight to fair agreement for skin color surrounding wound (κ range = 0.12-0.21, P ≤ .02) to fair to moderate agreement for necrotic tissue type (κ range = 0.37-0.60, P = .000). Only slight agreement for total BWAT
Croxtall, Jamie D
Dendritic epithelial keratitis is most commonly caused by infections of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), and less frequently by HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Ganciclovir, a guanosine nucleoside analogue, is a well established broad-spectrum antiviral agent that inhibits replication of viral DNA and is active against both HSV-1 and -2 and several other viruses. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% is a five-times-daily topical preparation that is indicated for the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis (dendritic ulcers). A randomized, open-label, phase III trial in immunocompetent patients with acute herpetic keratitis showed that ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% applied five times daily provided effective clinical resolution of dendritic ulcers following 7 days of treatment (primary endpoint). Moreover, a retrospective analysis of noninferiority showed that ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% was no less effective than aciclovir (acyclovir) ointment 3%. A pooled analysis of three randomized, single-masked, phase II multinational trials also showed high rates of dendritic ulcer healing at day 7 for eyes treated with ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% and aciclovir ointment 3%. Furthermore, in the individual phase II trials, most patients showed evidence of healed dendritic and geographic ulcers at day 14 in either treatment arm. Median healing times with either treatment ranged from 6 to 10 days. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% was generally well tolerated and was associated with a significantly lower incidence of visual disturbances than aciclovir ointment 3% in the phase III trial.
Kholoud A. Alhysoni
Full Text Available Background. Marjolin’s ulcer is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy that arises primarily in burn scars but can occur in other types of scars. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant, and while malignant degeneration usually takes a long time, it can develop acutely. Case Report. a 30-year-old man who developed Marjolin’s ulcer acutely in a right postauricular scar after mastoidectomy and the incision and drainage of a mastoid abscess. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a Marjolin’s ulcer in a postauricular surgical scar. However, it has been reported in others areas in the head and neck. Conclusion. Marjolin’s ulcer is most commonly observed after postburn scars, but it may be observed after any type of scars, as our patient developed an SCC with a postsurgical scar. Early diagnosis is essential, and a biopsy should be performed on any nonhealing wound or chronic wound that undergoes a sudden change. Tissue samples should be taken from both the centre and the margins of the wound.
Bergmann, Olav J; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Mogensen, Soren C; Ellegaard, Jorgen
Abstract Objectives: To evaluate (a) the prophylactic effect of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir on oral ulcers in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia receiving remission induction chemotherapy and thus (b...
Jean Louis Frossard
Full Text Available Drugs are a rare cause of pancreatitis. Whereas some drugs are well known to induce an attack of pancreatitis, some people may be more prone to develop pancreatitis because of personal susceptibility. We describe a recurrent case of acute pancreatitis after administration of several drugs in a patient with intestinal inflammatory bowel disease that needed to be treated with subsequent antiinflammatory agents. Genetic mutation in the CFTR gene was found in the patient that led us to postulate that CFTR was a trigger for drug-induced acute pancreatitis. In conclusion, genetic analysis should be advised in case of recurrent pancreatitis in patient with intestinal inflammatory bowel disease.
Hillingsø, J.G.; Kjeldsen, J.; Schmidt, P.T.
rectal administration of a 200-mg dose of ropivacaine- or placebo-gel by use of radioimmunoassays. For comparison with normal conditions, concentrations of neuropeptides were measured in another 19 patients with relapsing ulcerative colitis and 14 controls with non-inflamed colon.Results: No significant...... changes in concentrations of eicosanoids or neuropeptides were observed after ropivacaine or placebo administration. Baseline concentrations of all neuropeptides, except somatostatin, were significantly lower in active ulcerative colitis than in controls with non-inflamed colon.Conclusions: These findings...
Subbotin, V M; Zitta, D V; Terekhina, N A
Effective method for prophylaxis of acute postoperative gastric ulcers and erosions was developed. The core of this method is ozone therapy in preoperative period. Intensity of blood serum and erythrocytes chemiluminescence and ATPase activity of erythrocytes were studied at 86 patients with colorectal cancer before surgery and at 1st and 4th days of postoperative period. It was demonstrated that preoperative ozone therapy promoted normalization of free radical reactions and ATPase activity at postoperative period.
Mauprivez, Cédric; Comte, Clément; Labrousse, Marc; Khonsari, Roman H
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection occurs in the geniculate ganglion. Major clinical findings are peripheral facial nerve palsy accompanied by ipsilateral ear pain and erythematous vesicular rash on the external ear (herpes zoster oticus) and in the mouth. Thus, diagnosis of RHS is usually clinical. However, auricular herpetic eruption is not always present, making diagnosis more difficult. This report describes a case of RHS with left facial palsy without skin lesions in 60-year-old woman. Multiple ulcers were found on her left soft palate. Polymerase chain reaction analysis on oral mucosa biopsy samples and serologic assays allowed the identification of VZV as the causal agent. Knowledge of the anatomy of the facial nerve is important for oral and maxillofacial surgeons when dealing with patients with RHS, especially in unusual and clinically misleading forms of this syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nahla Saeed Al-Wajeeh,1 Maryam Hajrezaie,1 Nawal Al-Henhena,1 Sareh Kamran,1 Elham Bagheri,1 Maryam Zahedifard,1 Kamelia Saremi,1 Suzita Mohd Noor,1 Hapipah Mohd Ali,2 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla11Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the
Hillingsø, Jens; Kjeldsen, J; Schmidt, P T
BACKGROUND: Topical administration of lidocaine has been suggested to have beneficial clinical effects in patients with active ulcerative colitis, but the mechanism of action, if any, remains obscure. As local anaesthetics may exert anti-inflammatory actions through their inhibition of nervous re...
Zhu, Chenmou; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Tiehao
This study evaluated the clinical influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From August 2009 to December 2014, the clinical outcomes of 130 patients who underwent TEVAR for ATBAD were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether distal entry tears existed after TEVAR, patients were divided into group A (n = 25, absence of distal entry tears) and group B (n = 105, presence of distal entry tears). We evaluated clinical outcomes, including mortality and morbidity in early and late follow-up, as well as aortic remolding. Late aortic events were defined as aortic dissection-related events occurring >30 days from the initial TEVAR procedures, which consisted of endoleak, retrograde type A aortic dissection, aortic enlargement, late rupture, repeat dissection, and stent-induced new entry tear. The study comprised 130 patients (114 men [87.7%] and 16 women [12.3%)] with a mean age of 53.71 years. The 30-day mortality was 3.1%, and early morbidity included type I endoleak, 3.1%, organ failure, 3.8%; stroke, 3.1%; spinal cord ischemia, 0%; and early rupture 1.5%. The overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93.8%, 89.5%, and 79.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early morbidity and 30-day mortality and late survival between group A and group B. However, group A had a significantly lower rate of late aortic events than group B (P = .028 by log-rank test). Meanwhile, group A had better aortic remolding than group B in complete thrombosis of the thoracic aorta at 12 months postoperatively (100% vs 83.5%; P = .029). This study demonstrated that TEVAR for ATBAD had low perioperative morbidity and mortality and satisfactory midterm outcome. Distal entry tears increase the occurrence of late aortic events and inhibit aortic remolding but do not have a significantly negative effect on late survival. Repairing all entry tears to restore
Cao, Ye; Wang, Yueqiu
To observe treatment efficacy of acupuncture at different distal acupoints for acute lumbar sprain after massage. One hundred and fifty patients with acute lumbar sprain were randomly divided into a Yaotongdian (Extra) group, a Houxi (SI 3) group, a Weizhong (BL 40) group, a Chengshan (BL 57) group and a Shuigou (GV 26) group, total 5 groups, 30 cases in each one. After the same massage treatment and based on groups divided, different distal acupoints above-mentioned were selected to be acupunctured. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, lumbar activity and treatment efficacy of patients in 5 groups were evaluated. With acupuncture at distal acupoints after massage,VAS scores of patients in 5 groups were decreased compared with those after massage treatment (all Plumbar activity was all obviously improved (all Plumbar activity and cured and markedly effective rates were not statistically significant(all P>0.05). Based on massage treatment, acupuncture at distal acupoints could further improve the treatment efficacy for acute lumbar sprain, but there is no obvious effective difference among every distal acupoint. As long as choosing acupoints with lower pain threshold and stimulating enough, good efficacy could be acquired for acute lumbar sprain.
Singla, Vikas; Pratap Mouli, Venigalla; Garg, Sushil Kumar; Rai, Tarun; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Verma, Prashant; Deb, Rachana; Tiwari, Veena; Rohatgi, Sarika; Dhingra, Rajan; Kedia, Saurabh; Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet
Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric with anti-inflammatory properties, has been demonstrated to be useful in experimental models of ulcerative colitis (UC). It's efficacy in humans needs to be investigated. A randomized, double-blind, single-centre pilot trial was conducted in patients with distal UC (NCB-02 (standardized curcumin preparation) enema plus oral 5-ASA or placebo enema plus oral 5-ASA. Primary end point was disease response, defined as reduction in Ulcerative Colitis Diseases Activity Index by 3 points at 8 weeks, and secondary end points were improvement in endoscopic activity and disease remission at 8 weeks. Response to treatment was observed in 56.5% in NCB-02 group compared to 36.4% (p=0.175) in placebo group. At week 8, clinical remission was observed in 43.4% of patients in NCB-02 group compared to 22.7% in placebo group (p=0.14) and improvement on endoscopy in 52.2% of patients in NCB-02 group compared to 36.4% of patients in placebo group (p=0.29). Per protocol analysis revealed significantly better outcomes in NCB-02 group, in terms of clinical response (92.9% vs. 50%, p=0.01), clinical remission (71.4% vs. 31.3%, p=0.03), and improvement on endoscopy (85.7% vs. 50%, p=0.04). In this pilot study we found some evidence that use of NCB-02 enema may tend to result in greater improvements in disease activity compared to placebo in patients with mild-to-moderate distal UC. The role of NCB-02 as a novel therapy for UC should be investigated further. © 2013.
Sardana, Kabir; Bansal, Shuchi
Palatal ulcers are a common presentation and can be conveniently divided into developmental and acquired causes, the latter of which is subdivided into acute and chronic causes. Most commonly seen dermatologic causes have associated skin manifestations. Acute and multiple ulcers are usually infectious or drug induced in origin. Recurrent ulcers are largely dominated by aphthosis, while chronic ulcers are seen in immunocompromised patients and can occasionally be malignant. It is essential to involve the oral and maxillofacial surgeons early in the therapeutic management to tackle the inevitable complications that may ensue in the chronic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sobrado, Carlos Walter; Sobrado, Lucas Faraco
Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches. The literature was reviewed using the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library and SciELO databases, and additional information from institutional websites of interest, by cross-correlating the following keywords: acute severe colitis, fulminating colitis and treatment. Treatments for acute severe colitis have avoided colectomy in 60-70% of the cases, provided that they have been started early on, with multidisciplinary follow-up. Despite the adverse effects of intravenous cyclosporine, this drug has been indicated in cases of greater severity with an imminent risk of colectomy, because of its fast action, short half-life and absence of increased risk of surgical complications. Therapy using infliximab has been reserved for less severe cases and those in which immunosuppressants are being or have been used (AZA/6-MP). Indication of biological agents has recently been favored because of their ease of therapeutic use, their good short and medium-term results, the possibility of maintenance therapy and also their action as a "bridge" for immunosuppressant action (AZA/6-MP). Colectomy has been reserved for cases in which there is still no response five to seven days after rescue therapy and in cases of complications (toxic megacolon, profuse hemorrhage and perforation). Patients with a good response to rescue therapy who do not undergo emergency operations should be considered for maintenance therapy using
Coatmeur, Olivier; Rassiat, Emmanuel; Bonniaud, Pierre; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Minello, Anne; Bedenne, Laurent; Faivre, Jean; Hillon, Patrick
We report the case of a 49-Year-old-man with primary sclerosis cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis who developed two acute episodes of pseudo-angiocholitis. Both episodes were triggered by septic hepatitis translocated from ulcerative colonic adenocarcinoma. The biliary MRI did not show any signs of lithiasis or cholangiocarcinoma. cholangiocarcinoma, intra-hepatic lithiasis and colonic cancer are potential diagnoses in patients with PSC who develop angiocholitis.
Bergmann, O.J.; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Mogensen, S C; Ellegaard, J.
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate (a) the prophylactic effect of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir on oral ulcers in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia receiving remission induction chemotherapy and thus (b), indirectly, the role of herpes simplex virus in the aetiology of these ulcers. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SUBJECTS--74 herpes simplex virus seropositive patients aged 18-84. Thirty seven patients received acyclovir (800 mg by mouth daily) and 37 placebo. The patie...
Valentine Uneojo Omoja
Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43
Jensen, Dennis M; Machicado, Gustavo A; Hirabayashi, Ken
Mechanical closure of bleeding vessels is clinically appealing, and several types of hemoclips are now marketed for endoscopic hemostasis of nonvariceal lesions. No comparative data have been reported on ease of clip placement, hemostasis efficacy, or clip retention rates on bleeding ulcers. To compare 3 different types of hemoclips for hemostasis of bleeding ulcers. Randomized controlled study. Seven adult dogs with prehepatic portal hypertension were heparinized, and acute gastric ulcers were made with jumbo biopsy forceps. Animals had oral proton pump inhibitors daily and weekly endoscopies to quantitate clip retention and ulcer healing. Bleeding ulcers were randomized in pairs (2 for each treatment/dog) to endoscopic hemoclip treatment or control. Initial times and success of deployment, hemostasis efficacy, clip retention rates, and ulcer healing during endoscopic follow-ups. There was no difference in initial hemostasis rates of hemoclips, and no major complications occurred. Ulcer healing times were faster (Resolution Clip [RC] or TriClip [TC]) or similar (QuickClip2 [QC]) to controls. Clip retention at 1 week was significantly less with TC and, at 3 to 7 weeks, was significantly higher with RC. (1) For the 3 hemoclip devices, initial hemostasis rates were 100%, but all devices required similar learning time to place clips successfully. (2) Short-term retention rates of TC were significantly less than QC or RC. (3) Long-term clip retention was significantly higher with RC. (4) All 3 hemoclips were safe, and none interfered with ulcer healing.
Exudate has beneficial effects in normal wound healing but detrimental consequences for chronic wounds. Practitioners need to identify and treat its cause, and manage the exudate and prevent if from damaging periwound skin. Management involves dressings of the most appropriate absorbency and other products, and avoiding maceration of periwound skin; compression therapy is the gold standard treatment for treating oedema and venous leg ulceration. Nurses in acute settings may not have the skills to implement or maintain compression therapy; this article is intended for nurses who may have to manage these patients temporarily while they are admitted to secondary care and may not have the skills.
Hindryckx, P; Novak, G; Vande Casteele, N; Laukens, D; Parker, C; Shackelton, L M; Narula, N; Khanna, R; Dulai, P; Levesque, B G; Sandborn, W J; D'Haens, G; Feagan, B G; Jairath, V
Although optimal medical management of acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) is ill-defined, infliximab has become a standard of care. Accumulating evidence suggests an increased rate of infliximab clearance in patients with acute severe UC and a reduced colectomy rate with an intensified infliximab induction regimen. To assess the strength of the current evidence for the relationship between infliximab pharmacokinetics, dosing strategies and disease behaviour in patients with acute severe UC. We systematically searched MEDLINE and conference proceedings from 2000 to 2016 for relevant articles describing the pharmacokinetics of infliximab in acute severe UC and/or infliximab dose intensification strategies in acute severe UC. Eligible articles described randomised controlled trials, and cohort, cross-sectional, and case-controlled studies. Of 400 citations identified, 76 studies were eligible. Increased infliximab clearance occurs in patients with acute severe UC, and is driven by the total inflammatory burden and leakage of drug into the colonic lumen. Several cohort studies suggest that infliximab dose intensification is beneficial to at least 50% of acute severe UC patients and the results of case-controlled studies indicate that an intensified infliximab dosing regimen with 1-2 additional infusions in the first 3 weeks of treatment could reduce the early (3-month) colectomy rate by up to 80%, although these data require prospective validation. Uncontrolled studies suggest a benefit for infliximab dose optimisation in patients with acute severe UC. A randomised controlled trial in acute severe UC patients comparing a personalised infliximab dose-optimisation strategy with conventional dosing is a research priority. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stone, Rivka C.; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Rosa, Ashley M.; Ramirez, Horacio A.; Badiavas, Evangelos; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Tomic-Canic, Marjana
Chronic non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are widespread and debilitating, with high morbidity and associated costs; approximately $15 billion is spent annually on the care of VLUs in the US. Despite this, there is a paucity of treatments for VLUs, due to the lack of pathophysiologic insight into ulcer development as well as the lack of knowledge regarding biologic actions of existing VLU-targeted therapies. The bioengineered bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC) skin substitute is an FDA-approved biologic treatment for healing VLUs. To elucidate the mechanisms through which the BLCC promotes healing of chronic VLUs, we conducted a clinical trial (NCT01327937) in which patients with non-healing VLUs were treated with either standard care (compression therapy) or the BLCC together with standard care. Tissue was collected from the VLU edge before and 1 week after treatment, and samples underwent comprehensive microarray, mRNA, and protein analyses. Ulcers treated with the BLCC skin substitute displayed three distinct transcriptomic patterns, suggesting that BLCC induced a shift from a non-healing to a healing tissue response involving modulation of inflammatory and growth factor signaling, keratinocyte activation, and attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In these ways, BLCC application orchestrated a shift from the chronic non-healing ulcer microenvironment to a distinctive healing milieu resembling that of an acute, healing wound. Our findings provide in vivo evidence in patient VLU biopsies of pathways that can be targeted in the design of new therapies to promote healing of chronic VLUs. PMID:28053158
Mohammed Al Huneini
Full Text Available We report here four cases of genital ulcers that developed after the administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Between October 2007 and March 2010, three males and one female (age range 19-35 years were identified to have genital ulcers after being prescribed all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA as a part of chemotherapy for APL. This is the first series of cases describing genital ulcers, as a unique and rare complication of ATRA used for treatment of APL in these patients, with no other cause identified. Following temporary cessation of ATRA for a few days in these three cases, improvement of the ulcers was noted.
Cheng, Ivan; Mayle, Robert E; Cox, Christopher A; Park, Don Y; Smith, Robert L; Corcoran-Schwartz, Ian; Ponnusamy, Karthikeyan E; Oshtory, Rayshad; Smuck, Matthew W; Mitra, Raj; Kharazi, Alexander I; Carragee, Eugene J
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe functional impairments secondary to axonal damage, neuronal loss, and demyelination. The injured spinal cord has limited regrowth of damaged axons. Treatment remains controversial, given inconsistent functional improvement. Previous studies demonstrated functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusion after transplantation of rat fetal neural stem cells. We hypothesized that acute transplantation of human fetal neural stem cells (hNSCs) both locally at the injury site as well as distally via intrathecal injection would lead to improved functional recovery compared with controls. Twenty-four adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into four groups with six animals in each group: two experimental and two control. Functional assessment was measured after injury and then weekly for 6 weeks using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Score. Data were analyzed using two-sample t test and linear mixed-effects model analysis. Posterior exposure and laminectomy at T10 level was used. Moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor with 10-g weight dropped from a height of 25 mm. Experimental subjects received either a subdural injection of hNSCs locally at the injury site or intrathecal injection of hNSCs through a separate distal laminotomy. Controls received control media injection either locally or distally. Statistically significant functional improvement was observed in local or distal hNSCs subjects versus controls (p=.034 and 0.016, respectively). No significant difference was seen between local or distal hNSC subjects (p=.66). Acute local and distal transplantation of hNSCs into the contused spinal cord led to significant functional recovery in the rat model. No statistical difference was found between the two techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hotta, Tsukasa; Takifuji, Katsunari; Tonoda, Shigehiko; Mishima, Hideo; Sasaki, Masakazu; Yukawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Kazunari; Fuku, Akito; Yamaue, Hiroki
An acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU) is considered to be a potentially life-threatening illness requiring urgent identification and management because of massive bleeding. It is therefore important to clarify the factors associated with the massive bleeding of an AHRU and the best management. The factors associated with the massive bleeding of 14 patients with AHRU were determined by comparing the clinicopathologic features, laboratory data, and treatment between four patients with more transfusions (> or = 12 U) and 10 patients with less transfusions (oral food intake, total parenteral nutrition, and hospital stay from bleeding day than those of the less transfusion group. Thus, the factors associated with the massive bleeding of AHRU were identified.
Lehner, T; Adinolfi, M
The concentrations and sequential changes of some acute phase proteins, factor B, and lysozyme have been assayed in recurrent oral ulceration and Behçet's syndrome. C9 was elevated in both groups of patients and was the sensitive index of disease activity; however, it failed to discriminate between the three types of recurrent oral ulcers and four types of Behçet's syndrome. The level of alpha 1 acid glycoprotein and lysozyme were significantly increased predominantly in the ocular type, wher...
Kamm, Michael A; Lichtenstein, Gary R; Sandborn, William J; Schreiber, Stefan; Lees, Kirstin; Barrett, Karen; Joseph, Raymond
Many patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) respond to mesalamine therapy within 8 weeks. Those not achieving remission after 8 weeks are often treated with steroids or other immunosuppressive therapies. This study aimed to determine the effect of 8 weeks' high-dose MMX mesalamine extension therapy in patients with active, mild-to-moderate UC who had previously failed to achieve complete remission in 2 phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of MMX mesalamine (SPD476-301 and -302). Patients with active, mild-to-moderate UC who did not achieve clinical and endoscopic remission after mesalamine (2.4 or 4.8 g/day), ASACOL (mesalamine) delayed-release tablets 2.4 g/day, or placebo in the phase III studies received MMX mesalamine 4.8 g/day for 8 weeks. The aim was to assess remission at week 8, defined as a total modified UC Disease Activity Index score of or=1 point reduction from baseline in sigmoidoscopy score. Overall, 304 patients who entered this acute extension study were evaluated; 59.5% achieved remission at week 8. Remission rates were similar irrespective of prior treatment in the initial acute phase III studies. Most patients with mild-to-moderate UC who fail to achieve remission with up to 8 weeks' initial mesalamine therapy can achieve clinical and endoscopic remission following a further 8 weeks' treatment with high-dose MMX mesalamine therapy, thereby avoiding step-up therapy.
Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Vandorpe, D; Harrison, V; Nadler, S P
During metabolic alkalosis (MA) associated with 2 days of dietary chloride restriction, there is net bicarbonate secretion by rat distal tubules in vivo, whereas after 5 wk of chloride depletion alkalosis there is net bicarbonate reabsorption. To examine unidirectional components of net bicarbonate reabsorption during chronic MA, we measured distal tubule unidirectional bicarbonate secretion (Jsec) and reabsorption (Jreab), as well as the inhibitor sensitivity of Jreab. In control, 2-day, and 7-day alkalosis, Jsec was similar. Jreab, however, was only present in 7-day MA (17 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.05). This Jreab was completely suppressed by perfusion with 10(-7) M bafilomycin A1, partially suppressed with 10(-5) M Schering (Sch)-28080 (4 +/- 2 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.1), and converted into a secretory flux by 3 mM amiloride. We conclude that adaptation to chloride depletion MA from the acute secretory phase to the chronic state, where plasma bicarbonate is sustained at elevated levels, does not involve suppression of distal tubule Jsec but rather enhanced Jreab, which is sensitive to bafilomycin, Sch-28080, and amiloride.
Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul
in such patients. Methods: 13 healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1...... be a pathophysiological link between decreased GLP-1 release, postprandial hyperglycemia and delayed GE. These explorative data encourage further studies in larger patient groups. Key words: inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, motility, hormonal regulation....
Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul
. Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically...... be a pathophysiological link between decreased GLP-1 release, postprandial hyperglycemia, and delayed GE. These explorative data encourage further studies in larger patient groups....
Robertson, Megan S; Wilson, Stuart J; Cade, John F
To assess current practice in acute stress ulceration (ASU) prophylaxis in adult intensive care units in Victoria, Australia, in 1997 and 2005. Point prevalence surveys using a structured telephone questionnaire of ASU prophylaxis practices were performed in adult ICUs in Victoria on 11 November 1997 and 13 April 2005. All Victorian ICUs identified on each study day participated, comprising 30 ICUs in 1997 and 35 ICUs in 2005. Presence of a clinical protocol or guideline for ASU prophylaxis increased significantly from 23% in 1997 to 54% in 2005 (P = 0.01). Overall provision of ASU prophylaxis to ICU patients also increased significantly from 67% in 1997 to 86% in 2005 (P 1997 to 45% in 2005 (P 1997 and 2005. Use of ASU prophylaxis for patients admitted to Victorian ICUs increased significantly from 1997 to 2005, with an associated increase in the presence of protocols or guidelines for ASU prophylaxis. Although agents currently used for ASU prophylaxis in Victorian ICUs are consistent with available evidence, we are concerned that ASU prophylaxis is given to all patients admitted to the ICU rather than targeted to patients in high-risk categories.
Chen, Hung-Chi; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Huang, Samuel Chao-Ming; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Ma, David Hui-Kang
To report the therapeutic effect and complications of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in acute fungal keratitis. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was confirmed by cultures in 23 eyes of 23 patients. The indications to perform AMT were to promote reepithelialization in non-healing ulcers or to prevent corneal perforation. Antifungal agents were administered throughout the whole course of hospitalization. Repeated cultures were performed immediately before AMT. The main outcome measurements were epithelial healing rate, necessity of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK), and persistence of infection. During a mean follow-up time of 20.6 months +/- 23.22 (6-65 months) AMT was performed during the active phase of the keratitis (fungal culture was still positive) in 16 patients (69.6%), and during the inactive phase (fungal culture negative) in 7 patients (30.4%). Single-layer AMT was performed in 17 patients, and double-layer AMT was performed in 6 patients with corneal perforation and anterior chamber collapse. Complete epithelialization was observed in 12 patients (75%) in the active group and in 7 patients (100%) in the inactive group. Treatment failure requiring TPK was experienced in 4 patients (25%) in the active group. Persistent fungal keratitis was noted in 2 patients (8.7%) in that group. The final visual acuity improved in 17 cases, worsened in 2 cases, and remained unchanged in 4 cases. Twelve of the 23 eyes (52.2%) in this study preserved useful vision (20/400 and better) with or without subsequent surgeries. AMT is effective in promoting epithelialization and preventing corneal perforations in acute fungal keratitis, and there is no risk of rejection. However, the risk of persistent or recurrent infection necessitates continued antifungal treatment and patient monitoring.
Sai, Kimie; Kurose, Kouichi; Koizumi, Tomoko; Katori, Noriko; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Tamura, Tomohide; Okuda, Haruhiro; Saito, Yoshiro
Human orosomucoid (ORM) is a major acute-phase plasma protein, encoded by 2 highly homologous genes, ORM1 and ORM2. Human ORM induction is assumed to be regulated by each proximal promoter region, where putative glucocorticoid responsive elements and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β binding sites are located. However, the details of the differential regulation of these genes remain unknown. To explore this, we assessed the role of the distal promoter region of each ORM in HeLa cells. Luciferase-reporter activities of full constructs, containing approximately 1.1 kbp (FULL), and those of deletion constructs, containing up to 188 bp region (DEL) upstream of the transcription start sites of ORM1 and ORM2 were compared under both basal and inducer-treated conditions. For ORM1 and ORM2 DEL constructs, significantly increased activities after dexamethasone (DEX) treatments (alone and combined with interleukin (IL)-1β) were observed. Significantly higher FULL construct activities than DEL construct activities were observed for ORM1 after IL-1β treatment, while those for ORM2 were significantly lower at basal level and after DEX treatments. Upon C/EBPβ overexpression, FULL construct activities were significantly higher than those of DEL constructs at basal level and after IL-1β treatment for ORM1, and at basal level and after inducer-treatments for ORM2. Higher transcription-induction activity in the distal promoter region was evident for ORM1 in the absence of C/EBPβ overexpression, and for ORM2 under C/EBPβ overexpression conditions. These findings suggest that the ORM distal promoter region differentially regulates expression of ORM genes at basal level and in acute phase responses.
Edwards, W B; Schnitzer, T J; Troy, K L
Computed tomography and finite element modeling were used to assess bone mineral and stiffness loss at the knee following acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Marked bone mineral loss was observed from a combination of trabecular and endocortical resorption. Reductions in stiffness were 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. SCI is associated with a rapid loss of bone mineral and an increased rate of fragility fracture. The large majority of these fractures occur around regions of the knee. Our purpose was to quantify changes to bone mineral, geometry, strength indices, and stiffness at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute SCI. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and patient-specific finite element analysis were performed on 13 subjects with acute SCI at serial time points separated by a mean of 3.5 months (range 2.6-4.8 months). Changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) were quantified for integral, trabecular, and cortical bone at epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia. Changes in bone volumes, cross-sectional areas, strength indices and stiffness were also determined. Bone mineral loss was similar in magnitude at the distal femur and proximal tibia. Reductions were most pronounced at epiphyseal regions, ranging from 3.0 % to 3.6 % per month for integral BMC (p < 0.001) and from 2.8 % to 3.4 % per month (p < 0.001) for integral vBMC. Trabecular BMC decreased by 3.1-4.4 %/month (p < 0.001) and trabecular vBMD by 2.7-4.7 %/month (p < 0.001). A 3.8-5.4 %/month reduction was observed for cortical BMC (p < 0.001); the reduction in cortical vBMD was noticeably lower (0.6-0.8 %/month; p ≤ 0.01). The cortical bone loss occurred primarily through endosteal resorption, and reductions in strength indices and stiffness were some 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic
Neumann, Ignacio; Letelier, Luz M; Rada, Gabriel; Claro, Juan Carlos; Martin, Janet; Howden, Colin W; Yuan, Yuhong; Leontiadis, Grigorios I
Treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) improves clinical outcomes in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. However, the optimal dose and route of administration of PPIs remains controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of different regimens of PPIs in the management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding using evidence from direct comparison randomized controlled trials (RCTs).We specifically intended to assess the differential effect of the dose and route of administration of PPI on mortality, rebleeding, surgical intervention, further endoscopic haemostatic treatment (EHT), length of hospital stay, transfusion requirements and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL (in The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE (from inception to September 2010) and proceedings of major gastroenterology meetings (January 2000 to September 2010), without language restrictions. Original investigators were contacted to request missing data. RCTs that compared at least two different regimens of the same or a different PPI in patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding, diagnosed endoscopically. Two reviewers independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We synthesized data using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method and performed multivariate meta-regression with random permutations based on Monte Carlo simulation. We measured heterogeneity with the I² statistic and Cochrane Q test and assessed publication bias with funnel plots and Egger's test. We graded the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Twenty two RCTs were included; risk of bias was high in 17 and unclear in 5. The main analysis included 13 studies (1716 patients) comparing "high" dose regimens (72-hour cumulative dose > 600 mg of intravenous PPI) to other doses; there was no significant heterogeneity for any clinical outcome. We found low quality evidence that did not exclude a potential reduction or increase in mortality, rebleeding, surgical interventions or
Full Text Available This analytical epidemiological survey was aimed to investigate the correlation between oral hygiene and the onset of an infectious, necrotic, ulcerative disease called acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG. The study involved 319 elementary school children consisting of 163 (52% male and 156 (48% female pupils from Kecamatan Pacet, Cianjur, WestJawa. Samples were chosen by stratified simple random sampling. The obtained data were analyzed with Bivariant Test (Chi2Ttest, and the results showed a quite high prevalence of ANUG, aboout 15.3% in total and consisting 9% male and 6.3% female subjects. The correlation between oral hygiene and the onset of ANUG was found to be significant (p<0.05. It was concluded that oral hygiene has an important contribution to the onset of ANUG.
Seah, Dean; Choy, Matthew C; Gorelik, Alexandra; Connell, William R; Sparrow, Miles P; Van Langenberg, Daniel; Hebbard, Geoffrey; Moore, Gregory; De Cruz, Peter
Data supporting the optimal maintenance drug therapy and strategy to monitor ongoing response following successful infliximab (IFX) induction, for acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), are limited. We aimed to evaluate maintenance and monitoring strategies employed in patients post-IFX induction therapy. Patients in six Australian tertiary centers treated with IFX for steroid-refractory ASUC between April 2014 and May 2015 were identified via hospital IBD and pharmacy databases. Patients were followed up for 1 year with clinical data over 12 months recorded. Analysis was limited to patient outcomes beyond 3 months. Forty one patients were identified. Five of the 41 (12%) patients underwent colectomy within 3 months, and one patient was lost to follow-up. Six of 35 (17%) of the remaining patients progressed to colectomy by 12 months. Maintenance therapy: Patients maintained on thiopurine monotherapy (14/35) versus IFX/thiopurine therapy (15/35) were followed up. Two of 15 (13%) patients who received combination maintenance therapy underwent a colectomy at 12 months, compared with 1/14 (7%) patients receiving thiopurine monotherapy (P = 0.610). Monitoring during maintenance: Post-discharge, thiopurine metabolites were monitored in 15/27 (56%); fecal calprotectin in 11/32 (34%); and serum IFX levels in 4/20 (20%). Twenty of 32 (63%) patients had an endoscopic evaluation after IFX salvage with median time to first endoscopy of 109 days (interquartile range 113-230). Following IFX induction therapy for ASUC, the uptake of maintenance therapy in this cohort and strategies to monitor ongoing response were variable. These data suggest that the optimal maintenance and monitoring strategy post-IFX salvage therapy remains to be defined. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Fan, Jixing; Zhang, Yufu; Huang, Qiang; Jiang, Xieyuan; He, Liang
BACKGROUND Surgical managements were recommended for unstable distal clavicle fracture owing to the high incidence of nonunion. The present study compared the efficacy of anatomical locking plate with versus without additional suture anchor fixation for the treatment of unstable Neer type II distal clavicle fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January 2013 to January 2015, 28 consecutive patients with unstable Neer type II fractures were treated by using anatomical locking plate with or without additional suture anchor fixation. The patients were divided into anatomical locking plate group (group A) and anatomical locking plate combined with suture anchor group (group B) according to the surgical method. The operative-related parameters such as operation time, blood loss, length of hospitalization, union time, functional outcomes (Constant score, UCLA score and DASH score) and CC distance were compared. RESULTS The mean follow-up period of the 28 patients was 19.60 months (21.80 versus 18.39 months, respectively). No statistical differences in general and peri-operative parameters were found between 2 groups. The group B had significant higher Constant score than group A (P=0.004, 91.67 versus 83.10). While no statistical differences were reached in the UCLA score and DASH score between 2 groups (P=0.112 and 0.163, respectively). The group A had longer CC distance than group B (11.67 versus 8.94 mm), while no statistic difference was found (P=0.067). CONCLUSIONS For the treatment of acute unstable Neer type II distal clavicle fractures, both surgical methods could offer satisfactory outcome. However, anatomical locking plate combined with additional suture anchor fixation had a better functional and radiographic outcome than that without additional suture anchor fixation.
Chen, Chun-Yu; Yang, Shan-Wei; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Renn, Jenn-Huei; Lai, Chia-Hsin
Surgical managements are recommended for unstable distal clavicle fractures because of a high incidence of nonunion. A variety of methods have been previously reported, but there is no current consensus regarding which method is the most suitable. Between December 2004 and August 2010, we treated 68 patients with Neer type IIB distal clavicle fractures using single coracoclavicular suture fixation with Mersilene tape (M group) or clavicular hook plate (H group). Sixty-eight patients were followed at least 24 months (mean, 37.9 months). We retrospectively compared the functional outcome, parameters, and perioperative course of the two treatments. Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t test and chi-square test. The M group presented significantly less operation time (P = 0.005) and intra-operative blood loss (P = 0.010) than the H group. The mean University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, Oxford shoulder score, VAS scale, and satisfaction score revealed no significant difference between the M group and the H group. The M group had better range of motion in the operated shoulder during forward flexion and abduction at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. However, the range of motion at 1 and 2 years after operation revealed almost the same results. Two acromial osteolysis and one acromial fracture were noted in the H group and one superficial wound infection and one frozen shoulder in the M group during follow-up. Finally, there was no significant difference in the complication rate between the two groups, and all fractures achieved union clinically at final follow-up. Both single coracoclavicular suture fixation and clavicular hook plate offered effective treatment in acute unstable distal clavicle fractures. However, single coracoclavicular suture fixation with Mersilene tape provided early recovery of shoulder motion and avoided further morbidity of the acromion.
Aronson, D. C.; Moorman-Voestermans, C. G.; Tiel-van Buul, M. M.; Vos, A.
Three children treated for appendicitis developed anuria and acute renal insufficiency several days after appendicectomy. Associated hydronephrosis or hydroureters were present in two. At cystoscopy, marked swelling of the trigonum and ureteric orifices was seen. One patient developed unilateral
Oral ulcer; Stomatitis - ulcerative; Ulcer - mouth ... Mouth ulcers are caused by many disorders. These include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer ...
Edden, Yair; Shih, Shirley S; Wexner, Steven D
Colonic ulcerations can affect the entire colon and rectum, and have variable clinical presentation according to the anatomic location and underlying pathology. Diverse causes may lead to colonic ulceration, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, oral drugs (mostly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), local or diffuse ischemia, and different intestinal microorganisms. An ulcer may also herald a concealed malignant disease. In most cases, colonic ulcerate is associated with diffuse colitis in the acute setup or with inflammatory bowel diseases, and to the lesser extent the ulceration is defined as solitary. This article focuses on two of the less commonly diagnosed diseases: solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and stercoral ulceration, both related to local tissue ischemia and often seen in the elderly population.
Tiel-van Buul, M. M.; Aronson, D. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Baren, R.; Frenkel, J.; van Royen, E. A.
Acute anuria due to bilateral distal ureteral obstruction developed in two boys, ages 7 and 13, several days after appendectomy, without sonographic signs of hydronephrosis or hydroureters. Decompression was achieved after introduction of ureteric stents. This failed on the left side in one patient,
Alonso-Lorente, C; Barrasa-Villar, J I; Aibar-Remón, C
To analyse the trends in pressure ulcer prevalence from 2006 to 2013. To determine the main risk factors associated with pressure ulcers. A descriptive study analysing the prevalence in a series of pressure ulcers collected in the study on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Spain from 2006 to 2013 in the Clinical University Hospital of Zaragoza. The mean prevalence among the 5,354 patients included over the period of study was 4.5% (95% CI=3.9-5.0%). No significant difference in its trend or distribution of pressure ulcers was observed over the several years of the study. Prevalence increased up to 5.0% (95% CI=4.4-5.6%) when short-stay patients (less than 24 hours) and those admitted into low risk units (Paediatrics, Psychiatry and Obstetrics) were removed from the study, but there was still no significant differences in its yearly trend or distribution (p>0.05). Age, length of stay, presence of coma, in-dwelling urethral catheters, malnutrition, infection, and admission unit were risk factors associated with pressure ulcer prevalence in the logistic regression. Age, length of stay, coma, in-dwelling urethral catheters, malnutrition, infection, and admission unit were independent risk markers for patients with pressure ulcers. No particular trend of pressure ulcer prevalence could be determined to demonstrate any effects from the different strategies of improvement implemented during the period of study, although this fact could be due to the limitations of data used in the study. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
... hemorrhage - peptic ulcer; G.I. bleed - peptic ulcer; H. pylori - peptic ulcer; Helicobacter pylori - peptic ulcer ... of the stomach by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ). Most people with peptic ulcers have these bacteria ...
Full Text Available Background: Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU can be found in patients with severe comorbid illness, who are bedridden for a long time. Per anal suturing is a quick and feasible treatment. However, recurrent bleeding occurs frequently after suture ligation of a bleeder and can be life-threatening. However, the risk factor for recurrent bleeding is not well known. Our study tries to clarify the risk factor of repeat AHRU in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2009, the medical records of 32 patients, who were admitted to the ICU of the Tri-Service General Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Taiwan, and who underwent per anal suturing of acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 96 patients who received emergency treatment for acute massive hematochezia, 32 patients were diagnosed with AHRU. Eight (25% patients had recurrent bleeding following suture ligation of AHRU and underwent a reoperation; no patient had recurrent bleeding after the second operation. The duration from the first hematochezia attack to surgery (P = 0.04, liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002, and coagulopathy (P = 0.01 were the risk factors of recurrent bleeding after suture ligation of a bleeder. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that liver cirrhosis (OR = 37.77, P = 0.014 was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Conclusion: AHRU could be a major cause of acute massive hematochezia in patients with severe illness. Our data showed that per anal suturing could quickly and effectively control bleeding. We found that liver cirrhosis was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Therefore, treatment of a liver cirrhosis patient with AHUR should be more aggressive, such as, early detection and proper suture ligation.
Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M
Thymol, a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, is found in abundance in the essential oils of Thymus, Origanum, and Lippia species. The present study investigated the gastroprotective actions of thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the acute (ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers) and chronic (acetic acid-induced ulcers) ulcer models in rats. Some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of thymol were investigated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligature model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of thymol was performed using the agar-well diffusion method. Thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) produced dose dependent reduction (P thymol (30 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated (P Thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg) also reduced the ulcer index (P thymol failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P Thymol no showed anti-H. pylori activity in vitro. Collectively, the present results provide convincing evidence that thymol displays gastroprotective actions on the acute and chronic ulcer models through mechanisms that involve increased in the amount of mucus, prostaglandins, and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
O Brien, J A Jordan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the nature and quality of documented care planning for pressure ulcers in a large teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A mixed method design was used; this encompassed a descriptive survey that retrospectively evaluated nursing records (n=85) in two wards (orthopaedic and care of the older adult) and a focus group (n=13) that explored nurses\\' perspectives of the factors influencing concordance and the quality of nursing documentation. Only records of at-risk patients (Waterlow score of >10) were included. RESULTS: It was identified that 47% (n=40) were assessed as at high or very high risk of developing a pressure ulcer. Fifty-two patients (61%) had a weekly risk assessment, but 25% (n=21) had only one follow-up assessment. Only 45% (n=38) of charts had some evidence of documented care planning, and of those 53% (n=20) had no evidence of implementation of the care plan and 66% (n=25) had no evidence of outcome evaluation. Only 48% (n=41) of this at-risk population was nutritionally assessed. Of patients admitted with and without a pressure ulcer, there was no record of regular positioning in 70% (n=59) and 60% (n=51) respectively. CONCLUSION: Documentation on pressure ulcer care is not standardised and requires development. Conflict of interest: None.
Schneider, L C; Schneider, A E
Ulcers commonly occur in the mouth. Their causes range from minor irritation to malignancies and systemic diseases. Innocent solitary ulcerations, which result from trauma and infections, must be distinguished from squamous cell carcinomas, which also typically present as solitary ulcers. Multiple oral ulcers may be classified as acute, recurrent and/or chronic. The most common causes of rapid-onset oral ulcers include acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, allergies and erythema multiforme. The two common forms of acute (short-term) recurrent oral ulcers, "cold sores" or "fever blisters," which are caused by the herpes simplex virus, and recurrent aphthous ulcers ("canker sores"), may be distinguished largely on the basis of their location. Most types of multiple chronic oral ulcers are associated with disturbances of the immune system. They include erosive lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris. Clinical criteria which are most useful in identifying the cause of oral ulcers are vesicles or bullae, which may not be seen because they rupture rapidly in the oral environment; constitutional signs and symptoms; and lesions on the skin and/or other mucosa. In some cases, diagnosis depends upon culture or biopsy, particularly with the application of immunofluorescence to the surgical specimen.
Richard-Denis, Andréane; Thompson, Cynthia; Bourassa-Moreau, Étienne; Parent, Stefan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of acute care in specialized spinal cord injury (SCI) trauma centers on the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PU) upon arrival at a functional rehabilitation center after a traumatic SCI. This is a retrospective cohort study among 123 patients with traumatic SCI referred to intensive functional rehabilitation between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Group 1 (n = 90) was referred from a level 1 specialized SCI trauma center and group 2 (n = 33) was referred from seven trauma centers not specialized in SCI. The total prevalence of patients with PU at admission to functional rehabilitation was 33.3% (26.7% in group 1 and 51.5% in group 2, P = 0.017). There were also more patients with multiple PU in group 2 (24.2% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.0001). A binary logistic regression showed a significant relationship between the occurrence of PU and the type of acute care facility as well as the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale grade. Receiving acute care at the specialized SCI trauma center was associated with a decrease in the number of patients developing one and multiple PU. These results highlight the importance of specialized SCI trauma centers in acute care of patients with traumatic SCI in reducing PU at their admission to functional rehabilitation settings.
Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P
To determine the effects of load and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscular responses, we asked 12 participants to perform chest presses under four different conditions [30/0, 30/40, 50/0, and 50/40, presented as percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM)/percentage arterial occlusion pressure (AOP)]. Muscle thickness increased pre- to post-exercise [chest: mean 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.37 cm; triceps: mean 0.44, 95% CI 0.34, 0.54 cm], remaining elevated for 15 min post-exercise. Electromyography amplitude was greater with 50% 1RM and increased over time for the first three repetitions of each set of chest presses. The last three repetitions differed across time only. AOP increased from pre- to post-exercise, augmented by BFR [30/0: mean 31, 95% CI 18, 44 mmHg; 30/40: mean 39, 95% CI 28, 50 mmHg; 50/0: mean 32, 95% CI 23, 41 mmHg; 50/40: mean 46, 95% CI 32, 59 mmHg). Tranquility decreased and physical exhaustion increased from the pre- to post-condition, with both parameters returning to the baseline 15 min post-exercise level. In conclusion, load and BFR do not elicit meaningful differences in the acute response of chest press exercise taken to failure.
Du, Zhan-kui; Wang, Ya; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Jing, Quan-min; Han, Ya-ling
To investigate the clinical outcomes influenced by distal extension of false lumen in acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) patients following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From April 2002 to January 2013, 264 TBAD patients treated with TEVAR were retrospectively enrolled. The IIIa group exhibited a distal false lumen above the diaphragm (n = 70), and the IIIb group exhibited a distal false lumen under the diaphragm (n = 194). The morphological characteristics and adverse events (30-day and >30 days) were recorded and evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the demographics, comorbidity profiles, or initial feature of computed tomography angiography. The incidence of true lumen compression and branch involvement were significantly increased in the IIIb group compared with the IIIa group (8.6% vs. 25.3%, respectively; 15.7% vs. 36.1%, respectively, both P 0.05). Log-rank tests also indicated there was no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the IIIa and IIIb groups in the 5-year morality and adverse aortic events following TEVAR. The distal extension of false lumen prior to TEVAR does not influence the long-term morality and adverse aortic events in acute TBAD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most common GI disorders. Perforation has the highest mortality rate of any complication of ulcer disease, while early diagno-sis and emergency treatment save patient life.Case presentation: This paper reports an adolescent boy admitted to the Ziaeian University Hospital. He suffered from severe abdominal pain with dyspnea had been started since past three hours. Periumbilical pain started from past 2-3 days, gradually localized to the right lower quadrant. He had anorexia without nausea and vomiting. He was tachycardic and tachypneic, but he did not have fever. On physical examination, bowel sound was hypoactive, there was generalize tenderness, guarding and rebound tender-ness focused in the right lower quadrant and suprapubic region. Laboratory finding indicated leukocytosis. Chest X-ray showed free air under diaphragm. Once the diagno-sis has been made, the patient was given analgesia and antibiotics, resuscitated with isotonic fluid, and taken to the operating room. Laparotomy was implemented through a midline incision. There was bile secretion in the peritoneal cavity. Appendix was inflamated. Cecum and ileum were normal. A small perforation, 4mm in size was detected in first portion of duodenum. Appendectomy and omental patch repair were done. Ten days later, the patient was discharged in a good state. Serologic test for helicobacter pylori was negative.Conclusion: Stomach and duodenal perforation should be considered in patients with-out peptic ulcer disease, especially in children and adolescents with sudden and severe abdominal pain who are admitted to the hospital for other diseases. Because some patients present with peptic ulcer complications that are seemingly exacerbated by stressful life events.
Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam
Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (pulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung-Ae; Ryu, Han-Won; Lee, Kyu-Suk; Cho, Jae-We
Application of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for chronic wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the wound healing processes of both acute and chronic ulcers and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. We treated 16 patients affected by various acute and chronic ulcers with PRP. We performed molecular studies of cell proliferation, migration assays, immunoblotting and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays in PRP-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells. PRP treatment induced increased rates of cell proliferation and cell migration of HaCaT cells. In addition, the expression of cyclin A and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 proteins was markedly increased with a low concentration (0.5%) of PRP treatment in HaCaT cells. In 11 patients with chronic ulcers, including stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, venous leg ulcers, livedoid vasculitis, claw foot and traumatic ulcers, 9 patients showed 90-100% epithelization after 15.18 days. In 5 patients with acute ulcers, such as dehiscence, open wound and burn wound, 80-100% epithelization was achieved between 4 to 20 days. Topical application of PRP to acute and chronic skin ulcers significantly accelerated the epithelization process, likely through upregulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin A and CDK4.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ugh! Ulcers KidsHealth / For Kids / Ugh! Ulcers What's in this ... real story? Let's find out. What Is an Ulcer? An ulcer (say: UL-sur) is a sore, ...
Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Shen, Wang-Qin; Zhu, Bin
The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment system in the world. To investigate its construct validity using structural equation modeling (SEM), a secondary analysis of retrospective data of patients admitted to an acute care facility was conducted using the records of 2588 patients who were at risk for pressure ulcers and admitted between January 2013 and December 2013. Data were extracted to an Excel sheet and analyzed, including demographic characteristics (ie, patients age, gender, weight, and disease spectrum), as well as total Braden scores and subscale scores. The SEM was set according to modification indices suggestion. The original Braden Scale model was supported by χ2(9) = 22.854, CFI = 0.902, GFI = 0.974, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.092, indicating inadequate model fit. After modification according to software indices, χ2(2) = 2.052, CFI = 0.999, GFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.020 indicated an acceptable fit of the model (final model). The factor loadings of 6 subscales were all significant (P perception, .626 for mobility, and .556 for moisture subscale. The nutrition, activity, and friction and shear subscales were corrected to examine their relationships with other Braden Scale subscales (nutrition with activity [φ -0.063], activity with friction/shear [φ 0.136], and nutrition (φ friction/shear [0.159]). The factor loadings ranged from -0.067 to 0.159. These findings suggest the original Braden Scale has inadequate construct validity for acute care patients and that new risk-predicting scales should be designed based on data mining. Second, according to the factor loadings in the SEM, the most important risk factor in the Braden Scale for this patient population is sensory perception, followed by mobility and moisture. This suggests practitioners should pay particular attention to pressure ulcer prevention when patients have limited sensory perception, mobility limitations, and/or when moisture status
H.A. van Essen
textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous
Schepers, Tim; van der Linden, Hans; van Lieshout, Esther M M; Niesten, Dieu-Donné; van der Elst, Maarten
Much of the currently available data on the technical aspects of syndesmotic screw placement are based upon biomechanical studies, using cadaveric legs with different testing protocols, and on surgeon preference. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the level of syndesmotic screw insertion on functional outcome. Further, the effects of number of cortices engaged, the diameter of the screw, use of a second syndesmotic screw and the timing of removal on functional outcome were tested. All consecutive patients treated for an ankle fracture with concomitant acute distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injury that had a metallic syndesmotic screw placed, between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2010, were included. Patient characteristics (i.e., age at injury and gender), fracture characteristics (i.e., affected side, trauma mechanism, Weber fracture type and number of fractured malleoli), and surgical characteristics (i.e., level of screw placement, screw diameter, tri- or quadricortical placement, number of syndesmotic screws used and the timing of screw removal) were recorded. Outcome was measured using validated questionnaires, which were sent by post, and consisted of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score (AOFAS), the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS) and a single question Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for patient satisfaction with outcome. During the 7-year study period, 122 patients were treated for syndesmotic injury. A total of 93 patients (76%) returned the questionnaire. The median follow-up was 51 months. The outcome scoring systems showed an overall score for the entire group of 92 points for the AOFAS, 77 for the OMAS and 8.2 for the VAS. Outcome was statistically significantly influenced by the number of fractured malleoli, age, trauma mechanism and the level of screw insertion. Overall, the functional outcome of acute syndesmotic injuries treated with a syndesmotic screw was good and mainly influenced by
Losev, R Z; Chirkov, Iu V
The article presents results of treatment of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers in 1010 patients for 23 years. The active temporizing policy during the first 8 years resulted in 8.1% lethality while the active methods gave 8.24% lethality in six times greater number of patients. In the active policy urgent and emergency operations were performed on 43.6% of the patients with postoperative lethality 12.9%. Lethality among non-operated patients was 4.6%. Using the active surgical methods allowed lethality to be substantially decreased in the group of non-operated patients. The postoperative lethality was stabilized due to a less amount of recurrent bleedings and of "operations of despair". Recommendations are given to restrict the indications for Billroth-2 gastric resections because of a great risk of incompetent stump of the duodenum. Wider using the organ-saving operations is recommended, especially in elderly patients and against the background of haemorrhagic shock. The growing amount of patients with ulcerous gastroduodenal bleedings (which has become 2.4 times greater for the recent 15 years) makes further investigations in this direction very actual.
Adegbolagun Temitope Adeoye
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and analgesic effects of the aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (L. cyanescens since the plant is said to have medicinal properties. Methods: The filtrate of the aqueous root extract of the plant (100 mg/mL was used to evaluate for antiulcer activity in 20 rats divided into five groups of four rats each, which were Groups A, B, and C that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively, while Group D was served as negative control and animals of Group E received 20 mg/kg dose of ranitidine. Indomethacin at a dose of 15 mg/kg was used to induce ulcer on the day of sacrifice. For acetic writhing test (antinociception, same design was used except that Group E received 100 mg/kg dose of acetyl salicylic acid as standard drug. Abdominal contractions were induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of 10 mL/kg of 0.6% of acetic acid. Results: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens at all doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/ kg showed significant (P < 0.05 decrease in ulcer parameters compared with the negative control. The extract also produced a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the number of writhing reflexes in treated rats compared with negative control. Conclusions: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens exhibited both antiulcer and analgesic effects justifying folklore claim for the health benefits of this plant.
In 36 patients with ulcer without Zollinger-Ellison-syndrome (25 patients with recurrent duodenal ulcer, 11 with an ulcus pepticum jejuni after B II-resection of the stomach) and 2 patients suffering from ulcus pepticum jejuni with an ascertained gastrinoma the secretion of acid was compared after stimulation of pentagstrin (6 mug/kg) and calcium (4 mg Ca++/kg/h). The secretion of hydrochloric acid was statistically significantly stimulated in all patients suffering from ulcer by the hypercalcaemia (increase of the serum calcium concentration from 5.0 +/- 0.3 mval/1 to 6.2 +/- 0.8 mval/1). But in patients suffering from ulcer with gastrinoma the stimulatory effect was larger than in such patients without autonomous source of gastrin: the calcium-stimulated secretion of hydrochloric acid was on the average in cases of duodenal ulcer 40% (2 to 68%), in the ulcera peptica jejuni 47% (17 to 75%), in the 4 comparative examinations of the two patients with Zollinger-Ellison-syndrome, however, always more than 100% (106 to 177%) of the pentagastrin-stimulated peak secretion. The comparative test of the pentagastrin and calcium-stimulated secretion of hydrochloric acid could be a help for the proof of autonomous places of the formation of gastrin.
Bruce, Adrian S; Nguyen, Leanne M
Mini-scleral lenses are an increasingly popular contact lens modality; however, there are relatively few reports regarding the unique aspects of their fitting and potential complications. We report a complication of mini-scleral lens wear in a 44-year-old female patient using the lenses for keratoconus. Her mini-scleral contact lenses were non-fenestrated and fitted to vault over the cornea and seal at the periphery. The patient presented with an acute red eye (non-ulcerative keratitis), characterised by unilateral severe conjunctival and limbal hyperaemia, corneal infiltration and pain. Refitting the lens to increase the corneal vault clearance did not prevent recurrence of the keratitis, some five months later. Successful prevention of further episodes of the acute red eye was achieved through improved patient compliance with lens cleaning, disinfection and lens case procedures. Lens hygiene may be particularly important for mini-scleral lenses with a sealed fitting. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.
Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Chao, M.; Bothwell, M.; Ross, A.H.; Finan, J.; Hoxie, J.A.; Sehgal, A.; Buck, C.R.; Lanahan, A.
Genomic and cDNA clones for the human nerve growth factor receptor have been used in conjunction with somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization to localize the nerve growth factor receptor locus to human chromosome region 17q12-q22. Additionally, part, if not all, of the nerve growth factor receptor locus is present on the translocated portion of 17q (17q21-qter) from a poorly differential acute leukemia in which the chromosome 17 breakpoint was indistinguishable cytogenetically from the 17 breakpoint observed in the t(15;17)(q22;q21) translocation associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Thus the nerve growth factor receptor locus may be closely distal to the acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated chromosome 17 breakpoint at 17q21.
... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Ulcer Sections What Is a Corneal Ulcer? Corneal Ulcer ... Diagnosis Corneal Ulcer Treatment What Is a Corneal Ulcer? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una Úlcera de ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Peptic Ulcers KidsHealth / For Parents / Peptic Ulcers What's in this ... age — even kids — can develop ulcers. About Peptic Ulcers An ulcer is a sore, which means it's ...
Boehme, Michael W J; Autschbach, Frank; Ell, Christian; Raeth, Ulrich
Severe gastric inflammation or ulcer disease can alter gastric motility and influence sufficient glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, visceral neuropathy may reduce the perception of typical gastrointestinal symptoms in these patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of silent severe acute gastritis, gastric ulcers or erosions in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus and to determine potential predictive parameters. Seventy-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and little or no dyspeptic symptoms were investigated by endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract under screening conditions. Before endoscopy the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and standard laboratory parameters were determined. In addition, the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was investigated by rapid urease test and histology. Highly active gastric inflammation was found in 34 patients (gastric ulcers in 10, gastric erosions in 21, and histologically acute, grade two or three gastritis in 3 patients). Episodic heartburn was significantly associated with highly active gastric inflammation (odds ratio 2.96 (1.05-8.32), p = 0.036). Elevated levels of C-reactive-protein and blood leukocyte counts proved to be of positive predictive value for highly active gastric inflammation in patients without other causes of acute inflammatory diseases (odds ratio 3.52 (p = 0.026) and 7.64 (p = 0.007) respectively). No significant association was found for gender, age, duration of disease, BMI, considerably raised HbA1c (>8.5%), complications of diabetic disease, general gastrointestinal symptoms, Helicobacter pylori infections and therapy with acetylsalicylic acid on 100 mg/d. The results of this study indicate that severe acute gastric inflammation or ulcer disease can occur with high prevalence in patients with diabetes mellitus with little or no dyspeptic symptoms. Additional endoscopic investigations might be of particular
Rovani, B T; de Freitas, R B; Augusti, P R; Araldi, I C; Somacal, S; Quatrin, A; Emanuelli, T; da Rocha, M P; Bauermann, L de Freitas
Free radicals and oxidative stress play a central role in gastric injuries caused by ethanol (EtOH). Antioxidant strategies to counteract EtOH toxicity are highly desirable. Norbixin (NBIX) is a carotenoid with antioxidant potential largely used in the food industry. This study evaluated the NBIX effects in a model of gastric ulcer induced by EtOH in rats. Male Wistar rats received NBIX doses of 0, 10, and 25 mg/kg by gavage 1 h after EtOH administration (0 or 75% solution, 1 mL/200 g of animal). The animals were euthanized 1 h after the NBIX administration, and their stomachs were removed for macroscopic and histopathological analyses, quantification of nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity determination. NBIX increased LPO in gastric mucosa and caused CAT inhibition and NPSH depletion in EtOH-treated animals. Results showed that NBIX did not protect gastric tissue against EtOH damage, and this could be associated to a prooxidant effect. © The Author(s) 2015.
... the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are caused when there is an imbalance between ... protect the lining of the stomach. Symptoms of ulcers may include bleeding. On rare occasions, an ulcer ...
Yang, Zong-Bao; Wang, Chen-Guang; Gong, An; Xie, Yu-feng; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Qing
To explore relevant material basis of moxibustion for recovering gastric mucosal lesion. METHODL Forty-five SD rats were randomly divided into a normal goup, a model group, an acupoint group and a control group, 15 rats in the model group and 10 rats in the rest three groups. Except the normal group, binding and cold stress method were used to establish gastric mucosa injury model. The suspended moxibustion was applied in the acupoint group and control group at acupoints of the stomach meridian ("Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST36) and control acupoints (Laterally 1cm next to the "Liangmen" (ST 21) and Zusanli" (ST36), once a day, consectutively for 12 days. After 12 days, morphology of gastric mucosal was observed under optical microscope; protein fingerprints of gastric mucosa cell in rats were detected by protein fingerprint technology, weak cation chip and weak anion chip. Also mass to charge ratio of differential proteins in groups were compared and analyzed. Compared with the model group, index of gastric mucosal lesion in the acupoint group was reduced and its morphology was obviously improved (Pgastric mucosal lesion were significantly improved in the acupoint group (Pgastric mucosa cell-related marker protein in rats with acute gastric ulcer and recover gastric mucosal lesion, it's effect is better than that of the points of laterally 1 cm next to acupoint.
Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Wan, Eric Y F; Lam, Cindy L K
To examine the internal and external responsiveness of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) tool for assessing the healing progress in acute and chronic wounds. It is important to establish the responsiveness of instruments used in conducting wound care assessments to ensure that they are able to capture changes in wound healing accurately over time. Prospective longitudinal observational study. The key study instrument was the PUSH tool. Internal responsiveness was assessed using paired t-testing and effect size statistics. External responsiveness was assessed using multiple linear regression. All new patients with at least one eligible acute or chronic wound, enrolled in the Nurse and Allied Health Clinic-Wound Care programme between 1 December 2012 - 31 March 2013 were included for analysis (N = 541). Overall, the PUSH tool was able to detect statistically significant changes in wound healing between baseline and discharge. The effect size statistics were large. The internal responsiveness of the PUSH tool was confirmed in patients with a variety of different wound types including venous ulcers, pressure ulcers, neuropathic ulcers, burns and scalds, skin tears, surgical wounds and traumatic wounds. After controlling for age, gender and wound type, subjects in the 'wound improved but not healed' group had a smaller change in PUSH scores than those in the 'wound healed' group. Subjects in the 'wound static or worsened' group had the smallest change in PUSH scores. The external responsiveness was confirmed. The internal and external responsiveness of the PUSH tool confirmed that it can be used to track the healing progress of both acute and chronic wounds. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Patients at highest risk for developing cancer in ulcerative colitis are those with ‘extensive’ or total involvement of the large bowel who have had the disease for at least seven years. Dysplasia is used as a marker bur has many problems including those of sampling, reproducibility and management. The risk in patients with colitis is unclear particularly in those with left-sided or distal ulcerative colitis. In countries at high risk from colorectal cancer about 4 to 6% of the population can...
Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyuck
Osteomyelitis originating in the epiphysis of the long bones is quite rare and is usually found at either the distal femur or the proximal tibia. We report the case of a 12-year-old male with epiphyseal osteomyelitis that had developed in the distal tibia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report. The patient's history of a trauma that resembled an ankle sprain had delayed the diagnosis and subsequently led him to develop septic arthritis. The ankle is a common site of simple trauma; however, epiphyseal osteomyelitis is rare at this site. Therefore, if the symptoms continue or worsen after trauma, the clinician should check the affected site and take a more aggressive approach to make an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid
The aim of this study was to uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a sub-acute rehabilitation department. PUs is a major burden for patients and also generate considerable healthcare costs. PUs are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary and primary care. In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical grasp and professional pride". Seven subcategories were summed up into the following three categories: Organisation of clinical practice, Professional assessment and Interactions with the patient. The healthcare professionals' actions to prevent PUs consisted of attaining the necessary knowledge about PU care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect; a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision of daily patient care. We believe this commitment has a very positive effect on prevention of PUs. Professional knowledge about prevention of PU is a necessary requisite, but is not sufficient to ensure effective treatment. To transfer knowledge into practice, we recommend that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life
Krishnan, Shilpa; Brick, Rachelle S; Karg, Patricia E; Tzen, Yi-Ting; Garber, Susan L; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Brienza, David M
To evaluate the validity of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale (SCIPUS) during acute care and inpatient rehabilitation following spinal cord injury (SCI) by determining critical cutoff points and assessing the ability to predict risk for pressure ulceration (PrU). Retrospective. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic were determined for the scale's ability to predict PrU 2-3 and 5-7 days after administrating the SCIPUS during acute care, and 5-7 and 14-21 days after administrating the SCIPUS during inpatient rehabilitation. During acute hospitalization, SCIPUS's ability to assess risk for PrUs within 2-3 days was determined at cutoff score of 15 with 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity, AUC = 0.85. The scale was unable to assess PrU risk at 5-7 days, AUC rehabilitation, the scale was unable to assess PrU risk at 5-7 and 14-21 days, AUC rehabilitation. Improved PrU risk assessment following SCI may be possible with modification to the SCIPUS.
Bobkov, O V
Comparative estimation of methods of endoscopic hemostasis and treatment of an acute gastroduodenal ulcers, complicated by hemorrhage, was done: in 22 patients the conventional methods were applied, in 41-endoscopic hemostasis, using flatorization with the help of ozone-oxygen mixture and subsequent ozone insufflations. For the treatment efficacy control the endoscopic monitoring was used, there were studied cytobiochemical indexes of the dehydrogenases complex activity and of peroxide oxygenation of lipids. It was established, that ozonotherapy, even applied solely, guarantees the erosions healing in 3 days on average with simultaneous approximation to the norm of cytobiochemical indexes investigated.
Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J.
Background Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. Objective The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index – the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Design Two-phase measure development study. Settings 5,144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors® during the year 2013. Methods The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. Results The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index = 100 − PUR − FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of
Godina, Mario; Nagliati, Carlo; Menegon, Paola; Caruso, Valentina
Our aim is to present the laparoscopic technique of an emergency revisional procedure performed to convert a mini/one anastomosis gastric bypass (MGB/OAGB) to a modified Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass (RYGB) due to recurrent bleeding from a marginal ulcer. A 43 year old woman presented unstable conditions due to acute bleeding from a marginal ulcer after a MGB/OAGB performed 3 years before. After three failed endoscopic haemostasis attempts, she underwent a laparoscopic conversion to a modified RYGB in emergency setting. The patient had an uneventful recovery. She maintained heamodynamical stability after the procedure. She was eventually discharged in the seventh postoperative day after restarting oral feeding on chronic proton pump inhibitors. To our knowledge, there are few descriptions of emergency surgical conversion from a MGB/OAGB to a modified laparoscopic RYGB due to a recurrent marginal ulcer bleeding not responsive to endoscopic treatment. A regular post-operative follow-up is mandatory after bariatric surgery. We advocate performing revisional surgery in an experienced Bariatric Center.
A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or your duodenum, the first part of your small ... and goes for several days or weeks Peptic ulcers happen when the acids that help you digest ...
Thomas, Reuben M; Lim, Sang Yup; Qiang, Beiping; Osherov, Azriel B; Ghugre, Nilesh R; Noyan, Hossein; Qi, Xiuling; Wolff, Rafael; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Berk, Thomas A; Butany, Jagdish; Husain, Mansoor; Wright, Graham A; Strauss, Bradley H
Distal coronary embolization (DCE) of thrombotic material occurs frequently during percutaneous interventions for acute myocardial infarction and can alter coronary flow grades. The significance of DCE on infarct size and myocardial function remains unsettled. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of DCE sufficient to cause no-reflow on infarct size, cardiac function and ventricular remodeling in a porcine acute myocardial infarction model. Female Yorkshire pigs underwent 60 min balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion and injection of either microthrombi (prepared from autologous porcine blood) sufficient to cause no-reflow (DCE), or saline (control). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h (n = 5), 3 days (n = 20) or 6 weeks (n = 20) post-AMI. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), serum troponin-I, and cardiac gelatinase (MMP) and survival kinase (Akt) activities were assessed. At 3d, DCE increased infarct size (CMR: 18.8% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.04; serum troponin-I: 13.3 vs. 6.9 ng/uL, p infarct size, ventricular volume or ejection fraction between the two groups, although infarct transmurality (70% vs. 57%, pinfarct size, but without affecting later infarct size, cardiac function or ventricular volumes. The significance of the later remodelling changes (ventricular thinning and transmurality) following DCE, possibly due to changes in MMP-2 activity and Akt activation, merits further study.
Hofsli, Mikael; Torfing, Trine; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid
Ankle injuries are common among the paediatric population. There are few prospective studies utilizing MRI to diagnose a clinically suspected Salter-Harris type I of the distal fibula (SH1FDF). The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of clinically suspected SH1FDF in children. All......1FDF were referred for MRI of the ankle joint. Out of 391 paediatric patients seen at the emergency room with ankle injury, 38 patients had a clinical suspicion of SH1FDF. A total of 31 patients, 18 male and 13 female, with a mean age of 10±2.86 years, were included in the study. Only seven patients...... were excluded from the study. MRI was obtained on an average of 6.9±2.87 days. None of the included patients had evidence of SH1FDF on MRI. Our study and review of the literature verifies the high false-positive rate of clinically suspected SH1FDF. Most children had ligamentous lesions, bone contusion...
Devang J Pandya; Indermeet Singh Anand
Oxystelma esculentum is a perennial twiner growing near water-logged areas in the Indian subcontinent. It is used traditionally in stomach ulcers. The present work deals with the investigation of anti-ulcer potential of O. esculentum. The plant was successively extracted with solvents of varying polarities, which served as the test extracts. Anti-ulcer effect was checked in Wistar rats using aspirin- and ethanol-induced acute ulcer models. The petroleum ether extract was found to possess the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric ulcers are a frequent problem in the United States. Proton pump inhibitors have been shown to increase healing rates and improve clinical symptoms. The objective of this study is to compare gastric ulcer healing rates for patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI (omeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or lansoprazole, an histamine 2- receptor antagonist (ranitidine or placebo. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify randomized, controlled clinical trials that included a PPI in at least one treatment arm and assessed the gastric ulcer healing rates endoscopically. The healing rates were estimated for each treatment at specific time points, and Rate Ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated for each trial. Results Sixteen trials met the inclusion criteria: four compared a PPI versus placebo, nine compared a PPI versus ranitidine (no trials of rabeprazole versus ranitidine met the inclusion criteria, and three compared a newer PPI (lansoprazole, pantoprazole or rabeprazole versus omeprazole. In relation to ranitidine, the pooled RR of PPIs (lansoprazole, omeprazole and pantoprazole was 1.33 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.42 at four weeks. In each trial, greater improvement in the studied clinical symptoms was found with the newer PPIs (rabeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole when compared to omeprazole. Conclusion In this study treatment with PPIs resulted in higher healing rates than ranitidine or placebo. This evidence suggests that the first choice for gastric ulcer treatment for the greater relief of symptoms is one of the newer PPIs.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the gastro-protective effect of the aqueous, methanol and hexane root extracts of Ziziphus abyssinica on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats as models. Methods: Seventy rats were divided into seven groups of ten rats each: control group, ulcer control group, standard control group (cimetidine 100 mg/kg body weight, aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extract groups. They were administered the extracts at 300 and 600 mg/kg for two weeks before ulcer was induced, and the protective effect of all extracts determined. Results: Histological changes in gastric tissue were evaluated. Pretreatment with Ziziphus abyssinica extracts showed significant (P < 0.05 gastro-protective effect with aqueous extract having the highest gastro-protective effect (95% and 93% at 300 and 600 mg/kg extract respectively. Methanol extract had 66.6% and 65.5% protection at 300 and 600 mg/ kg respectively. The percentage protection in ethyl acetate extract treated group was 51% and 45% respectively. The group treated with hexane had 23.8% and 28.6% protection at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Histological study showed that pretreatment with aqueous extract resulted in the preservation of the functional cyto-architecture of the entire mucosa with little pathological changes, compared to other extracts. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that aqueous extract is effective against induced gastric ulcer.
Haule Emmanuel E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich. Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae, Maytenus senegalensis (Lam. Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385, Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole
Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual
Jackson, Stephanie Smith
More than one million people develop pressure ulcers (PU) every year in the US - a major problem that leads to increased morbidity and mortality. A hospital-acquired PU (HAPU) is defined as any ulcer noted 24 or more hours after hospital admission. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the incidence of HAPUs between two 1-year periods of time (March 1, 2007 through March 17, 2008 and March 18, 2008 through March 31, 2009) at an acute care facility. Records from all admitted adult medical-surgical and critical care patients along with routinely submitted quality control reports on patients who acquired PUs during hospitalization were reviewed and abstracted. A locally developed PU risk assessment instrument (SST) was used during the first time period and the Braden Scale (BS) was used during the second time period. The overall PU incidence was 368 in 41,840 patient admissions (8.80 per 1,000); 9.49 in the SST and 8.08 in the BS patient sample (P = 0.125). No significant differences in patient age, race, and PU severity or location were observed. However, the incidence of more severe ulcers (Stage III and Stage IV) was lower in the BS group (0.5667 in the SST group compared to 0.2419 per 1,000 admissions in the BS group) even though median patient length of stay was longer (28 days and 34 days in the SST and BS groups, respectively), suggesting that use of a valid and reliable PU risk assessment instrument may reduce the incidence of severe PUs. Study design and sample size limit the ability to generalize the results of this study. Controlled clinical studies comparing the effect of different PU risk assessment instruments on PU incidence are needed.
Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra
Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.
Venous disorders causing a permanent increase in venous pressure are by far the most frequent reason for ulcers of the lower extremity. With a prevalence of 1 % in the general population rising to 4 % in the elderly over 80 and its chronic character, 1 % of healthcare budgets of the western world are spent on treatment of venous ulcers. A thorough investigation of the underlying venous disorder is the prerequisite for a differenciated therapy. This should comprise elimination of venous reflux as well as local wound management. Chronic ulcers can successfully be treated by shave therapy and split skin grafting. Compression therapy is a basic measure not only in venous ulcer treatment but also in prevention of ulcer recurrence. Differential diagnosis which have to be considered are arterial ulcers, vasculitis and neoplasms.
Venous stasis ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... the skin Skin turns dark brown Skin sores (ulcers) may develop (called a venous ulcer or stasis ...
... instrument with a heated tip or a laser technique. Resection of ulcers : cutting around and removing the ulcers from ... Provider Registry Order Educational Materials CME/CEU IC Reading List Living with IC ... Sources of Fiber What to Eat The IC Plate™ Foods ...
Li, Weifeng; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Hailin; He, Zehong; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yu; Niu, Xiaofeng
Cavidine, a major alkaloid compound isolated from Corydalis impatiens, has various pharmacological effects but its effect on gastric ulcer has not been previously explored. The current study aimed to investigate the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of cavidine in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Mice received cavidine (1, 5 or 10mg/kg, ig), cimetidine (CMD, 100mg/kg, ig) or vehicle at 12h and 1h before absolute ethanol administration (0.5mL/100g), and animals were euthanized 3h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and histological gastric lesions, biochemical, immunological and Western blot parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas cavidine pre-treatment reduced the gastric injuries. Cavidine pre-treatment also ameliorated the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), relative to the model group. Also cavidine was able to decrease the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inhibit the up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and activation of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Taken together, these results indicated that cavidine exerts a gastroprotective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, reduction of oxidative stress, suppression of NF-κB expression and subsequent reduced COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rantanen, Tuomo; Udd, Marianne; Honkanen, Teemu; Miettinen, Pekka; Kärjä, Vesa; Rantanen, Lassi; Julkunen, Risto; Mustonen, Harri; Paavonen, Timo; Oksala, Niku
Peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is a major cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The effect of omeprazole on mucosal repair is unknown. We studied the effect of omeprazole, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and smoking on PUB. There were 43 PUB patients who received regular or high dose of omeprazole for 72 h. Biopsies from antrum and corpus were taken before and after treatment. Biopsy samples from 20 celiac disease patients worked as controls. The expression of Ki-67, Bcl-2, COX-2, Hsp27, and Hsp70 was analyzed from patients and controls. Bcl-2 expression in PUB patients was lower than in controls. However, Bcl-2 increased significantly from 5.0 (SD 4.5) to 9.1 % (SD 6.7), p = 0.0004, in the antrum after omeprazole. In univariate analysis, a high omeprazole dose caused a more profound increase in Ki-67 expression in the corpus: 35.3 % (SD 54.8) than a regular dose: -10.1 % (SD 40.6), p = 0.022. In multivariate analysis, Ki-67 decreased significantly in the corpus between the pre- and posttreatment period (p = 0.011), while a high omeprazole dose (p = 0.0265), the use of NSAIDs (p = 0.0208), and smoking (p = 0.0296) significantly increased Ki-67 expression. Bcl-2 in the corpus increased significantly (p = 0.0003) after treatment. Our findings suggest that Bcl-2 may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of a peptic ulcer and PUB. In addition, high-dose omeprazole increased the expression of Ki-67, which may enhance the healing process of a peptic ulcer.
Wu, Tsung-Chin; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen
Recent findings suggest that patients admitted on the weekend with peptic ulcer bleeding might be at increased risk of adverse outcomes. However, other reports found that there was no "holiday effect." The purpose of this study was to determine if these findings hold true for a real-life Taiwanese medical gastroenterology practice. We reviewed the medical files of hospital admissions for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who received initial endoscopic hemostasis between January 2009 and March 2011. A total of 744 patients were enrolled (nonholiday group, n = 615; holiday group, n = 129) after applying strict exclusion criteria. Holidays were defined as weekends and national holidays in Taiwan. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. We also observed that, compared to the nonholiday group, patients in the holiday group received earlier endoscopy treatment (12.20 hours versus 16.68 hours, P = 0.005), needed less transfused blood (4.8 units versus 6.6 units, P = 0.02), shifted from intravenous to oral proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) more quickly (5.3 days versus 6.9 days, P = 0.05), and had shorter hospital stays (13.05 days versus 17.36 days, P = 0.005). In the holiday and nonholiday groups, the rebleeding rates were 17.8% and 23.41% (P = 0.167), the mortality rates were 11.63% versus 13.66% (P = 0.537), and surgery was required in 2.11% versus 4.66% (P = 0.093), respectively. Patients who presented with peptic ulcer bleeding on holidays did not experience delayed endoscopy or increased adverse outcomes. In fact, patients who received endoscopic hemostasis on the holiday had shorter waiting times, needed less transfused blood, switched to oral PPIs quicker, and experienced shorter hospital stays.
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms. Methods: 11 consecutive patients (7 women, 4 men, mean age of 49.2 years) with ruptured distal PICA aneurysms were studied retrospectively. All had onset of acute ...
Taylor, J V; Thomas, M G; Kelly, S; Sutton, R
Villous adenoma confined to the distal appendix has not been previously reported in conjunction with acute apendicitis. The presence of an adenoma indicates a need for further investigation due to an association with neoplasia elsewhere.
Rayhana Malek; Amina Gharibi; Nadia Khlil; Jamila Kissa
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis. Systemic symptoms such as lymphadenopathy and malaise could be also found. There are various predisposing factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies, and immune system dysfunctions, especially, HIV infection that seems to play a major role in t...
Richard-Denis, Andréane; Thompson, Cynthia; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc
Individuals with spinal cord injury are at risk of sacral pressure ulcers due to, among other reasons, prolonged immobilisation. The effectiveness of a multi-layer foam dressing installed pre-operatively in reducing sacral pressure ulcer occurrence in spinal cord injured patients was compared to that of using a gel mattress, and stratified analyses were performed on patients with complete tetraplegia and paraplegia. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from 315 patients admitted in a level-I trauma centre following a spinal cord injury between April 2010 and March 2016. Upon arrival to the emergency room and until surgery, patients were transferred on a foam stretcher pad with a viscoelastic polymer gel mattress (before 1 October 2014) or received a multi-layer foam dressing applied to their sacral-coccygeal area (after 1 October 2014). The occurrence of sacral pressure ulcer during acute hospitalisation was similar irrespective of whether patients received the dressing or the gel mattress. It was found that 82% of patients with complete tetraplegia receiving the preventive dressing developed sacral ulcers as compared to only 36% of patients using the gel mattress. Although multi-layer dressings were suggested to improve skin protection and decrease pressure ulcer occurrence in critically ill patients, such preventive dressings are not superior to gel mattresses in spinal cord injured patients and should be used with precaution, especially in complete tetraplegia. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...
Nienaber, Christoph A
Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
M.J.O.E. Bertleff (Marietta)
textabstractMuch has been written on perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) during the last hundred years. In 1500, when necropsies were first allowed, often a small hole was found in the anterior wall of the stomach, giving an explanation for symptoms of acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting which often
... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Krapf R, ...
Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran
.... Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures...
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 31-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with worsening constant left sided throat pain over the past four months. The patient reports that he was brushing his teeth when his dog jumped onto his back causing his toothbrush to puncture the back of his throat, resulting in immediate bleeding and discomfort. The bleeding subsided and the patient did not seek medical care. The pain radiated to his left ear and the back of the neck. He also noted a change in his voice. The day before presenting to the ED the patient noted subjective fevers, hemoptysis and drooling, which led him to seek medical care. Significant findings: The photograph demonstrates an area of ulcerative tissue at the left palatine tonsil without surrounding erythema or purulent drainage. The computed tomography (CT scan shows a large ulceration of the left soft palate and palatine tonsil (red arrow. There is no evidence of skull base osteomyelitis. There is suppurative lymphadenopathy with partial left jugular vein compression due to mass effect (yellow highlight. There is mild nasopharyngeal airway narrowing with architectural distortion (blue arrow, but no other evidence of airway obstruction. Discussion: The oral cavity is prone to trauma leading to the formation of superficial ulcerations. There are many causes of mechanical trauma, most commonly accidental biting. Chemical, electrical and thermal insults are also possibilities. Poor fitting dental devices and fractured or malformed teeth can also be etiologies.1 Traumatic ulcerations are most common in children given bruxism and thumb sucking. However, a broad differential must be considered including malignant and premalignant lesions, infections of the oral mucosa, aphthous ulcerations and autoimmune diseases.2, 3 Chronic ulcerations are associated with superimposed infection, but there has not been established an association of malignant transformation of the oral mucosa after
Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.
Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636
Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan
Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869
Grada, Ayman; Falanga, Vincent
Chronic skin ulcers are frequently encountered in clinical practice and are often due to very heterogeneous etiologies. Cryofibrinogenemia is an unusual cause of non-healing skin ulcers. It is a small-vessel occlusive vascular disorder that results from the precipitation of cryofibrinogens in plasma. The lack of definitive diagnostic criteria means cryofibrinogenemia remains an under-diagnosed entity that causes significant morbidity. One of the most common manifestations of cryofibrinogenemia is skin ulceration. The presence of non-healing ulcers in otherwise healthy patients with no evidence of large-vessel disease should raise the suspicion of essential cryofibrinogenemia. An important clinical feature is the presence of microlivedo, which represents short hyperpigmented linear streaks around the ulcer or even distally about the foot. Histopathologic findings are microthrombi in the dermis and not confined exclusively to the ulcerated area. Cryofibrinogenemia can be secondary to an underlying disorder, so careful investigation to exclude other etiologies is always necessary.
Muñoz-Corcuera, M; Esparza-Gómez, G; González-Moles, M A; Bascones-Martínez, A
Oral ulcers are generally painful lesions that are related to various conditions developing within the oral cavity. They can be classified as acute or chronic according to their presentation and progression. Acute oral ulcers are be associated with conditions such as trauma, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's disease, bacterial and viral infections, allergic reactions or adverse drug reactions. Chronic oral ulcers are associated with conditions such as oral lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, mycosis and some bacterial and parasitic diseases. The correct differential diagnosis is necessary to establish the appropriate treatment, taking into account all the possible causes of ulcers in the oral cavity. In this second part of this two-part review, chronic oral ulcers are reviewed.
Mei, Xueting; Xu, Donghui; Xu, Sika; Zheng, Yanping; Xu, Shibo
Alcohol consumption can induce gastric ulcers and zinc deficiency. Zinc complexes were reported to have anti-ulcer activity as it acts as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Zn(II)-curcumin complex and its solid dispersions (SDs) were synthesized and evaluated for its gastroprotective activity and mechanism against ethanol-induced ulcer. The Swiss murine fibroblast cell line (3T3) was used as an alternative in vitro model to evaluate the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin on cell proliferation. Zn(II)-curcumin were administered orally for seven consecutive days prior to induction of ulcers using ethanol. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that solid dispersions (SDs) of Zn(II)-curcumin (2.5-20 μM) enhanced the proliferation of 3T3 cells more significantly than curcumin at the same concentrations (POral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin (12, 24 and 48 mg/kg) SDs dose-dependently prevented formation of ulcer lesions induced by ethanol. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and oxidative stress superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX-Px), malonaldehyde (MDA) and H(+)-K(+)-ATPase were in the rats exposed to ethanol in ulceration have been altered. Zn(II)-curcumin prevented formation of ulcer lesions, significantly inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression, increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px, reduced MDA levels and H(+)-K(+)-ATPase in mucosa of rats compared to controls (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of Zn(II)-curcumin complex might contribute in stimulating cell proliferation and adjusting the proinflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to the gastric mucosa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Narayana, Nagamani; Meinberg, Trudy
Oral ulceration is a common presentation in a dental clinic. These ulcers may be acute or chronic, based on the duration of symptoms. The etiology of oral ulceration can range from trauma to squamous cell carcinoma. It is the responsibility of the dentist to differentiate the various etiologies of oral ulceration for proper management. This case report is presented to remind dentists that the long-term use of Nicorette gum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic oral ulcers.
Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Ruas, E.; Fiorica, J.V.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))
Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.
Thomas, Binu P.; Raveendran Sreekanth
Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triang...
Full Text Available Distal colostography (DC, also called distal colography or loopography, is an important step in the reparative management of anorectal malformations (ARMs with imperforate anus, Hirschsprung′s disease (occasionally and colonic atresia (rarely in children and obstructive disorders of the distal colon (colitis with stricture, carcinoma or complicated diverticulosis in adults. It serves to identify/confirm the type of ARM, presence/absence of fistulae, leakage from anastomoses, or patency of the distal colon. We present a pictorial essay of DC in a variety of cases.
Dua, Karan; Abzug, Joshua M; Sesko Bauer, Andrea; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O
Distal radius fractures are the most common orthopaedic injury that occur in the pediatric population. The annual incidence of distal radius fractures has increased as a result of earlier participation in sporting activities, increased body mass index, and decreased bone mineral density. Most distal radius fractures are sustained after a fall onto an outstretched arm that results in axial compression on the extremity or from direct trauma to the extremity. Physeal fractures of the distal radius are described based on the Salter-Harris classification system. Extraphyseal fractures of the distal radius are described as incomplete or complete based on the amount of cortical involvement. A thorough physical examination of the upper extremity is necessary to rule out any associated injuries. PA and lateral radiographs of the wrist usually are sufficient to diagnose a distal radius fracture. The management of distal radius fractures is based on several factors, including patient age, fracture pattern, and the amount of growth remaining. Nonsurgical management is the most common treatment option for patients who have distal radius fractures because marked potential for remodeling exists. If substantial angulation or displacement is present, closed reduction maneuvers with or without percutaneous pinning should be performed. Patients with physeal fractures of the distal radius that may result in malunion who present more than 10 days postinjury should not undergo manipulation of any kind because of the increased risk for physeal arrest.
Full Text Available Left ventricular thrombi usually occur in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular aneurysm, or dilated cardiomyopathy. In the absence of ventricular wall motion abnormalities, they are rare. This report describes a patient with ulcerative colitis in whom two-dimensional echocardiography revealed a left intraventricular mass. Thrombosis in ulcerative colitis is a serious condition and can occur in a very young population. This case also shows that left ventricular thrombi can occur in the active setting of ulcerative colitis.
Loureiro, Rui C V; Harwin, William S; Lamperd, Robert; Collin, Christine
This paper provides some additional evidence in support of the hypothesis that robot therapies are clinically beneficial in neurorehabilitation. Although only four subjects were included in the study, the design of the intervention and the measures were done so as to minimize bias. The results are presented as single case studies, and can only be interpreted as such due to the study size. The intensity of intervention was 16 h and the therapy philosophy (based on Carr and Shepherd) was that coordinated movements are preferable to joint based therapies, and that coordinating distal movements (in this case grasps) helps not only to recover function in these areas, but has greater value since the results are immediately transferable to daily skills such as reach and grasp movements.
Full Text Available A 35-year-old male presented with lower gum pain associated with fever, chills, and sore throat. His medical history included intravenous drug use, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and hepatitis C. Physical exam revealed tachycardia, a temperature of 38.9°C, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, halitosis, an edematous lower lip, and purulent ulcers anterior and posterior to lower central incisors with marked tenderness and erythema (Figure. His laboratory work was notable for a low white blood cell count (2.6 thousand/µl, neutropenia (0.11 thousand/µl, a low absolute CD4 lymphocyte count (0.5 thousand/µl, and elevated C-reactive protein (129mg/L and sedimentation rate (23mm/hr. A computed tomography study showed a 0.5×1.3×0.3cm abscess anterior to the mandibular symphysis.
Branellec, A; Bureau, J M; Gigou, F; Matichard, E; Debure, C
A forty-four-year old man was hospitalized for diagnosis and treatment of a left leg ulcer which did not heal despite good compliance with a three-month medical regimen. Twenty years before he had undergone surgical curettage and radiotherapy (81 gy) for an osteosarcoma of the upper third of the left tibia. He was considered completely cured with regular findings. On examination he had a 5 X 7 cm deep ulcer with raised margins and no signs of infection, localized on the radiodermatitis on the medial aspect of his left leg. Arterial examination confirmed the left arteriopathy with absence of distal pulses; the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index was 0.69 and the foot TcPO2 27 mmHg. Arteriography confirmed the localized left lesions with three distal popliteal and proximal arterial occlusions, all other arteries being strictly normal. Arterial and dermatological radiation leg ulcer was retained as the etiological diagnosis. As the ulcer was very painful, extensive and limited walking distance, surgical revascularisation was undertaken because endoluminal revascularization was impossible. A femoroperoneal saphenous bypass was performed with surgical incisions beyond the radiodermatitis area. Two months after a split skin graft, the ulcer was considered healed and the patency of the by-pass confirmed on duplex examination. This is the first case report of a successful distal by-pass performed for radiation arteritis and ulcer healing. Long-term follow up should be reported.
Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan
Paul Bevis, Jonothan Earnshaw Department of Vascular Surgery, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, Great Western Road, Gloucester, UKDate of preparation: 3 February 2011Conflict of interest: None declared.Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers?Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recu...
Parkar, A A H; Marya, S; Auplish, S
A triplane fracture is so named because of the three planes traversed by the fracture line. These are physeal fractures that result from injury during the final phase of maturation and cessation of growth. This fracture pattern typically involves the distal tibia. We present a rare case of a triplane fracture involving the distal radius.
pressure therapy] in improving complete closure of pressure ulcers has not been established. Nutrition Therapy Supplementation with 15 grams of hydrolyzed protein 3 times daily did not affect complete healing but resulted in a 2-fold improvement in Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score compared with placebo. Supplementation with 200 mg of zinc three times per day did not have any significant impact on the healing of pressure ulcers compared with a placebo. Supplementation of 500 mg ascorbic acid twice daily was associated with a significantly greater decrease in the size of the ulcer compared with a placebo but did not have any significant impact on healing when compared with supplementation of 10 mg ascorbic acid three times daily. A very high protein tube feeding (25% of energy as protein) resulted in a greater reduction in ulcer area in institutionalized tube-fed patients compared with a high protein tube feeding (16% of energy as protein). Multinutrient supplements that contain zinc, arginine, and vitamin C were associated with a greater reduction in the area of the ulcers compared with standard hospital diet or to a standard supplement without zinc, arginine, or vitamin C. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn because of methodological flaws and small sample sizes. Multidisciplinary Wound Care Teams The only RCT suggests that multidisciplinary wound care teams may significantly improve healing in the acute care setting in 8 weeks and may significantly shorten the length of hospitalization. However, since only an abstract is available, study biases cannot be assessed and no conclusions can be drawn on the quality of this evidence. PMID:23074533
Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Pillukat, Thomas; Mühldorfer, Marion; van Schoonhoven, Jörg
Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries, which are steadily becoming a public health issue. One of the most common complications following distal radius fractures is still malunion of the distal radius. This review of the literature surrounding distal radius malunion covers the biomechanics of distal radial malunion, treatment options, indications for surgery, surgical techniques, and results.
Brem, Harold; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Tarnovskaya, Alina; Ehrlich, H Paul; Baskin-Bey, Edwina; Gill, Kiran; Carasa, Miriam; Weinberger, Sarah; Entero, Hyacinth; Vladeck, Bruce
Although elderly patients have physiologic impairments in wound healing, their wounds should be expected to heal with the same frequency of closure as those in younger populations, albeit at a slower rate. However, compared to the general population, the elderly population has a higher incidence of chronic wounds: diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers. Experimental and clinical data indicate physiologically impaired healing is characterized by decreased angiogenesis and synthesis of critical growth factors. Further, compared to younger populations, the elderly have a higher rate of mortality associated with specific morbidities, such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress. As these morbidities may develop directly from the wound, early intervention is mandated. In this report, 40 consecutive elderly patients (65-102 years old) with chronic wounds were analyzed. All patients were provided the same treatment protocol and healing was defined as 100% epithelization and no drainage. Despite the wounds presenting in a nonhealing and/or infected state, 73% of these chronic wounds in elderly patients healed. This suggests that elderly patients with diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers close their wounds at a similar frequency as younger patients. Therefore, early intervention and comprehensive treatment that includes safe topical therapies, in addition to growth factors and cellular therapy used for chronic wounds, ensure these patients will be spared the morbidities of pain, amputation, osteomyelitis, and even death. We hypothesize that if all elderly patients with chronic wounds are provided early treatment, morbidities (e.g., amputation, sepsis, pain) and associated costs will decrease.
Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)
Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)
Full Text Available Ayse YagciEge University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir, TurkeyAbstract: Ulcerative inflammation of the cornea occurs in the perilimbal cornea, and is associated with autoimmune collagen vascular and arthritic diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most frequent underlying disease. The tendency for peripheral location is due to the distinct morphologic and immunologic characteristics of the limbal conjunctiva, which provides access for circulating immune complexes to the peripheral cornea via the capillary network. Deposition of immune complexes in the terminal ends of limbal vessels initiates immune-mediated vasculitis, and causes inflammatory cell and protein leakage due to vessel wall damage. Development of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with systemic disease may represent worsening of a potentially life-threatening disease. Accompanying scleritis, particularly the necrotizing form, is usually observed in severe cases, which may result in corneal perforation and loss of vision. Although first-line treatment with systemic corticosteroids is indicated for acute phases, immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents are required for treatment of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with multisystem disorders. Recently, infliximab, a chimeric antibody against proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, was reported to be effective in cases refractory to conventional immunomodulatory therapy. The potential side effects of these therapies require close follow-up and regular laboratory surveillance.Keywords: autoimmune disease, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, treatment, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
... ulcers - self-care; Arterial insufficiency ulcer self-care; Ischemic wounds - self-care; Peripheral artery disease - ulcer; Peripheral ... arteries ( atherosclerosis ) are the most common cause of ischemic ulcers. Clogged arteries prevent a healthy supply of ...
Pickwell, KM; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kars, M
Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing.......Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing....
Zhang, Feng; Ma, Na; Gao, Yong-Feng; Sun, Li-Li; Zhang, Ji-Guo
Ulcerative colitis is one of the most common types of inflammatory bowel disease and is multifactorial and relapsing. 6-Gingerol, a component of gingerols extracted from ginger (Zingiber officinale), has been reported to improve ulcerative colitis. The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of two analogous forms of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol, on ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in rats through consumption of 5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium drinking water for 7 consecutive days. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol were then given intraperitoneally at doses of 30 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for another 7 days, respectively. Body weight change, disease activity index, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress indices were measured, and the colonic tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. Results showed that all three gingerols attenuated colitic symptoms evoked by dextran sulfate sodium, significantly elevated superoxide dismutase activity, decreased malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue, and markedly reduced the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha and Interleukin 1 beta in the serum. Histological observations showed that all three gingerols obviously accelerated mucosal damage healing. It is concluded that 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol, the three analogues, have a strong and relatively equal efficacy in the treatment of colitis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Results: These patients were initially treated in upcountry clinics for acute gastritis from either alcohol consumption or suspected food poisoning. There was no duodenal ulcer history. As a result, they came to specialist surgical clinic more than 72 hours after perforation. Diagnosis of perforated duodenal ulcer was made and ...
Moore, Zena E H; Cowman, Seamus
Pressure ulcers (also called pressure sores, bed sores and decubitus ulcers) are areas of tissue damage that occur in the elderly, malnourished or acutely ill, who cannot reposition themselves. Pressure ulcers impose a significant financial burden on health care systems and negatively affect quality of life. Wound cleansing is considered an important component of pressure ulcer care. This systematic review seeks to answer the following question: what is the effect of wound cleansing solutions and wound cleansing techniques on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers? For this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 3 January 2013); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to November Week 3 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations December 31, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 52); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to 21 December 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound cleansing with no wound cleansing, or different wound cleansing solutions, or different cleansing techniques, were eligible for inclusion if they reported an objective measure of pressure ulcer healing. Two review authors extracted data independently and resolved disagreements through discussion. A structured narrative summary of the included studies was conducted. For dichotomous outcomes, risk ratio (RR), plus 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated; for continuous outcomes, mean difference (MD), plus 95% CI were calculated. Meta analysis was not conducted because of the small number of diverse RCTs identified. Two review authors independently assessed each included study using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. One additional eligible study was identified from the updated searches, one study was added to the table of excluded studies. A total of three studies (169 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the
Marchesi, Julian R
The distal gut and its associated microbiota is a new frontier in the quest to understand human biology and evolution. The renaissance in this field has been partly driven by advances in sequencing technology and also by the application of a variety of 'omic' technologies in a systems biology framework. In the initial stages of understanding what constitutes the gut, culture-independent methods, primarily inventories of 16S rRNA genes, have provided a clear view of the main taxonomic groups of Bacteria in the distal gut and we are now moving towards defining the functions that reside in the distal gut microbiome. This review will explore recent advances in the area of the distal gut and the use of a variety of omic approaches to determine what constitutes this fascinating collection of microbes. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Pharmacokinetic interaction between ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) and cimetidine in indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer and control rats: inhibition of active renal secretion of AACA by cimetidine.
Choi, Y H; Lee, U; Suh, J H; Kim, Y G; Lee, M; Oh, E; Lee, M G
After both the intravenous and oral administration of zinc acexamate [ZAC; ion-pairing between zinc and ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA)] and cimetidine together, the areas under the curve (AUCs) of AACA were significantly greater [by 28.2 and 98.9% after the intravenous and oral administration, respectively, for control rats and 13.5 and 16.9% for indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) rats, respectively] than those of ZAC alone due to the significantly slower renal clearance (CL(R)). The significantly greater AUCs of AACA after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC and cimetidine together in control and IAGU rats could have been due to the inhibition of active renal tubular secretion of AACA by cimetidine. After the intravenous and oral administration of both drugs together, the AUCs of cimetidine in control and IAGU rats were not different compared with those with cimetidine alone.
... Colitis? > Types of Ulcerative Colitis Types of Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share If you are diagnosed with ... abdomen may occur in active disease. Left-sided Colitis Continuous inflammation that begins at the rectum and ...
The Economic Burden of Urinary Tract Infection and Pressure Ulceration in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Admissions: Evidence for Comparative Economics and Decision Analytics from a Matched Case-Control Study.
White, Barry A B; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John T; Cheng, Christiana L; Rivers, Carly S; Attabib, Najmedden; Kwon, Brian K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F
Secondary complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) are a burden to affected individuals and the rest of society. There is limited evidence of the economic burden or cost of complications in SCI populations in Canada, however, which is necessary for comparative economic analyses and decision analytic modeling of possible solutions to these common health problems. Comparative economic analyses can inform resource allocation decisions, but the outputs are only as good as the inputs. In this article, new evidence of the excess or incremental costs of urinary tract infection (UTI) and pressure ulceration (PU) in acute traumatic SCI from an exploratory case series analysis of admissions to a Level I specialized Canadian spine facility (2008-2013) is presented. Participants in a national SCI registry were case-control matched (1:1) on the predicted probability of experiencing UTI or PU during initial acute SCI admission. The excess costs of UTI and PU are estimated as the mean of the differences in total direct acute SCI admission costs (length of stay, accommodation, nursing, pharmacy) from the perspective of the admitting facility between participants matched or paired on demographic and SCI characteristics. Even relatively minor UTI and PU, respectively, added an average of $7,790 (standard deviation [SD] $6,267) and $18,758 (SD $27,574) to the direct cost of acute SCI admission in 2013 Canadian dollars (CAD). This case series analysis established evidence of the excess costs of UTI and PU in acute SCI admissions, which will support decision-informing analyses in SCI.
Seating is a major factor in pressure ulcer development, but it is frequently overlooked in the literature on pressure area management. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable and nurses are integral to the promotion of good practice. The author examines how implementing careful patient assessment, correct positioning and providing optimum seating equipment can help to reduce the risk of pressure ulcer development.
... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic Ulcer Disease Basics Overview An “ulcer” is an open sore. The word “peptic” means ... time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an “ulcer” the doctor means a peptic ulcer. The two ...
Full Text Available Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis. Systemic symptoms such as lymphadenopathy and malaise could be also found. There are various predisposing factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies, and immune system dysfunctions, especially, HIV infection that seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of NUG. The treatment of NUG is organized in successive stages: first, the treatment of the acute phase that should be provided immediately to stop disease progression and to control patient's feeling of discomfort and pain; second, the treatment of the preexisting condition such as chronic gingivitis; then, the surgical correction of the disease sequelae like craters. Moreover, finally, maintenance phase that allows stable outcomes. This case report describes the diagnosis approach and the conservative management with a good outcome of NUG in a 21-year-old male patient with no systemic disease and probable mechanism of pathogenesis of two predisposing factors involved.
Malek, Rayhana; Gharibi, Amina; Khlil, Nadia; Kissa, Jamila
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis. Systemic symptoms such as lymphadenopathy and malaise could be also found. There are various predisposing factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies, and immune system dysfunctions, especially, HIV infection that seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of NUG. The treatment of NUG is organized in successive stages: first, the treatment of the acute phase that should be provided immediately to stop disease progression and to control patient's feeling of discomfort and pain; second, the treatment of the preexisting condition such as chronic gingivitis; then, the surgical correction of the disease sequelae like craters. Moreover, finally, maintenance phase that allows stable outcomes. This case report describes the diagnosis approach and the conservative management with a good outcome of NUG in a 21-year-old male patient with no systemic disease and probable mechanism of pathogenesis of two predisposing factors involved.
Burke, A; Lichtenstein, G R; Rombeau, J L
The role of diet in the aetiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) remains uncertain. Impaired utilization by colonocytes of butyrate, a product of bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates escaping digestion, may be important. Sulphur-fermenting bacteria may be involved in this impaired utilization. Oxidative stress probably mediates tissue injury but is probably not of causative importance. Patients with UC are prone to malnutrition and its detrimental effects. However, there is no role for total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest as primary therapy for UC. The maintenance of adequate nutrition is very important, particularly in the peri-operative patient. In the absence of massive bleeding, perforation, toxic megacolon or obstruction, enteral rather than parenteral nutrition should be the mode of choice. Nutrients may be beneficial as adjuvant therapy. Butyrate enemas have improved patients with otherwise recalcitrant distal colitis in small studies. Non-cellulose fibre supplements are of benefit in rats with experimental colitis. Eicosapentaenoic acid in fish oil has a steroid-sparing effect which, although modest, is important, particularly in terms of reducing the risk of osteoporosis, but it seems to have no role in the patient with inactive disease. gamma-Linolenic acid and anti-oxidants also are showing promise. Nutrients may also modify the increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. Oxidative stress can damage tissue DNA but there are no data published at present on possible protection from oral anti-oxidants. Butyrate protects against experimental carcinogenesis in rats with experimental colitis. Folate supplementation is weakly associated with decreased incidence of cancer in UC patients when assessed retrospectively. Vigilance should be maintained for increased micronutrient requirements and supplements given as appropriate. Calcium and low-dose vitamin D should be given to patients on long-term steroids and folate to those on
Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William
Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...... occlusive arterial disease which was located distally on the legs. A classification in three groups is suggested: (1) ischemia only during exercise; (2) ischemia at rest with or without ulcerations: and (3) diabetics with chronic ulcerations....
East, Jeffrey M; Fray, Delroy A; Hall, Dwayne E; Longmore, Chapman A
Guidelines of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot state that "Amputation of the lower extremity or part of it is usually preceded by a foot ulcer". The authors' impression has been that this statement might not be applicable among patients treated in our institution. A prospective cohort study was designed to determine the frequency distribution of antecedents of lower limb infection or gangrene and amputation among adult diabetics admitted to a Regional Hospital in western Jamaica. Adult diabetics admitted to Hospital with a primary diagnosis of lower limb infection and/or gangrene were eligible for recruitment for a target sample size of 126. Thirty five variables were assessed for each patient-episode of infection and/or gangrene, main outcome variable being amputation during admission or 6-months follow-up. Primary statistical output is the frequency distribution of antecedents/precipitants of lower limb infection and/or gangrene. The data is interrogated by univariate and multivariable logistic regression for variables statistically associated with the main antecedent/precipitant events. Data for 128 patient-episodes were recorded. Most common antecedents/precipitants, in order of decreasing frequency, were idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulceration (30.5%, CI; 22.6-39.2%), chronic neuropathic ulcer (23.4%, CI; 16.4-31.7%), closed puncture wounds (19.5%, CI; 13.1-27.5%) and critical limb ischemia (7.8%, CI; 3.8-13.9%). Variables positively associated with non-traumatic antecedents/precipitants at the 5% level of significance were male gender and non-ulcerative foot deformity for idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulcer; diabetes >5 years, previous infection either limb, insulin dependence and peripheral sensory neuropathy for chronic neuropathic ulcer and older age, diabetes >5 years, hypertension, non-palpable distal pulses and ankle-brachial index ≤0.4 for critical limb ischemia. Chronic neuropathic ulcer accounted for only 23
Jalal, Shwan; Mustapha, Jihad A; Rosman, Howard S; Mehta, Rajendra H; Davis, Thomas P
To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of the cuff-occlusion method for distal embolic protection in peripheral artery disease. We evaluated 61 patients who underwent peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) for infrainguinal lesion at a single center where a blood pressure cuff occlusion method for distal embolic protection was utilized during the procedure. Primary endpoint included incidence of distal embolization, acute limb ischemia, or emergency limb amputation. Safety endpoints were freedom from bleeding, vessel perforation, or dissection. Lesion location was in the superficial femoral artery in 39% of cases and popliteal and infrapopliteal in 61% of patients. Procedural success was achieved in 98.4% of patients and 1 patient had distal embolization. There was no bleeding or perforation or major flow-limiting vessel dissection. Our study demonstrated that the cuff-occlusion strategy was feasible and safe for protection form distal embolization in PVI. Further study is required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this novel method compared with existing devices for distal protection.
Muller, C; Martinoli, S; Allgöwer, M
In a recently concluded prospective multicenter trial, pyloric (PU) and prepyloric (PPU) ulcers showed a significantly higher recurrence rate after proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) without drainage than duodenal (DU) or gastric ulcers (GU). The secretory pattern of the PU and PPU cannot explain the failure of PGV. However, PU and PPU (and some GU) exhibit a distinct and probably irreversible alteration of the muscular layer at the pylorus and distal antrum. This could be one factor which helps to explain the failure of vagotomy alone in these ulcer types. To deal with this antropyloric distrophy, addition of drainage or antrectomy to PGV must be considered. A refined concept for surgical treatment of peptic ulcer is proposed.
Barkun, A N; Herba, K; Adam, V; Kennedy, W; Fallone, C A; Bardou, M
Recent data suggest a role for high-dose oral proton pump inhibition in ulcer bleeding. To compare the cost-effectiveness of oral high-dose proton pump inhibition to both high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibition and placebo administration. The model adopted a 30-day time horizon, and focused on patients with ulcer haemorrhage initially treated endoscopically for high-risk stigmata. Re-bleeding rates were set a priori based on non-head-to-head data from the literature, and charges and lengths of stay from a national American database. Sensitivity analyses were carried across a broad range of clinically relevant assumptions. Re-bleeding rates for patients receiving intravenous, oral, or placebo therapies were 5.9%, 11.8%, and 27%, respectively. The mean lengths of stay and costs for admitted patients with and without re-bleeding were 4.7 and 3 days; $11,802, and $7993, respectively. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibition was more effective and less costly (dominant) than high-dose oral proton pump inhibition with incremental savings of $136.40 per patient treated. The oral high-dose strategy in turn dominated placebo administration. Results remained robust according to one- and two-way sensitivity analyses. In patients undergoing endoscopic haemostasis, subsequent high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibition is more cost-effective than high-dose oral proton pump inhibition, which in turn dominates placebo. The results from this exploratory-type cost analysis require confirmation by head-to-head prospective trials performed in Western populations.
Ryu, Hee Jung; Seo, Mi Ryoung; Choi, Hyo Jin; Baek, Han Joo
Recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) is a common condition that significantly impacts quality of life. It is often related to systemic diseases, such as Behçet's disease (BD), Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Treatment of ROU depends on its severity: from topical agents for mild cases to systemic agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, or other immunosuppressants for severe cases. Recently, good results have been reported with infliximab in refractory ROU. However, the optimal dosage and treatment duration have not been determined and the cost and potential side effects should be considered. We report on four patients who received a single-dose infliximab for refractory ROU. Two patients had refractory ROU with no underlying disease; one of them had soft palate perforation accompanied by severe oral ulcers. The two other patients had ROU of BD without major organ involvement. All patients received a single infusion of infliximab and an additional infusion was given on demand in one patient. Infliximab showed a rapid, good response in three patients and was also effective in improving the acute inflammation in the perforation of the soft palate, which had been resistant to conventional therapies. These effects diminished over a few weeks, but the ROU were tolerable and it was not necessary to increase steroids or add another medicine for about 1 year. We suggest that a single infusion of infliximab can be considered for refractory ROU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H
Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.
Cowley, Jeffrey C.
Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005
Sharma, Amit; Schwartz, Robert A; Swan, Kenneth G
Marjolin's ulcer refers to malignant change within burn scar. The French surgeon Jean-Nicolas Marjolin is honored with the eponym. Marjolin described the "warty ulcer" in the first edition of Dictionnaire de Medécine. In his description, Marjolin did not actually state that this ulcer represented malignant transformation. Credit for noting the specific association involved in Marjolin's ulcer belongs to Caesar Hawkins, an English Surgeon, who described skin cancer arising in burn and flogging scars. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Simice, P.; Zwirewich, C.V. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
Pneumopericardium is a rare radiologic finding and is most commonly associated with esophageal ulceration or trauma. Benign ulcers of the distal esophagus are the most frequent source of non-traumatic perforation into the pericardial sac. Other etiologies include fistula formation from diseased subdiaphragmatic hollow viscera or subphrenic abscess, recent cardiac surgery, an extension of pneumomediastinum into the pericardium sac, and primary septic pericarditis from gasforming organisms. Pneumopericardium caused by the penetration of a benign gastric ulcer is a recognized but rare phenomenon. Intrathoracic gastric perforations are more commonly associated with pneumomediastium. Risk factors associated with an increased risk of penetration of gastric ulcers into the pericardium include the presence of a giant ulcer in the gastric fundus, an ulcer within a hiatus hernia, a history of hiatus hernia repair, concurrent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Scar tissue formation at the site of previous hiatal surgery may result in the adherence of the gastric fundus or lower esophagus to the pericardium and produce a pathway for benign ulcers to erode into the pericardium.
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Lavelle, Aonghus; Lennon, Grainne; Winter, Desmond C; O'Connell, P Ronan
The relevance of biogeography to the distal gut microbiota has been investigated in both health and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however multiple factors, including sample type and methodology, microbiota characterization and interpersonal variability make the construction of a core model of colonic biogeography challenging. In addition, how phylogenetic classification relates to immunogenicity and whether consistent alterations in the microbiota are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) remain open questions. This addendum seeks to review the human colonic microbiota in health and UC as currently understood, in the broader context of the human microbiome.
Venous hypertension due to venous insufficiency causes venous ulcers. Duplexsonography is a widely accepted non invasive method to assess venous insufficiency with venous reflux measurements. Retrograde venous flow is defined as venous reflux. The testing of venous reflux is reliable if transvalvular pressure is sufficiently high and transvalvular flow velocity exceeds 30 cm/s. Reflux testing in the proximal leg veins (V. femoralis communis, V. femoralis, V. saphena magna) is done using a standardised Valsalva Manoeuvre (exspiration into a tube up to a pressure of 30 mmHg, pressure established within 0.5 seconds, pressure hold for 3 seconds). Distal leg vein testing (V. poplitea, V. tibialis posterior, V. saphena parva) is recommended with a two handed - compression distally to the tested veins. The most important parameter is venous reflux time, a cut off of > 2 seconds is recommended.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preemptive pantoprazole infusion on early endoscopic findings in patients with acute ulcer bleeding. Records of 333 patients admitted with acute ulcer bleeding were analyzed. Ulcer bleeders were given either 80 mg bolus of pantoprazole followed by continuous infusion of 8 mg per hour or saline infusion until endoscopy. In 93 patients saline infusion whereas in 240 patients bolus plus infusion of pantoprazole was administrated with mean (±SD durations of 5.45±12.9 hours and 6.9±13.2 hours, respectively (P=0.29. Actively bleeding ulcers were detected in 46/240 (19.2% of cases in the pantoprazole group as compared with 23/93 (24.7% in the saline infusion group (P=0.26. Different durations of pantoprazole infusion (0–4 hours, >4 hours, and >6 hours had no significant effect on endoscopic and clinical outcome parameters in duodenal ulcer bleeders. Gastric ulcer bleeders on pantoprazole infusion longer than 4 and 6 hours before endoscopy had actively bleeding ulcers in 4.3% and 5% compared to the 19.5% active bleeding rate in the saline group (P=0.02 and P=0.04. Preemptive infusion of high-dose pantoprazole longer than 4 hours before endoscopy decreased the ratio of active bleeding only in gastric but not in duodenal ulcer patients.
Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor; Rombeau, John L; Lichtenstein, Gary R
The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with six patients who developed Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch or distal ileum after a total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Pouch enemas showed characteristic findings of Crohn's disease, including nodularity, thickened folds, ulceration, cobblestoning, strictures, sinus tracks, and fistulas to the perianal region and vagina. It is important for radiologists to be aware of the findings of Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch and distal ileum on radiographic studies of the pouch after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis because of the implications for patient management.
... Expand Section Ulcerative Colitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Colitis ulcerativa: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ulcerative Colitis - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian ( ...
Method: Literatures on marjolin's ulcers were sourced from available journals and internet based searches using Pubmed, Medline and Google search. Results: The incidence of Marjolin's ulcers appears higher in developing countries. First recognized in the first century AD, a lot is yet to be understood about the evolution ...
Tytgat, G. N.
The current therapy of choice for all Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcer disease is eradication therapy. Although adequate therapeutic regimens are currently available, often still ineffective therapies are tried. Cure of the infection essentially eliminates the ulcer diathesis. Cure of the
Markus M. Heimesaat
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualised in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarised epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i. with either strain mice harboured comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to wild-type strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes six days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to wild-type strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.
Heimesaat, Markus M; Alutis, Marie; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Böhm, Manja; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Backert, Steffen; Bereswill, Stefan
Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualized in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA (high temperature requirement A) plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarized epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-) mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type (WT) strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i.) with either strain mice harbored comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ, and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to WT strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes 6 days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to WT strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.
Greditzer, Harry G; Nawabi, Danyal; Li, Angela Eh; Jawetz, Shari T
Acute adductor longus ruptures occur infrequently and have been rarely described in the literature. Schlegel et al. reviewed a series of adductor longus tendon ruptures and found that all ruptured proximally. A 42-year-old man with right hip pain 3 weeks following a skiing injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a distal adductor longus avulsion. The diagnosis of acute adductor longus injury can be difficult on physical examination alone, but MRI can accurately depict the site of injury. Surgery may be indicated for a proximal avulsion, but a distal injury may heal with nonoperative treatment, as in our case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huppert, Jill S; Gerber, Michael A; Deitch, Helen R; Mortensen, Joel E; Staat, Mary Allen; Adams Hillard, Paula J
To examine the etiology, clinical course, and outcomes of non-sexually transmitted vulvar ulcers in young females. A prospective cohort study of subjects referred to a tertiary center who had active vulvar ulcers and no evidence of sexually transmitted infections were evaluated with a structured clinical and laboratory protocol and followed with visits or telephone calls. Twenty eligible subjects had a mean age of 14 years (range 10-19), and five were premenarchal. Nineteen reported systemic symptoms such as fever, malaise, and headache. Most ulcers were >1cm in diameter (range 0.3-5 cm) and were located on the medial aspect of the labia minora. All viral, bacterial, and fungal cultures were negative. Serologic testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection demonstrated 10 subjects with evidence of prior infection, two with acute infection, one indeterminate, and seven negative for infection. Two subjects had evidence of possible acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Other laboratory findings were nonspecific. The median duration of pain was 10 days (range 6-30), and 75% healed by 21 days. Follow up was available for 19 subjects (median 14 months). Seven experienced recurrent ulcers 2-16 months after the initial episode, and 10 had experienced oral aphthous ulcers. None met criteria for other etiologies of vulvar ulcers reported in the literature. No single infectious agent was identified as a cause of vulvar ulcers. Most cases were not temporally associated with either acute EBV or CMV infection. These ulcers are consistent with aphthous major or complex aphthosis that arise in response to acute illness.
Zehra Esin Gencer
Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.
Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yafei; Ma, Shiyang; Shi, Haitao; Lu, Xiaolan
We present a rare case of a 32-year-old female with gastric ulcers caused by pressure from trauma. The patient was diagnosed with stress-related acute gastritis by a local hospital and she was discharged 1 week later after her symptoms improved. She was given oral proton pump inhibitors (PPI). However, epigastric pain intensified, so the woman was seen at this Hospital 3 days later. Gastric endoscopy revealed kissing ulcers in the lower body of the stomach. A point worth mentioning is that the kissing gastric ulcers were caused by trauma due to impact with the steering wheel.
Young, Calvin J; Dardik, Alan; Sumpio, Bauer; Indes, Jeff; Muhs, Bart; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) formation after penetrating trauma is a well-described phenomenon. However, diagnosis of traumatic AVF is frequently delayed as patients often do not have hard signs of vascular injury at the initial presentation. Late complications of traumatic AVF include arterial and venous dilatation, distal ischemia, venous congestion, and congestive heart failure. This case report describes a traumatic femoral AVF causing distal venous ulceration 3 years after the injury. The AVF was treated with open repair. In the operating room, the Nicoladoni-Branham sign was elicited. The ulcer healed at 1 month and has not recurred at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Losev, R Z; Burov, Iu A; Mikul'skaia, Ie G; Iakusheva, Ie A
Altogether 112 patients over 50 years of age suffering from varicosity and chronic trophic ulcers of the distal limb segments were examined. The work was based on an analysis of the microcirculatory flow in lower limb tissues (laser Doppler flowmetry, BLF 21 system, Transonic Systems Inc., USA) and on the evaluation of tissue metabolism by measuring partial oxygen and carbon dioxide tension (percutaneous polarography; TCM-3 system, Radiometry Company, Denmark). The postischemic and orthostatic tests were used to assess the functional microcirculatory reserve. The data obtained indicate local tissue hypoxia in elderly patients with venous trophic ulcers associated with an increase of the basal flow only in the lower third of the leg. Venous trophic ulcers are marked by a significant reduction of partial oxygen tension in the tissues adjacent to the area of trophic ulcers to 4.3+/-0.5 mm Hg on the average in the presence of the low functional microcirculatory reserve. Local tissue hypoxia in the area of trophic ulcers, which develops despite an increase of blood inflow to the microcirculatory bed evidences inhibition of tissue flow and activation of the arterio-venular bypasses. The results obtained in the course of the study allow to optimize the treatment policy in elderly patients suffering from venous trophic ulcers. In addition to the measures lowering venous hypertension, the treatment should include correction of microcirculatory disorders, which is to be carried out in the pre- and postoperative periods.
Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S
Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zamir, Ehud; Bodaghi, Bahram; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; See, Robert F; Charlotte, Frederic; Wang, Robert C; Wechsler, Bertrand; LeHoang, Phuc; Anteby, Irene; Rao, Narsing A
To describe the occurrence of conjunctival ulcers as a manifestation of Behçet's disease. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series with histopathologic correlation. Six patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Behçet's disease and presented with painful conjunctival ulcers were included in the study. Three of these ulcers were biopsied and studied histologically and immunohistochemically. The lesions were treated with topical or subconjunctival injection of corticosteroids and, in one case, with oral indomethacin. Although all six patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Behçet's disease, two developed uveitis and other signs of Behçet's disease only months to years after the appearance of the conjunctival ulcers. The 3- to 5-mm, round to oval ulcers were located in the limbal and/or bulbar conjunctiva. Histopathology revealed disrupted epithelium, infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells, and high endothelial venules. Immunohistochemical analysis of the infiltrating lymphocytes revealed primarily T-cell populations admixed with several B cells and CD68-positive histiocytes. After treatment, the conjunctival lesions invariably healed without scarring. In addition to the oral and genital ulceration, ulcers can also be found in the conjunctiva of patients with Behçet's disease. Although this is a rare clinical sign, when accompanied by uveitis or orogenital ulcers, it may suggest a diagnosis of Behçet's disease.
BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.
Marker, Søren; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn
of hospital setting. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis and assess use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) in any dose, formulation and duration. We will accept placebo...... or no prophylaxis as control interventions. The participants will be adult hospitalised acutely ill patients with high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos for relevant literature. We will follow...... the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment...
Jeffrey C Cowley
Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.
Cristina N. Cozma
Full Text Available Objectives. Distal biceps tendon rupture affects the functional upperextremity movement, impairing supination and flexion strength. According to age, profession and additional risks treatment might be nonoperative or surgical. Methods. We describe the case of a 43 years old male patient who sustained an injury to his right distal biceps and was diagnosed with acute right distal biceps rupture. Surgical treatment was decided and biceps tendon was reinserted to the radius tuberosity using a combination of a cortical button fixation associated with an interference screw. Results. Postoperative functional result was favorable with no complications and with no movement limitation after one month. Conclusions. When possible, distal biceps tendon repair should be realized surgically because this permits restoring of the muscle strength to near normal levels with no loss of motion. Nerve complications are common; therefore the surgery should be realized by experienced upper extremity surgeons.
Ungeheuer, E; Schröder, D; Lüders, K
The standard of today in surgical treatment of the duodenal and gastric ulcer in Germany is shown. Positive and negative aspects of the different methods are discussed. Special technics are recommended for the different types of gastroduodenal ulcera.
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Venous hypertension from failure of proper venous valve function in the veins of thelower extremities causes changes over time in the microcirculation of the skin of the distal extremity. These changes set the stage for the development of a chronic nonhealing ulceration, which typically occurs at the ankle. The mainstay of treatment has been conservative, with compression dressings and elevation of the extremity. However, results have been less than satisfactory because of delay in healing and high recurrence rates after successful healing. Elimination of the venous hypertension should be the goal of therapy using more recent minimally invasive surgical techniques, including ablation of incompetent truncal veins with laser or radiofrequency energy and use of ultrasound-guided foam sclerosant injections to close incompetent perforator veins that are frequently found in or near the ulcer bed. This approach will shorten ulcer healing time and reduce recurrence rates as well as patient suffering and expense. PMID:17948110
Søreide, Kjetil; Thorsen, Kenneth; Harrison, Ewen M
Perforated peptic ulcer is a common emergency condition worldwide, with associated mortality rates of up to 30%. A scarcity of high-quality studies about the condition limits the knowledge base for clinical decision making, but a few published randomised trials are available. Although Helicobacter...... need further assessment. Adequate trials with low risk of bias are urgently needed to provide better evidence. We summarise the evidence for perforated peptic ulcer management and identify directions for future clinical research....
Full Text Available This is a case of a twenty-nine year old male patient who was referred to our dermatology service with an ulcerative lesion of the left cheek of approximately 4 cm, circular, with well-defined borders and a clean base of granulation tissue, as well as 2 ulcerated nodular lesions. The rest of the physical exam was within normal limits.
Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun
Abstract This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of endoscopic variceal ligation-(EVL) induced ulcer bleeding. The prevalence of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding is reported to be 3.6%. However, there are only limited reports of this serious complication, and the risk factors and the treatment methods are not well established. A total of 430 patients who had undergone EVL in Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2014 to October 2016 were studied. EVL was performed for prophylaxis or acute hemorrhage. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a bleeding group (n = 33) and a non-bleeding group (n = 397). The patients who had endoscopically confirmed EVL-induced ulcer bleeding were included in the bleeding group. EVL-induced ulcer bleeding occurred in 7.7% (n = 33) of the patients. In a multivariate analysis, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >10 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–10.64), concomitant GV F3 (OR: 14.1, 95% CI: 2.84–71.43), and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy (OR: 8.06, 95% CI: 2.55–25.64) were independent predictive factors of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. Various endoscopic modalities were attempted for hemostasis (EVL in 8 cases [24.2%], endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in 6 cases [18.2%], argon plasma coagulation [APC] in 1 case (3%), Sengstaken–Blakemore (SB) tube in 3 cases [9.1%]), and proton pump inhibitor therapy only in 15 cases (45.5%). MELD score >10, concomitant GV F3, and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy are risk factors for EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. PMID:28614248
Zakaria, Z A; Abdul Hisam, E E; Norhafizah, M; Rofiee, M S; Othman, F; Hasiah, A H; Vasudevan, M
The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP). MEBP was administered at doses of 100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg and its effects on acute toxicity, absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, and pyloric ligation tests in rats were investigated. At a dose of 5,000 mg/kg, MEBP did not cause any signs of toxicity in rats when given orally. Oral administration of MEBP exerted anti-ulcer activity (p ulceration model. Histological studies supported the observed anti-ulcer activity of MEBP. In the pyloric ligation assay, MEBP significantly increased gastric wall mucus secretion (p ulcer activity, which could be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins or other polyphenols, thereby validating the traditional use of B. purpurea in the treatment of ulcers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ana Paula Hvenegaard; Vieira, Joaquim E.; Leandro, Daniela C; Ana Carolina Góes; Safatle, Angélica M.V.; Barros,Paulo S.M.
Indolent ulcers are superficial corneal ulcers secondary to several changes on the corneal surface. They are frequently observed in middle-aged Boxer dogs, cause pain of acute onset and requires appropriate treatment. Aiming to evaluate the efficacy of clinical managements on the rate of healing of indolent ulcers, a retrospective study was conducted (1997-2008). Results demonstrated that proteinase inhibitors were the most often prescribed medication, and its administration did not interfere...
Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV-associated esophageal ulcer is rare in immunocompetent infants. The presence of inclusion bodies and immunohistochemical staining for CMV in biopsy specimens obtained during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD indicate that such ulcers occur because of CMV infection. A 7-week-old female infant who experienced frequent vomiting and feeding intolerance was diagnosed with a massive CMV-associated ulcer in the distal esophagus. The ulcer improved after conservative treatment using proton-pump inhibitors; however, ganciclovir was not administered. In a follow-up EGD biopsy specimen, no CMV inclusion bodies were present, and immunohistochemical staining results for this virus were negative. The presence of CMV inclusion bodies indicates active viral replication. If persistent inclusion bodies or positive immunohistochemical staining for CMV is observed in follow-up biopsy specimens, ganciclovir may be used to treat CMV-associated esophageal ulcers.
Rabelink, T. J.; Koomans, H. A.; van de Stolpe, A.; Bijlsma, J. A.; Dorhout Mees, E. J.
To characterize the actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the human distal nephron, we studied interactions between ANP (0.02 micrograms/kg.min i.v.) and acutely administered substances acting in the distal nephron, that is, amiloride and aldosterone, in six healthy humans during maximal
ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in rats. In acute toxicity testing Am.Cr did not produce any mortality up to 5 g/kg dose. Conclusion: These results show that Acacia modesta possesses anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti- spasmodic and anti-ulcer activities, probably mediated through dual mechanisms, including Ca2+ influx.
Feliciano, D V
If a chronic duodenal ulcer perforates, the choice of operation will depend on the patient's condition. Preoperative shock, concurrent medical diseases, severe generalized peritonitis, or the presence of an intra-abdominal abscess are contraindications to a definitive ulcer operation; hence, simple closure or omental patch closure is performed. Omeprazole can then be used to heal the ulcer in the early postoperative period, with long-term H2-blocker therapy to follow. The patient without a contraindication to a definitive operation should have a proximal gastric vagotomy in addition to an omental patch closure of the perforation. The addition of this procedure does not change the operative mortality rate in properly selected patients, does not cause the gastrointestinal sequelae associated with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty or resection, and has a low rate of recurrent ulcer in experienced hands. The presence of a synchronous posterior "kissing" duodenal ulcer would prompt some to choose a vagotomy and pyloroplasty in preference to a proximal gastric vagotomy. The appropriate operation to perform after perforation of an acute duodenal ulcer in a patient with any of the contraindications listed above is simple closure or omental patch closure. In the stable nonseptic patient, the choice is not as clear. Boey and associates noted cumulative recurrent ulcer rates of 37% and 31% at 3 years in separate studies in which omental patch closure was used for perforated acute duodenal ulcers. This may reflect the asymptomatic nature of chronic duodenal ulcers in some patients prior to perforation, the failure of the surgeon to recognize the extent of periduodenal scarring at operation, or differences in the length of postperforation follow-up in series reporting perforations of acute or chronic ulcers. Jordan has suggested that all stable patients with perforated duodenal ulcers should undergo a proximal gastric vagotomy in addition to omental patch closure. In his hands
Olive, Julien; Videau, Marine
Macroscopic studies have suggested a link between distal border synovial invaginations of the navicular bone and the distal interphalangeal joint. However, many practitioners consider that these invaginations are directly and solely related to navicular disease. The objective was to investigate the communication pattern of these synovial invaginations with the synovial compartments of the distal interphalangeal joint and the navicular bursa, using minimally invasive imaging techniques. In a prospective observational study, 10 cadaveric limbs with radiographically evident distal border synovial invaginations were randomly assigned to computed tomography arthrography or bursography groups, using iopamidol. In 5/5 limbs, contrast medium filled the invaginations following distal interphalangeal arthrography. In the other five limbs, no contrast medium filled the invaginations following bursography. Contrary to existing beliefs, these invaginations are more likely associated with distal interphalangeal joint synovitis and may not be directly linked to primary navicular bone pathology, but might reflect distal interphalangeal arthropathy. Therefore, the rationale for assessment of these invaginations in stallion selection or pre-purchase examinations as a predictive sign for navicular disease is questionable. Nonetheless, comorbidities are frequent in the equine distal limb. Enlarged synovial invaginations may also be seen in limbs with concomitant primary navicular disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible inter-related pathological processes.
Burguete Archel, Edurne; Ruiz Goikoetxea, Maite; Recari Elizalde, Eva; Beristain Rementería, Xabier; Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Iceta Lizarraga, Ainhoa
Lipschütz ulcer is an uncommon entity that is clinically characterised by a flu-like syndrome accompanied by an acute painful necrotic vulvar ulcer. It typically occurs in young women with no sexual contact history, and it is very rare among children. The aetiology is unknown, although recently several reports have related Epstein-Barr virus primary infection with this entity. We report a 17-month-old girl with fever and an acute genital ulcer. All the complementary tests for the most frequent causes of vulvar ulcers yielded negative results, whereas viral serology and polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the presence of an acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. When main causes of genital ulcer have been excluded, and there is no history of sexual contact, Lipschütz ulcer should be included in the differential diagnosis. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome by polymerase chain reaction can lead to an earlier diagnosis.
Full Text Available Venous ulcers (stasis ulcers, varicose ulcers are the wounds occurring due to inappropriate functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. It is one of the most serious chronic venous insufficiency complications. The overall incidence rate is 0.76% in men and 1.42% in women. When a venous valve gets damaged, it prevents the backflow of blood, which causes pressure in the veins that leads to hypertension and, in turn, venous ulcers. These are mostly along the medial distal leg, which is often very painful, can bleed, and get infected. Treating varicose ulcers is a difficult task to the physician and a nightmare to the suffering patients, though a good number of the treatment principles are mentioned and practiced in allied sciences. In Ayurveda, this condition is considered as dus.t.a vran.a. It can be managed with the specific s′odhana therapy. So, the same treatment protocol was used to treat the case discussed here, i.e. with Nitya virecana and by Basti karma. The wound was successfully treated and, therefore, is discussed in detail.
Chatterjee, Sasanka S.
Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein. PMID:23162226
Chatterjee S Sasanka
Full Text Available Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein.
Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J
OBJECTIVES: For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We...... stratification of ulcerated lesions. METHODS: From H&E-stained sections, the status (presence vs absence), extent (percentage of the total tumor length), and type (infiltrative vs attenuative) of ulceration and epidermal involvement were evaluated from 385 patients with cutaneous melanoma. RESULTS: The presence...... of ulceration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83), an attenuative type of ulceration (HR, 3.02), and excessive ulceration (HR, 3.57) were independent predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Further subdivision of minimal/moderate ulceration showed independent prognostic value only for lesions with epidermal...
... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Buruli ulcer ( Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) Fact sheetUpdated February 2017 Key facts Buruli ulcer is a chronic debilitating disease caused by Mycobacterium ...
Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Park, Ju Sang; Choy, Won Sik
The significance of distal ulna fractures is often undermined, which can result in inadequate treatment compared with fractures of the radius, the ulna's larger counterpart. However, little guidance exists in the current literature on how to manage distal ulna head or neck fractures and intra-articular ulna head fractures. Therefore, the purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of distal ulna hook plate fixation for the treatment of an unstable distal ulna fracture associated with a distal radius fracture. Twenty-five patients with unstable distal ulna fractures who underwent stable fixation for an associated distal radius fracture were included in the study. All patients achieved satisfactory reduction and bony union. Average final motion was as follows: wrist flexion, 72° (range, 60°-85°); extension, 69° (range, 65°-80°); pronation, 77° (range, 55°-95°); supination, 82° (range, 65°-90°); ulnar deviation, 35° (range, 15°-50°); and radial deviation, 24° (range, 10°-40°). Average postoperative grip strength was 28 kg (range, 22-30 kg) and was 91% (range, 71%-100%) in the cases in which the dominant hand was injured and 80% (range, 65%-100%) in the cases in which the nondominant hand was injured. Average postoperative modified Mayo wrist score and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 87 points (range, 65-100 points) and 14 points (range, 0-54 points), respectively. Chronic instability of the distal radioulnar joint was not encountered in any patient. Thus, the study demonstrated that distal ulna hook plate fixation for the treatment of unstable distal ulna fractures can achieve healing with good alignment, satisfactory function, and minimal transient morbidity. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi
Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition.
Molina, Vivian; Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Lourdes; Más, Rosa
D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from beeswax, wherein triacontanol is the most abundant alcohol, with antioxidant and anti-ulcer properties. Since compounds with cytoprotective and antioxidant effects can improve healing of gastroduodenal ulcer induced by noxious agents, this work investigated the healing effect of D- 002 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced with indomethacin and acetic acid, respectively, in rats. Acute gastric ulcer was induced with single oral doses of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Treatments with D-002 at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or vehicle were administered 3 hours after ulcer induction. Three hours later, rats were sacrificed, and the stomach was removed for quantifying the lesions. Chronic gastric ulcer was induced by 50 microL of 80% acetic acid application on the anterior serosal surface of the glandular stomach during 20 seconds. Twenty-four hours later D-002 at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or vehicle was administered for 5 days. At the end of the treatment, animals were fasted for 24 hours and sacrificed, the stomachs were removed, and the lesions were quantified. D-002 orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg acutely significantly healed gastric ulcers induced with indomethacin by 39% and 56% compared with positive controls, respectively. Also, D-002 at 200 mg/kg, but not at 50 or 100 mg/kg, administered orally for 5 days after ulcer induction exerted a significant healing effect (65.8% inhibition) in gastric ulcers induced with acetic acid. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that D-002 administered after ulcer induction induced effective healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers provoked by, respectively, indomethacin and acetic acid.
Gehringer, Susanne; Müller, Matthias; Maierl, Johann
In the context of a larger study on morphological changes of deep sole ulcers, claws with Rusterholz ulcer (RU) were investigated to describe the varied pathological changes of the RU. Hind limbs of 55 cows displaying external signs of complicated sole ulcers were examined externally and internally. To examine the samples internally, a sagittal section was performed. Furthermore, the material was examined histologically and after bone maceration. A total of 59 claws of 112 digits with 120 deep sole ulcers displayed a complicated RU. The most frequent findings were: fibrosis of the heel cushion, partly in conjunction with cartilaginous/osseous areas; osteomyelitis of the tuberculum flexorium, resulting in osteolysis of the macerated bones, often together with peripheral periosteal exostoses; avulsion fracture of the tuberculum flexorium in severely deformed claws; arthritis in the distal joint, frequently in conjunction with subchondral osteomyelitis, with the macerated bone showing osteolyses near the fossae synoviales and in the periphery of the joint surface as well as periosteal exostoses on the insertion point of the joint capsule. Changes in the bursa podotrochlearis, the common digital flexor tendon sheath and the pastern joint occurred less frequently. Fibrosis and ossification of the heel cushion were classified as metaplasia, because these processes were considered an adaption to non-physiological strain of the heel. As the infection of the RU spreads, the tuberculum flexorium may play a central role. In advanced cases, an inflammation-related weakening of the bone tissue can lead to a pathological fracture with avulsion of the deep digital flexor tendon. Secondary infection of the distal joint may occur subsequent to any avulsion of the tendon in combination with opening of the joint cavity. More frequently, the infection is likely to have expanded from the insertion point of the joint capsule to the subchondral bone to ultimately infest the joint cavity
Full Text Available Dermatofibroma is a slowly growing common benign cutaneous tumor characterized by hard papules and nodules. The rarely seen erosions and ulcerations may cause difficulties in the diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, which is clinically and histopathologically of malignant character, displays difficulties in the diagnosis since it has similarities with basal cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, and sarcomas. Head and neck involvement is very rare. In this study, a giant dermatofibroma case, which is histopathologically, ulcerative dermatofibroma, the biggest lesion of the head and neck region and seen rarely in the literature that has characteristics similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, has been presented.
Ali Asghar Moeinipour
Full Text Available Involvement of the heart is infrequently seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBD. We present a case of severe acute infective endocarditis diagnosed as ulcerative colitis in further workup.
Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.
Bennis, Malika; Tiret, Emmanuel
Surgery is the only curative option in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Despite advances in the medical management surgery is required in about a third of patients. In the acute setting surgery is indicated when medical treatment fails to improve an episode of acute severe colitis. The intervention of choice is a staged colectomy with end ileostomy and preservation of the rectal stump in the first instance. Indications for elective surgery are failure of medical therapy and malignant transformation. The surgical options include conventional proctectomy with ileostomy or a Kock's continent ileostomy and colectomy with an ileorectal anastomosis. The current gold standard is restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Most frequently the technique includes a J pouch with a stapled anastomosis and temporary faecal diversion with a loop ileostomy. Laparoscopic pouch surgery is a feasible and safe option with an excellent cosmetic result. Although the morbidity remains significant after surgery, the quality of life is good with a satisfactory long-term functional outcome.
Full Text Available We examined 52 patients aged from 14 to 17 years with perforated ulcer of stomach and the duodenum, operated using laparoscopic and open ways. It is established, that perforated ulcer of stomach and the duodenum in children onset suddenly, the are characterized by absence of «ulcer anamnesis» and clinical picture of acute peritonitis in 77 % of children. Maximum efficiency of diagnosis of perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers is achieved by using a comprehensive diagnostic program that includes the use of phased diagnostic measures in accordance with their resolution in each case.
A 65-year-old woman presented with widespread necrotising cutaneous ulceration and oral involvement. Past history included rheumatoid arthritis, and a left nephrectomy.Examination revealed multiple violaceous undermined ulcers. Blood investigations showed an acute inflammatory response. Skin histopathology showed epidermal ulceration with acute and chronic inflammation. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. A diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with oral involvement was made. Mycophenolate mofetil therapy resulted in complete resolution of her pyoderma gangrenosum. Her treatment was complicated by a left proteus mirabilis psoas abscess. This resolved following four weeks of antibiotics.Pyoderma gangrenosum with oral involvement is rare but has been linked with inflammatory bowel disease and hematological disorders. Oral pyoderma gangrenosum has not previously been described in rheumatoid arthritis. Primary psoas abscess is rare but can develop in immunocompromised patients. Proteus mirabilis has been reported in patients years after nephrectomy. This is a rare case of pyoderma gangrenosum with oral involvement.
Background: Marjolin's ulcers though thought to be rare have been reported to have a higher incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. These tumours typically run an aggressive course with a poor prognosis. Late presentation has been reported to be typical of these cancers and some of the reasons adduced for this, are difficulties ...
... and disinfected. The wound is probed with a metal instrument to see how deep it is and ... of the ulcer area. This will help speed healing. Be sure to wear shoes that DO NOT put a lot of ... - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke Diabetes - ...
Bruisten, Sylvia M.
Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes
Tytgat, G. N.
An overview is given of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal and gastric ulceration. Special attention is given to the role of microbial virulence factors, the effects on gastric acid secretion and the development of 'gastric type' metaplasia in the duodenal
Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain
We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Ulcerative lesions in Behcet’s disease (BD are regarded as important manifestation for diagnosis. Various kinds of ulcerative lesions appear in patients with BD. They present as orogenital ulcers, necrotizing vasculitis and pyoderma gengrenosum. Gastrointestinal system involvement (Gis in Behçet’s disease affects all areas from the esophagus to the anus. Most authors believe that the Gis manifestations of Behçet’s disease should be confined to aphthous ulcers, which can occur throughout the Gis tract. All patients with oro-genital and Gis ulcerations should be fully investigated to establish a definitive diagnosis and eliminate the possibility of an underlying BD.
Peptic ulcer disease is due to the circumscribed, complete loss of gut epithelium in parts of the digestive tract exposed to hydrochloric acid and pepsin secretion. It can be acute or chronic and occurs as a result of an imbalance between the defensive and aggressive forces at play in the mucosal lining of the stomach, ...
Study design: A consecutive series of adult patients admitted and treated for acute generalized peritonitis due to peptic ulcer perforations was studied prospectively from January 1998 to June 2004. A specially designed proforma was used to record patient characteristics, clinical and operative findings and outcome.
Full Text Available Introduction: About 0.1% of the population suffers from necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, a disease of rapid progression and acute manifestation, which may progress to necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and eventually to bone sequestration and loss of gingival tissue. Case report: A 21-year-old female patient undergoing orthodontic treatment for six months, diagnosed with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to acute pain in the gingival tissue, spontaneous bleeding, halitosis and abundant plaque. The treatment was conservative and effective, obtaining total remission of the lesion after seven days and three months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Today there are no epidemiological or clinical reports that support the relationship of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and orthodontic treatment. Prevention is critical to the success of the treatment, which is why the dentist should recognize the clinical features of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis to raise awareness of its risks in the orthodontic patient.
Xue, Xiao-Chang; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ming-Tang; Li, Wen-Guang; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zeng-Lu; Bao, Chun-Jie; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Qi
To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers. Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (PBPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (PBPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%, respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (PBPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the effective dosage of the former is lower than that of the latter.
Leg ulcers are a chronic condition. Healing can be long for venous ulcers and the risk of complications is significant. Infection is the most severe complication and can occur in the form of easily diagnosed acute bacterial dermohypodermitis that generally responds well to antibiotic treatment if given at an appropriate dose or in the form of localized infection that is more difficult to diagnosis. Indeed, no consensus has been reached in the literature on the clinical criteria to retain for the diagnosis of localized infection. Similarly, the most appropriate treatment remains to be established. Local care would be a logical starting point, followed by systemic antibiotics if this approach is unsuccessful. Individual conditions also should be taken into consideration (immunodepression, severe arteriopathy warranting more rapid use of systemic antibiotics). The second most frequent complication is an allergic reaction to a topical agent used for wound care. The rate of sensitivization in patients with leg ulcers is high (60 %), although the rate is declining with modern dressings. No product can be considered perfectly safe for these polysensitized patients. Dermocorticoid therapy can be very effective. Allergology tests are needed. Certain leg ulcers require special care from diagnosis. An arterial origin must be suspected for deep, or necrotic ulcers. Arterial supply must be explored rapidly, followed by a revascularization procedure when necessary. Highly painful superficial extensive necrotic ulcers due to necrotic angiodermitis require hospital care for skin grafts that will control the antiodermitis and provide pain. Carcinoma should be suspected in cases of leg ulcers with an atypical localization exhibiting excessive budding. A biopsy is mandatory for leg ulcers with an unusual course (absence of healing despite well-conducted care). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vock, C; Yildirim, A Ö; Wagner, C; Schlick, S; Lunding, L P; Lee, C G; Elias, J A; Fehrenbach, H; Wegmann, M
Increased mucus production is a critical factor impairing lung function in patients suffering from bronchial asthma, the most common chronic inflammatory lung disease worldwide. This study aimed at investigating whether goblet cell (GC) metaplasia and mucus production are differentially regulated in proximal and distal airways. Female Balb/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged with an OVA-aerosol on two consecutive days for 1 week (acute) or 12 weeks (chronic). Real-time RT-PCR analysis was applied on microdissected airways. In acutely and chronically OVA-challenged mice, GC metaplasia and mucus production were observed in proximal but not in distal airways. In contrast, inflammation reflected by the infiltration of eosinophils and expression of the TH2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 was increased in both proximal and distal airways. Abundance of IL-13Rα1 was lower in distal airways of healthy control mice. Under acute and chronic OVA-exposure, activation of IL-13Rα1-dependent signalling cascade, reflected by Spdef and Foxo3A transcription factors, was attenuated in distal compared to proximal airways. These data indicate that distal airways might be less sensitive to IL-13-induced GC metaplasia and mucus production through lower expression of IL-13Rα1 and attenuated activation of downstream signalling. This might represent a protective strategy to prevent mucus plugging of distal airways and thus impaired ventilation of attached alveoli. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yafei; Ma, Shiyang; Shi, Haitao; Lu, Xiaolan
We present a rare case of a 32-year-old female with gastric ulcers caused by pressure from trauma. The patient was diagnosed with stress-related acute gastritis by a local hospital and she was discharged 1 week later after her symptoms improved. She was given oral proton pump inhibitors (PPI). However, epigastric pain intensified, so the woman was seen at this Hospital 3 days later. Gastric endoscopy revealed kissing ulcers in the lower body of the stomach. A point worth mentioning is that th...
Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.
Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...
Bouhoutsos, J.; Barabas, A. P.; Martin, Peter
In a series of 400 consecutive patients with arteriosclerosis seen in two peripheral vascular clinics, we confirm the previously reported association with peptic ulcer. The incidence was almost 25% both in patients with occlusive disease (300) and with aneurysm (100). The accepted expectation of peptic ulcer in the same age-group is 6 or 7% (Jones, Kirk & Bloor, 1970; McManus, 1966). Patients with peptic ulcer, or the history of one, had a significantly higher amputation rate than those without a peptic ulcer. PMID:4650780
Shahin, Eman S M; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud J G
Pressure ulcers are common in acute and long-term care. However, critically ill patients usually have multiple risk factors for pressure ulcers. The study was conducted to assess pressure ulcer incidence in intensive care patients, the factors related to pressure ulcer incidence and the course of pressure ulcers after the admission to an intensive care unit. A longitudinal design. This study was carried out in cardiological and surgical intensive care of a general hospital and in a nephrological intensive care of a university hospital. All patients admitted to intensive care wards during the period from April until October 2006 were invited to take a part in the study. One hundred and twenty-one patients were involved in the study. The inclusion criteria were adult intensive care patients, males and females, all diagnosis were included. The exclusion criterion was patients whose age less than 18 years. Each patient was assessed twice; first, upon admission and second upon discharge or death, or after 2 weeks if the patient was still in intensive care. The assessed data included pressure ulcer preventive measures, risk factors using Braden score, pressure ulcer characteristics and treatment. Additionally, incontinence supplies (urine/bowel) if used and the severity of illness using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score) were assessd. This study revealed a total incidence of 3.3% (4.5% in nephrological patients and 2.9% in surgical patients). Sixteen patients with a total of 21 pressure ulcers were admitted to the intensive care units. During the patients' stay at the intensive care units six pressure ulcers developed newly and five pressure ulcers healed. The mean of the APACHE II score of patients with new pressure ulcers (16.6) were higher than in patients without new pressure ulcers (11.5). Pressure ulcer incidence is low in this study compared to other studies. Pressure ulcers can be healed in intensive care patients. Using some
Lachenbruch, Charlie; Ribble, David; Emmons, Kirsten; VanGilder, Catherine
To measure the prevalence of incontinence in the 2013-2014 International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence (IPUP) surveys and determine the relative risk of developing a facility-acquired pressure ulcers (FAPUs) by stage and by Braden Scale score groupings. The IPUP survey is an observational, cross-sectional cohort database designed to determine the frequency and severity of pressure ulcers in various populations. The survey includes acute care (91.4%), long-term acute care (1.7%), rehabilitation patients (1.7%) and long-term care residents (5.2%). Geographic distribution included 182,832 patients in the United States, 22,282 patients in Canada, and the rest of the world, primarily in Europe and the Middle East. We analyzed data from the 2013 and 2014 IPUP surveys to better understand the relationship between incontinence and the frequency and severity of FAPUs. The IPUP survey is an annual voluntary survey of patients who are hospitalized or who reside in long-term care facilities. Data were collected over a 24-hour period within each participating facility. Data collection included limited demographics, presence and stage of pressure ulcers, and pressure ulcer risk assessment score (Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk, Braden Q, Norton, Waterlow, and others). In addition, data were collected on pertinent pressure ulcer risk factors including the number of linen layers, use of a pressure redistributing surface, adherence to repositioning schedule, and whether moisture management was provided in the last 24 hours. We aggregated data by urinary, urinary catheter, fecal, fecal management system, double (urinary and fecal), and ostomy incontinence category. If patients were managed by indwelling urinary catheter or fecal management systems, they were considered incontinent in this analysis. In order to analyze ulcers likely to be affected by incontinence, we defined a subset of ulcers as Relevant Pressure Ulcers, which are ulcers that are facility-acquired, non
Benoit, S; Hamm, H
Oral ulcers and erosions are of great clinical importance because they are common in childhood and adolescence and generally painful. They can be related to harmless conditions, such as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. On the other hand, they can be associated with severe systemic diseases making an early diagnosis and initiation of treatment necessary. We herein focus on the systematic presentation of differential diagnoses of oral ulcers and erosions in pediatric patients and present clues in the history and clinical features that are helpful to establish the diagnosis. Patient's age at the beginning of the symptoms, differentiation between acute and chronic course, distribution of mucosal lesions, additional involvement of the skin, extracutaneous symptoms, general condition of the patient, comorbidities and medication may be determining factors of the correct diagnosis. In children and adolescents aphthous stomatitis, infections and trauma are the most frequent causes of oral ulcerations or erosions of the mucous membranes.
Pedersen, G.; Brynskov, Jørn
for 14 days. RESULTS: PPAR gamma expression was fourfold reduced in epithelial cells from inflamed compared with uninflamed mucosa and controls. Adipophillin levels were decreased in parallel. Rosiglitazone induced a concentration-dependent increase in adipophillin levels and restored PPAR gamma activity...... in epithelial cells from inflamed mucosa in vitro. Rosiglitazone enema treatment was well tolerated and reduced the Mayo ulcerative colitis score from 8.9 to 4.3 (P ... gamma activation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Roziglitasone enemas improve impaired PPAR gamma activity in inflamed colonic epithelium and have beneficial clinical effect in patients with active distal ulcerative colitis. These findings raise interest in further studies of PPAR gamma ligands that exhibit...
In this podcast, CDC's Dr. David Swerdlow discusses the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease and trends in hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease in the United States between 1998 and 2005. Created: 8/17/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 8/17/2010.
Beleckas, Casey; Calfee, Ryan
Distal radius fractures are one of the most common upper extremity fractures. Athletes with distal radius fractures are treated according to the same principles as non-athletes but present several unique considerations...
Krupa Shankar D
Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.
Zimmermann, W; Frank, N; Philippi, M; Burkhard, B
In 68 of 1152 patients older than 65 years an acute ulcus duodeni could be stated by endoscopy. This is 5,9% of the examined patients. Among this group there was a remarkably great number of patients who belonged to the age group between 70 and 80 years. The anamnesis of 42 patients indicated complaints for several years, whereas 26 patients showed symptoms only for a few weeks. The size of the acute ulceration was mostly below 1,0 cm. A determined relation between the size of the ulceration, the patients age and the duration of their anamnesis could not be found. In 12 patients an acute ulcus ventriculi could be proved simultaneously. In 15 cases acute bleeding was the initial symptom of the ulceration. Healing of the ulcera took between 4 weeks and 3 months. The conservative therapeutical steps were not standardized. Stationary and ambulant patients did not show any difference in the time of healing. It was remarkable that the consumption of alcohol and especially of cigarettes was relatively high.
Cheng, Zhaohui; Wu, Weigang; Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Min
To this day, the reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the distal lower leg is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. At present, free flap, musculocutaneous flap, anterior and posterior tibial artery flap, cross-leg flap, and distally based neurocutaneous flap are the main surgical alternatives. However, these methods are not always satisfactory. This article describes our experience with the distally based saphenous nerve-greater saphenous venofasciocutaneous flap method to reconstruct soft tissue defects in the distal lower leg. A total of 27 patients (17 men and 10 women) underwent reconstructive surgery in our department from October 2009 to July 2012. Their mean age was 44.8 years (range, 16-62 years). The mean follow-up period was 18 months (range, 12-30 months). The only etiology was acute traumatic injury. Defects were located in the distal tibia around the ankle joint and the foot. The fasciocutaneous pedicle was 3 to 4 cm wide and the anatomical structures consisted of the superficial and deep fascia, the saphenous nerve, the greater saphenous vein, and their accompanying vessels together with an islet of subcutaneous cellular tissue and skin. The pivot point was approximately 5 cm proximal to the tip of medial malleolus. The size of skin islands ranged from 7 × 5 to 14 × 10 cm. All flaps survived without any partial necrosis and no arterial crisis occurred postoperatively in any case. Severe venous congestion occurred only in 1 case; however, the flap got better gradually and survived eventually after limb raise and interrupted bloodletting. All donor sites were 1-stage closed with split-skin grafting. The reverse saphenous neurocutaneous island flap is a reliable and efficient method to reconstruct soft tissue defects in the distal lower leg. Both this flap and the classic sural flap provide valuable alternative coverage of such defects.
Full Text Available Herpes simplex infection is characterized by acute or subacute infection, often followed by a chronic carrier state. Consecutive recurrences may flare up if immunocompromise occurs. Herpes simplex associated esophagitis or duodenal ulcer have been reported in immunocompromised patients due to neoplasm, HIV/AIDS or therapeutically induced immune deficiency. Here we report the case of an HSV-DNA seronegative patient who developed grade III dysphagia 13 days after allogeneic liver transplantation. Endoscopy revealed an esophageal-gastric ulcer, and biopsy histopathology showed a distinct fibroplastic and capillary ulcer pattern highly suspicious for viral infection. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a distinct nuclear positive anti-HSV reaction. Antiviral therapy with acyclovir and high-dose PPI led to a complete revision of clinical symptoms within 48 h. Repeat control endoscopy after 7 days showed complete healing of the former ulcer site at the gastroesophageal junction. Although the incidence of post-transplantation Herpes simplex induced gastroesophageal disease is low, the viral HSV ulcer may be included into a differential diagnosis if dysphagia occurs after transplantation even if HSV-DNA PCR is negative.
Pedro José Labronici
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. METHODS: Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. RESULTS: All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. CONCLUSION: The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments.
Labronici, Pedro José; da Silva, Ricardo Rodrigues; Franco, Marcos Vinícius Viana; Labronici, Gustavo José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Franco, José Sergio
Objective To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. Methods Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years) were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. Results All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. Conclusion The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments. PMID:26962489
Hamaishi, Kanoko; Kojima, Ryoji; Ito, Mikio
Oral administration of tea catechin dose-dependently prevented absolute ethanol-induced (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) or restraint plus water immersion stress-induced acute gastric mucosal injury (300, 400 mg/kg) in rats. When the effect of test compound was evaluated on the 15th day after acetic acid injection to rats, repeated oral administration of tea catechin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg twice daily) dose-dependently accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. Tea catechin (10(-5)-10(-1) g/100 ml) concentration-dependently scavenged superoxide anions in vitro. Tea catechin (100, 200 mg/kg orally) markedly inhibited the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the injured mucosa of rats treated with 50% ethanol. Tea catechin (50, 100 mg/kg twice orally, daily) markedly inhibited the increase in content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the ulcerated region of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers on the 7th and 15th days. In addition, at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg orally, it dose-dependently prevented the decrease in gastric mucosal hexosamine content induced by absolute ethanol, although it failed to inhibit the basal gastric acid secretion. These results suggest that tea catechin may primarily protect gastric mucosa from acute gastric mucosal injury and promote the healing of chronic gastric ulcers by its antioxidant activity and gastric mucus-increasing actions.
Thiago Medeiros Storti
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare clinical entity, seldom reported in the literature and with unclear therapeutic setting. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old white man who suffered a simultaneous bilateral rupture while working out. When weightlifting with elbows at 90° of flexion, he suddenly felt pain on the anterior aspect of the arms, coming for evaluation after two days. He presented bulging contour of the biceps muscle belly and ecchymosis in the antecubital fossa, extending distally to the medial aspect of the forearm, as well as a marked decrease of supination strength and pain in active elbow flexion. MRI confirmed the rupture with retraction of the distal biceps bilaterally. The authors opted for performing the tendon repairs simultaneously through the double incision technique and fixation to the bicipital tuberosity with anchors. The patient progressed quite well, with full return to labor and sports activities, being satisfied with the result after two years of surgery. In the literature search, few reports of simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps were retrieved, with only one treated in the acute phase of injury. Therefore, the authors consider this procedure to be a good option to solve this complex condition.
Brinkman, Justus-Martijn; Oddens, Jorg R; Van Royen, Barend J; Wever, Jan; Olsman, Jan G
Abstract Background Clinical characteristics and complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration are well known. Gastro-intestinal involvement has also been recognised in these patients. However an acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer has not been documented up to now. Case presentation A 26-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer is treat...
Yamanaka, Kenichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Asabe, Shinichi; Yoshida, Toru; Nakano, Misaki; Obara, Shin; Endo, Hidehiko
To elucidate the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in a post-earthquake period within one medical district. Hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in the Iwate Prefectural Kamaishi Hospital during the 6-mo period after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 27 patients who visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematemesis or hemorrhagic stool and were diagnosed as having hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a 6-mo period starting on March 11, 2011. This period was divided into two phases: the acute stress phase, comprising the first month after the earthquake disaster, and the chronic stress phase, from the second through the sixth month. The following items were analyzed according to these phases: age, sex, sites and number of ulcers, peptic ulcer history, status of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and degree of impact of the earthquake disaster. In the acute stress phase from 10 d to 1 mo after the disaster, the number of patients increased rapidly, with a nearly equal male-to-female ratio, and the rate of multiple ulcers was significantly higher than in the previous year (88.9% vs 25%, P earthquake disaster, the number of patients decreased to a level similar to that of the previous year. There were more male patients during this period, and many patients tended to have a solitary ulcer. All patients with duodenal ulcers found in the acute stress phase were negative for serum H. pylori antibodies, and this was significantly different from the previous year's positive rate of 75% (P earthquake disaster may have affected the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers.
Mandal, S; Das, D N; De, K; Ray, K; Roy, G; Chaudhuri, S B; Sahana, C C; Chowdhuri, M K
The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion.
Raffetto, Joseph D; Marston, William A
The pathophysiology of venous dermal abnormality in chronic venous ulcers is reflective of a complex interplay that involves sustained venous hypertension, inflammation, changes in the microcirculation, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase activation, and altered cellular function. Red blood cells and macromolecules extravasate into the interstitium and activate endothelial cells. Endothelial expression of specific adhesion molecules recruits leukocytes and causes diapedesis of these cells into the dermal microvasculature, promoting an inflammatory response with activation of cytokines and proteinases. Altered cell function enhances a state of vulnerability in the surrounding tissues, initiating specific changes associated with venous disease. Ultimately, the persistent inflammatory-proteinase activity leads to advanced chronic venous insufficiency and ulcer formation. The mainstay of therapy in venous ulcer abnormality is correction of the underlying venous hypertension through compression therapy and/or surgery. Understanding the science involved in the pathophysiology of venous ulcer formation has led to the development of adjunctive treatment directed at the dysregulated molecular pathways. Randomized clinical trials are critical for determining the most effective evidence-based treatments for venous ulcer, and this review discusses important trials that have had a significant impact on venous ulcer healing. In addition, the authors have included subsections referred to as "Translational Implications for Therapy" in the basic science sections of the review to help bridge the basic science knowledge with clinical applications that may help to modulate the molecular abnormalities in the pathophysiologic cascade leading to venous ulcers.
Coleman, S.; Nixon, J.; Keen, J.; Wilson, L.; McGinnis, E.; Dealey, C.; Stubbs, N.; Farrin, A.; Dowding, D.; Schols, J.M.; Cuddigan, J.; Berlowitz, D.; Jude, E.; Vowden, P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Bader, D.L.; Gefen, A.; Oomens, C.W.; Nelson, E.A.
AIM: This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. BACKGROUND: Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR
Most of the ulcers were located along bony prominence points of the pelvic girdle and the proximal femur. Most of the ulcers in this study were treated conservatively, with only a few ulcers subjected to surgical interventions. For the ulcers treated with surgical interventions the early outcome was good, however studies need ...
Malicdan May Christine; Nonaka Ikuya
Distal myopathies are a group of heterogeneous disorders classified into one broad category due to the presentation of weakness involving the distal skeletal muscles. The recent years have witnessed increasing efforts to identify the causative genes for distal myopathies. The identification of few causative genes made the broad classification of these diseases under "distal myopathies" disputable and added some enigma to why distal muscles are preferentially affected. Nevertheless, with the c...
Angelo Paulo Ferrari Junior
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of esophageal ulcer associated with the use of alendronate. CASE REPORT: This is the fifth case ever described in the literature according to our bibliographic review. In our patient, the association between the drug and the esophageal lesions was masked by the presence of a hiatal hernia, potentially a cause of the esophageal lesion. The persistence of the lesions despite high doses of anti-reflux therapy called attention to the possibility of the relationship. The esophageal lesion healed soon after suspension of alendronate. DISCUSSION: The authors present a review of the literature and point to the need for diagnostic investigation, to suspend such a drug from patients who experience dyspeptic symptoms while using it.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 53-year-old male with a history of daily alcohol abuse presented with sudden onset epigastric pain. The pain radiated to the right upper abdominal quadrant and was associated with shortness of breath and nausea. The patient’s vitals were notable for blood pressure of 181/107 and a heart rate of 124. He was in moderate distress and had a firm, distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness to palpation, without rebound or guarding. Significant findings: In the chest radiograph, there was obvious free air under the both the right diaphragm (above the liver and the left diaphragm, consistent with pneumoperitoneum. Discussion: A perforated ulcer is a surgical emergency. Overall mortality has been shown to be approximately 6.2%.1 Rapid diagnosis is essential as prognosis improves if treatment is initiated within the first six hours and worsens after 12 hours.2 The sensitivity for detecting pneumoperitoneum on plain radiography ranges from 50%-80%3-8 with specificity of 53%.7 An upright chest radiograph can detect as little as one to two milliliters of air.9,10 If free air is not seen on a posteroanterior (PA upright chest radiograph, an upright lateral chest radiograph can be obtained, which is more sensitive (98% sensitivity.8,11 About 10%-20% of ruptured ulcers will not present with visible free-air under the diaphragm on plain x-ray.12 In this case, given the free air seen on chest radiograph and peritoneal signs on exam, the patient was taken straight to the operating room for general surgery.
Monaco, R; Durante, E; Pampolini, M; Tioli, P
It is often difficult to differentiate acute pancreatitis (A.P.) from some other acute abdominal diseases, when there is an elevated serum amylase. In contrast, the renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a percentage of creatinine clearance, can separate patients with A.P. from patients with acute colecistitis, common duct stone without pancreatitis, hyperamylasemia after biliary surgery, acute peptic ulcer and acute salivary diseases.
De Ceglie, Antonella; Bilardi, Claudio; Blanchi, Sabrina; Picasso, Massimo; Di Muzio, Marcello; Trimarchi, Alberto; Conio, Massimo
Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%). Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.
Pınar Yüksel Başak; Emel Sesli Çetin; Hicran Yetkin; Vahide Baysal Akkaya
A 62-year-old male patient suffering from oral ulcers and painful throat with pancytopenia was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia. Because of uncontrolled fever despite antibiotherapy and that Rhizopus spp. was identified from oral lesions, amphotericin B was added to treatment for two weeks. Oral lesions were completely cleared thereafter and this case was presented to point out that mucormycosis must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions in patients with imm...
da Silva Junior, Iberê Ferreira; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; de Oliveira, Ruberlei Godinho; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira
Piper umbellatum L. (Piperaceae) is a shrub found in the Amazon, Savannah and Atlantic Forest region of Brazil. It is widely used in folk medicine in many countries primarily for the treatment of gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and anti-ulcer effects of hydroethanolic extract of P. umbellatum (HEPu) leaves in experimental rodents. In addition, the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the extract was assessed. The leaves of P. umbellatum were macerated in 75% (1:3w/v) hydroethanolic solution to obtain HEPu. The gastroprotective and ulcer healing activities of HEPu were evaluated using acidified ethanol (acute) and acetic acid (chronic) gastric ulcer models in rodents. The anti-H. pylori activity was evaluated by in vitro broth microdilution assay using H. pylori cagA+ and vacA+ strain. The probable mechanism of action of HEPu was evaluated by determining gastric secretory parameters, antioxidant enzyme (catalase), non-protein sulfhydryl (glutathione) and malondialdehyde levels in gastric tissue, including pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-a, IL -17, RANTES, IFN-γ and MIP-2) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines. HEPu demonstrated potent gastroprotection against acute ulcer induced by acidified ethanol and excellent healing effect of the chronic ulcer induced by acetic acid. The gastroprotective activity in acidified ethanol is partly attributed to the antioxidant mechanisms, while anti-secretory, anti-inflammatory and regeneration of the gastric mucosa are evoked as part of its antiulcer mechanism of action. The gastric ulcer healing of HEPu also involves restoration of the altered cytokines levels to near normal. However, it has no in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The results of this study showed that HEPu possesses preventive and curative effects in experimental models of gastric ulcers in animals. These effects are partially dependent on antioxidant, antisecretory, anti-inflammatory and mucosa regeneration. It is
Matthias Peter Hilty
Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is still associated with a great potential for complications and a high mortality. While the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis within the first 24 hours after amatoxin ingestion is well described, only very few descriptions of late gastrointestinal complications of amatoxin poisoning exist worldwide. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with severe amatoxin poisoning causing fulminant but reversible hepatic failure that on day 8 after mushroom ingestion developed severe abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Ulcerating ileocolitis was identified by computed tomography identifying a thickening of the bowel wall of the entire ileum and biopsies taken from the ileum and large bowel revealing distinct ileitis and proximally accentuated colitis. The absence of discernible alternative etiologies such as infectious agents makes a causal relationship between the ulcerating ileocolitis and the amatoxin poisoning likely. Diarrhea and varying abdominal pain persisted over several weeks and clinical follow-up after six months showed a completely symptom-free patient. The case presented highlights the importance to consider the possibility of rare complications of Amanita intoxication in order to be able to respond to them early and adequately.
Full Text Available Tracheostomy is a common procedure for intensive care patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. In this case report, we describe a 78-year-old female patient admitted for an aneurysm of the cerebral anterior communicating artery. Following immediate endovascular coiling, she remained ventilated and was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit. On postoperative day ten, a percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT was requested; however, a large ulcer or possible tracheoesophageal fistula was identified on the posterior tracheal wall following bronchoscopic assessment of the trachea. Therefore, the requested PCT procedure was aborted. An open tracheostomy in the operating room was completed; however, due to the position and depth of the ulcer, a reinforced endotracheal tube (ETT was placed via the tracheostomy. Four days later, the reinforced ETT was replaced with a Shiley distal extended tracheostomy tube to bypass the ulceration. Careful inspection and evaluation of the tracheostomy site before PCT prevented a potentially life-threatening issue in our patient.
Gawai, Sonali R; Binesh, V G; Betsy, Ambooken; Jisha, K T
Leukemia cutis is seen in around 20% of acute monocytic leukemia. They usually present as papules or nodules or infiltrated plaques but ulceration is uncommon. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple painless indurated genital ulcers of three weeks' duration with low-grade fever, gum hyperplasia, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Tissue smear from the edge of the ulcer showed atypical monocytes suggestive of leukemic infiltrate which was further confirmed by peripheral smear and bone marrow aspirate. Herein, we report a case of acute monocytic leukemia (AML) with leukemia cutis presenting initially with genital ulcers simulating chancre.
Ignacio López de Maturana
Full Text Available Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO or Buerger's disease is associated with both distal ulcers in the extremities and the possibility of amputation. The only treatment that has been shown to be effective in TAO is complete abstention from smoking. In spite of this, the disease progresses in up to 30 percent of cases and finally results in limb amputation. Only a few pharmacological and surgical options are available to date to improve healing ulcers in TAO. The efficacy of prostaglandin analogues is controversial. This paper summarizes the current evidence for medical treatment with bosentan in chronic ulcers in TAO patients. These available data up to date allow us to conclude that the beneficial effects of bosentan on improving endothelial function, inflammatory processes, and selective vasodilatation of damaged vessels result in a clinical enhancement regarding healing and preventive digital ulcers in such patients. In any case, these promising findings have to be confirmed with larger randomised trials.
Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.
established. NUTRITION THERAPY: Supplementation with 15 grams of hydrolyzed protein 3 times daily did not affect complete healing but resulted in a 2-fold improvement in Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score compared with placebo.Supplementation with 200 mg of zinc three times per day did not have any significant impact on the healing of pressure ulcers compared with a placebo.Supplementation of 500 mg ascorbic acid twice daily was associated with a significantly greater decrease in the size of the ulcer compared with a placebo but did not have any significant impact on healing when compared with supplementation of 10 mg ascorbic acid three times daily.A very high protein tube feeding (25% of energy as protein) resulted in a greater reduction in ulcer area in institutionalized tube-fed patients compared with a high protein tube feeding (16% of energy as protein).Multinutrient supplements that contain zinc, arginine, and vitamin C were associated with a greater reduction in the area of the ulcers compared with standard hospital diet or to a standard supplement without zinc, arginine, or vitamin C.Firm conclusions cannot be drawn because of methodological flaws and small sample sizes. MULTIDISCIPLINARY WOUND CARE TEAMS: The only RCT suggests that multidisciplinary wound care teams may significantly improve healing in the acute care setting in 8 weeks and may significantly shorten the length of hospitalization. However, since only an abstract is available, study biases cannot be assessed and no conclusions can be drawn on the quality of this evidence.
Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to peptic ulcer bleeding remains an important cause of emergency presentation and hospital admission. Despite advances in many aspects of management, peptic ulcer bleeding is still associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Comprehensive international guidelines have been published, but advances as well as controversies continue to evolve. Important recent advances include the evidence supporting a more restrictive transfusion strategy aiming for a target haemoglobin of 70-90 g/l. Comparative studies have confirmed that the Glasgow-Blatchford score remains the most useful score for predicting the need for intervention as well as for identifying the lowest-risk patients suitable for outpatient management. New scores, including the AIMS65 and Progetto Nazionale Emorragia Digestiva score, may be more accurate in predicting mortality. Pre-endoscopy erythromycin appears to improve outcomes and is probably underused. High-dose oral proton pump inhibition (PPI) for 11 days after PPI infusion is advantageous in those with a Rockall score of 6 or more. Oral is as effective as parenteral iron at restoring haemoglobin levels after a peptic ulcer bleed and both are superior to placebo in this respect. Within endoscopic techniques, haemostatic powders and over-the-scope clips can be used when other methods have failed. A disposable Doppler probe appears to provide more accurate determination of both rebleeding risk and the success of endoscopic therapy than purely visual guidance. Non- Helicobacter pylori, non-aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ulcers contribute an increasing percentage of bleeding peptic ulcers and are associated with a poor prognosis and high rebleeding rate. The optimal management of these ulcers remains to be determined.
Clericetti, Caterina M; Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Giannini, Olivier
Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017. Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels (P urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting. Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases. The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults.
Sinclair, Marie; Vaughan, Rhys; Angus, Peter W; Gow, Paul J; Parker, Frank; Hey, Penelope; Efthymiou, Marios
Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVBL) aims to eradicate high-risk oesophageal varices. There is a small risk of precipitating bleeding from EVBL-induced oesophageal ulceration, which is associated with significant mortality. We explore the risk factors and outcome of EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding. Retrospective review of our endoscopy database between 2007 and 2012 identified upper endoscopies during which EVBL was performed. Patient demographics, biochemistry and endoscopic findings were recorded as were the complications of EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding and death. A total of 749 episodes of EVBL were performed in 347 patients with a mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 15.8. In all, 609 procedures were performed for prophylaxis and 140 for acute haemorrhage. There were 21 episodes (2.8% of procedures) of EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding in 18 patients, five of whom subsequently died (28%). On multivariable analysis, acute variceal haemorrhage was the only significant predictor of EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding [odds ratio (OR) 6.25 (2.57-15.14), Pulcer bleeding rate was 1.5%, with 22% mortality. In this group, higher MELD score and reflux oesophagitis were associated significantly with EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding [OR 25.53 (2.14-303.26), P=0.010 and OR 1.07 (1.01-1.13), P=0.019, respectively]. Our EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding rate was low, but associated with significant mortality. Highest rates were observed following EVBL for acute variceal haemorrhage, for which EVBL is unavoidable. The incidence was lower following prophylactic EVBL, with the MELD score being the predominant risk factor. Reflux oesophagitis requires further investigation as a potentially modifiable risk factor for EVBL-induced ulcer bleeding.
This article provides an overview of the role of the nurse in the assessment and management of five ocular conditions that give rise to an acute red eye in older people. The conditions discussed are acute closed angle glaucoma, acute iritis, acute conjunctivitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus and bacterial corneal ulcer.
Jing-Yang Wong; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Jegadeesh Raman; Chia-Wei Phan; Umah Rani Kuppusamy; Shahram Golbabapour; Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant ...
Lam, Marnix G. E. H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Banerjee, Subhas [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (United States); Louie, John D.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H. K. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States); Ennen, Rebecca E.; Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: email@example.com [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)
IntroductionA root cause analysis was performed on the occurrence of gastroduodenal ulceration after hepatic radioembolization (RE). We aimed to identify the risk factors in the treated population and to determine the specific mechanism of nontarget RE in individual cases. Methods: The records of 247 consecutive patients treated with yttrium-90 RE for primary (n = 90) or metastatic (n = 157) liver cancer using either resin (n = 181) or glass (n = 66) microspheres were reviewed. All patients who developed a biopsy-proven microsphere-induced gastroduodenal ulcer were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on baseline parameters and procedural data to determine possible risk factors in the total population. Individual cases were analyzed to ascertain the specific cause, including identification of the culprit vessel(s) leading to extrahepatic deposition of the microspheres. Results: Eight patients (3.2 %) developed a gastroduodenal ulcer. Stasis during injection was the strongest independent risk factor (p = 0.004), followed by distal origin of the gastroduodenal artery (p = 0.004), young age (p = 0.040), and proximal injection of the microspheres (p = 0.043). Prolonged administrations, pain during administration, whole liver treatment, and use of resin microspheres also showed interrelated trends in multivariate analysis. Retrospective review of intraprocedural and postprocedural imaging showed a probable or possible culprit vessel, each a tiny complex collateral vessel, in seven patients. Conclusion: Proximal administrations and those resulting in stasis of flow presented increased risk for gastroduodenal ulceration. Patients who had undergone bevacizumab therapy were at high risk for developing stasis.
Lee, Yi-Chiao; Wang, Ting-Hao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Lin, Hsiang-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Yen
Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS). A 10-year-old girl with HA presented with an acute febrile illness associated with small vesicular or ulcerative lesions on the posterior oropharyngeal structures. The family refused western medicine due to a prior anaphylactic skin rash when she had taken sulfa drugs. The other patient was a 4-year-old boy with complaints of painful ulcers and hemorrhagic crusts on the lips. He was diagnosed with HGS and had received ibuprofen and supportive treatments such as hydration and local anesthesia spray for days, characterized by fever, anorexia, and nausea to no effect. Because the patients were suffering from the damp-heat syndrome according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) differentiation, both were treated using the same herbal formulas powder prescription, named Liang Ge San (LGS) and Gan Lu Xiao Du Dan (GLXDD). After several days of CHM treatment, the oral ulcers were in regression. Follow-up of the frontal view in both patients showed satisfactory disappearance of the sick furred tongue. The results of these case reports show that the early prescription of CHM is an effective modality of alternative treatment for viral oral ulcers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CHM treatment hastening the recovery from febrile disease with viral oral ulcers in Taiwan. Future experimental studies to determine the definitive mechanism and clinical trials
Sebba Tosta de Souza, Diba Maria; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Juliano, Yara; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare health-related quality of life in elderly patients with pressure ulcers in different health care settings (home care acute care facility, and long-term care facility [LTCF]). Cross-sectional comparative study. One hundred ten elderly patients with (n = 36) and without (n = 74) pressure ulcers living in LTCFs, hospitals, or at home. The research setting included 1 tertiary and 2 community-based hospitals, 10 LTCFs, and 18 community health centers in Brazil. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk, and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess cognitive status, pressure ulcer risk, and health-related quality of life, respectively. Compared with those without pressure ulcers, elderly patients with pressure ulcers reported significantly lower (worse) SF-36 scores on physical functioning (P ulcers scored significantly higher (better) SF-36 scores on mental health (P = .046) and vitality (P = .009). Hospitalized patients without pressure ulcers had lower SF-36 scores on bodily pain (P = .007) and general health (P = .026) than those living in LTCFs or at home. Patients without pressure ulcers in LTCFs had significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (lower cognitive status) than those living in other settings (P = .001). Elderly patients with pressure ulcers who were hospitalized and living at home or in LTCFs reported low scores on physical functioning and role physical, and LTCF residents also reported low scores on social functioning and role emotional. This shows the need for an environment that includes health care professionals prepared to implement strategies for pressure ulcer prevention.
Burnier, M; Herzberg, G; Izem, Y
Despite the huge amount of literature devoted to acute distal radius fractures, there is currently no consensus as to treatment recommendations. There is no universally accepted anatomical classification other than the three main categories of the AO classification. The authors believe that the only way to improve this field is to stratify the patients according to their general health and functional needs. They propose a new classification system that they have used since 2009 and demonstrate its therapeutic, epidemiological and teaching values. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Ambrosio, M R; Ginori, A; Mourmouras, V; Mastrogiulio, M G; Barone, A; Rocca, B J
Benign solitary ulcer of the colon is an uncommon lesion that was originally described by Cruveilhier in 1832. Its aetiology remains unknown, and there are no pathognomonic lesions or symptoms. Diagnosis is made by exclusion; in fact, diseases such as specific infections (cytomegalovirus, campylobacter jejuni, entamoeba histolytica), common clinical conditions (acute appendicitis, diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, inflammatory bowel disease), pharmacotherapy (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, oral contraceptives, dicumarolic agents) and malignancies should be excluded. We describe the case of a 72-year-old patient admitted for acute bloody diarrhoea, originally misdiagnosed as carcinoma by colonscopy. The histological evaluation demonstrated a benign ulcerative lesion.
Soban, Lynn M; Kim, Linda; Yuan, Anita H; Miltner, Rebecca S
To describe the presence and operationalisation of organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programmes across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated health-care system. Comprehensive pressure ulcer programmes include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organisational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programmes. Data were collected by an e-mail survey to all chief nursing officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarise survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Organisational strategies that support implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention programme (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalised within individual hospitals. Organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programmes are often not optimally operationalised to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. The results of the present study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Full Text Available In the present study, the ethanolic root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC., Fabaceae, (EDG, have been studied in various acute and chronic ulcer mouse models. Oral administration of root extract, significantly decrease the ulcer index and lesion number in a dose dependent manner against ethanol induced acute gastric ulcer in mice. In gastric ulcerated animal that received high dose of 150 mg/kg EDG, the mucosa showed no ulceration with slight focal congestion and the glands appeared normal. Pylorus ligated mice, pretreated with EDG showed significant decrease in ulcerous activity under chronic condition. The highest dose (150 mg/kg of the extract provoked a marked increase in protein and glutathione levels, when compare to control. Furthermore, gastric juice, free acidity and total acid output were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner at p<0.05 level. Our results indicate that the EDG possess gastroprotective activity and increasing regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa and thus safe for human use.
Sullivan, Nancy; Schoelles, Karen M
Complications from hospital-acquired pressure ulcers cause 60,000 deaths and significant morbidity annually in the United States. The objective of this systematic review is to review evidence regarding multicomponent strategies for preventing pressure ulcers and to examine the importance of contextual aspects of programs that aim to reduce facility-acquired pressure ulcers. CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PreMEDLINE were searched for articles published from 2000 to 2012. Studies (any design) that implemented multicomponent initiatives to prevent pressure ulcers in adults in U.S. acute and long-term care settings and that reported pressure ulcer rates at least 6 months after implementation were selected. Two reviewers extracted study data and rated quality of evidence. Findings from 26 implementation studies (moderate strength of evidence) suggested that the integration of several core components improved processes of care and reduced pressure ulcer rates. Key components included the simplification and standardization of pressure ulcer-specific interventions and documentation, involvement of multidisciplinary teams and leadership, use of designated skin champions, ongoing staff education, and sustained audit and feedback.
Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N
Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.
Wang, Zhen-Kai; Shi, Hui; Wang, Shao-Dong; Liu, Jiong; Zhu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Miao-Fang; Liu, Chan; Lu, Heng; Wang, Fang-Yu
Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare and life-long disorder characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body. BD was originally described in 1937 as a syndrome involving oral and genital ulceration in addition to ocular inflammation. Intestinal BD refers to colonic ulcerative lesions documented by objective measures in patients with BD. Many studies have shown that over 40% of BD patients have gastrointestinal complaints. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, anorexia and abdominal distension. Although gastrointestinal symptoms are common, the demonstration of gastrointestinal ulcers is rare. This so-called intestinal BD accounts for approximately 1% of cases. There is no specific test for BD, and the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The manifestations of intestinal BD are similar to those of other colitis conditions such as Crohn's disease or intestinal tuberculosis, thus, it is challenging for gastroenterologists to accurately diagnose intestinal BD in patients with ileo-colonic ulcers. However, giant ulcers distributed in the esophagus and ileocecal junction with gastrointestinal hemorrhage are rare in intestinal BD. Here, we present a case of untypical intestinal BD. The patient had recurrent aphthous ulceration of the oral mucosa, and esophageal and ileo-colonic ulceration, but no typical extra-intestinal symptoms. During examination, the patient had massive acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent ileostomy after an emergency right hemicolectomy and partial ileectomy, and was subsequently diagnosed with incomplete-type intestinal BD by pathology. The literature on the evaluation and management of this condition is reviewed.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study it seems that prophylactic corticosteroid injection will be associated with a decrease in the severity of wrist pain in patients with acute distal radius fractures. With regard to the decrease in the number of painless individuals, it seems that the decrease is not persistent. Overall the need for a study with longer followup is obvious.
Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Said, Mansour; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; El-Tahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed
The ulcer protective potential of an ethanol extract of Commiphora opobalsamum (L.) Engl. (Burseraceae) 'Balessan' was assessed against different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl), hypothermic restraint stress, pyloric ligation (Shay) and indomethacin. Balessan, 250 and 500 mg/kg administered orally (intraperitoneally in Shay rat model) showed a dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above ulcer models. Besides, the extract offered protection against ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) concentration. Ethanol treatment also caused histopathological lesions of the stomach wall. Pretreatment with Balessan extract provided a complete protection of gastric mucosa through supporting both the offensive and defensive factors. Balessan extract was also showed a large margin of safety without any apparent adverse effects in rats.
L. D. G. Angus
Full Text Available The association between cocaine use and acute gastroduodenal perforation is known. The effect of cocaine and stress on gastric mucosal ulceration and the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and leukotriene C4 (LTC4 was studied in 40 Sprague–Dawley rats. Controls received intraperitoneal (i.p. saline, ten received i.p. cocaine (35 mg/kg, ten were stressed by the cold restraint method, and ten had i.p. cocaine and stress. Cocaine alone did not induce ulceration, but decreased PGE2 levels. Stress alone caused ulceration, but was not associated with a change in either PGE2 or LTC4 levels. When combined with stress, however, cocaine caused a three-fold increase in ulceration and a significant increase in PGE2 and LTC4 levels. Stress may predispose the cocaine addict to loss of gastroduodenal mucosal integrity, which is related to an imbalance of PGE2 and LTC4 synthesis.
Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching
To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25(+) and Foxp3(+) cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, lymphoid follicle number, and Helicobacter pylori infection. The number of CD4(+), CD25(+) and Foxp3(+) cells, and the ratio of CD25(+)/CD4(+) and Foxp3(+)/CD4(+) cells, were negatively associated with intestinal metaplasia among gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups.
Sivakumar, Walavan; Spader, Heather S; Scaife, Eric; Bollo, Robert J
The authors present the first case of a Cushing ulcer in an infant with medulloblastoma who, despite being administered stress ulcer prophylaxis, worsened after corticosteroids were initiated. An 8-month-old boy presented with progressive vomiting, lethargy, and decreased oral intake. Imaging revealed a heterogeneous fourth ventricular mass. Preoperatively, the patient was started on dexamethasone. The patient underwent an uncomplicated external ventricular drain placement and suboccipital craniotomy for resection of the lesion. The results of the pathological analysis were consistent with medulloblastoma. Postoperatively, the patient had melanotic stools, which were reported to be occurring for months prior to presentation. Two proximal duodenal bulb ulcers were found and required definitive surgical repair. The patient recovered from the acute postsurgical course after continued stress ulcer prophylaxis and is currently undergoing chemotherapy.
Mehmet Latif Güneş
Full Text Available In their daily practice, psychiatrists often experience gastriccomplaints in patients beside psychiatric disorders.Peptic ulcer is one of the diseases, which accompanyto psychiatric disorders including mainly depression. Itis shown that antidepressants can inflame the bleedingsincluding gastrointestinal (GI bleedings, while they havepositive effect on ulcer healing. In this review, studies,which conducted about the positive or negative effects ofantidepressant drugs on ulcer treatment were examined.Accordingly; it was found that opipramol, amitriptyline,imipramine that of tricyclic antidepressants was found tobe helpful in healing of the ulcer. It was stated that SelectiveSerotonin Reuptake Inhibitors generally inflamedulcers, exceptionally fluvoxamine and fluoxetine reducedulcer; moclobemide that of monoamine-oxidase inhibitorand tianeptine and mirtazapine that of atypical antidepressantshad positive effect in ulcer healing. To be carefulin choosing the appropriate antidepressant in psychiatricpatients with gastric ulcer is important in the prognosisof both ulcer and depression.Key words: peptic ulcer; depression; antidepressant drugs
Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B
serious ulcer bleeding is suspected and blood found in gastric aspirate, endoscopy within 12 hours will result in faster discharge and reduced need for transfusions. Endoscopic hemostasis remains indicated for high-risk lesions. Clips, thermocoagulation, and epinephrine injection are effective......Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved......-risk stigmata. Although selected patients can be discharged promptly after endoscopy, high-risk patients should be hospitalized for at least 3 days after endoscopic hemostasis. Patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who require secondary cardiovascular prophylaxis should start receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA...
Full Text Available An 18-year-old male presented with a nonhealing wound on left lower limb, pain and swelling over multiple joints, weight loss, and yellowish discoloration of eyes and urine for the past 4 years. On examination, the patient had pallor, icterus, and generalized lymphadenopathy with a nonhealing unhealthy ulcer over left medial malleolus. He had deformed joints with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. His laboratory investigations were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA and anticardiolipin antibody (ACLA. Synovial fluid analysis showed inflammatory findings. Biopsy of margin of the ulcer showed findings consistent with Acroangiodermatitis of Mali. The patient was treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and aspirin for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS, respectively. The ulcer was managed conservatively with systemic antibiotics and topical steroids along with limb elevation and compression elastic stockings. The patient's symptoms improved significantly, and he is in our followup.
Yapali, Suna; Turan, Ilker; Ozutemiz, Omer; Tekesin, Oktay
D-penicillamine has long been used in the management of rheumatic diseases due to the effects on inhibition of collagen synthesis. Herein, we report a severe case of esophageal ulcer causing a tight stricture extending through the distal esophagus despite the long-term D-penicillamine treatment in a patient with Wilson's disease. D-penicillamine would theoretically be expected to contribute to the healing of an esophageal ulcer. However, the drug failed to have a favorable outcome, which is notable and worth reporting.
Full Text Available Diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. This narrative review article aims to introduce an updated decision tree for diagnosing oral ulcerative lesions on the basis of their diagnostic features. Various general search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as “oral ulcer,” “stomatitis,” and “mouth diseases.” Thereafter, English-language articles published since 1983 to 2015 in both medical and dental journals including reviews, meta-analyses, original papers, and case reports were appraised. Upon compilation of the relevant data, oral ulcerative lesions were categorized into three major groups: acute, chronic, and recurrent ulcers and into five subgroups: solitary acute, multiple acute, solitary chronic, multiple chronic, and solitary/multiple recurrent, based on the number and duration of lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by stepwise progression.
Mortazavi, Hamed; Safi, Yaser; Baharvand, Maryam; Rahmani, Somayeh
Diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. This narrative review article aims to introduce an updated decision tree for diagnosing oral ulcerative lesions on the basis of their diagnostic features. Various general search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as "oral ulcer," "stomatitis," and "mouth diseases." Thereafter, English-language articles published since 1983 to 2015 in both medical and dental journals including reviews, meta-analyses, original papers, and case reports were appraised. Upon compilation of the relevant data, oral ulcerative lesions were categorized into three major groups: acute, chronic, and recurrent ulcers and into five subgroups: solitary acute, multiple acute, solitary chronic, multiple chronic, and solitary/multiple recurrent, based on the number and duration of lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by stepwise progression.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic ulcer” is not sufficiently specific for rating purposes. Manifest differences in ulcers of the stomach...
The seasonal distribution of corneal ulcer was highest in month June 11(18.0%). Complications from the ulcers included central leucoma 19 (31.2%) and panophthalmitis 6 (9.9%). Conclusion: The incidence rate of ulcerative keratitis is 0.6% occurring highest in the month of June with more bacterial than fungal isolates.
Vilaplana, F; Temprano, J; Riquelme, J L; Nadal, J; Barraquer, J
A 33-year-old Caucasian female presented with epiphora, ocular pain, and foreign body sensation in both eyes for one month. Examination revealed bilateral peripheral corneal ulcers. The patient had been treated with immunomodulators, and she was treated in the left eye with peripheral semi-circular keratoplasty, penetrating keratoplasty, conjunctival-corneal-scleroplasty, buccal mucosal graft, tibial osteo-keratoprosthesis and finally, retinal detachment. Mooren's ulcer is an immunological corneal disease. This lesion must be treated initially with immunomodulators. Surgical treatment should be considered when a risk of corneal perforation is present, when the perforation appears, or under acute necrosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; Cabrini, Daniela de Almeida; Nascimento, Adamara Machado; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; de Paula Werner, Maria Fernanda; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko
A rhamnogalacturonan (RGal) isolated from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen administered by oral route showed gastroprotective activity against acute lesions induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the gastric ulcer healing effect of RGal and its mechanisms of action. Intraperitoneal treatment of animals with RGal protected the gastric mucosa against acute lesions induced by ethanol, with participation of gastric mucus. Furthermore, in the chronic ulcer model, oral administration of RGal accelerates the gastric ulcer healing, accompanied by increasing of cellular proliferation and gastric mucus content, reducing inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress. In addition, the repeated 7 days-treatment of animals with RGal did not show alterations of clinical and behavioral symptoms, body and organs weights or plasmatic biochemical parameters. Collectively, these results showed that RGal has an interesting antiulcerogenic activity and could constitute an attractive molecule of interest for the development of new antiulcer agents. PMID:24416280
Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; Cabrini, Daniela de Almeida; Nascimento, Adamara Machado; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko
A rhamnogalacturonan (RGal) isolated from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen administered by oral route showed gastroprotective activity against acute lesions induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the gastric ulcer healing effect of RGal and its mechanisms of action. Intraperitoneal treatment of animals with RGal protected the gastric mucosa against acute lesions induced by ethanol, with participation of gastric mucus. Furthermore, in the chronic ulcer model, oral administration of RGal accelerates the gastric ulcer healing, accompanied by increasing of cellular proliferation and gastric mucus content, reducing inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress. In addition, the repeated 7 days-treatment of animals with RGal did not show alterations of clinical and behavioral symptoms, body and organs weights or plasmatic biochemical parameters. Collectively, these results showed that RGal has an interesting antiulcerogenic activity and could constitute an attractive molecule of interest for the development of new antiulcer agents.
Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B.
Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved by the D......Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved...... serious ulcer bleeding is suspected and blood found in gastric aspirate, endoscopy within 12 hours will result in faster discharge and reduced need for transfusions. Endoscopic hemostasis remains indicated for high-risk lesions. Clips, thermocoagulation, and epinephrine injection are effective......-risk stigmata. Although selected patients can be discharged promptly after endoscopy, high-risk patients should be hospitalized for at least 3 days after endoscopic hemostasis. Patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who require secondary cardiovascular prophylaxis should start receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA...
Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...
Tárraga Rodríguez, I; Ferreras Fernández, P; Vicente Gutiérrez, M; de Arriba, J J; García Mouriño, M L
Colitis ulcerous and citomegalovirus infection association have been reported in medical literature in sometimes, althougth this prevalence have lately increased. We report a case record of this association and do a review of this subject. It is not clear what factors are involved in this association, being necessary hore studies to know them.
Full Text Available A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are:overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection, severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss.
Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy P; McInnes, Elizabeth; Kent, Bridie; Whitty, Jennifer A; Thalib, Lukman
A pressure ulcer (PU), also referred to as a 'pressure injury', 'pressure sore', or 'bedsore' is defined as an area of localised tissue damage that is caused by unrelieved pressure, friction or shearing forces on any part of the body. PUs commonly occur in patients who are elderly and less mobile, and carry significant human and economic impacts. Immobility and physical inactivity are considered to be major risk factors for PU development and the manual repositioning of patients in hospital or long-term care is a common pressure ulcer prevention strategy. The objectives of this review were to:1) assess the effects of repositioning on the prevention of PUs in adults, regardless of risk or in-patient setting;2) ascertain the most effective repositioning schedules for preventing PUs in adults; and3) ascertain the incremental resource consequences and costs associated with implementing different repositioning regimens compared with alternate schedules or standard practice. We searched the following electronic databases to identify reports of the relevant randomised controlled trials: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 06 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 8); Ovid MEDLINE (1948 to August, Week 4, 2013); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 2013, Week 35); EBESCO CINAHL (1982 to 30 August 2013); and the reference sections of studies that were included in the review. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any repositioning schedule or different patient positions and measured PU incidence in adults in any setting. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included three RCTs and one economic study representing a total of 502 randomised participants from acute and long-term care settings. Two trials compared the 30º and 90º tilt positions using similar repositioning frequencies (there was a
Zaĭtsev, V T; Boĭko, V V; Donets, N P; Taraban, I A; Groma, V G
Of 1061 patients with an acute gastro-intestinal haemorrhage the combination of duodenal ulcer disease, Mallory-Weiss syndrome and sliding hiatal hernia was noted in 22 (2.07%). Surgical treatment consisted of the bleeding ulcer excision, cardia defects suturing, lowering of the stomach acid production performing one kind of vagotomy, external and internal decompression of stomach accomplishment (nasogastric tube and pyloroplasty), correction of anatomic-topographic interrelations of cardio-esophageal zone (cruroraphy, fundoplication).
Gehringer, Susanne; Müller, Matthias; Maierl, Johann
To demonstrate the morphology of pathological changes to the inner structures of the claw in cases of toe ulcers, white line disease in the heel and changes due to inappropriate weight bearing and deficient claw care. Hind limbs of 55 cows displaying external signs of complicated sole ulcers were examined externally and internally. To examine the samples internally, a sagittal section was performed. Furthermore, the material was examined after bone maceration and histologically. A total of 43 claws of 112 digits with 120 deep sole ulcers displayed a toe ulcer and in 18 claws white line disease was diagnosed. In animals with toe ulcers, necrosis of the pedal bone was found in severely altered claws. In cows with white line disease, osteolysis in the abaxial region of the margo solearis and arthritis in the distal interphalangeal joint were the most common pathological findings. Claws with deficient claw care displayed severe pathological changes to the pedal bone. Sole ulcers may rapidly cause serious and irreversible changes to the structures encased within the hoof capsule and consequently have an impact on animal welfare. Therefore, prophylaxis and functional claw care are essential measures to avoid pathological conditions in claws and to improve animal welfare.
Sepúlveda, Ester; Brethauer, Ursula; Rojas, Jaime; Fernández, Eduardo; Le Fort, Patricia
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of oral ulcers in pediatric oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy and their relation with the presence of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 and Candida albicans. The sample consisted of 20 ulcerative lesions from 15 children treated with chemotherapy in the Pediatric Service of the Regional Hospital of Concepción, Chile. Two calibrated clinicians performed clinical diagnosis of the ulcers and registered general data from the patients (age, general diagnosis, absolute neutrophil count, and number of days after chemotherapy) and clinical characteristic of the ulcers: number, size, location, presence or absence of pain and inflammatory halo, edge characteristics, and exudate type. Additional to clinical diagnosis, culture for Candida albicans (C) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 was performed. Ten ulcers occurred in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, five in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia and five in patients with other neoplastic diseases. Eight ulcers were HSV (+) / C (-), 6 HSV (-) / C (-), 4 HSV (+) / C (+) and 2 HSV (-) / C (+). Preferential location was the hard palate. Most lesions were multiple, painful, with inflammatory halo, irregular edges and fibrinous exudate. The average size was 6,5 millimeters, and the mean number of days after chemotherapy was 7.5 days. Oral ulcers in children with oncological diseases did not present a specific clinical pattern. They were strongly associated with HSV.
Full Text Available Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101 on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.
Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; Veugelers, Rebekka; Leenen, Luke P H
Introduction: Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a serious health complication that develop as a result of pressure alone or pressure in combination with shearing forces. Although PUs are typically associated with older adults and chronic illness, acutely injured trauma patients may have a particular risk
Ham, W.H.; Schoonhoven, L.; Schuurmans, M.J.; Veugelers, R.; Leenen, L.P.
INTRODUCTION: Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a serious health complication that develop as a result of pressure alone or pressure in combination with shearing forces. Although PUs are typically associated with older adults and chronic illness, acutely injured trauma patients may have a particular risk
M. Bhanu Prasad
Full Text Available In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding.
Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter
The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Conocimiento y uso de las directrices de prevención y tratamiento de las úlceras por presión en un hospital de agudos Knowledge and use of the guidelines for prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in acute-care hospital
Juan José Zamora Sánchez
Full Text Available Introducción: Las úlceras por presión (UPP siguen constituyendo hoy día un importante problema de salud y son un indicador de calidad con una relación directa con los cuidados de enfermería. Se plantea un estudio descriptivo con el objetivo de evaluar el grado de conocimiento y aplicación en su práctica asistencial de las recomendaciones que aparecen en las principales guías de práctica clínica para la prevención y cuidado de las UPP, en los profesionales de enfermería de un hospital de agudos. Material y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autocumplimentado, entre marzo y abril de 2005. La población de estudio es el personal de enfermería (diplomados y auxiliares de enfermería de las unidades de hospitalización y UCI de un hospital de agudos. Resultados: Se obtuvo una tasa de respuesta del 37,5% (75 cuestionarios, 80% enfermeras y 20% auxiliares. En general, el grado de conocimiento de las recomendaciones sobre prevención y tratamiento de las UPP, del GNEAUPP, EPUAP y AHCPR entre los profesionales de enfermería de hospitalización y UCI está en torno al 70%, aunque destaca el bajo conocimiento de las intervenciones desaconsejadas por las guías de práctica clínica citadas, tanto en prevención como en tratamiento (aproximadamenacte, el 40%, Una cuarta parte de la muestra indica no haber recibido formación específica en UPP, ni tan sólo durante la titulación profesional. Aparecen diferencias significativas según los años de experiencia profesional: el 80,77% del grupo Introduction: Pressure ulcers continue to present a significant health problem and serve as a quality indicator that is directly related to nursing care. We propose a descriptive study with the following objective: to evaluate the level of knowledge and the application of the recommendations appearing in the main guides for the prevention of and care for pressure ulcers among nursing professionals in acute-care hospitals
Postoperative rehabilitation, after a period of elbow immobilization, must be operated for returning to full activity. Biceps tendon repair has permitted to our patient who suffer from right upper limb handicap due to radial nerve palsy, recuperating the lost strength and force in his dominant limb and maintaining some quality of ...
Begg, Lindy; McLaughlin, Patrick; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John; Burns, Joshua
The total contact cast (TCC) is an effective intervention to reduce plantar pressure in patients with diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. The walls of the TCC have been indirectly shown to bear approximately 30 % of the plantar load. A new direct method to measure inside the TCC walls with capacitance sensors has shown that the anterodistal and posterolateral-distal regions of the lower leg bear the highest load. The objective of this study was to directly measure these two regions in patients with Diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer to further understand the mechanism of pressure reduction in the TCC. A TCC was applied to 17 patients with Diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. TCC wall load (contact area, peak pressure and max force) at the anterodistal and posterolateral-distal regions of the lower leg were evaluated with two capacitance sensor strips measuring 90 cm(2) (pliance®, novel GmbH, Germany). Plantar load (contact area, peak pressure and max force) was measured with a capacitance sensor insole (pedar®, novel GmbH, Germany) placed inside the TCC. Both pedar® and pliance® collected data simultaneously at a sampling rate of 50Hz synchronised to heel strike. The magnitude of TCC wall load as a proportion of plantar load was calculated. The TCC walls were then removed to determine the differences in plantar loading between the TCC and the cut down shoe-cast for the whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot (region of interest). TCC wall load was substantial. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 48 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 34 % of plantar contact area. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 28 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 12 % of plantar peak pressure. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 12 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 4 % of plantar max force. There were significant differences in plantar load between the TCC and the cut down shoe-cast for the whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot and
Qu, Zhenhong; Kundu, Uma R; Abadeer, Rania A; Wanger, Audrey
Strongyloides stercoralis colitis is a severe, but easily curable, form of strongyloidiasis that carries a high mortality rate if untreated. Autoinfection characteristic of Strongyloides stercoralis frequently makes the infection a life-long disease unless it is effectively treated. Our experience with 4 cases of Strongyloides colitis prompted us to assess the clinical outcome of the disease by literature review. In this case series, the misdiagnosis and resultant mortality rates of Strongyloides colitis are 52% and 39.1%, respectively. A low index of suspicion and morphologic resemblance to ulcerative colitis were the main sources of diagnostic error. Ulcerative colitis alone accounted for 38.5% of the erroneous diagnoses. Features of Strongyloides colitis that contrast with those of ulcerative colitis include (1) skip pattern of the inflammation, (2) distal attenuation of the disease, (3) eosinophil-rich infiltrates, (4) relative intact crypt architecture, and (5) frequent involvement of submucosa. We also found that history of steroid therapy, chronic colitis refractory to conventional immune-modifying management, and endoscopic finding of distal attenuation of the colitis are helpful clues. It is also our experience that if Strongyloides colitis is included in the differential diagnosis, the correct diagnosis can usually be made. Current therapy with ivermectin or albendazole is very effective at a cure rate greater than 98%. We believe that the misdiagnosis and mortality rates of this curable, but often, unnecessarily deadly, infectious disease are alarming and warrant efforts to increase the awareness of the disease.
Geng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Ma, Qiang; Peng, Li-qiong; Liang, Zhong-hui
To assess the therapeutic effect of ozone therapy combined with sulfasalazine sulfasalazine delivered via a colon therapy system in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. This prospective randomized controlled clinical trial involved 54 patients with mild to moderate active distal ulcerative colitis, who were randomize into 3 groups in accordance with the inclusion criteria (n=18). Each group was given sulfasalazine at the daily dose of 2 g, and in colon therapy group and ozone therapy plus sulfasalazine therapy group, sulfasalazine was delivered via a colon therapy system on a daily basis; the control group received sulfasalazine via retention enema only. At 0, 2, and 4 weeks of the treatment, colonoscopy was performed to evaluate the disease activity, and biopsy samples were obtained at 0 and 4 weeks for histological examination. In comparison with colon therapy group and control group, ozone therapy plus colon therapy resulted in more rapid alleviation of the clinical symptoms and better histological improvement without any adverse effects. Ozone therapy combined with sulfasalazine delivered via a colon therapy system is feasible and effective for treatment of ulcerative colitis.
Ivanović Mirjana; Jovičić Olivera; Mandić Jelena; Bogetić Duško; Maddalone Marcello
Acute leukaemia is the most common form of chilhood cancer. The aim of this paper was to underline the importance of oral manifestations in children with acute leukaemia. The disease and its treatment can directly or indirectly affect oral health. Oral manifestations are gingival inflammation and enlargement. Leukaemic cells are capable of infiltrating the gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues which leads to ulceration and infection of oral tissues. Gingival bleeding is a common si...
Derrick, Donald; Gick, Bryan
Tactile sensations at extreme distal body locations can integrate with auditory information to alter speech perception among uninformed and untrained listeners. Inaudible air puffs were applied to participants' ankles, simultaneously with audible syllables having aspirated and unaspirated stop onsets. Syllables heard simultaneously with air puffs were more likely to be heard as aspirated. These results demonstrate that event-appropriate information from distal parts of the body integrates in ...
Kunzle, J E; Ziliotto, A; De Araujo Filho, A A
The authors present a simple and practical method to avoid the ileal juice expoliation in patients with ileostomy after intestinal resection. In the cases presented, after the resection, stomies were performed of the proximal and distal portions of the intestine, in relation to the extirpated segment. The juice collected in the proximal stomy was infused in the distal stomy, simulating that way the physiologic intestinal transit.
The external meatus anomalies should be diagnosed prior to the MAGPI in coronal hypospadias, but should also be looked for if a flap technique is considered in distal penile cases. The incidence of hypoplasia in the perimeatal area has been found to be 19% and 12% in coronal and distal penile hypospadias, respectively. Hypoplastic meatus prevents safe elevation of the skin flap, and needs its incision or wedge excision before the flap has been outlined.
He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian
Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.
Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.
Christo J. Van Rensburg
Full Text Available Adding proton pump inhibitors (PPIs to endoscopic therapy has become the mainstay of treatment for peptic ulcer bleeding, with current consensus guidelines recommending high-dose intravenous (IV PPI therapy (IV bolus followed by continuous therapy. However, whether or not high-dose PPI therapy is more effective than low-dose PPI therapy is still debated. Furthermore, maintaining pH ≥ 4 appears to prevent mucosal bleeding in patients with acute stress ulcers; thus, stress ulcer prophylaxis with acid-suppressing therapy has been increasingly recommended in intensive care units (ICUs. This review evaluates the evidence for the efficacy of IV pantoprazole, a PPI, in preventing ulcer rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, and in controlling gastric pH and protecting against upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in high-risk ICU patients. The review concludes that IV pantoprazole provides an effective option in the treatment of upper GI bleeding, the prevention of rebleeding, and for the prophylaxis of acute bleeding stress ulcers.
Jesus, N Z T; Falcão, H S; Lima, G R M; Caldas Filho, M R D; Sales, I R P; Gomes, I F; Santos, S G; Tavares, J F; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Batista, L M
Hyptis suaveolens is used by the traditional population in several parts of the world to treat inflammation, gastric ulcer and infection and is used as a crude drug to relieve symptoms related with gastric ulcer or gastritis in northeaster and central region of Brazil. the standardized ethanolic extract (Hs-EtOHE) and hexanic fraction (Hs-HexF) of Hyptis suaveolens (62,5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated in several models of acute gastric ulcers. The participation of NO was evaluated by pretreatment with L-NAME and non-protein sulfyhydryls by NEM in the gastroprotective effect. Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF markedly reduced the gastric lesions induced by all ulcerogenic agents (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, NSAIDs and hypothermic restraint-stress). Gastric ulcerations were exacerbated by administration of NEM suggesting that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF involves sulfhydryl groups. Ours results show that an extract of Hyptis suaveolens, administered orally to rodents, present gastro protective activity in different models of acute of gastric ulcer and give some support to the reported claims on the use of this plant as a gastro protective agent. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Vasconcelos, P C P; Andreo, M A; Vilegas, W; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Pellizzon, C H
Mouriri pusa, popularly known as "manapuçá" or "jaboticaba do mato", is a plant from Brazilian cerrado that has been found to be commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbs in its native region. The present work was carried out to investigate the effect of tannins (TF) and flavonoids (FF) fractions from Mouriri pusa leaves methanolic extract on the prevention and cicatrisation process of gastric ulcers, and also evaluate possible toxic effects. The following protocols were taken in rats: acute assay, in which ulcers were induced by oral ethanol after pre-treatment with the fractions; and 14 days treatment assay, in which ulcers were treated for 14 days after induction by local injection of acetic acid. In the acute model, treatment with either, TF (25mg/kg) or FF (50mg/kg), was able to reduce lesion area, showing gastroprotective effect. In addition, FF proved itself anti-inflammatory by reducing COX-2 levels. In acetic acid model, both fractions exhibited larger ulcers' regenerative mucosa, indicating cicatrisation enhancement. FF group also showed augmented cell proliferation, anti-inflammatory action and enhanced angiogenesis as well as increased mucus secretion. Moreover, concerning the toxicity parameters analyzed, no alteration in the fractions groups was observed. Tannins and flavonoids from Mouriri pusa provide beneficial effects against gastric ulcers with relative safety. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donders, Johanna C E; Lorich, Dean G; Helfet, David L; Kloen, Peter
Open reduction and internal fixation of distal humerus fractures is standard of care with good to excellent outcome for most patients. However, nonunions of the distal humerus still occur. These are severely disabling problems for the patient and a challenge for the treating physician. Fortunately, a combination of standard nonunion techniques with new plate designs and fixation methods allow even the most challenging distal humeral nonunion to be treated successfully. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe our current technique in treating distal humeral nonunion as it has evolved over the last four decades. We have now follow-up on 62 treated patients. A few key steps are essential to obtain bone healing while regaining or preserving elbow motion. These include careful planning, extensile exposure, release of the ulnar nerve, capsular release and mobilization of the distal fragment, debridement, and finally stable fixation after alignment with application of bone graft. The vast majority of distal humeral nonunions can be treated successfully with open reduction and internal fixation. Important components of the treatment plan are careful preoperative planning, extensile approach, debridement, and solid fixation with-locking-plates and liberal use of bone graft.
Pınar Yüksel Başak
Full Text Available A 62-year-old male patient suffering from oral ulcers and painful throat with pancytopenia was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia. Because of uncontrolled fever despite antibiotherapy and that Rhizopus spp. was identified from oral lesions, amphotericin B was added to treatment for two weeks. Oral lesions were completely cleared thereafter and this case was presented to point out that mucormycosis must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions in patients with immunosuppression as well as it is a rare disease with high mortality.
Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng
The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Meara, Susan; Cullum, Nicky A; Nelson, E Andrea
Around one percent of people in industrialised countries will suffer from a leg ulcer at some time. The majority of these leg ulcers are due to problems in the veins, resulting in an accumulation of blood in the legs. Leg ulcers arising from venous problems are called venous (varicose or stasis) ulcers. The main treatment has been a firm compression garment (bandage or stocking) in order to aid venous return. There is a large number of compression garments available and it is unclear whether they are effective in treating venous ulcers and which compression garment is the most effective. To undertake a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials of the clinical effectiveness of compression bandage or stocking systems in the treatment of venous leg ulceration.Specific questions addressed by the review are:1. Does the application of compression bandages or stockings aid venous ulcer healing? 2. Which compression bandage or stocking system is the most effective? For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (14/10/08); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4 2008); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October Week 1 2008); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 41) and Ovid CINAHL (1982 to October Week 1 2008). No date or language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials recruiting people with venous leg ulceration that evaluated any type of compression bandage system or compression hosiery were eligible for inclusion. Comparators included no compression (e.g. primary dressing alone, non-compressive bandage) or an alternative type of compression. Trials had to report an objective measure of ulcer healing in order to be included (primary outcome for the review). Secondary outcomes of the review included ulcer recurrence, costs, quality of life, pain, adverse events and withdrawals. There was no restriction on date, language or publication status of trials. Details of eligible studies were
Vishnu M Karnasula
Full Text Available Lymphoedema is a progressive condition that can have a marked physical and psychological impact on affected patients and significantly reduce the quality of life. The ulcers on chronic lymphoedema patient, which often also makes it impossible for them to work. If left untreated, tends to progress or worsen. Ulcers in lymphoedema patients, therefore, represent not only a medical but also a psychological problem. The treatment is often regarded as being worse than it actually is. In our study of more than 25 years shows around 10% cases are due to chronic lymphodema. Ulcers of chronic lymphoedema are classified into four stages according to their presentation. Their management depends upon their stage of presentation. Patients with chronic lymphoedema and ulceration require a different approach to treatment. The specific issues associated with managing the patient with lymphoedematous ulceration include, limb shape distortion i.e., elephantiasis, care of the skin creases and folds, and swelling of the toes and fore foot. Stage I ulcers will heal with conservative treatment without any surgical intervention. Stage II ulcers needs debridement of the wound and split-thickness skin grafting. The most difficult to treat are the stage III and IV ulcers, due to associated skin changes and reduced vascularity. These cases need debulking along with excision of the ulcer. In order to prevent recurrence of the ulcer in all the four stages needs prolonged follow-up and limb care.
Dabbs, Emma; Sheikh, Alina; Beckett, David; Whiteley, Mark S
This case study reports the diagnosis and treatment of a lower limb venous ulcer with abnormal underlying venous pathology. One male patient presented with bilateral varicose veins and a right lower limb ulcer. Upon investigation, full-leg duplex ultrasonography revealed total incompetence of the great saphenous vein in the left leg. In the right leg, duplex ultrasonography showed proximal incompetence of the small saphenous vein, and dilation of the anterior accessory saphenous vein, which remained competent. Incidentally, two venous collaterals connected onto the distal region of both these segments, emerging from a scarred, atrophic popliteal–femoral segment. An interventional radiologist performed venoplasty to this popliteal–femoral venous segment. Intervention was successful and 10 weeks post procedure ulceration healed. Popliteal–femoral venous stenosis may be associated with venous ulceration in some cases and may be successfully treated with balloon venoplasty intervention. PMID:29147566
Dabbs, Emma; Sheikh, Alina; Beckett, David; Whiteley, Mark S
This case study reports the diagnosis and treatment of a lower limb venous ulcer with abnormal underlying venous pathology. One male patient presented with bilateral varicose veins and a right lower limb ulcer. Upon investigation, full-leg duplex ultrasonography revealed total incompetence of the great saphenous vein in the left leg. In the right leg, duplex ultrasonography showed proximal incompetence of the small saphenous vein, and dilation of the anterior accessory saphenous vein, which remained competent. Incidentally, two venous collaterals connected onto the distal region of both these segments, emerging from a scarred, atrophic popliteal-femoral segment. An interventional radiologist performed venoplasty to this popliteal-femoral venous segment. Intervention was successful and 10 weeks post procedure ulceration healed. Popliteal-femoral venous stenosis may be associated with venous ulceration in some cases and may be successfully treated with balloon venoplasty intervention.
Hu, Zijuan; Chang, Xiaoman; Pan, Qing; Gu, Kebin; Okechukwu, Patrick Nwabueze
Camel milk has been reportedly used to treat dropsy, jaundice, tuberculosis, and diabetes while camel urine is used to treat diarrhea and cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence on the antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine. Thus, the present is designed to investigate the gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of camel milk and urine on experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The gastroprotective effect was investigated in HCl/EtOH, water-restraint stress (WRS) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin)-induced ulcer models while ulcer healing activity was investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard antiulcer drug. Acute toxicity study done up to a dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine showed no signs of toxicity and mortality among the rats, indicating the present dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the rats. In the HCl/EtOH model, oral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly (P ulcer inhibition of 100% while camel milk showed an inhibition of 50%. Similarly, in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, cimetidine, camel milk, and urine showed an ulcer inhibition of 100, 33.3, and 66.7%, respectively. In addition, camel milk and urine also showed a significant (P ulcer healing effect of 100% in indomethacin-induced ulcer model, with no ulcers observed as compared to that of cimetidine, which offers a healing effect of 60.5%. The antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine may be attributed to its cytoprotective mechanism and antioxidant properties. Acute toxicity findings revealed the dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine seems no toxic and indicating the dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the ratsOral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 83.7, 60.5 and 100% in the HCl
Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo
There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Losev, R Z; Zakharova, N B; Burov, Iu A; Iakusheva, E A; Nikitina, V V; Stepanova, T V; Mikul'skaia, E G
This paper analyzes the data of examination and the results of the treatment of 25 patients aged over 80 years (mean age 68.5+/-7 years) suffering from varicosity with long nonhealing trophic ulcers of the distal limb segments (CVI CMP C6) and 20 patients of the same age groups with CVI CEAP stages 3-5. All patients with CVI underwent either full-scope phlebectomy (64.4%) or partial truncal phlebectomy (35.6%), in which the trunk of the greater saphenous vein was stripped up to the upper third of the leg. A TCM-3 outfit (RADIOmeter, Denmark) was employed to measure oxygen tension in limb tissues. Parameters of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant tissue defence were measured intraoperatively in the capillary blood of the fingers as well as in the venous blood withdrawn from the cubital vein and the greater saphenous vein in the lower third of the leg near ulcer). The data obtained evidenced that lipid peroxidation activity was most pronounced in the soft tissues of the lower third of the leg in the group of patients with remarkable chronic venous insufficiency without trophic venous ulcers (GVI CEAP C3-5) and was significantly depleted after formation of varicose ulcers (CVI CEAP C6) associated with remarkable tissue hypoxia (TepO2 1.7-7.0 mm Hg). In all patients with CVI, the syndrome of lipid peroxidation was associated with the lowering of antioxidant defence activity. Patients with trophic venous ulcers had the signs of active inflammation in the soft tissues of the leg. The data obtained in the course of the study made it possible to optimize the treatment policy for elderly patients with trophic venous ulcers. In addition to the lowering of venous hypertension, the treatment included correction of microcirculatory disorders related to local hypoxia. Of special importance was reperfusion attenuation in the postoperative period.
Full Text Available Stress contributes to a variety of diseases and disorders such as depression and peptic ulcer. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between stress ulcer and depression in pathogenesis and treatment by using chronic stress depression (CSD, chronic psychological stress ulcer (CPSU and water immersion restrain stress models in rats. Our data showed that the ulcer index of the animals after CSD exposure was significantly higher than that of controls. Depression-like behaviors were observed in rat after CPSU exposure. Fluoxetine hydrochloride significantly reduced the ulcer index of rats exposed to CPSU stress, while ranitidine inhibited depression-like behavior of the animals in CSD group. The ulcer index of rats administered with mifepristone after CPSU stress was markedly reduced compared to CPSU group, although there was no significant difference in the depression-like behavior between mifepristone-treated CSD group and naive controls. We also found that the rats exposed to CPSU or CSD stress displayed a lower level of corticosterone than naive controls, however, the acute stress (AS group showed an opposite result. Additionally, in order to study the relevance of H(2 receptors and depression, we treated the CSD group with cimetidine and famotidine respectively. The data showed that cimetidine inhibited depression-like behavior in CSD rats, and famotidine had no impact on depression. Overall our data suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis dysfunction may be the key role in triggering depression and stress ulcer. Acid-suppressing drugs and antidepressants could be used for treatment of depression and stress ulcer respectively. The occurrence of depression might be inhibited by blocking the central H(2 receptors.
Turner, Dan; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C
Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) shares many features with adult-onset disease but there are some unique considerations; therefore, therapeutic approaches have to be adapted to these particular needs. We aimed to formulate guidelines for managing UC in children based on a systematic review (SR......) of the literature and a robust consensus process. The present article is a product of a joint effort of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN)....
Full Text Available Introduction Choledochoduodenal fistulas are very rare and in most cases are caused by a long-lasting and poorly treated chronic duodenal ulcer. They may be asymptomatic or followed by symptoms of ulcer disease, by attacks of cholangitis or bleeding or vomiting in cases of ductoduodenal stenosis. The diagnosis is simple and safe, however treatment is still controversial. If surgery is the choice of treatment, local findings should be taken into consideration. As a rule, intervention involving closure of fistula is not recommended. Case Outline The authors present a 60-year-old woman with a long history of ulcer disease who developed attacks of cholangitis over the last three years. Ultrasonography and CT showed masive pneumobilia due to a choledochoduodenal fistula. . As there was no duodenal stenosis or bleeding, at operation the common bile duct was transected and end-to-side choledochojejunostomy was performed using a Roux-en Y jejunal limb. From the common bile duct, multiple foreign bodies of herbal origin causing biliary obstruction and cholangitis were removed. After uneventful recovery the patient stayed symptom free for four years now. Conclusion The performed operation was a simple and good surgical solution which resulted in complication-free and rapid recovery with a long-term good outcome. .
Abelardo Morales Briceño
Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.
Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M
Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515
Full Text Available Myeloid Sarcoma is a rare tumor composed of myeloblasts occurring at an extramedullary site like bones, or various soft tissues. Myeloid sarcoma may involve the gastrointestinal tract very rarely either solitarily, or occurring simultaneously with acute myeloid leukemia. Its diagnosis is challenging and needs biopsy and immunohistochemical staining. We are describing a case of myeloid sarcoma which presented as a painful anal ulcer mimicking an atypical fissure. Its appearance resembled crohn’s disease on sigmoidoscopy. A biopsy of the ulcer along with histochemical staining led to the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Our case demonstrates the need for aggressive evaluation of any common gastrointestinal complaint with an atypical presentation.
Neeraj K Dewanda
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal symptoms such as dyspepsia, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatitis, gastrointestinal bleed, abdominal pain, subacute intestinal obstruction like presentation and acute abdomen are common in acute malaria. However, perforated duodenal ulcer (PDU complicating acute malaria in a child is a rare occurrence and uncommonly heard of. The exact mechanism of duodenal ulcer perforation in malaria is not clear due to the paucity of reported cases, and it may be multifactorial in etiology. The treatment of PDU in children is similar to adults that is surgical by omental patch repair of the perforation. We present an unusual case of PDU in a pediatric patient of malaria. The search of English literature revealed only one more reported case of PDU associated with malaria.
Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas
A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas.
Abelardo Q.-C. Araújo
Full Text Available A patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and trophic ulcers is described. Despite the healing of the ulcers after surgery for CTS, the severe sensory deficit and the electrophysiological tests have not shown any significant improvement. We think these findings argue against the hypothesis of the sensory deficit being responsible for the trophic ulcers. We favor a major role for the sympathetic disturbances as the main cause for those lesions.
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma
Ponnada, Swaroopa Rani; Palla, Yudistar Venkata; Ganugapanta, Vivek Reddy
Space analysis quantifies the amount of crowding within the arches estimating the severity of space discrepancy. The space gaining procedures include extraction and non-extraction procedures like expansion, proximal stripping and molar distalization. To identify features seen in molar distalization cases. The sample size comprised 20 patients in whom molar distalization was decided as the treatment plan. The study models and lateral cephalograms of all the patients were taken. Occlusograms were obtained. Model analysis and cephalometric analysis were performed. Descriptive statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation, standard error and mode were done. The parameters in Question gave following results. The Bolton analysis showed anterior mandibular excess with mean value of 1.56mm±1.07. The first order discrepancy between maxillary central and lateral incisors was 5±1.95. The premolar rotation showed mean value of 16.58±5.12. The molar rotation showed the value of 7.66±2.26. The nasolabial angle showed the mean of 101.25±8.7 IMPA of 101.4±5.74. The six features studied in molar distalization cases [First order discrepancy between upper central and lateral incisors; Rotation of premolars and molars; Bolton's discrepancy in anterior dentition; Average to horizontal growth pattern; Proclined lower incisors and Obtuse nasolabial angle] can be taken as patterns seen in molar distalization cases and considered as a valid treatment plan.
Malya, Fatma Ümit; Bektaşoğlu, Hüseyin Kazım; Hasbahçeci, Mustafa; Taşçı, Yunus; Kunduz, Enver; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Dolay, Kemal
Objective Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is increasingly being used in the surgical treatment of corpus and distal pancreatic tumors. In this study, patients who underwent laparoscopic or open distal pancreatectomy for benign or malignant causes were evaluated in terms of tumor characteristics and perioperative outcomes. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from a total of 27 distal pancreatectomy cases performed for benign or malignant causes in the General Surgery Department between January 2013 and December 2015. Groups were compared according to the demographic characteristics of patients, operation type (laparoscopic or open, with splenectomy or spleen preservation), operation time, surgical site infection (superficial, deep wound infection, or intra-abdominal abscess), pancreatic fistula development, and histopathological examination results. Results Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex, and body mass index (p=0.42). Tumor diameter was similar (p=0.18). The total number of resected lymph nodes was similar in both groups (p=0.6). Pancreatic fistula developed in one patient in each group. Mean hospital stay duration and the amount of intraoperative bleeding were similar in both groups. The laparoscopy group had a markedly lower overall morbidity rate (p=0.08). There was no mortality observed in the study subjects. Conclusion Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy can be safely performed as a minimally invasive procedure in experienced centers and in selected cases without increasing perioperative complication rates, particularly in benign cases. Although oncological outcomes are acceptable for malignant cases, future prospective controlled studies are necessary for more reliable evaluation. PMID:29260135
Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn
was to correlate colonic confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in ulcerative colitis with histopathology and macroscopic appearance before and after intensification of medical treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical relapse and 7 control subjects referred for colonoscopy were...... colitis compared with inactive ulcerative colitis...... is an emerging endoscopic technique that reproducibly identifies mucosal changes in ulcerative colitis. With the exception of crypt changes, endomicroscopic features appear to improve slowly with time after medical treatment. ( CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01684514.)....
Full Text Available Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.
Akesson, Nina; Oien, Rut Frank; Forssell, Henrik; Fagerström, Cecilia
The aim of this study was to compare venous leg ulcer patients with and without ulcer pain to see whether ulcer pain affected the use of antibiotic treatment and compression therapy throughout healing. A total of 431 patients with venous leg ulcers were included during the study period. Every patient was registered in a national quality registry for patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot, and pressure ulcers. A high incidence of ulcer pain (57%) was found when the patients entered the study. Patients with ulcer pain had been treated more extensively with antibiotics both before and during the study period. Throughout healing there was a significant reduction of antibiotic use among patients in the 'no pain' group, from 44% to 23% (P=0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning compression therapy (85% vs. 88%), but 12% of patients in the 'pain' group did not get their prescribed compression compared with 6% of patients in the 'no pain' group. The groups did not differ significantly in terms of ulcer duration, ulcer size or healing time. This study shows a high incidence of ulcer pain, confirming that pain has a great impact on patients with venous leg ulcers. Results further suggest that the presence of ulcer pain increases the prescription of antibiotics but does not affect the use of compression therapy. Several advantages were found from using a national quality registry. The registry is a valuable clinical tool showing the importance of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.
Dixit, Shreya; Bradford, Jennifer; Fischer, Gayle
Data regarding the treatment of nonsexually acquired genital ulceration (NSAGU) are limited. We sought to provide evidence for the safety and efficacy of topical and systemic corticosteroids followed by doxycycline prophylaxis for acute and recurrent NSAGU. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with NSAGU treated in a private dermogynecology practice. A total of 26 girls and women with NSAGU were identified and divided into 2 groups: group A = 17 patients with moderate to severe ulceration treated in the acute stage with oral corticosteroid; and group B = 9 patients with mild ulceration treated in the acute stage with topical corticosteroid. Patients in group A, with a mean age of 27.9 years (range, 11-62 years), were treated with oral prednisolone commencing with 15 to 50 mg per day depending on severity. Sixteen (94%) achieved rapid pain relief and complete healing of ulcers within 16 days. Eight (47%) commenced doxycycline prophylaxis. Women in group B, with a mean age of 42.5 years (range, 26-67 years) were treated with topical corticosteroids. Eight (89%) had a history of recurrent ulcers and 6 (66%) commenced doxycycline prophylaxis. Of all 14 patients on doxycycline prophylaxis, none reported any recurrences during a mean follow-up of 18.3 months. There were no adverse effects caused by prednisolone. One patient experienced mild photosensitivity from doxycycline but continued to take it. This was a retrospective case series from a single private practice-based population. Topical or oral corticosteroids followed by prophylactic doxycycline can be effective in rapidly resolving acute flareups and preventing recurrences of NSAGU. All patients responded to therapy without treatment-limiting side effects. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Arimitsu, Sayuri; Moritomo, Hisao
We report a patient with bidirectional dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint after malunited distal radius fracture, in which the ulnar head dislocated dorsally during forearm pronation and palmarly during supination without manual compression of the ulnar head. The patient had chronic ulnar wrist pain and experienced a painful clunk during forearm rotation. The distal radioulnar joint ballottement test was positive in both the dorsal and palmar directions. Her distal radius was malunited with a 20° dorsal angulation and 18° pronation deformity. A corrective osteotomy of the radius with open repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal avulsion yielded success. At the 7-year follow-up, there was almost a normal range of wrist and forearm motion, 83% grip strength, no arthritis, and a stable distal radioulnar joint. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD which is a simple molar distalizing appliance.Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. Thescrews were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance.Results: Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH decreased 1.28±1.36 mm.Conclusion: BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance.
Full Text Available Objectives: Maxillary molar distalization is one of the non-extraction treatment options to gain space in the maxillary arch for the resolution of class II malocclusions. This retrospective clinical study was aimed at evaluating the nature of maxillary first molar movement after distalization with the distal jet and its effects on incisor position and facial soft-tissues. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 22 subjects (10 boys, 12 girls having an average age of 13.04 years at the time of obtaining pre-treatment diagnostic records. The distal jet was the only appliance used during the distalization phase of treatment. All patients were treated by a single clinician with strict adherence to a standardized treatment protocol. The average duration of molar distalization was 6.09 months. Pre-treatment and postdistalization lateral cephalograms were obtained to analyze dentoalveolar and soft-tissue changes. Results: This study revealed that the maxillary first molars were distalized by an average of 4.29 mm into a class I molar relationship. In the process, the molars exhibited distal molar tipping (6.66° and extrusion (1.45 mm. The maxillary incisors were displaced and tipped labially by 1.89 mm and 2.84° respectively, leading to an increase in overjet by 0.86 mm and decrease in overbite by 0.98 mm. The soft-tissue changes involved upper and lower lip protrusion by 0.84 mm and 1.45 mm respectively, with an increase in lower facial height by 1.36 mm. Conclusion: This study confirmed the reliable and effective distalization of maxillary first molars with the distal jet, with certain undesirable and reciprocal effects on incisor position and minimal impact on the facial soft-tissues.
Niewhöner, Jörg; Nielsen, Jonas Ø; Gasparri, Gasparri
competition and by acknowledging that this contingency requires a methodological–analytical approach to dynamics that goes beyond linear cause–effect relationships. A critical component of future research will be a better understanding of different types of feedback processes reaching from biophysical...... as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly distal nature of driving forces behind land use practices. We then expand the notion of distal as mainly a measure of Euclidian space to include temporal, social, and institutional dimensions. This understanding of distal widens our analytical scope...... for the analysis of land use competition as a distributed process to consider the role of knowledge and power, technology, and different temporalities within a relational or systemic analysis of practices of land use competition. We conclude by pointing toward the historical and social contingency of land use...
Firass EL Hajj
Full Text Available Osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis is a very rare entity. 9 cases have been described in 7 articles and 8 other cases have been mentioned in textbooks. This paper describes the 10th case of osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis and summarizes the clinical and radiological presentations of the 9 other cases. The etiology of this entity is well debated in the literature. We believe that it results from a vascular abnormality in the distal tibial epiphysis associated with a mechanical stress (trauma, excessive overload, etc.. Since it is a self-limited disease, the prognosis is good and the younger the patient is the better the prognosis will be. In general, this entity responds well to conservative treatment.
Laurinaviciene, R.; Kirketerp-Moeller, K.; Holstein, Per Evald
Charcot midfoot ulcers are rare and very difficult to heal, with surgery being an option. This retrospective study assessed healing rates, complications, and the incidence of re-ulceration and other foot ulcer problems following exostectomies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2......Charcot midfoot ulcers are rare and very difficult to heal, with surgery being an option. This retrospective study assessed healing rates, complications, and the incidence of re-ulceration and other foot ulcer problems following exostectomies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...
Pound, N; Chipchase, S; Treece, K; Game, F; Jeffcoate, W
Measures of healing rate may not give a complete indication of the effectiveness of overall management of diabetic foot ulcers. Apart from healing and speed of healing, the outcomes of greatest importance to the patient are avoidance of any amputation and remaining free from any recurrence. We have documented the number of patients presenting with diabetic foot ulcers who become ulcer free and examined the value of documenting ulcer-free survival. All referrals to a specialist diabetic foot clinic over a 31-month period were analysed and outcomes were determined after a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Three hundred and seventy patients were referred with a total of 1031 ulcers. One hundred and twenty-one (32.7%) never became ulcer free: 56 (46.3% of 121) remained unhealed, the ulcers of 12 (9.9% of 121) had been resolved by amputation, two remained unhealed after amputation (1.7% of 121) and 51 (13.8% of 370) had died. Two hundred and thirty-one (62.4% of 370) became ulcer free at some stage. Five of these were excluded because of an earlier amputation. Ninety-one of the remaining 226 (40.3%) developed a recurrent or new ulcer after a median 126 days. Of the 135 who did not have a recurrence, 133 (58.8% of 226; 35.9% of 370) survived ulcer free and with limbs intact, while two died. Outcome was unknown in 18 (4.9%). Those who never became ulcer free were older (P ulcer had a greater prevalence of neuropathy (P = 0.027) than those who remained ulcer free. The use of ulcer-free survival can be used as an indication of the effectiveness of foot ulcer management. It could be adopted as a measure to compare performance between different specialist units.
Zhukova, E A; Vidmanova, T A; Viskova, I N; Kolesov, S A; Korkotashvili, L V; Shirokova, N Iu; Kan'kova, N Iu
The aim of our study is to investigate EGF content in biological mediums in children with duodenum ulcer depending on phase of the disease and different variants of its course. The present study was performed in Federal State Establishment "Nizhniy Novgorod Research Institute of Children Gastroenterology", Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. 92 children, between the ages of 8 to 17, with duodenum ulcer were under observation. Endoscopy was performed by Pentax endoscope (FG-24V). EGF detection was performed in blood serum, gastric juice and saliva by ELISA method with Human EGF Kit, "Invitrogen", USA. The peculiarities of EGF level changes in human biological mediums, depending on phase of the disease. The highest EGF level was detected with acute peptic ulcer in the presence of ulcerous defects. EGF level increasing was marked out in the remission phaseas ulcerous defects healing, and it didn't reach normal values in gastric juice. EGF content changes in biological mediums were revealed with different variants of duodenum ulcer clinical course in children. The lowest EGF level was marked out in blood, saliva and gastric juice with unfavorable course of the disease (frequent relapses, cicatricial-ulcerous strains formation), which can serve as a prognostic factor.
Mares, O; Coulomb, R; Lazerges, C; Bosch, C; Kouyoumdjian, P
This is a review of the various approaches that can be used for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of distal radius fractures. The main dissection steps are exposed and the specific indications for each approach are described. The anterior approach is discussed extensively as it is now the gold standard for ORIF of distal radius fractures. The lateral and posterior approaches are also described as they are sometimes needed for complex fractures. Copyright Â© 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the
Eleni I. Efremidou
Full Text Available A patient admitted for acute abdomen was incidentally found with elevated serum calcium level. In surgery, under conservative treatment of the hypercalcemia, a perforated duodenal ulcer was found and simple closure was performed. Postoperatively, calcium level continued to rise, parathyroid hormone was elevated and ultrasonographic examination showed a lesion in the right anterior neck, while serum gastrin level was normal, thus documenting the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Conservative treatment had no effect on calcium level and the patient was subjected to emergency neck exploration, where a large parathyroid adenoma was removed. After surgery, calcium and PTH levels were normalized and the patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. Peptic ulcer and its complications are usual manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism, with or without increased gastrin level. On the other hand, cases of a perforation of peptic ulcer as the first clinical manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism are extremely rare.
Full Text Available We report a 18-year-old adult presenting with acute pyelonephritis, bilateral giant ureteral stones, nephrocalcinosis and left staghorn calculi most probably due to the underlying incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis (idRTA. Particularly, we want to underline that, idRTA should be kept in mind in the setting of calcium stone disease where urinary pH is persistently high in the absence of systemic acidosis.
Full Text Available Aim. To investigate and compare the efficiency of two appliances for molar distalization: the bone-anchored distal screw (DS and the traditional tooth-supported distal jet (DJ for molar distalization and anchorage loss. Methods. Tests (18 subjects were treated with a DS and controls (18 subjects were treated with a DJ. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before and at the end of molar distalization and were analysed. Shapiro Wilk test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were applied according to values distribution. The α level was fixed at 0.05. Results. Maxillary first molars were successfully distalized into a Class I relationship in all patients. The mean molar distalization and treatment time were similar in both groups. The DS group exhibited a spontaneous distalization (2.1±0.9 mm of the first premolar with control of anchorage loss, distal tipping, extrusion, and skeletal changes. Conclusions. The DS is an adequate compliance-free distalizing appliance that can be used safely for the correction of Class II malocclusions. In comparison to the traditional DJ, the DS enables not only a good rate of molar distalization, but also a spontaneous distalization of the first premolars.
Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...... epithelial cells and other cells of the mucosa are discussed. The biochemistry of wound healing in UC provides the basis for the subsequent description of how these pathways are affected by the current medications, and what can be learnt on how to design future treatment regimens for UC based on targeting...
Boffeli, Troy J; Peterson, Matthew C
Partial ray amputation is a common treatment of diabetes-related neuropathic ulcers located beneath the metatarsal heads. The standard incision for partial first or fifth ray amputation involves a tennis racket incision, with the proximal arm made mid-line along the respective medial or lateral side of the metatarsal head and neck, creating equal dorsal and plantar flaps. This incision works well when the ulcer is located within the excised soft tissue distal to the incision or when the plantar ulcer is superficial and will heal secondarily once the underlying bone has been removed. This standard first or fifth ray amputation incision does not, however, allow excision and closure of plantar ulcers located beneath the first or fifth metatarsal head. Two cases are presented to demonstrate our surgical protocol for partial first or fifth ray amputation using a local rotational flap to cover plantar metatarsal head ulcers. These cases highlight our patient selection criteria, staging protocol when cellulitis or abscess is present, rotational flap design, surgical technique pearls, and the typical postoperative healing progress. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais
OBJECTIVE: Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DESIGN: a nationwide cohort study with prospective...... and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality...... was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p
The vulval ulcers that are seen in obstetrics and gynaecological practice in South Africa are most commonly caused by sexually transmitted diseases, especially herpes simplex infection. These ulcers have become more common due to the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and are also responsible for ...
Houwing, R. H.; Rozendaal, M; Wouters-Wesseling, W; Buskens, E.; Keller, P; Haalboom, JRE
Hip fracture patients have a high risk of pressure ulcers (PU). We followed 121 hip fracture patients for the development of pressure ulcers and evaluated a risk assessment tool for sensitivity and specificity. More than half of the patients presented with PU, mostly stage I. Risk factors for PU
Objective. To determine the aetiology of oesophageal ulceration in HIV-infected patients. Design. A retrospective clinical, endoscopic and histopathological analysis of patients with confirmed HIV infection and an oesophageal ulcer diagnosed on endoscopy. Setting. A tertiary referral, gastrointestinal clinic in Cape Town.
Karapetian, G É; Iakimov, S V; Mikitin, I L; Kochetova, L V; Pakhomova, R A
The authors present the investigation of inpatient treatment of 137 patients with trophic ulcers of venous aethiology. All the patients were hospitalized in the "Road clinical hospital" on the Krasnoyarsk station. A comparative analysis of treatment results of the patients with trophic ulcers using different medical methods was made. The efficacy of combined use of low-frequency ultrasound and ozone therapy was proved.
Full Text Available We report the isolation of Corynebacterium macginleyi from the corneal ulcer culture of a patient, later enrolled in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcer Trial (SCUT. To our knowledge this is the first published report from North America of the recovery of C. macginleyi from a serious ocular infection.
Møller, Morten Hylander; Adamsen, Sven; Wøjdemann, Morten
Despite the introduction of histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists, proton-pump inhibitors and the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, both the incidence of emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer and the mortality rate for patients undergoing surgery for peptic ulcer perforation have increased....
Tytgat, G. N.; Noach, L. A.; Rauws, E. A.
H. pylori is undoubtedly the dominant factor in the multifactorial peptic ulcer diathesis. We should not ignore the other contributing factors but rather try to identify how they interact with the organism and initiate the ulcerative process. The interplay of acid attack and mucosal defence is
Robberstad, Mari; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Berg, Tore Julsrud; Iversen, Marjolein M
The national clincial guidelines for diabetes recommend that diabetic foot ulcers be treated by interdisciplinary diabetic foot ulcer teams. This study aims to survey the extent of diabetic foot ulcer teams in the specialist health service in Norwegian hospitals and to describe their clinical composition, organisation and working routines. The study is cross-sectional with the use of a questionnaire survey. The criteria for participating were somatic hospitals with 24-hour operations and a specialist function for patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 41 hospitals participated of the 51 that fulfilled the criteria. Altogether 17 of 41 hospitals had diabetic foot ulcer teams. The teams had a broad clinical composition and followed national recommendations for surveying risk factors and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Nine foot ulcer teams had written routines for assessment, five used the Noklus diabetes patient records to document ulcer treatment, and ten had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Only one-quarter of the teams included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration. The diabetic foot ulcer teams had broad clinical competence and followed national clinical guidelines. The teams had a short waiting time for the initial consultation, half had written guidelines, and 60 % had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Far fewer had included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration.
Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.
BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.
The association between umbilical cord ulceration and congenital intestinal atresia is being increasingly reported and carries a high mortality. We report on a case of jejunal atresia associated with massive fetal haemorrhage from an umbilical cord ulcer. Fetal distress noted on continuous fetal heart monitoring allowed for ...
153 CME April 2013 Vol. 31 No. 4. Corneal ulcers: For the general practitioner. A corneal ulcer is a defect in the epithelial layer of the cornea. e general practitioner may play an important role in early management and appropriate referral. Incidence varies and depends on aetiology. S Ballim, MB ChB, Dip Ophth (SA), FC ...
Cafagna, Alessandra; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Mauro
Objective To compare dentoalveolar and skeletal changes produced by the pendulum appliance (PA) and the distal screw appliance (DS) in Class II patients. Methods Forty-three patients (19 men, 24 women) with Class II malocclusion were retrospectively selected for the study. Twenty-four patients (mean age, 12.2 ± 1.5 years) were treated with the PA, and 19 patients (mean age, 11.3 ± 1.9 years) were treated with the DS. The mean distalization time was 7 months for the PA group and 9 months for the DS group. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at T1, before treatment, and at T2, the end of distalization. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of the two groups between T1 and T2. Results PA and DS were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (4.7 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molars showed less distal tipping in the DS group than in the PA group (3.2° vs. 9.0°, respectively). Moreover, significant premolar anchorage loss (2.7 mm) and incisor proclination (5.0°) were noted in the PA group, whereas premolar distal movement (1.9 mm) and no significant changes at the incisor (0.1°) were observed in the DS group. No significant sagittal or vertical skeletal changes were detected between the two groups during the distalization phase. Conclusions PA and DS seem to be equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars; however, greater distal molar tipping and premolar anchorage loss can be expected using PA. PMID:26258063
Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva
Distalization of the maxillary molars is an important treatment option for the correction of Class II malocclusions. The purposes of this study were to introduce the clinical application of the indirect Palatal miniscrew Anchorage and Distalization Appliance (iPanda) and to describe the dental and skeletal effects obtained with this innovative appliance. Pretreatment (TO), post-distalization (T1), and posttreatment (T2) lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental casts of 20 consecutively treated adult patients (mean age 23.2 ± 4.7 years) with Class II molar relationship were analyzed. All patients were treated with the iPanda for maxillary molar distalization. The iPanda was anchored on a pair of midpalatal miniscrew implants to deliver the distalizing force to the maxillary first molars. The iPanda was the only appliance used during the distalization phase of treatment. A paired t test analysis was used to statistically assess the effects of treatment. A Class I molar relationship was obtained in a mean period of 3.2 ± 0.6 months. Cephalometric analysis demonstrated that the maxillary first molars were significantly distalized by an average 4.5 ± 1.5 mm (P mandibular plane was observed. Dental model analysis demonstrated an asymmetric pattern of distalization between right (4.5 ± 2.2 mm) and left (3.1 ± 2.1 mm) first molars. The transverse width of the dental arch was maintained. No significant rotation of the first molars was observed. This study demonstrated that the innovative iPanda is effective to bodily distalize the maxillary molars into a Class I molar relationship and to provide maximum anchorage.
Reconstrucción y restauración de la rotura aguda del tendón rotuliano con aumento del tendon semitendinoso preservando su inserción distal. Reporte de un caso.[Reconstruction and repair of acute patellar tendon ruptures with semitendinosus autograft].
Víctor Andres Ciccarello
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de ruptura aguda de tendon rotuliano con mala calidad de tejido remanente , en la que se realiza una tecnica de restauración y aumentación con injerto del tendon semitendinoso ipsilateral , preservando su inseríón distal.
Reeder, S; de Roos, K-P; de Maeseneer, M; Sommer, A; Neumann, H A M
Leg ulceration caused by chronic venous disease occurs in 1% of the adult Western population. A majority of these patients is successfully treated in the outpatient setting. A minority of patients is hospitalized, most frequently because of the lack of healing tendency. The literature provides recurrence rates for ulcer disease, but lacks specific data on recurrence rates after in-hospital treatment of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers. To investigate time to ulcer recurrence after in-hospital treatment of venous leg ulceration. A multicentre, retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for leg ulceration between 1996 and 2007 was conducted. Data could be collected for 107 of the patients. Of these, 27 had conservative treatment (bed rest, local wound care, pain management) and 48 patients underwent surgical ulcer treatment with (n = 19) or without (n = 29) initial vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) treatment. The treatment method was 'miscellaneous' in the remaining 32 patients. Median admission time was 30 days, median percentage of closure at discharge was 95%, and median time to ulcer recurrence 60 days. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed significant differences between the conservative group and the surgery group, the latter having a longer length of hospital stay (P ulcer closure (P ulcer recurrence (P = 0.273). Comparable differences were demonstrated between the conservative group and the VAC plus surgery group. No significant differences could be demonstrated between the surgically treated patients and those treated by VAC and surgery. Hospital stay is significantly shorter in cases of surgical treatment of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers. Most ulcers recur within 2 months after hospital discharge. Recurrence of venous leg ulcers after hospital admission is independent of the method of treatment and cause of ulceration. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
Bandyopadhyay Sandip K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the rhizomes of the Indian medicinal plant, Picrorhiza kurroa in healing indomethacin-induced acute stomach ulceration in mice and examine its capacity to modulate oxidative stress and the levels of prostaglandin (PGE2 and EGF during the process. Methods Male swiss albino mice, ulcerated with indomethacin (18 mg/kg, p. o., single dose were treated up to 7 days with different doses of the methanol extract of P. kurroa rhizomes (designated as PK. The healing capacity of the most effective dose of PK (20 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 d was compared with that of omeprazole (Omez (3 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 d. The effects of the drug-treatment for one and three days on the biochemical parameters were assessed by comparing the results with that of untreated mice of the 1st and 3rd day of ulceration. The stomach tissues of the mice were used for the biochemical analysis. Results The macroscopic indices revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin administration, which was effectively healed by PK. Under the optimized treatment regime, PK and Omez reduced the ulcer indices by 45.1% (P P Compared to the ulcerated untreated mice, those treated with PK for 3 days showed decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (32.7%, P P P 2 (21.4%, P P P P P P P Conclusion PK (20 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 days could effectively heal indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in mice by reducing oxidative stress, and promoting mucin secretion, prostaglandin synthesis and augmenting expressions of cyclooxygenase enzymes and growth factors.
Saranya, P.; Geetha, A.; Selvamathy, S. M. K. Narmadha
The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD50 value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD50 value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects. PMID:22923868
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the usefulness of duodenoscopy in the diagnosis of duodenal ulcers in dogs. Materials and Methods: Sick dogs with chronic gastrointestinal problems were physically examined and samples were collected for haematology, biochemistry and faecal examination. Duodenal biopsies, duodenal contents and brush cytology were obtained via duodenoscopy. Results: Seven duodenal ulcers cases were recorded, higher incidences was recorded in Labrador retriever, 2-4 years of aged male dogs. Significantly decreased Hb (9.10 ± 0.25 g/dl, RBCs (4.39 ± 0.19 mill/cu.mm and albumin (2.343b ± 0.13 g/dl level were noticed. Hyperaemia with ulceration of duodenal mucosa was observed. Conclusion: Duodenoscopy is very much useful for detection of duodenal ulceration and provided a sensitive technique for early diagnosis of mucosal lesions and ulceration. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 420-423
Conclusion: Concomitant hip and distal radius fractures were generally ipsilateral and involved the femoral neck after a backward fall. These patients were younger than and not more osteoporotic than the population with isolated hip fractures; however, the hospital stay was significantly increased. The functional outcome was not influenced by concomitant wrist fracture.
Methods The inclusion criteria of this study were skeletally mature patients with displaced fractures of the distal tibia treated with intramedullary nail with a minimum follow up of one year. Gustilo III open fractures and type C fractures of the AO classification (complete articular Stroke were excluded. The sample comprised 35 patients remained. The follow-up was 29.2 months. We evaluated the time of consolidation, malunion and complications. The functional results were described according to the AOFAS score. Results Of the 35 patients with fracture of the distal third of the tibia all of them presented fracture healing. The average time to union was 17.2 weeks (range: 11-26. Of the total sample, 5 patients had delayed union, requiring dynamic nail on average at 12 weeks. The malunion was present in 4 (11.4% patients. We found no difference (p = 0.201 in the time to union between fractures associated with fractures of the fibula treated (13sem or not (17sem. The AOFAS score was 86 points. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing with multiple distal locks like a good alternative treatment for distal tibia fractures AO type A or B, with low complication rate and a high rate of consolidation.
Full Text Available Published data and techniques for decision analysis were used to construct a model to estimate the cost effectiveness of nine alternative strategies for the management of patients diagnosed with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer. Two strategies of intermittent therapy with either ranitidine or omeprazole, one strategy of continuous maintenance treatment with ranitidine, and six strategies for ulcer healing and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection were considered. Healing time curves were estimated by using published data, allowing for estimation of expected time for acute healing episodes. The expected number of weeks to heal per patient, in a one-year period, was estimated by combining healing time data with probability of ulcer recurrence. It was found that patients that underwent any of the six H pylori eradication regimens had fewer days with ulcer per year than those who underwent maintenance or intermittent ranitidine. Four eradication regimens had lower costs and better outcomes than ranitidine therapy. In comparing H pylori strategies, the two strategies of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (either amoxicillin or clarithromycin are more costly than omeprazole plus two antibiotics (specifically amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin and metronidazole and result in similar outcomes. Although omeprazole-based eradication regimens are more costly than ranitidine bismuth triple therapy, they are associated with fewer recurrences of ulcer and days of symptoms. A limitation of the analysis is that it did not incorporate issues of compliance and metronidazole resistance; however, the former concern may be less of an issue as H pylori regimens become simpler and shorter in duration.
PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.
Larkin, J O
INTRODUCTION: Most patients presenting with acutely perforated duodenal ulcer undergo operation, but conservative treatment may be indicated when an ulcer has spontaneously sealed with minimal\\/localised peritoneal irritation or when the patient\\'s premorbid performance status is poor. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with operative and conservative management of perforated duodenal ulcers over a 10-year period and analysed outcome according to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score. METHODS: The records of all patients presenting with perforated duodenal ulcer to the Department of Surgery, Mayo General Hospital, between January 1998 and December 2007 were reviewed. Age, gender, co-morbidity, ASA-score, clinical presentation, mode of management, operative procedures, morbidity and mortality were considered. RESULTS: Of 76 patients included, 48 (44 operative, 4 conservative) were ASA I-III, with no mortality irrespective of treatment. Amongst 28 patients with ASA-score IV\\/V, mortality was 54.5% (6\\/11) following operative management and 52.9% (9\\/17) with conservative management. CONCLUSION: In patients with a perforated duodenal ulcer and ASA-score I-III, postoperative outcome is uniformly favourable. We recommend these patients have repair with peritoneal lavage performed, routinely followed postoperatively by empirical triple therapy. Given that mortality is equivalent between ASA IV\\/V patients whether managed operatively or conservatively, we suggest that both management options are equally justifiable.
Kivilaakso, E; Kalima, T V; Lempinen, M
Using a swine shock ulcer model, three pharmacological agents, methylprednisolone, vitamin A and methysergide were evaluated, as they protect gastric mucosa against acute ulceration. Following haemorrhagic shock (3 h duration; mean arterial pressure 40 mm Hg) nine of the ten control animals (90%) developed gastric ulceration. Of the six test animals treated with intravenous methylprednisolone during the shock, only one (17%) developed gastric lesions (p less than 0.02; x2 = 5.76). Of the ten test animals pretreated with massive doses of parenteral vitamin A, only three (30%) developed lesions (p less than 0.05; x2 = 5.21). In contrast to this, treatment with methysergide, a serotonin antagonist, did not significantly effect the ulceration rate, since four of the six test animals (67%) had gastric lesions. The results suggest that methylprednisolone and vitamin A do protect the gastric mucosa from experiment stress ulceration, but their mechanism of action remain obscure and further investigation is needed to judge their value in clinical use.
Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Loomis, Dana
This study examines the hypothesis that acid mist or mixtures of acid mists and acid gases are associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. All 665 active male workers of a metal processing factory were the study population. Semi-quantitative measures of exposure were estimated from a job exposure matrix constructed with industrial hygienist scoring and job titles. Ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa were identified with standardized clinical dental exams. Past exposure to acid mists were positively associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa but only among workers without lip sealing (age- and alcohol consumption-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR), PR(adjusted) = 3.40; 90% CI: 1.48-7.85). Also in this worker group, the mixture of acid mists and acid gases was associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa limited to exposure in the past (PR(adjusted) = 2.83; 90% CI: 1.12-7.17). There is a positive association between acid mist or mixtures of acid mists and acid gases and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa only in the absence of lip sealing. The evidence of a chronic rather than acute irritative process suggests a possible step on the etiology of oral malignancies, which needs investigation. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Inhibidores de la bomba de protones por vía intravenosa en la hemorragia por úlcera péptica: ¿es necesaria la supresión ácida máxima para disminuir el resangrado? Intravenous proton-pump for acute peptic ulcer bleeding: is profound acid supression beneficial to reduce the risk of rebleeding?
8 mg/h for 72 hours; group 1 - treatment with 40 mg of pantoprazole administered intravenously on a daily basis. The percentage of hemorrhagic persistence/recurrence in both groups was analyzed, as were transfusion requirements, need for surgery, and mortality resulting from the hemorrhagic episode. Results: there were 20 patients in group 0 and 21 in group 1. No differences were found between groups in terms of gender, age, smoking habits, use of NSAIDs, presence of hemodynamic instability or stigmata in ulcer crater (Forrest Ia: 5 vs. 14.3%, p = 0.322; Forrest Ib: 30 vs. 33.3%, p = 0.819; Forrest IIa: 60 vs. 50.1%, p = 0.753. In group 0, 90% of patients received endoscopic treatment, versus 100% in group 1, p = 0.232. In group 0, 50% of patients had a transfusion, as compared to 52.4% in group 1, p = 0.879. In group 0, 2 patients (10.5% presented with recurrent hemorrhage, versus 3 patients (14.3% in group 1. Surgery was required by 1 person from each group, and 1 patient in group 0 died. Conclusions: maximum acid inhibition with a bolus and a then a continuous infusion of pantoprazole does not yield better results than treatment with conventional doses in acute hemorrhagic episodes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical characteristics and complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration are well known. Gastro-intestinal involvement has also been recognised in these patients. However an acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer has not been documented up to now. Case presentation A 26-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer is treated non-operatively with naso-gastric suction and intravenous medication. Gastrointestinal involvement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and therapeutic considerations in a high risk patient are discussed. Conclusion Non-surgical treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer should be considered in high risk patients, as is the case in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Patients must be carefully observed and operated on if non-operative treatment is unsuccessful.
Brinkman, Justus-Martijn; Oddens, Jorg R; Van Royen, Barend J; Wever, Jan; Olsman, Jan G
Clinical characteristics and complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration are well known. Gastro-intestinal involvement has also been recognised in these patients. However an acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer has not been documented up to now. A 26-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer is treated non-operatively with naso-gastric suction and intravenous medication. Gastrointestinal involvement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and therapeutic considerations in a high risk patient are discussed. Non-surgical treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer should be considered in high risk patients, as is the case in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Patients must be carefully observed and operated on if non-operative treatment is unsuccessful.
... Reye SyndromeTeenage Pregnancy and Birth Control AccessRead Article >>Teenage Pregnancy and Birth Control Access Check Your Symptoms Find ... harmful to the brain and liver. It often…Teenage Pregnancy and Birth Control AccessRead Article >>Kids and TeensTeenage ...
Williams, B.D.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Weishaupt, D.; Miller, L.S. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Lerman, J. [Lerman Imaging, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Rubenstein, D.L. [Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rosenberg, Z.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States)
Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance and associated clinical findings of partial distal biceps tendon tears. Design: Twenty elbow MR images at 1.5 T, performed over a 7 year period, were reviewed for an appearance of partial tears in the distal biceps. These images were assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists for the extent of: (a) abnormal signal intensity within the tendon, and the presence of (b) bicipitoradial bursitis, and (c) bony microavulsive injury of the radial tuberosity. Medical records for nine of the 20 cases were reviewed for the clinical findings of ecchymosis, trauma, sensation of a ''pop'', loss of function, and acuity of onset. Results: Twenty partial distal biceps tendon tears were seen. All displayed an abnormally increased signal in the distal biceps tendon. Three of 20 (15%) showed a 25% to 50% tear, ten of 20 (50%) showed a 50% tear, and seven of 20 (35%) showed a 75% to 90% tear. Bicipitoradial bursitis was seen in 11 of 20 (55%) cases. Bony microavulsive injury of the radial tuberosity was observed in 10 of 20 (50%). Of the nine cases reviewed for associated clinical findings, surprisingly, only three (33%) experienced an acute traumatic episode with an abrupt onset of pain. An insidious onset was reported in four of nine (44%). Sensation of a ''pop'' was recorded in only two of nine (22%) cases. Ecchymosis and loss of function were not seen in any of the cases. Finally, surgical conformation was obtained for three cases. Conclusion: Partial distal biceps tendon tears have a characteristic MR appearance, demonstrate little functional deficit, and may be attritional in their etiology due to the observation of a low number of patients reporting trauma or an acute onset. (orig.)
Aksu, Ayse Esra Koku; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Sabuncu, Ilham; Ciftci, Evrim; Gulbas, Zafer; Isiksoy, Serap
A 71-year-old man presented to our dermatological clinic with a 3-month history of a wound on his leg. He complained of weakness for the past few months. On his dermatological examination he had a 3x3-cm necrotic ulcer on his left tibia (Figure 1). On physical examination, there was 1 x 1-cm axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no other lymph node enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, or gingival hypertrophy. Peripheral blood results showed 2.4x103/mm3 leukocytes (normal range 4-11 x 103/mm3) with 66% neutrophils. The hemoglobin value was 10.1 g/dL (13-18 g/dL), and the platelet count was 63x103/mm3 (150-440 x 103/mm3). No blasts were detected in a peripheral blood smear. His lactate dehydrogenase level was 567 U/L (240-480 U/L). All other results of blood chemistry were within normal limits. Punch biopsy of the skin lesion showed ulceration and dense dermal acute and chronic inflammation. There was a superficial and deep perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate of neoplastic cells composed of relatively abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei with blastic chromatin and occasional small nucleoli (Figure 2). Mitotic figures were prominent. Immunohistochemical stains were performed, and the neoplastic cells were CD3, CD20, CD138, and S100 protein negative. Myeloperoxidase and CD68 were positive. The histopathological findings were consistent with leukemic infiltration. Examination of bone marrow biopsy revealed that the blastic cells constituted more than 20% of the bone marrow cellularity. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow aspiration with fluorescence in situ hybridization was negative for inversion 16, t(8;21) and t(15;7). Histochemical stains for myeloperoxidase, sudan black, periodic acid-Schiff, and alpha naphthyl acetate were also negative. Blastic cells were DR, CD13, CD117, and CD34 positive and CD5, CD7, CD10, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD33, CD41, CD56, CD64, and CD79 negative according to flow cytometry immunophenotyping. Blastic cells were 35% in the bone
Razmus, Ivy; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra
Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention practice among pediatric patients. To describe the frequency of pressure ulcer risk assessment in pediatric patients and pressure ulcer prevention intervention use overall and by hospital unit type, a descriptive secondary analysis was performed of data submitted to the National Database for Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®) for at least 3 of the 4 quarters in 2012. Relevant data on pressure ulcer risk from 271 hospitals across the United States extracted from the NDNQI database included patient skin and pressure ulcer risk assessment on admission, time since the last pressure ulcer risk assessment, method used to assess pressure ulcer risk, and risk status. Extracted data on pressure ulcer prevention included skin assessment, pressure-redistribution surface use, routine repositioning, nutritional support, and moisture management. These data were organized by unit type and merged with data on hospital characteristics for the analysis. The sample included 39 984 patients ages 1 day to 18 years on 678 pediatric acute care units (general pediatrics, pediatric critical care units, neonatal intensive care units, pediatric step-down units, and pediatric rehabilitation units). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze study data. Most of the pediatric patients (33 644; 89.2%) were assessed for pressure ulcer risk within 24 hours of admission. The Braden Q Scale was frequently used to assess risk on general pediatrics units (75.4%), pediatric step-down units (85.5%), pediatric critical care units (81.3%), and pediatric rehabilitation units (56.1%). In the neonatal intensive care units, another scale or method was used more often (55% to 60%) to assess pressure ulcer risk. Of the 11 203 pediatric patients (39%) determined to be at risk for pressure ulcers, the majority (10 741, 95.8%) received some kind of pressure ulcer prevention intervention during the 24 hours preceding the NDNQI pressure ulcer survey. The frequency
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to over 380 million people by the year 2025. Many people with diabetes develop complications that seriously affect their quality and length of life. Lower limb complications are common, particularly foot ulcers and gangrene. Development of these complications is attributed to individual risk factors, poverty, racial and ethnic differences, and quality of local and national health care systems. The wide variations noted suggest that best practices in low incidence areas could easily be adapted in high incidence areas to reduce the burden of complications. Almost every infection begins in a wound, often as neuropathic ulceration or a traumatic break in the skin. Infections that begin as a small problem may progress to involve soft tissue, bones and joints. Because of these morbidity and occasional mortality by these foot infections several authoritative groups have recently developed guidelines for assessing and treating diabetic foot. METHODOLOGY 100 Diabetic patients with foot ulcers were admitted and wounds were classified using wagner’s classification. Pus was sent for culture and sensitivity and treated accordingly. RESULTS In our study the most common organism cultured from the wound with diabetes mellitus was staphylococcus. The most sensitive drug for these organisms was found to be chloramphenicol on most occasions. CONCLUSION The rationale of pus culture and sensitivity is not only to definitively treat the diabetic wound after the culture sensitivity report is
Wong, Jing-Yang; Raman, Jegadeesh; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary
Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity. PMID:24302966
Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity.
Wong, Jing-Yang; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Raman, Jegadeesh; Phan, Chia-Wei; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Golbabapour, Shahram; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary
Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity.
J. P. Benigni
Full Text Available Background. In order to treat venous leg ulcers, it is recommended to use high pressure compression (30–40 mmHg at the ankle. Compression stockings which are not operator dependant could be the best option because of their pressure control. However 30–40 mmHg compression stockings are often hard to put on. Putting two lower pressure compression stockings over each other could be a good therapeutic alternative. Objectives. To compare the in vitro pressures given by the manufacturers of 2 antiulcer kits with the in vivo interface pressures measured in healthy subjects and to evaluate the stiffness and friction indices from those kits based on the interface pressure in order to assess their clinical properties. Material and Methods. Using a Kikuhime pressure device, interface pressure was measured in 12 healthy subjects at the reference point B1. One stiffness index (Static Stiffness Index (SSI and a friction index have been calculated. Results. Mediven Ulcer kit gets the recommended pressures whereas Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit does not for treating a venous leg ulcer. Jobst’s Ulcer Care transmits entirely the pressure in relation to a friction index close to 1. Conclusion. This antiulcer kit study underlines that in vivo and in vitro pressures can be different (Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit and Mediven Ulcer kit. In order not to lose pressure, it is important to take into account the friction index when superimposing two stockings.
Ham, H. W (Wietske); Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, M. (Marieke) J; Leenen, L. (Luke) P H
Objectives To explore the influence of risk factors present at Emergency Department admission on pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury, admitted to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of acute traumatic injuries. Design Prospective cohort study setting
Vainer, Ben; Lamberth, Kasper; Brimnes, Jens
In acute stages of ulcerative colitis (UC), neutrophils migrate from the circulation into inflamed colonic tissue, initiated by yet unknown stimuli. The bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is a component of the surface membrane of colonic bacteria such as Escherichia...
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lassen, Christina Funch; Vilstrup, Imogen
To study how objectively recorded mouse and keyboard activity affects distal arm pain among computer workers.......To study how objectively recorded mouse and keyboard activity affects distal arm pain among computer workers....
Santos, Cláudia; Pereira, Alexandre; Sousa, Marco; Trigeuiros, Miguel; Silva, César
Distal radioulnar arthroplasty is an attractive solution for treating various pathological conditions of the distal radioulnar joint because it allows restoration of stability, load transmission and function. The main indications are: radioulnar impingement after partial or complete resection of the distal ulna; and degenerative, inflammatory or post-traumatic arthritis of the distal radioulnar joint. The authors present three clinical cases of distal radioulnar pathological conditions: two patients with post-traumatic sequelae and one case of distal radioulnar impingement after a Sauvé-Kapandji operation. The three cases were treated surgically with a metallic prosthesis to replace the distal ulna (First Choice - Ascension®). The first two were treated with a resurfacing prosthesis and the last one with a modular prosthesis. All of the patients had achieved pain relief and increased movement of the distal radioulnar joint after one year of postoperative follow-up. PMID:27047827
Sep 18, 2013 ... temperature and stored for use. The anti-ulcer activity of the ... Key words: Gongronema latifolium, ulcer, protection, indomethacin, acid/ethanol. .... toxicity or fatality for 24 h. Effect of crude ethanol extract on Indomethacin-induced ulcer. The method of Urishidani et al. (1979) was utilized. Gastric ulceration ...
Two cases of tetracycline ulcers of the oesophagus are reported and compared with thirteen other cases from the literature. In most cases, the patients had taken their capsules with little or no fluid just before going to bed. Some hours later they developed retrosternal pain that was intensified by swallowing. Endoscopy showed sharply demarcated greyish-white areas of mucosal damage which represented layers of stratified squamous cells, separated by oedema, and a dense neutrophilic infiltration of the lamina propria and the muscularis mucosa. Roentgenology was unsuitable to detect the lesions. They healed without complications within one to six weeks. Prolonged retention of the capsules in the oesophagus is thought to cause the mucosal damage. Patients on oral tetracycline or doxycycline treatment should therefore be instructed to take their capsules with a meal or with copious water and not just before going to bed.
Kim, Jihyeung; Kang, Seung-baik; Nam, Kyungpyo; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Won, Jong Won; Han, Hyuk-Soo
Background The incidence of distal femur fracture in the elderly has been increasing recently, and commonly occurs with osteoporosis. Retrograde intramedullary nailing has been considered a good surgical option for distal femur fracture. The purpose of the present study was to present our surgical results with retrograde intramedullary nailing for distal femur fractures with osteoporosis. Methods Thirteen patients diagnosed with extra-articular distal femur fracture and osteoporosis and manag...
Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S
The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K
Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.
Derrick, Donald; Gick, Bryan
Tactile sensations at extreme distal body locations can integrate with auditory information to alter speech perception among uninformed and untrained listeners. Inaudible air puffs were applied to participants' ankles, simultaneously with audible syllables having aspirated and unaspirated stop onsets. Syllables heard simultaneously with air puffs were more likely to be heard as aspirated. These results demonstrate that event-appropriate information from distal parts of the body integrates in speech perception, even without frequent or robust location-specific experience. In addition, overall performance was significantly better for those with hair on their ankles, which suggests that the presence of hair may help establish signal relevance, and so aid in multi-modal speech perception.
Jess, P; Eldrup, J
OBJECTIVES. To compare personality characteristics in duodenal ulcer patients and patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector with duodenal ulcer patients from a hospital and to evaluate the relationship of the personality characteristics to the course of the diseases. DESIGN......, Denmark. SUBJECTS. Sixty hospital patients with duodenal ulceration and 17 patients with duodenal ulceration plus 25 patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. MMPI scores. RESULTS. The hospital patients differed from the two other groups of patients...
In this paper, we analyse the acute toxicity of Hunteria umbellata, a herbal medicinal plant, in mice in Nigeria using the logistic model. Hunteria umbellata is a plant with therapeutic potentials in the treatment of various diseases that include yaws, peptic ulcers, diabetes, piles, infertility and inflammation. Data on the acute ...
Keles, Ahmet; Erverdi, Nejat; Sezen, Serdar
Palatal implants have been used over the last two decades to eliminate headgear wear and to establish stationary anchorage. In this case report, the stability of a palatal implant for distalization of molars bodily and for anchorage maintenance was assessed. The implant was a stepped screw titanium (4.5 mm diameter x 8 mm length), and it was placed in the palatal region for orthodontic purposes. A surgical template containing a metal drill housing was prepared. Angulation of the drill housing was controlled according to the radiologic tracing of the maxilla transferred to a plaster cast section in the paramedian plane. The implant was placed using a noninvasive technique (incision, flap, and suture elimination) and left transmucosally to facilitate the surgical procedure and to reduce the number of operations. The paramedian region was selected (1) to avoid the connective tissues of the palatine suture and (2) because it is considered to be a suitable host site for implant placement. After three months of healing, the implant was osseointegrated and orthodontic treatment was initiated. For molar distalization, the Keles Slider appliance was modified and, instead of a Nance button, a palatal implant was used for anchorage. The results showed that the molars were distalized bodily at five months, and no anchorage loss was observed. At the end of the treatment, the smile was improved, and an ideal Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overbite, and an ideal overjet were all achieved. In conclusion, palatal implants can be used effectively for anchorage maintenance and in space-gaining procedures. Use of a three-dimensional surgical template eliminated implant placement errors, reduced chair time, minimized trauma to the tissues, and enhanced osseointegration. This method can be used effectively to achieve distalization of molars bodily without anchorage loss.
Sussela, Alex Oliboni; Alves, Paulo Ricardo Picon; Silva, Vinicius Duval da; Bolze, Carlos Daniel de Garcia; Serafini, Osvaldo André
ABSTRACT To describe a case of possible diagnosis of Pindborg tumor on the distal femur. A 32-years-old female patient, a native of Bolivia, resident in Brazil, arrived to this service for tumor research in the right femur. After biopsies and resection of the lesion, the case was referred to analysis and consultancy in the United States. In a report of review by the Pathology Laboratory, it was characterized the histological appearance and immunohistochemical profile were characteristic of Pi...
Mohammed Fahd Amar
Full Text Available Periosteal osteoid osteoma is extremely rare. The diagnosis is not always clear. We report a case of periosteal osteoid osteoma arising from the posterior surface of the right distal femur in a 21-year-old woman. After careful evaluation and excisional biopsy, histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma, showing the nidus, surrounding osteosclerosis, and catarrhal synovitis. The lesion was treated successfully with excision of the nidus.
Nienaber, Christoph A; Clough, Rachel E
A new appraisal of the management of acute aortic dissection is timely because of recent developments in diagnostic strategies (including biomarkers and imaging), endograft design, and surgical treatment, which have led to a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, and molecular nature of aortic dissection. Although open surgery is the main treatment for proximal aortic repair, use of endovascular management is now established for complicated distal dissection and distal arch repair, and has recently been discussed as a pre-emptive measure to avoid late complications by inducing aortic remodelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arat, Anil; Saatci, Isil; Cekirge, Saruhan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara (Turkey); Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)
Posterior cerebral artery aneurysms are amenable to deconstructive surgical treatment because of the rich collateral supply of the distal posterior cerebral artery. This report retrospectively analyses the outcome of endovascular parent artery occlusion for large or fusiform distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysms. Medical records and cerebral angiograms from two endovascular centres were analysed retrospectively. Eight patients with large or fusiform distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms were treated by endovascular occlusion of the segment of the PCA at the site of the aneurysm. Three of those were treated urgently after acute subarachnoid haemorrhage, the remainder had elective treatment. The clinical and angiographic outcomes in seven patients were assessed at 6 to 12 months. A single case of occipital infarction resulting in permanent homonymous hemianopia was the only permanent complication. Of the remaining patients, six made excellent recoveries and one was lost to follow-up. No recurrence or re-bleeding was noted. Endovascular parent artery occlusion may be an alternative to surgical parent artery occlusion in distal PCA aneurysms which are not convenient for selective endovascular treatment or surgical clipping. (orig.)
Beischer, Andrew D; Beamond, Ben M; Jowett, Andrew J L; O'Sullivan, Richard
Disorders of the tibialis anterior (TA) tendon have infrequently been reported but spontaneous rupture of this tendon is well recognized. The clinical presentation of tendinosis without rupture of the distal TA has not previously been reported and is the basis of this paper. A study of 29 patients diagnosed with distal TA tendinosis was undertaken. Data collected included, patient demographics, weight, height, pain profile and examination findings. All patients underwent MRI of the symptomatic foot. Operative findings of those patients undergoing surgery for this condition were collected. Twenty-nine patients (32 feet) were included in the study group. Their mean age was 62 years and 27 patients were female. Twenty-one patients were overweight. The usual presenting symptom was burning medial midfoot pain that was often reported to be worst at night. Swelling over the TA tendon was frequently observed. On MRI the TA was thickened in all patients. Longitudinal split tears were observed in 19 feet. Chondral thinning and/or osteophyte formation at the first tarsometatarsal or medial naviculocuneiform joints was observed in 11 feet. Eleven feet underwent surgery. Universally the TA tendon was macroscopically thickened and had lost its normal fibrillary appearance. Longitudinal split tears were observed in eight tendons. Pathology was typical of a degenerative tendinosis. Distal TA tendinosis is a condition that seems to predominantly affect overweight elderly women. It often presents with nocturnal burning medial midfoot pain.
Scola Rosana Herminia
Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 30 anos com quadro de fraqueza muscular nos membros inferiores com predomínio distal com início há 7 anos. Na evolução apresentou fraqueza muscular nos membros superiores. O exame físico mostrava nervos cranianos sem alterações, hipotrofia bilateral de quadriceps e interósseos dos pés, redução da força muscular mais intensa em tibiais anteriores e interósseos dorsais dos pés e reflexos tendinosos globalmente hipoativos. Foi realizado teste de estimulação repetitiva que mostrou decremento maior que 10% no nervo fibular e ulnar. A dosagem de anticorpos anti-receptor de acetilcolina foi positiva. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax foi normal. Dosagem de hormônios tireoidianos mostrou evidências laboratoriais de hipertireoidismo, porém sem manifestações clínicas. Foi iniciado tratamento com piridostigmina havendo melhora importante do quadro clínico. A fraqueza distal é um sintoma inicial raro na miastenia grave (MG. Contudo, a MG deve entrar no diagnóstico diferencial de doenças que cursam com fraqueza muscular distal de membros superiores ou inferiores.
Papadonikolakis, Anastasios; Ruch, David S
Internal distraction plating can be used for the treatment of highly comminuted distal radius fractures especially in elderly patients. The technique involves the use of 3.5, 2.7, or 2.5 dynamic compression plates. The instrumentation is applied in distraction dorsally from the radial diaphysis, bypassing the comminuted segment, and fixed distally to the long metacarpal. The advantages of this technique are: a) it can be used as an alternative for managing difficult fractures in the elderly population; b) it is indicated in patients with osteoporotic bone; c) complications associated with external pins are avoided; and d) the stability of the plate allows patients to use the extremity for transfer and activities of daily living. On the other hand, possible disadvantages to be considered are: a) the need of a second operation to remove the plate; and b) the prolonged duration of immobilization. Elderly patients with osteoporotic bone who undergo treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures may result in poor outcomes with high rates of complications if external fixation or standard internal fixation is used. The current approach represents an alternative that provides union of the fracture with excellent alignment, functional range of motion, and minimal functional disability.
Mansur, A Tulin; Demirci, Gulsen T; Ozel, Omer; Ozker, Emre; Yıldız, Semsi
Acral lentiginous melanoma affects the palms, soles, and nail apparatus. Around 3-15% of all cutaneous melanomas are located on the foot and have a poorer prognosis than melanoma elsewhere. Possible reasons for this prognostic difference may be omitting this area during routine skin check by both the patient and the physicians, in addition to misdiagnosis of melanoma as other benign skin lesions. We describe here an elderly female patient treated for a non-healing foot ulcer interpreted as a diabetic ulcer, which after 2 years was diagnosed as acral melanoma with satellitosis. Histopathological examination of the amputated distal phalanx revealed an advanced stage melanoma with 1·2 cm Breslow thickness and of Clark level 5. Dermoscopy of the bluish papulonodules scattered on the dorsal foot showed characteristic findings described for metastasis of skin melanoma. This case underlines the importance of considering skin malignancies in case of chronic, non-healing ulcers in diabetic patients. Furthermore, we point out the critical significance of skin examination as a whole, and dermoscopy being an important tool in the diagnosis of melanoma and/or cutaneous melanoma metastasis. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hermans, John J; Beumer, Annechien; de Jong, Ton A W; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan
A syndesmosis is defined as a fibrous joint in which two adjacent bones are linked by a strong membrane or ligaments.This definition also applies for the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, which is a syndesmotic joint formed by two bones and four ligaments. The distal tibia and fibula form the osseous part of the syndesmosis and are linked by the distal anterior tibiofibular ligament, the distal posterior tibiofibular ligament, the transverse ligament and the interosseous ligament. Although the syndesmosis is a joint, in the literature the term syndesmotic injury is used to describe injury of the syndesmotic ligaments. In an estimated 1–11% of all ankle sprains, injury of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis occurs. Forty percent of patients still have complaints of ankle instability 6 months after an ankle sprain. This could be due to widening of the ankle mortise as a result of increased length of the syndesmotic ligaments after acute ankle sprain. As widening of the ankle mortise by 1 mm decreases the contact area of the tibiotalar joint by 42%, this could lead to instability and hence early osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint. In fractures of the ankle, syndesmotic injury occurs in about 50% of type Weber B and in all of type Weber C fractures. However,in discussing syndesmotic injury, it seems the exact proximal and distal boundaries of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis are not well defined. There is no clear statement in the Ashhurst and Bromer etiological, the Lauge-Hansen genetic or the Danis-Weber topographical fracture classification about the exact extent of the syndesmosis. This joint is also not clearly defined in anatomical textbooks, such as Lanz and Wachsmuth. Kelikian and Kelikian postulate that the distal tibiofibular joint begins at the level of origin of the tibiofibular ligaments from the tibia and ends where these ligaments insert into the fibular malleolus. As the syndesmosis of the ankle plays an important role in the stability of the
Vloedbeld, M. G.; Venema, A. W.; Smit, A. J.
A 35-year-old man presented with nonhealing ulcers at an atypical location on his left foot, caused by a combination of venous insufficiency (after deep venous thrombosis) and arterial insufficiency. The underlying cause was Buerger's disease.
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...
Full Text Available Abstract Pyoderma gangrenosum is a non-infectious neutrophilic skin disease commonly associated with underlying systemic diseases. Histopathological and laboratory diagnostics are unspecific in the majority of the cases and the diagnosis is made in accordance with the clinical picture. Here, we report the case of a 69-year old man with progredient pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcerations under treatment with sunitinib due to hepatocellular carcinoma. A conventional ulcer therapy did not lead to a regression of the lesions. Solely cessation of sunitinib therapy resulted in an improvement of the ulcerations. Sunitinib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets the PDGF-α - and -β-, VEGF-1-3-, KIT-, FLT3-, CSF-1- and RET-receptor, thereby impairing tumour proliferation, pathological angiogenesis and metastasation. Here, we demonstrate that pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers may represent a serious side effect of sunitinib-based anti-cancer treatment.
de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria
This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products. PMID:22489149
Leonia Maria Batista
Full Text Available This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products.
de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria
This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products.
Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T
In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...
Jan 8, 2014 ... confirmed through contrast radiography (using barium meal), hemogram, and ultrasonography. Management was effected using gastroplasty resulting in complete recovery from the initial clinical presentation. Keywords: Canine, Contrast radiography, Pyloroplasty, Gastric diverticulosis, Ulcerations.
treponemes -2- produced localized abscesses in rabbits (49). Spirochetal abscesses were also observed in the hamster cheek ,"ouch after injection of...postulates in that exudate from an infected lesion has not produced ANUG lesions in humans and animals. Although fusospirochetal abscesses have been...fusospirochetal exudate (46). Sixteen bacterial strains recombined with Treponema microdentium did noi produce fusospirochetal abscesses in -uinea
Heetings. 1. American Association of Psychosomatic Medicine 2. International College of Psychosomatic Medicine 3. American Academy of Periodontology ... journal for publication which encompasses the results and conclusions of the entire study. Upon acceptance it will be forwarded to you. 6. . . ...-. ,. FILMED 5-85 DTIC
South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Kim, Jin Young; Tae, Suk Kee
To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of distal radius fractures treated by percutaneous fixation using distal radius-ulna pinning and to assess its effectiveness especially for preventing fracture settling. We retrospectively reviewed 18 distal radius fractures (15 AO type A2 and 3 AO type C1). Range of motion and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were evaluated. We measured radiographic parameters at the final follow-up and compared them with those on immediate postoperative x-rays. All fractures united and average time to initial healing was 6.9 weeks (range, 6-7 wk). Average follow-up was 29 months (range, 26-43 mo). Average wrist flexion and extension were 70° and 65°, respectively. Average forearm supination and pronation were 82° and 83°, respectively. Average pain score was 1.2 and average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 13. Mean difference of ulnar variance, volar tilt, and radial inclination between immediate and final follow-up x-rays was 0.7 mm, 1°, and less than 1°, respectively. Percutaneous fixation of distal radius fractures using distal radius-ulna pinning had favorable radiologic and functional outcomes and was effective in preventing fracture settling during initial healing in unstable extra-articular fractures and some simple sagittal split intra-articular fractures. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herzberg, G; Castel, T
Fractures of the neck and/or head of the ulna or distal ulna fracture (DUF) other than ulnar styloid fractures can occur in combination with distal radius fractures (DRF). This combination can have a significant influence on the treatment and prognosis since it causes the entire distal forearm to be unstable. In a series of 1279 consecutive unilateral DRFs, we found an associated ulnar neck fracture in 5.9% of cases, ulnar head and neck fracture in 1.6%, and isolated ulnar head fracture in 1.4%. Overall, 9% of cases in this study had a DUF with a DRF. The frequency of extra-articular "A" (11%) and intra-articular "C" (9%) DRFs according to the AO classification was about the same. There were no cases of DUF combined with partial "B" DRF. There was a correlation between combined DUF with DRF and the patient's group in the PAF classification. DUF are more frequently associated with DRF in elderly patients. Specific distal ulnar locking plates were recently introduced and they may be a useful adjunct to distal radius locking plates when treating patients with combined DUF and DRF. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, enhancements in implants have made their use possible as a mode of absolute anchorage in orthodontic patients. In this paper, the authors have introduced an innovative technique to unilaterally distalize the upper left 1 st molar to obtain an ideal Class I molar relationship from a Class II existing molar relationship with an indigenous designed distalizer. Clinical Innovation: For effective unilateral diatalization of molar, a novel cantilever sliding jig assembly was utilized with coil spring supported by a buccally placed single micro implant. The results showed 3 mm of bodily distalization with 1 mm of intrusion and 2° of distal tipping of upper left 1 st molar in 1.5 months. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to insert, well-tolerated, and requires minimal patient cooperation compared to other present techniques of molar distalization. Moreover, it is particularly useful in cases that are Class II on one side and Class I on the other, with a minor midline discrepancy and nominal overjet. Patient acceptance level was reported to be within patients physiological and comfort limits.
Full Text Available Four young males with chronic non pitting swelling of lower legs associated with multiple ulcers, scars and pigmentation after parenteral drug abuse were observed in the Dermatovenereology department during last one year. Three of them had active ulcers which healed with withdrawal of offending drug, use of systemic and topical antibiotics and B-complex. All cases were referred to the deaddiction centre. The characteristic clinical features helped in the diagnosis even before history of drug abuse was obtained.
Black JM; Kalowes P
Joyce M Black,1 Peggy Kalowes2 1Adult Health and Illness Department, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 2Nursing Research and Innovation, Long Beach Memorial Miller Children’s & Women’s Hospital, Long Beach, CA, USA Abstract: Pressure ulcers from medical devices are common and can cause significant morbidity in patients of all ages. These pressure ulcers appear in the shape of the device and are most often found from the use of ox...
Pillai, Nilanthy Sharon Anthony; Oh, Choon Chiat; Fung, Michelle Chan Mei; Wijaya, Limin
A 79-year-old Chinese man presented with a 2-month history of pruritic, tender ulceration covering his perianal region. He was initially treated with oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancyclovir, with no improvement. His history included hypertension. On physical examination, there was a 1.5-cm solitary, pink shallow ulcer with a tender erythematous base on the right side of the buttock cleft (Figure 1).
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.
Su Yuen Ng
Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.
O'Meara, S; Cullum, N; Majid, M; Sheldon, T
Chronic wounds, including pressure sores, leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and other kinds of wounds, healing by secondary intention are common in both acute and community settings. The prevention and treatment of chronic wounds includes many strategies, including the use of various wound dressings, bandages, antimicrobial agents, footwear, physical therapies and educational strategies. This review is one of a series of reviews, and focuses on the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and the role of antimicrobial agents in chronic wounds in general. To assess the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of (1) prevention and treatment strategies for diabetic foot ulcers and (2) systemic and topical antimicrobial agents in the prevention and healing of chronic wounds. METHODS - DATA SOURCES: Nineteen electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Relevant journals, conference proceedings and bibliographies of retrieved papers were hand-searched. An expert panel was consulted. Randomised and non-randomised trials with a concurrent control group, which evaluated any intervention for the prevention or treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, or systemic or topical antimicrobials for chronic wounds (diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, leg ulcers of various aetiologies, pilonidal sinuses, non-healing surgical wounds, and cavity wounds) and used objective measures of outcome such as: (1) development or resolution of callus; (2) incidence of ulceration (for diabetic foot ulcer prevention studies); (3) incidence of pressure sores (pressure sore prevention studies); (4) any objective measure of wound healing (frequency of complete healing, change in wound size, time to healing, rate of healing); (5) ulcer recurrence rates; (6) side-effects; (7) amputation rates (diabetic foot ulcer treatment studies); (8) healing rates and recurrence of disease, among others, for pilonidal sinuses. Studies reporting solely microbiological
Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun
This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of endoscopic variceal ligation-(EVL) induced ulcer bleeding.The prevalence of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding is reported to be 3.6%. However, there are only limited reports of this serious complication, and the risk factors and the treatment methods are not well established.A total of 430 patients who had undergone EVL in Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2014 to October 2016 were studied. EVL was performed for prophylaxis or acute hemorrhage. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a bleeding group (n = 33) and a non-bleeding group (n = 397). The patients who had endoscopically confirmed EVL-induced ulcer bleeding were included in the bleeding group.EVL-induced ulcer bleeding occurred in 7.7% (n = 33) of the patients. In a multivariate analysis, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >10 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-10.64), concomitant GV F3 (OR: 14.1, 95% CI: 2.84-71.43), and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy (OR: 8.06, 95% CI: 2.55-25.64) were independent predictive factors of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. Various endoscopic modalities were attempted for hemostasis (EVL in 8 cases [24.2%], endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in 6 cases [18.2%], argon plasma coagulation [APC] in 1 case (3%), Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube in 3 cases [9.1%]), and proton pump inhibitor therapy only in 15 cases (45.5%).MELD score >10, concomitant GV F3, and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy are risk factors for EVL-induced ulcer bleeding.
Full Text Available Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to peptic ulcer bleeding remains an important cause of emergency presentation and hospital admission. Despite advances in many aspects of management, peptic ulcer bleeding is still associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Comprehensive international guidelines have been published, but advances as well as controversies continue to evolve. Important recent advances include the evidence supporting a more restrictive transfusion strategy aiming for a target haemoglobin of 70–90 g/l. Comparative studies have confirmed that the Glasgow–Blatchford score remains the most useful score for predicting the need for intervention as well as for identifying the lowest-risk patients suitable for outpatient management. New scores, including the AIMS65 and Progetto Nazionale Emorragia Digestiva score, may be more accurate in predicting mortality. Pre-endoscopy erythromycin appears to improve outcomes and is probably underused. High-dose oral proton pump inhibition (PPI for 11 days after PPI infusion is advantageous in those with a Rockall score of 6 or more. Oral is as effective as parenteral iron at restoring haemoglobin levels after a peptic ulcer bleed and both are superior to placebo in this respect. Within endoscopic techniques, haemostatic powders and over-the-scope clips can be used when other methods have failed. A disposable Doppler probe appears to provide more accurate determination of both rebleeding risk and the success of endoscopic therapy than purely visual guidance. Non-Helicobacter pylori, non-aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ulcers contribute an increasing percentage of bleeding peptic ulcers and are associated with a poor prognosis and high rebleeding rate. The optimal management of these ulcers remains to be determined.
Hoffmann, Peter; Martin, Lori; Keselica, Michael; Gunson, Diane; Skuba, Elizabeth; Lapadula, Dan; Hayes, Michael; Bentley, Phil; Busch, Steve
This article describes acute toxicity data in cynomolgus monkeys following oral treatment with vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. Acute toxicity symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys include edema formation of the extremities, tails, and face associated with skeletal muscle necrosis, and elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum; hypothermia; hypotension; tachycardia; moribundity; and death in a few isolated instances. In surviving animals, symptoms were reversible even if treatment was continued. Cynomolgus monkeys from Mauritius appear more sensitive than monkeys of Asian origin. The underlying mechanism(s) of these symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys is currently not well understood, although a vascular mechanism including initial vasoconstriction and subsequent vascular leakage in distal extremities may play a role. The monkey data are reviewed and discussed in the context of other preclinical and clinical data, and it is concluded that acute toxicity following vildagliptin treatment is a monkey-specific phenomenon without relevance for humans.
Xu, Wenting; Ni, Cheng; Yu, Ren; Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Zheren; Zheng, Guoqing
The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Compared with the control group, the 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures had a higher body mass index (BMI). Advanced age and higher BMI were more common in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P Osteoporosis in the two fracture groups (P obesity, falls, unknown osteoporosis status, and osteoporosis are associated with high risk of distal radius fracture. If comorbidities and advanced age are also present, this group of persons may be at higher risk for unstable distal radius fractures.
Frankel, W; Lew, J; Su, B; Bain, A; Klurfeld, D; Einhorn, E; MacDermott, R P; Rombeau, J
Butyrate promotes epithelial cell healing and improves symptoms when administered rectally in patients with distal ulcerative colitis (UC). It was hypothesized that butyrate may enhance healing in patients with UC by stimulating colonocyte proliferation and/or protein production. Mucosa from the descending colon was obtained from patients with UC (n = 5), Crohn's disease (n = 8), diverticulitis (n = 6), and cancer (normal tissue 10 cm from tumor; n = 10). Epithelial cells were isolated using dispase/collagenase and differential sedimentation and incubated for 4 hr at 37 degrees C with either Na butyrate (10 mM) or NaCl (10 mM). Protein synthesis was assessed by [14C]leucine incorporation and proliferation was determined with [3H]thymidine. Mean viability and purity were >88%. Spontaneous proliferation was significantly increased in UC when compared to diverticulitis and normal controls. Butyrate significantly increased protein synthesis in UC epithelial cells when compared to saline control. The therapeutic effects of butyrate in patients with UC may be due to its use by epithelial cells as a metabolic fuel to increase protein production and promote healing.
Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori
Shah, Parth; Mahajan, Siddaram; Nageswaran, Sharmila; Paul, Sathish Kumar; Ebenzer, Mannam
Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013-14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe. Quantification of prognosis of the condition would be required to understand the efficacy of current treatment methods and plan for further treatment. This study aims at developing a non contact technique to precisely measure the size of ulcer in patients affected by leprosy. Using MATLAB software, GUI was designed to process the acquired ulcer image by segmenting and calculating the pixel area of the image. The image was further converted to a standard measurement using a reference object. The developed technique was tested on 16 ulcer images acquired from 10 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc analysis software to find the reliability of the system. The analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient (r=0.9882) between the ulcer area measurements done using traditional technique and the newly developed technique, The reliability of the newly developed technique was significant with a significance level of 99.9%. The designed non-contact ulcer area calculating system using MATLAB is found to be a reliable system in calculating the size of ulcers. The technique would help clinicians have a reliable tool to monitor the progress of ulcer healing and help modify the treatment protocol if needed. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.
Agren, M S; Steenfos, H H; Dabelsteen, S
Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed to explain slow-healing leg ulcers, but little is known about the growth behavior of cells in these wounds. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB applied topically to chronic wounds has shown beneficial effects, although the effects have been less...... factor-BB and levels ofplatelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor and beta-receptor. Fibroblasts were obtained by an explant technique and expanded in vitro using fibroblast growth medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and used for the assays at their third passage. Growth of chronic wound...... from the oldest chronic wounds deviated substantially from those of acute wounds and normal dermis, and resembled in vitro aged or senescent fibroblasts. Mitogenic response of chronic wound fibroblasts to human recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB was also reduced with ulcer age...
Nelson, E Andrea; Bell-Syer, Sally E M
Up to 1% of adults will have a leg ulcer at some time. The majority of leg ulcers are venous in origin and are caused by high pressure in the veins due to blockage or weakness of the valves in the veins of the leg. Prevention and treatment of venous ulcers is aimed at reducing the pressure either by removing/repairing the veins, or by applying compression bandages/stockings to reduce the pressure in the veins.The majority of venous ulcers heal with compression bandages, however ulcers frequently recur. Clinical guidelines therefore recommend that people continue to wear compression, usually in the form of hosiery (tights, stockings, socks) after their ulcer heals, to prevent recurrence. To assess the effects of compression (socks, stockings, tights, bandages) in preventing the recurrence of venous ulcers. If compression does prevent ulceration compared with no compression, then to identify whether there is evidence to recommend particular levels of compression (high, medium or low, for example), types of compression, or brands of compression to prevent ulcer recurrence after healing. For this second update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 4 September 2014) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 8). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs)evaluating compression bandages or hosiery for preventing the recurrence of venous ulcers. Two review authors undertook data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently. Four trials (979 participants) were eligible for inclusion in this review. One trial in patients with recently healed venous ulcers (n = 153) compared recurrence rates with and without compression and found that compression significantly reduced ulcer recurrence at six months (Risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.76).Two trials compared high-compression hosiery (equivalent to UK class 3) with
Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff
Loads applied to the forearm result in hyperextension of the elbow. The pathomechanics of hyperextension trauma with load applied to the distal radius and ulna were studied in 10 macroscopically normal cadaver elbow joint specimens to reveal patterns of injury with radial traction (n = 5) compared...... trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius produced the same pattern of injury as reported in hyperextension of the elbow with traction to the forearm when free rotation of the radius relative to the ulna was allowed....... to ulnar traction (n = 5). The mean age of the donors was 60.8 years (range 33-74). Kinematic testing was performed in an experimental 3D-kinematic loading apparatus. The extension range of motion increased by 20.9 degrees +/- 2.9 degrees after joint loading. Hyperextension loads induced joint laxity...
Arundhati G Diwan
Full Text Available Sjögren′s syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disease, chiefly affecting the exocrine glandular function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands. Rarely, it involves the kidneys, central and peripheral nervous system, muscloskeletal apparatus and lungs. We report a rare constellation of SS with distal renal tubular acidosis and quadriparaesis in a young female. History of quadriparaesis was acute, with rapid progression. Supplementary treatment for severe hypokalemia was instituted at the earliest, lest the patient develop respiratory muscle weakness. Concomitantly, metabolic acidosis with alkaline urine was suspected and subsequently investigated. Eventually, this was attributed to impaired renal acidification of urine in the distal tubules. History of dryness of eyes and mouth since 6 months justified salivary gland biopsy. The results yielded a lymphocytic infiltrative pathology strongly favoring SS. The patient benefited from prompt potassium replacement therapy and had complete resolution over the next week. Supportive treatment for predictable manifestations was continued along with potassium supplements.
Full Text Available Elisabeth Lippert, Martina Müller, Claudia Ott University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. Keywords: anti-TNF, biological therapy, inflammatory bowel disease
Kawaratani, Hideto; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Toyohara, Masahisa; Kin, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Tomoyasu; Shirai, Yasuyo; Ikenaka, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masaki; Fujii, Hisao; Fukui, Hiroshi
Clostridium difficile toxin (CD toxin) causes antibiotic-associated colitis, or pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). Although CD toxin is sometimes found in the stools of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), UC is rarely complicated by PMC. We report herein a case of PMC complicating UC, and present a review of the literature. A 71-year-old woman was diagnosed as having UC of the left colon, and treated with prednisolone and mesalazine. Later, however, lumbar spinal stenosis was also detected. After surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis, she suffered postoperative infection of the lumbar region. After 3-week treatment with antibiotics, she developed diarrhea, bloody stools, and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed PMC of the cecum, ascending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Stools were positive for CD toxin. As cefotiam hydrochloride, levofloxacin hydrate (LVFX), and prednisolone were suspected as the causative agents, she was treated with 1.5 g vancomycin (VCM) daily for 2 weeks without ceasing LVFX. Her symptoms improved, and colonoscopy confirmed resolution of PMC. The possibility of PMC should be considered in UC patients treated with antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents or corticosteroids who complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. These patients should be thoroughly investigated by several modalities, including colonoscopy and CD toxin testing. © 2010 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2010 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Dacambra, Mark P; Walker, Richard Ea; Hildebrand, Kevin A
The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern. A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a 'pop' on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later. Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures successfully treated with a single
Kasten, Kevin R; Midura, Emily F; Davis, Bradley R; Rafferty, Janice F; Paquette, Ian M
Complete obstruction of the distal colon or rectum often presents as a surgical emergency. This study evaluated the efficacy of blowhole colostomy versus transverse loop colostomy for the emergent management of distal large intestinal obstruction. Retrospective chart review of all colostomy procedures (CPT 44320) performed for complete distal large bowel obstruction during the past 6 y in a university hospital practice was undertaken. Blowhole was compared with loop colostomy with a primary endpoint of successful colonic decompression. One hundred forty-one patients underwent colostomy creation during the study period. Of these, 61 were completed for acute obstruction of the distal colon or rectum (19 blowhole versus 42 loop colostomy). No differences between study groups were seen in age, gender, body mass index, malnutrition, American Society of Anesthesiology class, time to liquid or regular diet, 30-d or inhospital mortality, or rates of complications. Patients undergoing blowhole colostomy had significantly higher cecal diameters at diagnosis (9.14 versus 7.31 cm, P = 0.0035). Operative time was shorter in blowhole procedures (43 versus 51 min, P = 0.017). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter for blowhole colostomy (6 versus 8 d, P = 0.014). The primary endpoint of successful colonic decompression was met in all colostomy patients. Diverting blowhole colostomy is a safe, quick, and effective procedure for the urgent management of distal colonic obstruction associated with obstipation and massive distention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Ivan; Githens, Michael; Smith, Robert L; Johnston, Tyler R; Park, Don Y; Stauff, Michael P; Salari, Nima; Tileston, Kali R; Kharazi, Alexander I
Previous studies have demonstrated functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusions after transplantation of neural stem cells adjacent to the site of acute injury. The purpose of the study was to determine if the local or distal injection of neural stem cells can cause functional difference in recovery after chronic spinal cord injury. Twenty-four adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into four groups, with six animals in each group: two experimental and two control groups. Functional assessment was measured after injury and then weekly for 6 weeks using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating score. Data were analyzed using two-sample t test and linear mixed-effects model analysis. Posterior exposure and laminectomy at the T10 level was used. Moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor with 10-g weight dropped from a height of 25 mm. Experimental subjects received either a subdural injection of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) locally at the injury site or intrathecal injection of hNSCs through a separate distal laminotomy 4 weeks after injury. Controls received control media injection either locally or distally. A statistically significant functional improvement in subjects that received hNSCs injected distally to the site of injury was observed when compared with the control (p=.042). The difference between subjects that received hNSCs locally and the control did not reach statistical significance (p=.085). The transplantation of hNSCs into the contused spinal cord of a rat led to significant functional recovery of the spinal cord when injected distally but not locally to the site of chronic spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Video Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT) is a laser ray-trace tool for measuring the slope error of solar concentrator mirrors. The VSHOT measurements made on two, 8.5-m diameter, Distal II dishes represent its first use on a concentrator installed and operating in the field. A number of valuable lessons were learned regarding the use of the VSHOT for outdoor testing. The two dishes were found to have overall figure-of-merit RMS slope errors from an ideal parabola of 2.99 and 3.18 milliradians. The VSHOT measurements compare well qualitatively with distant observer photographs made using a colored concentric ring target.
Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.
A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.
Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song
Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.
Full Text Available Temporary anchorage devices popularly called mini-implants or miniscrews are the latest addition to an orthodontist′s armamentarium. The following case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with a pleasant profile, moderate crowding and Angle′s Class II molar relationship. Maxillary molar distalization was planned and mini-implants were used to preserve the anterior anchorage. After 13 months of treatment, Class I molar and canine relation was achieved bilaterally and there was no anterior proclination. Thus, mini-implants provide a viable option to the clinician to carry out difficult tooth movements without any side effects.
Nakatani, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Akisue, Toshihiro; Marui, Takashi; Hitora, Toshiaki; Kawamoto, Teruya; Nagira, Keiko; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kurosaka, Masahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Fujita, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)
Osteoblastomas located on the surface of the cortical bone, so-called periosteal osteoblastomas, are extremely rare. We report on a case of periosteal osteoblastoma arising from the posterior surface of the right distal femur in a 17-year-old man. Roentgenographic, computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic features of the case are presented. Periosteal osteoblastoma should be radiologically and histologically differentiated from myositis ossificans, avulsive cortical irregularity syndrome, osteoid osteoma, parosteal osteosarcoma, periosteal osteosarcoma, and high-grade surface osteosarcoma. Although periosteal osteoblastoma is rare, this tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of surface-type bone tumors. (orig.)
da Silva, Luisa Mota; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; Silveria, Alessandro Conrado de Oliveira; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni
Maytenus robusta Reissek (Celastraceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastric ulcer, as a substitute for M. ilicifolia, which is almost extinct. The gastroprotective properties of M. robusta were demonstrated previously using only preventive approaches, such as acute gastric ulcer models. However, the healing effect of M. robusta in gastric ulcers remains unclear. The current study was carried out to investigate the healing effectiveness of M. robusta hydroalcoholic extract (HEMR) from aerial parts in the acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model and to determine its effect on cell proliferation, scavenging free radicals, and inflammatory and oxidative damage. To evaluate the healing properties of HEMR in vivo, chronic gastric ulcer was induced in rats by 80% acid acetic. Next, different groups of animals (n=6) were treated orally with vehicle (water plus 1% tween, 1 ml/kg), omeprazole (20mg/kg), or HEMR (1-10mg/kg), twice daily for 7 days. At the end of the treatment, the total ulcer area (mm(2)) was measured and a sample of gastric tissue was taken for histological and histochemical analysis. Evaluation of GSH and LOOH levels, GST, SOD, CAT and MPO activity was also performed at the site of the lesion. In parallel, radical scavenging activity, cytoprotective effect, and cell proliferation activity in fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. The antisecretory properties were evaluated using the pylorus ligature model in rats, and the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was determined in vitro. Acute toxicity was evaluated by relative organ weight and biochemical parameters in serum. The prokinetic properties were also evaluated in mice. Oral administration of HEMR (10mg/kg) reduced the gastric ulcer area by 53%, compared to the vehicle group (120.0 ± 8.3mm(2)), the regeneration of gastric mucosa was evidenced in histological analysis. Moreover, HEMR treatment increased gastric mucin content and reduced oxidative stress
Dahl, J E; Becher, R
Previous studies have indicated that tooth-bleaching agents contain potentially hazardous chemicals. The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of a commercially available tooth-bleaching agent and carbamide peroxide, which is the active bleaching ingredient. Rats were dosed by stomach gavage, i.e., via a stomach tube, with 5, 15, and 50 mg carbamide peroxide/kg body weight and 150 and 500 mg tooth-bleaching agent/kg body weight, corresponding to 15 and 50 mg carbamide peroxide/kg body weight. Animals were killed after either one or 24 h. Autopsies were performed, and the distal part of the esophagus and the stomach were removed and processed for light microscopy investigation. Liver and kidney were evaluated histologically in animals killed after 24 h. Carbamide peroxide gave dose-dependent ulcerations of the gastric mucosa, with the 15 mg/kg body weight as the lowest observed effect level. The lesions were clearly visible after one h and seemed to be healing after 24 h. The ulcerations of the gastric mucosa were more pronounced after exposure to the tooth-bleaching agent than those observed after a comparable dose of carbamide peroxide. This may be attributed to the hydrophobic gel and the content of a carbopol (which increases the tissue adherence and retards the release of oxygen) in the bleaching agent. No apparent injury was observed in livers and kidneys. An exposure limit based on the lowest observed effect level (15 mg carbamide peroxide/kg body weight) and a safety factor of 100 were established and utilized in a risk assessment which indicated that daily human exposure during a bleaching procedure may come close to or even exceed this limit.