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Sample records for acute dietary exposure

  1. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz;

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...

  2. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Svensson, K.; Moussavian, S.; Voet, van der H.; Petersen, A.; Ruprich, J.; Debegnach, F.; Boer, de W.J.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Brera, C.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Busk, L.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at

  3. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos......Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... exposure was apple. The results show that there is no cumulative acute risk for Danish consumers to acetylcholinesterase- inhibiting pesticides....

  4. Factors affecting the estimated probabilistic acute dietary exposure to captan from apple consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szabó, I J; Szeitzné-Szabó, M; Ambrus, A; Vásárhelyi, A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the number of pesticide residue values below the LOQ/LOD of analytical methods, the variability of residues in individual fruits, mass of fruit units and the number of bootstrap iterations was studied on the probabilistically estimated acute exposure of consumers. The 4720 daily apple consumption data and the results of 1239 apple sample analyses for captan residues, performed within the Hungarian monitoring programme between 2005 and 2011, were used in this study as model matrix. Up to about 95th percentile exposure (µg/(kg bw·day)), simply multiplying each residue in composite samples with each consumption value gave similar estimates to those obtained with the complex procedure taking also into account the mass of and residues in individual fruits. However, the exposure above the 95th percentile calculated with the complex procedure gradually increased with increasing percentile level compared to the simple procedure. Including the high number of non-detects reduced the estimated exposure, which was the highest when only the residues measured in treated fruits were taken into account. The number of bootstrap iterations between 100 and 10,000 did not significantly affect the calculated exposure. The 99.99th percentile exposure amounted to 17.9% of the acute reference dose of 300 µg/(kg bw·day) for women of childbearing age.

  5. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  6. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2016. Dietary exposure assessment to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154...

  7. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntosh, D L; Spengler, J D; Ozkaynak, H; Tsai, L.; Ryan, P B

    1996-01-01

    Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathio...

  8. Lead dietary exposure in the European population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Lead is a natural environmental contaminant, but its use in the past in water pipes, paint and petrol increased its general presence. Food is the major source of human exposure to lead. Lead accumulates in the body and most seriously affects the developing central nervous system in young children. There is no recommended tolerable intake level as there is no evidence of thresholds for a number of critical health effects. Legislative measures have been gradually introduced to reduce exposure by removing lead from paint, food cans, water pipes and petrol. The current study examined 144,206 analytical results for lead in food collected during a nine-year period. More than half of the foods tested had levels of lead at less than detection or quantification limits. The mean lead levels varied between 0.3 µg/kg for infant follow-on formulae to 4,300 µg/kg for dietetic products with an overall median across all categories of 21.4 µg/kg. Food lead levels decreased by about 23 % between 2003 and 2010, although this should be interpreted cautiously. Mean lifetime dietary exposure was estimated at 0.68 µg/kg b.w. per day in the European population based on middle bound mean lead occurrence. Exposure was highest for toddlers and other children with 1.32 and 1.03 µg/kg b.w. per day, respectively, while the two infant surveys ranged between 0.83 and 0.91 µg/kg b.w. per day. Adult exposure was estimated at 0.50 µg/kg b.w. per day. The elderly and very elderly population groups had similar profiles to the adult age group, while adolescents had slightly higher estimated dietary exposure. Important food category contributors include bread and rolls (8.5 %, tea (6.2 %, tap water (6.1 %, potatoes and potato products (4.9 %, fermented milk products (4.2% and beer and beer-like beverages (4.1 %, although this will vary between age groups and surveys.

  9. Risks of dietary acrylamide exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara Pelicioli; Vinhas, Álvaro Marchand; Moreira, Júlia Dubois

    2014-08-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in carbohydrate-rich foods that have been heated to high temperatures. AA dietary exposure has been associated to development of health problems. We perform a systematic review to elucidate the association of dietary AA exposure and human health problems. Articles were screened by reading titles and abstracts before the full text of eligible articles was read (κ=0.824). Data were harvested by two reviewers and checked by a third. Forty-one articles were analyzed and assessment of dietary exposure proved to be far from uniform and suffered from limitations that possibly impact on the validity of outcomes with relation to human health. Risk assessment of dietary acrylamide exposure is in need of high quality methods for evaluating dietary exposure and validated acrylamide content databases.

  10. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  11. Dietary Exposure of the Chinese Population to Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping Ping; ZHAO Yun Feng; LIU Hua Liang; MA Yong Jian; LI Xiao Wei; YANG Xin; WU Yong Ning

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the current status of the acrylamide in the Chinese food supply, the dietary acrylamide exposure in the Chinese population and to estimate the public health risks of the current consumption. Methods The acrylamide content in the total diet study (TDS) food samples was analyzed using an LC-MS/MS method. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure calculations were performed using a deterministic method, combining mean acrylamide concentrations from the food group composite with their associated food consumptions. Results Acrylamide was detected in 43.7% of all samples collected and acrylamide concentration varied from ND to 526.6 µg/kg. The estimated dietary intakes of acrylamide among Chinese general population given as the mean and the 95th percentile (P95) were 0.286 and 0.490 µg·kg-1 bw·day-1, respectively. The margins of exposure (MOEs) for the population calculated using both benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a 10%extra risk of tumors in animals (BMDL10) 0.31 and 0.18 µg·kg-1 bw·day-1, were 1069 and 621 for the mean dietary exposure, and 633 and 367 for the high dietary exposure respectively. Conclusion These MOE values might indicate a human health concern on acrylamide for Chinese population. Efforts should continue to reduce acrylamide levels in food in order to reduce the dietary risks to the human health.

  12. Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Robert M; Imungi, Jasper K; Muiru, William M; Lamuka, Peter O; Njage, Patrick M Kamau

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in Kibwezi District of Makueni County in Eastern Kenya and analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The samples were quantitatively analysed for aflatoxin contamination using HPLC. The uncertainty and variability in dietary exposure was quantitatively modelled in Ms Excel using Monte Carlo simulation in @Risk software. Aflatoxins were found in 45% of maize kernels at between 18 and 480 μg kg⁻¹, 20% of muthokoi at between 12 and 123 μg kg⁻¹, and 35% of maize meal at between 6 and 30 μg kg⁻¹. The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹ respectively. The results showed that the amount and frequency of consumption of the three foods is the more important contributing factor than the mean aflatoxin concentration levels, to the risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins.

  13. Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid present at low concentrations in rocks, soil and natural ground water. A total of 103 773 food samples (including drinking water were used to calculate dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs. Of these, 101 020 were based on total arsenic (tAs and 2 753 on iAs. Among the reported results on tAs, 66.1 % were below the limit of detection or quantification (left-censored; for the reported data on iAs the percentage of left-censored data was 41.9 %. Most of the data (92.5 % reported as tAs were converted to iAs using different approaches before calculating dietary exposure to iAs. The EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database was used to estimate chronic dietary exposure to iAs using 28 surveys from 17 European countries. According to the scenarios used for the treatment of left-censored data, mean dietary exposure among infants, toddlers and other children ranged from 0.20 to 1.37 μg/kg b.w. per day, while the 95th percentile dietary exposure estimates ranged from 0.36 to 2.09 μg/kg b.w. per day. Mean dietary exposure among the adult population (including adults, elderly and very elderly ranged from 0.09 to 0.38 μg/kg b.w. per day, and 95th percentile dietary exposure estimates ranged from 0.14 to 0.64 μg/kg b.w. per day. For all the age classes except infants and toddlers, the main contributor to dietary exposure to iAs was the food group ‘Grain-based processed products (non rice-based’, in particular, wheat bread and rolls. Other food groups that were important contributors to iAs exposure were rice, milk and dairy products (main contributor in infants and toddlers, and drinking water. The most important sources of uncertainty in the present assessment are related to the heterogeneity of the food consumption data, the conversion of tAs into iAs and to the treatment of the left-censored data.

  14. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  15. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease...... makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.We applied an exposure...... due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach.This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological...

  16. Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truthmann Julia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an important life stage for the development of dietary preferences and health behaviour. Longitudinal studies indicated that cardiovascular status in adolescence predicts cardiovascular risk marker values in adulthood. Several diet quality indices for adolescents have been developed in the past, but literature concerning associations between indices and biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status is rather sparse. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status. Methods For the present analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS 2003–2006 were used. The analysis included 5,198 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years. The Healthy Food Diversity Index (HFD, the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY, the Indicator Food Index (IFI and a simple fruit/vegetable intake index were derived from food frequency questionnaire information to indicate a healthy diet. Adjusted mean values for homocysteine, uric acid, CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, ferritin, HbA1c, folate, vitamin B12 and BMI were calculated using complex-samples general linear models for quintiles of the different indices. Furthermore, the agreement in ranking between the different indices was calculated by weighted kappa. All statistical analyses were conducted for boys and girls separately, and were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Folate was positively associated with the HFD, the HuSKY, and fruit/vegetable intake for both boys and girls and with IFI for boys. Among girls, positive associations were seen between vitamin B12 and the IFI and between diastolic blood pressure and the IFI as well as fruit/vegetable intake. A negative association was found between homocysteine and the HFD, the HuSKY, and the IFI for both boys and girls and with fruit/vegetable intake for boys

  17. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making.

  18. Assessment on Dietary Melamine Exposure from Tainted Infant Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU-DONG JIA; NING LI; ZHU-TIAN WANG; YUN-FENG ZHAO; YONG-NING WU; WEI-XING YAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the dietary melamine exposure in Chinese infants and young children from the consumption of melamine adulterated Sanlu infant formula. Methods Four age groups of infants and young children (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) were chosen as the assessed subjects and the maximum amount of infant formula consumption was estimated based on the recommended usage level in the package insert of Sanlu infant formula and other brands. Melamine was analyzed in 111 Sanlu infant formula samples collected from the markets in Beijing and Gansu province using the LC-MS-MS with a limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/kg. Four levels of melamine concentration were chosen to estimate the dietary intakes, including the mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. Results The infants of 3 months had the highest intake of melamine, and with the increase of the age (month), the intake decreased. Based on the median melamine concentration (1 000 mg/kg) as an example, the melamine intakes for the infants of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were 23.4, 21.4, 15.0, and 8.6 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Conclusion Dietary melamine intakes from tainted Sanlu infant formula significantly exceeded the TDI level (0.2 mg/kg bw/d) recommended by the WHO Expert Meeting in 2008. However, the present assessment has some limitations including the poor representative samples, the varied melamine concentrations in the adulterated Sanlu infant formula, and other brand infant formula possibly consumed by these infants.

  19. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  20. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo; Crépet, Amélie; D'Addezio, Laura; Desvignes, Virginie; Ericsson, Bengt-Göran; Galimberti, Francesco; Ioannou-Kakouri, Eleni; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Rehurkova, Irena; Rety, Josselin; Ruprich, Jiri; Sand, Salomon; Stephenson, Claire; Strömberg, Anita; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Ziegler, Popi; Hamey, Paul; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitoring data of eight European countries. Both the acute and chronic cumulative dietary exposures were calculated according to two model runs (optimistic and pessimistic) as recommended in the EFSA guidance. The exposures obtained with these model runs differed substantially for all countries, with the highest exposures obtained with the pessimistic model run. In this model run, animal commodities including cattle milk and different meat types, entered in the exposure calculations at the level of the maximum residue limit (MRL), contributed most to the exposure. We conclude that application of the optimistic model run on a routine basis for cumulative assessments is feasible. The pessimistic model run is laborious and the exposure results could be too far from reality. More experience with this approach is needed to stimulate the discussion of the feasibility of all the requirements, especially the inclusion of MRLs of animal commodities which seem to result in unrealistic conclusions regarding their contribution to the dietary exposure. PMID:25125392

  1. Dietary nitrate supplementation in COPD: An acute, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kerley, Conor P

    2014-12-19

    The acute consumption of dietary nitrate has been shown to improve exercise capacity in athletes, healthy adults and subjects with peripheral vascular disease. Many COPD patients have reduced exercise capacity. We hypothesized that acute nitrate consumption might increase incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) distance in COPD subjects.

  2. Chromosome aberrations and environmental exposures in acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindquist, Ragnhild Rosengren

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis are to evaluate the role of environmental exposures, especially professional exposure to organic solvents and petroleum products in the etiology of acute leukemia and to investigate if there is a correlation between the exposure to a specific leukemogen factor and a clonal chromosome aberration of the leukemic cells. Papers I and II present results of a case-control study of environmental exposures, in all occupations during life-time, medical treatm...

  3. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  4. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  5. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  6. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  7. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, d...

  8. Poor adherence to dietary guidelines among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Robien, Kim; Ness, Kirsten K.; Klesges, Lisa M.; Baker, K. Scott; Gurney, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, conditions that healthy dietary patterns may help ameliorate or prevent. To evaluate the usual dietary intake of adult survivors of childhood ALL, food frequency questionnaire data were collected from 72 participants, and compared with the 2007 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention recommendations, the DASH diet, and the 2005 USDA Food Guide. Mean daily energ...

  9. Metabolic impacts of high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Madani; Fjære, Even; Lock, Erik-Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of high exposure to dietary POPs remain unclear. We therefore investigated whether elevated exposure to POPs provided by whale meat supplementation could contribute to insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice w...... significant body burden of POPs. This indicates complex interactions between organic pollutants and nutrition in the development of metabolic disorders.......Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of high exposure to dietary POPs remain unclear. We therefore investigated whether elevated exposure to POPs provided by whale meat supplementation could contribute to insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice...

  10. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára;

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and age...... were examined in this case-control study in the Faroe Islands. Blood and hair samples were collected and a questionnaire recorded lifetime information on residence, dietary habits, smoking history, and occupational exposure to solvents, pesticides, and metals. Both unconditional and conditional...... logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in regard to relevant exposure variables. Increased ORs for dietary intakes of whale meat and blubber during adult life were statistically significant. The ORs for occupational exposure to solvents...

  11. A dietary-wide association study (DWAS of environmental metal exposure in US children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Davis

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to toxic metals occurs through diet but few studies have comprehensively examined dietary sources of exposure in US populations.Our goal was to perform a novel dietary-wide association study (DWAS to identify specific dietary sources of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic exposure in US children and adults.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database to examine associations between 49 different foods and environmental metal exposure. Using blood and urinary biomarkers for lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, we compared sources of dietary exposure among children to that of adults.Diet accounted for more of the variation in mercury and arsenic than lead and cadmium. For instance we estimate 4.5% of the variation of mercury among children and 10.5% among adults is explained by diet. We identified a previously unrecognized association between rice consumption and mercury in a US study population--adjusted for other dietary sources such as seafood, an increase of 10 g/day of rice consumption was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 3.6, 5.2 increase in blood mercury concentration. Associations between diet and metal exposure were similar among children and adults, and we recapitulated other known dietary sources of exposure.Utilizing this combination of data sources, this approach has the potential to identify and monitor dietary sources of metal exposure in the US population.

  12. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  13. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo;

    2015-01-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitoring...... model run on a routine basis for cumulative assessments is feasible. The pessimistic model run is laborious and the exposure results could be too far from reality. More experience with this approach is needed to stimulate the discussion of the feasibility of all the requirements, especially...

  14. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A se

  15. PREDICTORS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE RESPONSE TO OZONE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purposes of this study were to identify personal characteristics which predict individual differences in acute response to ozone exposure and to develop a predictive model for decrements in FEV1 as a function of ozone concentration and individual predictors. esponse and predi...

  16. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  17. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  18. Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Juhler, René K.;

    We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced sem...

  19. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  20. Reduced foodborne toxin exposure is a benefit of improving dietary diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Mitchell, Nicole J; Male, Denis; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Naturally occurring foodborne toxins are common in subsistence diets of low-income human populations worldwide. Often, these populations rely on one or two staple foods for the bulk of their calories, making them more susceptible to chronic intake of certain toxins. Exposure to common foodborne toxins is associated with diverse conditions such as cancer, immunotoxicity, growth impairment, and neurological deficits. Interventions focused solely on reducing toxin levels have proven difficult to sustain. Using case studies of two foodborne toxins, aflatoxin and cassava cyanide, this article addresses the heightened risk of particular diseases from eating monotonous diets based in maize, groundnuts, and cassava: common in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We also discuss the potential role of increased dietary diversity in counteracting these diseases. Increased dietary diversity can reduce consumption of toxins and increase intake of nutrients that could counteract the toxicity of such chemicals. In Qidong, China, a population that previously consumed a monotonous maize-based diet and increased dietary diversity since the 1980s has experienced a dramatic reduction in liver cancer mortalities. That liver cancer decreased as dietary diversity increased is the catalyst for the hypothesis that dietary diversity could have a direct impact on reducing health effects of foodborne toxins. Future research, agricultural development, and food policy reforms should take into consideration the multifaceted benefits associated with improved dietary diversity. Collaborations between toxicologists, nutritionists, and policymakers are important to development of sustainable interventions to reduce foodborne toxin exposure and promote health through increased dietary diversity. PMID:25015663

  1. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  2. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  3. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites using Brazilian students as a sample population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolim, W D; De V C Penteado, M

    2005-11-01

    In Brazil, there is neither a register of the use of sulphites by the food industry nor is research being undertaken on their dietary exposure to the population. The objective of the work reported here was to estimate the dietary exposure to sulphites in two different groups of high school students, a fee-paying school group and a state school group. The data were collected through a 24-hour dietary recall, which provided estimates of sulphited foods and beverages in the diet. The Maximum Permitted Level (MPL), established by the Brazilian legislation for each of the sulphited food and beverages, was used to measure the dietary exposure to this additive. On this basis none of the students could have exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.70 mg SO2/kg bw/day, with a average dietary exposure of 0.07 mg SO2/kg bw/day (p<0.001), with no significant statistical difference (p=0.643) between fee-paying and state school students. Highly exposed consumers (dietary exposure to more than 50% of the ADI, or either, 0.35 mg SO2/kg bw/day, to the maximum of 0.52 mg SO2/kg bw/dia) represented 4.5% of the researched samples and reached these levels of intake due to a consumption beyond 500 ml/day of industrialized packaged fruit juices, and, in the fee-paying school, for associating its consumption with alcoholic beverages like beer and wine.

  4. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  5. Acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to exposure to cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thind Gurcharan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is rare but may occur in association with malignancy, certain infections, and exposure to inorganic or organic dust and some toxic fumes. This case report describes the second recorded case of PAP due to exposure to cotton dust. A 24-year-old man developed PAP after working as a spinner for eight years without respiratory protection. He was admitted as an emergency patient with very severe dyspnea for four months and cough for several years. Chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse alveolar consolidation. He died 16 days later, and a diagnosis of acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made at autopsy. The histopathology demonstrated alveoli and respiratory bronchioles filled with characteristic periodic acid Schiff-positive material, which also revealed birefringent bodies of cotton dust under polarized light. Secondary PAP can be fatal and present with acute respiratory failure. The occupational history and characteristic pathology can alert clinicians to the diagnosis.

  6. Acute liver failure associated with occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan; Zhao, Cai-Yan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Ya-Dong; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is a chlorinated solvent that is primarily used in dry cleaning and degreasing operations. Although the hepatotoxicity caused by tetrachloroethylene has been well documented in literature, it is rarely considered as a cause of acute liver failure. We report a case of a 39-yr-old man who was admitted to our hospital for acute liver failure due to tetrachloroethylene exposure. Histological examination of the liver revealed massive hepatic necrosis, prominently, in zone 3 of the hepatic lobules. The patient underwent supportive treatment along with 3 sessions of plasmapheresis, and consequently, he presented a favorable outcome. Repeat liver biopsy performed 6 months after the patient's discharge showed architectural distortion with postnecrotic cirrhosis. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of acute liver failure induced by tetrachloroethylene. Early plasmapheresis can be effective for individuals with sufficient capacity for hepatocyte regeneration.

  7. ACUTE PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANOL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: EFFECT OF AGE, SEX, AND TIMING OF EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2010-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system, neurons pass through critical periods of vulnerability to environmental factors. Exposure to ethanol during gastrulation or during neuronal generation results in a permanent reduction in the number of neurons in trigeminal-associated cranial nerve nuclei. Normal functioning of the trigeminal system is required for social behavior, the present study examined the effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on social interactions across ontogen...

  8. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  9. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  10. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

  11. The role of dietary habits in human internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of the dietary habits of the inhabitants living in the areas contaminated with long-lived radionuclides is an important factor for finding out the ways and specific features of internal dose formation of the population. The diet and structure of food consumption of different contingents of the population in several regions subjected to the radioactive accidents were studied. Using the specially developed questionnaire, we surveyed in Russia over 3000 inhabitants of the Bryansk region, and found out their food rations before the Chernobyl accident and during different time periods after it. In the Urals, we surveyed 102 inhabitants of the village Muslyumovo located on the bank of the Techa river that was contaminated as a result of releases of products of processing nuclear fuel and also more than 136 people residing in the area of the East Ural Radioactive Trace. In the North of the European part of Russia we investigated 310 local inhabitants including 114 reindeer herders. In Kazakhstan, we polled over 114 residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, including 23 herdsmen and members of their families. The dietary habits of all investigated groups of the population strongly differ both due to climatic conditions and national and confessional traditions. Besides that, they are strongly influenced by the sources of the contamination of local food products that also differ both by radionuclide composition and by the time period elapsed since contamination of the considered areas. On the basis of the obtained results, we calculated the internal doses for the population of mentioned regions, which are in good coincidence with the data of direct measurements of radionuclides content in human body. We have determined, which products have the leading role in internal dose formation during different time periods after depositions

  12. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future. PMID:26580736

  13. Dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products of residents in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junfei; Peng, Shaojie; Tian, Mingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Bo; Wu, Min; He, Gengsheng

    2015-01-01

    A dietary survey of 3431 residents was conducted by a 24-h dietary recall method in Shanghai, China, quarterly from September 2013 to September 2014. A total of 400 food samples were tested for aluminium concentration, including wheat flour and puffed products from 2011 to 2013. Probabilistic analysis was used to estimate the dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat and puffed products. The means of dietary aluminium exposure for children (2-6 years old), juveniles (7-17 years old), adults (18-65 years old) and seniors (over 65 years old) were 1.88, 0.94, 0.44 and 0.42 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) respectively, with a population average of 0.51 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1). The proportions of those who had aluminium exposure from wheat and puffed products lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were 77%, 90%, 97%, and 97% respectively from children to seniors. We estimated that the proportions of people at risk would decrease by 13%, 6%, 2% and 2% respectively under the new China National Standards - GB 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for using food additives. The results indicated that aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population in Shanghai; however, children were at a higher risk of excess aluminium exposure. Significant improvements in reducing the dietary exposure to aluminium are expected in the population, especially for children after the implementation of GB 2760-2014.

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities and environmental exposures in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal abnormalities are present in bone marrow of approximately 50% of newly diagnostic acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL) patients, but their etiologic significance, if any, is unclear. The frequency of environmental exposures, gathered by questionnaire from patients or relatives, was compared in 127 newly diagnosed ANLL patients with marrow abnormalities (AA) and 109 ANLL patients with cytogenetically normal marrow. These represented 73% of de novo patients treated at M. D. Anderson Hospital between 1976 and 1983. AA patients were more likely than NN patients to: report cytotoxic treatment for prior medical conditions, smoke cigarettes, drink alcoholic beverages, and work at occupations with possible exposure to mutagens. No statistically significant associations between aneuploidy and use of other tobacco, avocational exposure to chemicals or exposure to animals were present. Associations between specific abnormalities and prior cytotoxic therapy (deletion of chromosome 7), smoking (extra chromosome 8, inversion chromosome 16), and occupation at the time of diagnosis (translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21) were noted. No association between occupational exposure to benzene or ionizing radiation and the 6 most common chromosomal abnormalities in ANLL patients were noted, although these agents are known to be leukemogenic. Problems with interpreting the above associations, including the high nonresponse rate, a high proportion of surrogate respondents, and the large number of significance tests that were performed, are discussed. These results are consistent with those from previously reported series, and suggest that tumor-specific markers may be present for some exposures in this disease

  15. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol from a total diet study in an adult urban Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, F; Nasreddine, L; Hilan, C; Bartosik, M; Parent-Massin, D

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins may be associated with carcinogenic, immunosuppressant and estrogenic effects. In the Middle-East, studies investigating food contamination and dietary exposure to mycotoxins are particularly scarce. This study aims at evaluating the dietary exposure of an adult Lebanese urban population to four mycotoxins (AFB1, AFM1, OTA, DON) classified as priority food contaminants by the WHO. Dietary exposure assessment was performed by means of the total diet study approach. Average and excessive consumer exposure estimates (p95) were calculated and compared with appropriate toxicological reference values (TRVs). Average dietary exposure levels to OTA and DON represented 29.9% and 156.8% of the respective TRVs, with the p95 exposure estimates approaching or exceeding the TRVs for these mycotoxins (95.1% and 355.8%, respectively). Based on the mean dietary exposure level to AFB1, cancer risk was estimated at 0.0527-0.0545cases/100,000persons/year, while mean exposure to AFM1 was associated with a population risk of 0.0018-0.0027cases/100,000persons/year. The study's findings place Lebanon among countries that are highly exposed to mycotoxins through the diet and call for larger-scale studies aiming at providing a comprehensive assessment of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to mycotoxins as well as to other food contaminants.

  16. Social, dietary and clinical correlates of oedema in children with severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Babirekere-Iriso, Esther;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is a serious public health problem, and a challenge to clinicians. Why some children with malnutrition develop oedema (kwashiorkor) is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate socio-demographic, dietary and clinical correlates...... of oedema, in children hospitalised with severe acute malnutrition. METHODS: We recruited children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Data was collected using questionnaires, clinical examination and measurement of blood haemoglobin, plasma c-reactive protein and α1-acid...... glycoprotein. Correlates of oedema were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 120 children included, 77 (64%) presented with oedematous malnutrition. Oedematous children were slightly older (17.7 vs. 15.0 months, p = 0.006). After adjustment for age and sex, oedematous children...

  17. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.;

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b...

  18. Reducing prenatal phthalate exposure through maternal dietary changes: results from a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Methods Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for three days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Results Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F=0.21; adjusted p-value=0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t=−1.07, adjusted p-value=0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  19. Dietary exposure to flavouring substances: from screening methods to detailed assessments using food consumption data collected with EPIC-Soft software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Donne, Le C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Sette, S.; Raffo, A.; Siebelink, E.; Ocke, M.C.; Veer, van 't P.; Leclercq, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings - raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine - was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety limit

  20. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  1. Dietary exposure to the endocrine disruptor tolylfluanid promotes global metabolic dysfunction in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Shane M; Kirkley, Andrew G; Ye, Honggang; El-Hashani, Essam; Zhang, Xiaojie; Neel, Brian A; Kamau, Wakanene; Thomas, Celeste C; Williams, Ayanna K; Hayes, Emily T; Massad, Nicole L; Johnson, Daniel N; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Chunling; Sargis, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors are implicated as putative contributors to the burgeoning metabolic disease epidemic. Tolylfluanid (TF) is a commonly detected fungicide in Europe, and previous in vitro and ex vivo work has identified it as a potent endocrine disruptor with the capacity to promote adipocyte differentiation and induce adipocytic insulin resistance, effects likely resulting from activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling. The present study extends these findings to an in vivo mouse model of dietary TF exposure. After 12 weeks of consumption of a normal chow diet supplemented with 100 parts per million TF, mice exhibited increased body weight gain and an increase in total fat mass, with a specific augmentation in visceral adipose depots. This increased adipose accumulation is proposed to occur through a reduction in lipolytic and fatty acid oxidation gene expression. Dietary TF exposure induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and metabolic inflexibility, while also disrupting diurnal rhythms of energy expenditure and food consumption. Adipose tissue endocrine function was also impaired with a reduction in serum adiponectin levels. Moreover, adipocytes from TF-exposed mice exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity, an effect likely mediated through a specific down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression, mirroring effects of ex vivo TF exposure. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed an increase in adipose glucocorticoid receptor signaling with TF treatment. Taken together, these findings identify TF as a novel in vivo endocrine disruptor and obesogen in mice, with dietary exposure leading to alterations in energy homeostasis that recapitulate many features of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25535829

  2. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  3. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  4. The effect of dietary intake changes on nutritional status in acute leukaemia patients after first induction chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration.

  5. Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eUchida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

  6. Chronic exposure to dietary selenomethionine increases gonadal steroidogenesis in female rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; Higley, Eric; Hursky, Olesya [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). Detrimental effects have been associated with exposure to elevated dietary selenium. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of Se on the endocrine system, in particular effects on cortisol and thyroid hormones. However, no information is available regarding effects of Se on sex steroid hormones. In the present study, effects of dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (4.54 mg/kg wet weight (ww)) of Se-Met for 126 days on concentrations of sex steroid hormones in blood plasma of female rainbow trout were determined. Furthermore, the molecular basis for effects of Se-Met on plasma sex steroid hormone concentrations was investigated. Concentrations of androstenedione (A), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) were 39.5-, 3.8-, and 12.7-fold greater in plasma of treated females than the untreated controls, respectively. Testosterone (T) was detected only in plasma of treated females. The greater E2 concentration stimulated greater transcript abundance of vitellogenin (vtg) and zona-radiata protein (zrp). Female rainbow trout exposed to Se-Met had greater transcript abundance of key steroidogenic proteins and enzymes, including peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-hsd). Exposure to Se-Met did not affect transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone (lh) or follicle stimulating hormone (fsh). Similarly, there was no change in transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) or follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr). Long-term exposure to dietary Se-Met has the potential to stimulate vitellogenesis in female rainbow trout by directly stimulating ovarian tissue steroidogenesis. This is the first study to report effects of Se on sex steroid hormone production in fish.

  7. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier-Clerc Sophie; Fournier Michel; Pellerin Jocelyne; Pichaud Nicolas; Rioux Pascal; Pelletier Émilien

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity) and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT) activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) performed on the digestive gland were estimated as bioma...

  8. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  9. Dietary patterns and their association with acute coronary heart disease: Lessons from the REGARDS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    Shikany et al used data from 17,418 participants in the REGARDS study, a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥ 45 years, enrolled between 2003–2007. They examined 536 acute coronary heart disease events at follow-up (median 5.8 years) in relation to five dietary patterns (Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad). After adjustment for baseline variables, the highest consumers of the Southern pattern experienced a 56% higher ha...

  10. Histopathologic alterations associated with global gene expression due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure in juvenile zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb and male (18.04 ppb fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption.

  11. Relationships between children's exposure to ethnic produce and their dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children. PMID:24817576

  12. An assessment of dietary exposure to glyphosate using refined deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Some uses of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. This paper uses data on residue levels, processing information and consumption patterns, to assess theoretical lifetime dietary exposure to glyphosate. Initial estimates were made assuming exposure to the highest permitted residue levels in foods. These intakes were then refined using median residue levels from trials, processing information, and monitoring data to achieve a more realistic estimate of exposure. Estimates were made using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Exposures were compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI)-the amount of a substance that can be consumed daily without an appreciable health risk. Refined deterministic intakes for all consumers were at or below 2.1% of the ADI. Variations were due to cultural differences in consumption patterns and the level of aggregation of the dietary information in calculation models, which allows refinements for processing. Probabilistic exposure estimates ranged from 0.03% to 0.90% of the ADI, depending on whether optimistic or pessimistic assumptions were made in the calculations. Additional refinements would be possible if further data on processing and from residues monitoring programmes were available. PMID:27371367

  13. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. PMID:26710981

  14. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  15. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  16. THERMOREGULATION IN THE RAT DURING CHRONIC, DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS, AN ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration of chlorpyrifos (CHP) at a dose of 25 to 80 mg/kg (p.o.) To rats results in hypothermia followed by a fever lasting for several days. To understand if chronic, low level exposure to CHP affects thermoregulation in a comparable manner to acute administration, male L...

  17. Pattern of mercury allocation into egg components is independent of dietary exposure in Gentoo penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Abel, Stephanie; Polito, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Avian eggs have become one of the most common means of evaluating mercury contamination in aquatic and marine environments and can serve as reliable indicators of dietary mercury exposure. We investigated patterns of mercury deposition into the major components of penguin eggs (shell, membrane, albumen, and yolk) using the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) as a model species. Eggs were collected from both wild and captive populations of Gentoo penguins to compare the allocation of mercury into individual egg components of birds feeding at disparate trophic positions as inferred by stable isotope analysis. Mercury concentrations in captive penguins were an order of magnitude higher than in wild birds, presumably because the former were fed only fish at a higher trophic position relative to wild penguins that fed on a diet of 72-93% krill (Euphausia spp.). Similar to previous studies, we found the majority of total egg mercury sequestered in the albumen (92%) followed by the yolk (6.7%) with the lowest amounts in the shell (0.9%) and membrane (0.4%). Regardless of dietary exposure, mercury concentrations in yolk and membrane, and to a lesser degree shell, increased with increasing albumen mercury (used as a proxy for whole-egg mercury), indicating that any component, in the absence of others, may be suitable for monitoring changes in dietary mercury. Because accessibility of egg tissues in the wild varies, the establishment of consistent relationships among egg components will facilitate comparisons with any other study using eggs to assess dietary exposure to mercury. PMID:22002784

  18. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  19. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  20. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure.

  1. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  2. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population. PMID:27144988

  3. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly;

    2010-01-01

    to make user-friendly food categorisation systems for contaminants and food colours applicable on a pan-European level. However, a set of difficulties were encountered in creating a common food categorisation system for 14 individual food consumption databases that differ in the type and number of foods...... coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments.......Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food...

  4. Sildenafil does not Improve Exercise Capacity under Acute Hypoxia Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Salinas, A H; Fort, N; Torrella, J R; Pagès, T; Javierre, C; Viscor, G

    2016-09-01

    The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) due to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could be a limiting factor for physical performance during hypoxic exposure. Sildenafil has been shown to reduce PAP in situations of moderate or severe hypoxia, and consequently its role as an ergogenic aid and even a possible doping substance must be considered. We performed a double-blind crossover study to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic parameters in normoxia and during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (4 000 m) at rest and during maximal and submaximal (60% VO2 max) exercise tests. One hour before testing started, sildenafil (100 mg) or a placebo was orally administered to 11 volunteers. In normoxic conditions, sildenafil did not affect performance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters in hypoxic conditions at rest or during exercise. The use of sildenafil to improve physical performance in non-acclimatized subjects is not supported by our data. PMID:27414159

  5. Acute skin lesions due to localized ``hot particle`` radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-06-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small (<0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles. Hanford mini-swine were exposed to localized doses from 0.2 to over 600 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70{mu}m depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit.

  6. A systematic review on food lead concentration and dietary lead exposure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yingliang; Liu Pei; Wu Yongning; Min Jie; Wang Cannan; Sun Jinfang; Zhang Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Background By synthesizing results from primary studies,systematic review can provide empirical information of concerned problems.This study aimed to review the available surveillance data from studies reporting the contamination surveillance of food lead in China.Methods Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching Chinese Biological Medicine Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure using the key term of "lead" for surveillance data published in Chinese between 2006 and 2012.To avoid potential selection bias,all articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers,and the disagreements were resolved by discussion or the third author was asked to arbitrate.Results Among 269 identified publications on surveillance data of lead in food,43 articles met the defined inclusion criteria.The food samples were divided into 11 groups (cereal grains and pulses,fish,eggs,vegetables,meat,edible fungi,milk and dairy products,fruits,offal,tea and preserved egg).Surveillance data of publications were reviewed to calculate the weighted mean and rate exceeding maximum levels.Our results indicated that the highest lead concentration was 1.937 mg/kg in tea.The total pementage of samples exceeding the maximum levels was 5.57%.Dietary exposure to lead was assessed by combining the weighted mean concentration of surveillance data with national consumption data in 2002.In this review,dietary intake of lead was 1.232 μg/kg b.w./day.Conclusion Further control measures should be taken to reduce exposure to lead,from both dietary and non-dietary sources.

  7. Dietary phthalate exposure in pregnant women and the impact of consumer practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Samantha E; Karr, Catherine J; Seixas, Noah S; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Barrett, Emily S; Janssen, Sarah; Redmon, Bruce; Swan, Shanna H; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES), using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels (95% CI: -2.0, -0.2). Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: -29.5, -1.3) in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7) than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed. PMID:24927036

  8. Relation between dietary acrylamide exposure and biomarkers of internal dose in Canadian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Benjamin; Ayotte, Pierre; Normandin, Louise; Gaudreau, Éric; Bienvenu, Jean-François; Fennell, Timothy R; Blanchet, Carole; Phaneuf, Denise; Lapointe, Caroline; Bonvalot, Yvette; Gagné, Michelle; Courteau, Marilène; Snyder, Rodney W; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in several foods. Little information is available regarding exposure of adolescents, a subgroup potentially consuming more AA-rich foods. We investigated the relationship between dietary AA intake and levels of biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts) in 195 non-smoking teenagers of Montreal Island aged 10-17 years. Dietary habits and personal characteristics were documented by questionnaire. AA and its metabolites were quantified in 12-h urine collections by LC-MS/MS. Hemoglobin adducts from 165 blood samples were also analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Most prevalent urinary metabolites were NACP and NACP-S, with respective geometric mean concentrations of 31.2 and 14.2 μmol/mol creatinine. Geometric mean concentrations of AAVal and GAVal (hemoglobin adducts of AA and glycidamide (GA) with N-terminal valine residues) were 45.4 and 45.6 pmol/g globin, respectively. AA intake during the 2 days before urine collection was a significant predictor of NACP+NACP-S urinary concentrations (P<0.0001). AA intakes during the month before blood collection (P<0.0001) and passive smoking (P<0.05) were associated with adduct levels. Levels of hemoglobin adducts were above biomonitoring equivalent values corresponding to a 1 × 10(-4) excess cancer risk, which may indicate the need to reduce AA exposure in the population. PMID:23756700

  9. Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Bahloul, M; Uddin, S; Zafar, J

    2013-04-01

    Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence in indoor environments is linked to their use in a variety of consumer products such as children's toys, cosmetics, food packaging, flexible PVC flooring among others. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust from homes in Kuwait and to assess non-dietary human exposure to these phthalates. Dust samples were randomly collected from 21 homes and analyzed for eight phthalates. The concentrations of total phthalates were log normally distributed and ranged from 470 to 7800 μg/g. Five phthalates [Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP)] were routinely detected. The major phthalate compound was DEHP at a geometric mean concentration of 1704 μg/g (median, 2256 μg/g) accounting for 92% of the total phthalates measured. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates for children and adults, estimated human non-dietary exposure based on median phthalate concentrations ranged from 938 ng/kg-bd/day for adults to 13362 ng/kg-bd/day for toddlers. The difference in exposure estimates between children and adults in this study supports previous reports that children are at greater risk from pollutants that accumulate indoors.

  10. Dietary Phthalate Exposure in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Consumer Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Serrano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES, using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolite levels (95% CI: −2.0, −0.2. Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: −29.5, −1.3 in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7 than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed.

  11. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  12. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  13. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  14. Acute effects of exposure to 56Fe and 16O particles on learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles can exert acute effects on cognitive performance; i.e., effects within 4-48 hrs after exposure. The present ...

  15. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  16. Dietary selenium protect against redox-mediated immune suppression induced by methylmercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Yin, Daqiang; Yin, Jiaoyang; Chen, Qiqing; Wang, Rui

    2014-10-01

    The antagonism between selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been widely recognized, however, the protective role of Se against methylmercury (MeHg) induced immunotoxicity and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the current study, MeHg exposure (0.01 mM via drinking water) significantly inhibited the lymphoproliferation and NK cells functions of the female Balb/c mice, while dietary Se supplementation (as Se-rich yeast) partly or fully recovered the observed immunotoxicity, indicating the protective role of Se against MeHg-induced immune suppression in mice. Besides, MeHg exposure promoted the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced the levels of nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidants in target organs, while dietary Se administration significantly diminished the MeHg-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cellular dysfunctions (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation). Two possible mechanisms of Se's protective effects were further revealed. Firstly, the reduction of mercury concentrations (less than 25%, modulated by Se supplementation) in the target organs might contribute, but not fully explain the alleviated immune suppression. Secondly and more importantly, Se could help to maintain/or elevate the activities of several key antioxidants, therefore protect the immune cells against MeHg-induced oxidative damage.

  17. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites in child and adult populations in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtiaga, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Alonso, Ana; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2013-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additive in food. The aim of this study was to assess dietary sulphite intake in adults aged 35-65 years and in children aged 4-18 years living in the Basque Country, northern Spain. We determined sulphite concentrations in 909 samples covering 16 food types. The maximum permitted levels were exceeded in 17% of samples. Making recommended assumptions for non-quantifiable results, estimates of mean lower and upper bounds were calculated for sulphite concentrations in each food type. These sulphite data were combined with consumption data derived from 8417 adults from the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Gipuzkoa, recruited in 1992-1995 using a diet history method, and 1055 children from the Basque Country Nutrition Children Survey, conducted in 2004-2005 using two 24-h recall questionnaires to assess diet. The results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The mean dietary exposure to sulphites was 0.08 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, only 11% of the ADI in the overall group of children (4-18 years old), but the acceptable intake was exceeded by 4% of 4-6 year olds. For the adults (35-65 years old), the mean dietary exposure was 0.31 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, 45% of the ADI, but the acceptable intake was exceeded in 14.6% of cases. The major contributing foods were minced meat and other meat products for children and wine for adults.

  18. Dietary BMAA exposure in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster from southern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Masseret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary exposure to the cyanotoxin BMAA is suspected to be the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Western Pacific Islands. In Europe and North America, this toxin has been identified in the marine environment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clusters but, to date, only few dietary exposures have been described. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at identifying cluster(s of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Hérault district, a coastal district from Southern France, and to search, in the identified area(s, for the existence of a potential dietary source of BMAA. METHODS: A spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed in the district, considering all incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases identified from 1994 to 2009 by our expert center. We investigated the cluster area with serial collections of oysters and mussels that were subsequently analyzed blind for BMAA concentrations. RESULTS: We found one significant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster (p = 0.0024, surrounding the Thau lagoon, the most important area of shellfish production and consumption along the French Mediterranean coast. BMAA was identified in mussels (1.8 µg/g to 6.0 µg/g and oysters (0.6 µg/g to 1.6 µg/g. The highest concentrations of BMAA were measured during summer when the highest picocyanobacteria abundances were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: While it is not possible to ascertain a direct link between shellfish consumption and the existence of this ALS cluster, these results add new data to the potential association of BMAA with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, one of the most severe neurodegenerative disorder.

  19. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  20. Acute Exposure from RADON-222 and Aerosols in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, George Paul, IV

    Radon-222 in water is released when the water is aerated, such as during showering. As a result, a temporary burst of radon-222 can appear as a short term, or acute, exposure. This study looked at homes with radon-222 concentrations in water from 800 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) to 53,000 pCi/l to determine the buildup of radon gas in a bathroom during showering. Samples from the tap and drain, compared to determine the percentage of radon-222 released, showed that between 58% and 88% of radon-222 in the water was released. The resultant radon-222 increase in air, measured with a flow-through detector, ranged from 2 pCi/l to 114 pCi/l in bathrooms due to a 10 to 15 minute shower with water flow rates ranging from 3 l/min to 6 l/min. Significantly, these rates did not fall rapidly but stayed approximately the same for up to 15 minutes after the water flow ceased. In examining exposures, the true danger is in the radon-222 progeny rather than the radon itself. The progeny can be inhaled and deposited in the tracheobronchial passages in the lung. Filter samples of bathroom air measured in a portable alpha spectrometer showed an increase in radon-222 progeny, notably polonium-218 and -214, in the air after showering. These increases were gradual and were on the order of 0.5 pCi/l at the highest level. Tap samples measured in a portable liquid scintillator showed that the progeny are present in the water but are not in true secular equilibrium with the radon-222 in the water. Therefore, the radon-222 does not have to decay to produce progeny since the progeny are already present in the water. A two stage sampler was used to examine the percentage of radiation available in aerosols smaller than 7 microns. Repeated trials showed that up to 85% of the radiation available in the aerosols is contained in the smaller, more respirable particles.

  1. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  2. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  3. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo;

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  4. Acute leukaemia after exposure to a weed killer, 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, T T; Palva, I P

    1980-01-01

    Acute leukaemia is known to develop in many cases of benzene-induced pancytopenia [1]. This is a report of the development of acute leukaemia in a patient who had apparently recovered from pancytopenia after chronic exposure to a weed killer, 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyacetic acid. PMID:6769284

  5. Effects of dietary exposure of polycyclic musk HHCB on the metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, María Victoria; Jiménez, María Ángeles; San Segundo, Laura; Martini, Federica; Beltrán, Eulalia; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The compound 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-[γ]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB; galaxolide, Chemical Abstracts Service number 1222-05-5) is a synthetic musk used extensively as a fragrance in many consumer products and classified as an emerging pollutant. The ecotoxicological information available for HHCB addresses exposure via water, but this compound is frequently adsorbed into particulate matter. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary exposure to several environmentally relevant HHCB concentrations adsorbed in food during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. The authors sought to determine if such exposure to this synthetic musk resulted in histological changes in the thyroid gland in conjunction with changes in development (staging, timing to metamorphosis), body weight, and length. Developmental acceleration on day 14, together with hypertrophy of the thyroid follicular epithelium in tadpoles, suggested a possible agonistic effect of HHCB, which would have been compensated after metamorphosis by regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Further research into the potential thyroid-related mechanisms of action of HHCB should be conducted. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1428-1435. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26472276

  6. Dietary exposure of acrylamide from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Yongjian; Li, Xiaowei; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    The levels of acrylamide in 240 food composite samples from the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured using an LC-MS/MS method and the exposure estimates for the general population were evaluated. The samples were collected from 20 provinces in China, covering about two thirds of the Chinese population. Acrylamide was detected in 40.0% of composite samples with the concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 211.8 μg/kg. The average dietary intakes from the 5th Chinese TDS were 0.319 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and an increase with about 70% was observed from the 3rd Chinese TDS in 2000 to the 5th Chinese TDS between 2009 and 2012. The main food group contributors to acrylamide exposure were vegetables (35.2%), cereals (34.3%) and potatoes (15.7%). Based on the benchmark dose lower confidence limit at 10% risk (BMDL10) of 0.31 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for the induction of mammary tumors in rats and 0.18 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for Harderian gland tumors in mice, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were 973 and 565 for Chinese general population, respectively. These MOEs indicate a human health concern.

  7. Assessment of dietary exposure and effect in humans: The role of NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duynhoven, John P M; Jacobs, Doris M

    2016-08-01

    In human nutritional science progress has always depended strongly on analytical measurements for establishing relationships between diet and health. This field has undergone significant changes as a result of the development of NMR and mass spectrometry methods for large scale detection, identification and quantification of metabolites in body fluids. This has allowed systematic studies of the metabolic fingerprints that biological processes leave behind, and has become the research field of metabolomics. As a metabolic profiling technique, NMR is at its best when its unbiased nature, linearity and reproducibility are exploited in well-controlled nutritional intervention and cross-sectional population screening studies. Although its sensitivity is less good than that of mass spectrometry, NMR has maintained a strong position in metabolomics through implementation of standardisation protocols, hyphenation with mass spectrometry and chromatographic techniques, accurate quantification and spectral deconvolution approaches, and high-throughput automation. Thus, NMR-based metabolomics has contributed uniquely to new insights into dietary exposure, in particular by unravelling the metabolic fates of phytochemicals and the discovery of dietary intake markers. NMR profiling has also contributed to the understanding of the subtle effects of diet on central metabolism and lipoprotein metabolism. In order to hold its ground in nutritional metabolomics, NMR will need to step up its performance in sensitivity and resolution; the most promising routes forward are the analytical use of dynamic nuclear polarisation and developments in microcoil construction and automated fractionation. PMID:27573181

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ARSENIC SPECIATION METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING BACKGROUND EXPOSURE LEVELS OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN DIETARY SAMPLES AND APPLICATION TO IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingestion of arsenic is the primary route of exposure for most people, with dietary intake and drinking water as the primary sources of that exposure. Traditionally, measurements of arsenic dietary intake are based on food consumption data coupled with total arsenic data from a ...

  9. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-10-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. PMID:27372065

  10. Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs and metals among Eskimo (Inuit and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. Study design. A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001–2003; assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Methods. Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons, chemical analyses (POPs and metals of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples, substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly intakes of traditional food. Results. POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal, fats (whale and seal, liver (most animals and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal. Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Conclusions. Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination

  11. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Korean food basket and estimation of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghi, Mandana; Shin, Eun-Su; Son, Min-Hui; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Pyo, Heesoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant that is used worldwide in expanded and extruded polystyrene foam and simultaneously emitted to the environment. HBCD can easily accumulate in animals and humans and cause neurotoxicity, thyroid hormone disruption, and reproductive disorders. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the HBCD concentrations in foods and estimate the human exposure through the diet. In this study a total of 521 food samples from eight food categories were sampled and analyzed for their HBCD content. Based on consumption data, the average dietary intake of the general Korean population and specific subgroups was calculated. The highest levels of HBCD were found in fish and shellfish (0.47 ng g(-1) ww), and this was attributed to natural exposure to the contaminated marine environments and the HBCD bioaccumulation. In addition, the use of expanded polystyrene buoys in aquaculture was also found to be a potential source of HBCD in bivalves. The high solubility of α-HBCD in water and the persistence of this diastereomer compared to β- and γ-HBCD in biological tissues, led to higher accumulation of α-HBCD in animal-based foods. In contrast, the diastereomeric selectivity and lower metabolic capacity in plants compared with animals led to the predominance of γ-HBCD in plant-based foods. The dietary intake of HBCD was estimated to be 0.82 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) in the general population and 2.89 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) in children up to 5 years of age. The high HBCD intake in children was found to be a result of their lower body weight and their high consumption of milk and homemade Korean baby foods that usually contain fish. PMID:26924755

  12. Steroids in marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 24 steroids were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China. Ten, 9, 10, 15 of 24 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from testosterone) to 40 ng/L (prednisolone), from 0.1 (4-androstene-3,17-dione) to 2.4 ng/g (progesterone), from 0.3 ng/g (testosterone) to 21.4 ng/g (epi-androsterone), and from testosterone) to 560 ng/g (cortisol) (wet weight) in the water, sediment, feed and biota samples, respectively. Synthetic steroids (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, 17α-boldenone, 17β-boldenone, 17β-trenbolone, prednisolone, norgestrel) were detected in the feed samples, clearly demonstrating the illegal use of steroids in the feed. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of steroids calculated in different aquatic organisms ranged from 93.8 to 4000. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestagens via consumption of seafood (i.e., shrimps, crabs, mollusks, and fish) for different age groups were in the range of 33.4-134, 2061-8566, and 40.4-155 ng/d for children (2-5 years), youth (6-18 years), and adults (>18 years), respectively. Even though no significant risk from dietary exposure arises from individual steroid, elevated risk to humans can result from the occurrence of multiple steroids in the seafood raised in the aquaculture farms, especially for the sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and children. PMID:25268569

  13. Environmental, dietary, demographic, and activity variables associated with biomarkers of exposure for benzene and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P G; Ouyang, M; Freeman, N; Lioy, P J

    2003-11-01

    Classification and regression tree methods represent a potentially powerful means of identifying patterns in exposure data that may otherwise be overlooked. Here, regression tree models are developed to identify associations between blood concentrations of benzene and lead and over 300 variables of disparate type (numerical and categorical), often with observations that are missing or below the quantitation limit. Benzene and lead are selected from among all the environmental agents measured in the NHEXAS Region V study because they are ubiquitous, and they serve as paradigms for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals, two classes of environmental agents that have very different properties. Two sets of regression models were developed. In the first set, only environmental and dietary measurements were employed as predictor variables, while in the second set these were supplemented with demographic and time-activity data. In both sets of regression models, the predictor variables were regressed on the blood concentrations of the environmental agents. Jack-knife cross-validation was employed to detect overfitting of the models to the data. Blood concentrations of benzene were found to be associated with: (a) indoor air concentrations of benzene; (b) the duration of time spent indoors with someone who was smoking; and (c) the number of cigarettes smoked by the subject. All these associations suggest that tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to benzene. Blood concentrations of lead were found to be associated with: (a) house dust concentrations of lead; (b) the duration of time spent working in a closed workshop; and (c) the year in which the subject moved into the residence. An unexpected finding was that the regression trees identified time-activity data as better predictors of the blood concentrations than the measurements in environmental and dietary media.

  14. Dietary cadmium exposure and kidney stone incidence: a population-based prospective cohort study of men & women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura D K; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Wolk, Alicja; Akesson, Agneta

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium exposure is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. Hypercalciuria is recognised as a major risk factor for kidney stone formation. Increased prevalence of kidney stones among those occupationally exposed to cadmium has previously been suggested. Food is the main source of cadmium exposure in the general population with tobacco representing an important additional source among smokers. We aimed to assess the association between dietary cadmium exposure and kidney stone incidence in two large population-based, prospective cohorts of men (Cohort of Swedish Men; COSM) and women (The Swedish Mammography Cohort; SMC). Those with a history of kidney stones were excluded. At baseline 1997, men (45-79yrs) and women (48 to 83yrs), completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and lifestyle. During 12years of follow-up, we ascertained 707 cases of kidney stones in men and 290 in women through linkage of the cohorts to the national inpatient and outpatient registers. Individual dietary cadmium exposure was estimated using dietary data and concentrations of cadmium in food. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for other risk factors. Estimated dietary cadmium exposure was not associated with increased kidney stone incidence among men HR 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.23) or women HR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.89-1.43), comparing the highest tertile with the lowest. In conclusion, our results do not support a strong association between dietary cadmium and kidney stone risk at the exposure levels seen in the general population.

  15. Effect of Acute Dietary Nitrate Consumption on Oxygen Consumption During Submaximal Exercise in Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriker, Colin R; Mermier, Christine M; Van Dusseldorp, Trisha A; Johnson, Kelly E; Beltz, Nicholas M; Vaughan, Roger A; McCormick, James J; Cole, Nathan H; Witt, Christopher C; Gibson, Ann L

    2016-08-01

    Reduced partial pressure of oxygen impairs exercise performance at altitude. Acute nitrate supplementation, at sea level, may reduce oxygen cost during submaximal exercise in hypobaric hypoxia. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic response during exercise at altitude following acute nitrate consumption. Ten well-trained (61.0 ± 7.4 ml/kg/min) males (age 28 ± 7 yr) completed 3 experimental trials (T1, T2, T3). T1 included baseline demographics, a maximal aerobic capacity test (VO2max) and five submaximal intensity cycling determination bouts at an elevation of 1600 m. A 4-day dietary washout, minimizing consumption of nitrate-rich foods, preceded T2 and T3. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, subjects consumed either a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PL) or ~12.8 mmol nitrate rich (NR) beverage 2.5 hr before T2 and T3. Exercise at 3500 m (T2 and T3) via hypobaric hypoxia consisted of a 5-min warm-up (25% of normobaric VO2max) and four 5-min cycling bouts (40, 50, 60, 70% of normobaric VO2max) each separated by a 4-min rest period. Cycling RPM and watts for each submaximal bout during T2 and T3 were determined during T1. Preexercise plasma nitrite was elevated following NR consumption compared with PL (1.4 ± 1.2 and 0.7 ± 0.3 uM respectively; p exercise at 3500 m does not reduce oxygen cost but may reduce blood lactate accumulation at lower intensity workloads. PMID:26630309

  16. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  17. Dietary predictors of young children’s exposures to chlorpyrifos, permethrin, and 2,4-D using urinary biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data exist on the association between dietary habits and urinary biomarker concentrations of pesticides in children. The objective was to examined the association between the weekly intake frequency of 65 food items and urinary biomarkers of exposure to chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-tr...

  18. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; Boer, de W.J.; Voet, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a popula

  19. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; de Boer, W.J.; van der Voet, H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a popula

  20. SPECIES SPECIFIC DIETARY ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: THE NEED TO ESTIMATE BIOACCESSIBILITY AND ASSESSING THE IMPLIED PRESYSTEMIC METABOLISM IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical form specific toxicity of arsenic dictates the need for species specific quantification in order to accurately assess the risk from an exposure. The literature has begun to produce preliminary species specific databases for certain dietary sources, but a quantitativ...

  1. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Sioen, I.; Voet, van der H.; Huybrechts, I.; Neve, De M.; Amiano, P.; Azpiri, M.; Busk, L.; Christensen, T.; Hilbig, A.; Hirvonen, T.; Koulouridaki, S.; Lafay, L.; Liukkonen, K.H.; Moschandreas, J.; Papoutsou, S.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Ruprich, J.; Serra-Majem, L.; Tornaritis, M.; Turrini, A.; Urtizberea, M.; Verger, E.; Westerlund, A.; Kersting, M.; Henauw, de S.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to

  2. [Current dietary exposure to mercury during pregnancy and childhood, and public health recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ibarlucea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of mercury during vulnerable periods (such as pregnancy and childhood) may have serious consequences for cognitive development, as observed after acute poisoning episodes in Japan and Irak. The main source of mercury exposure in the general population is consumption of certain types of fish. There is growing concern about the possible neurotoxic effects of mercury, especially in younger children in populations where fish intake is moderate to high. The scientific evidence to date is inconclusive. In Spain, the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) project has provided information on levels of prenatal exposure to mercury among 1800 newborns from Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa. In general, levels were high, being above the World Health Organization's recommended dose in 24% of children and above the recommended levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 64%. However, the results did not indicate a significant association between prenatal mercury exposure and delayed cognitive development during the second year of life. Various agencies have developed recommendations on fish consumption for pregnant women and children, due to the presence of mercury. These recommendations should be strengthened, since there is general consensus among all regional and national public administrations that fish is an essential source of nutrients for development in the early stages of life.

  3. In vitro and in vivo models of acute alcohol exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Dolganiuc; Gyongyi Szabo

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a global problem due to the financial burden on society and the healthcare system. While the harmful health effects of chronic alcohol abuse are well established, more recent data suggest that acute alcohol consumption also affects human wellbeing. Thus, there is a need for research models in order to fully understand the effect of acute alcohol abuse on different body systems and organs. The present manuscript summarizes the interdisciplinary advantages and disadvantages of currently available human and non-human models of acute alcohol abuse,and identifies their suitability for biomedical research.

  4. Energetic cost of dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) for white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is an environmental factor often overlooked in ecological studies. Yet exposure to toxicants is likely to be metabolically expensive, and result in a trade-off between energy spent to detoxify an excrete contaminants, and energy allocated to growth or reproduction. To quantify the energetic cost of PCB exposure, we fed mice diets containing 0, 0.1, 10 and 25 ppm PCBs (mg PCBs/kg food). After 6 wks, there were no differences in food intake or body mass related to the level of dietary PCBs. We continued to feed mice the PCB diets for one year, and then measured food intake and resting metabolic rate. After one year, all mice had gained mass, but mice on the 25 ppm diet were significantly heavier than mice in the other groups. Mice on the 25 ppm diet also showed an increase in both food intake (p=0.06) and metabolic rate (p=0.01), after correction for differences in body mass. Food intake averaged 4.1 g/d for mice on the 25 ppm diet, compared to 3.7 gld for control mice. Oxygen consumption at 30°C averaged 40.1 ml O2/h for mice on the 25 ppm diet, compared to 36.6 ml O2/h for control mice. These results show that for white-footed mice, there is an energetic cost to contaminant exposure that when combined with other environmental stresses, will influence patterns of energy acquisition and allocation.

  5. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  6. Effect of acute and chronic excesses of dietary nitrogen on blood neutrophil functions in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; De Marchi, L; Ferraton, J M; Gannac, S; Millet, A; Enjalbert, F; Schelcher, F; Foucras, G

    2014-12-01

    Excess dietary nitrogen (EDN) is commonly expected in dairy herds, but no data are available regarding its consequences on cattle immunity. In this study neutrophil functions were assessed during EDN in steers. In experiment 1, 4 one-month periods, 4 diets [16% crude protein (CP; DM basis), 20% CP based on soybean meal, 20% CP based on urea, and 24% CP based on urea and soybean meal], and 4 steers were included in a crossover design to determine the effects of a chronic excess. In experiment 2, the repercussions of an acute excess were assessed with 2 periods of 10 d, the same 4 steers, and 2 diets containing 14 and 20% CP. Sampling was done during the fourth week of each period in experiment 1, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 9 of each period in experiment 2. Individual blood biochemistry parameters were measured and neutrophil factors, such as counts, recovery after isolation, surface expression of CD11b and CD62L, phagocytosis, diapedesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and bacteria killing, were determined. Data were analyzed by general linear models of R, with period, diet or biochemical component, and animal as explanatory variables. The outcome variables were biochemical or immune variables. The variables diet, period, and animal were forced as fixed effects. Data collected over the entire period of experiment 2 were pooled. Several multiples linear regressions or ANOVA were performed and a Bonferroni correction was applied. In experiment 2 (acute EDN), neutrophil counts were negatively associated with nitrogen intake, conversely to CD62L expression. The observed relative neutropenia may be due to neutrophil margination because CD62L-expressing neutrophils are more likely to stick to endothelium. Interestingly, ROS production was changed by EDN: chronic EDN (experiment 1) was negatively associated with opsonized zymozan (OZ)-induced ROS production and acute EDN (experiment 2) with spontaneous ROS production. For chronic EDN, ROS production upon

  7. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed...... their spontaneous swimming speed, whereas no response was observed in O. mykiss acclimated and tested at high Ca concentration. Collectively, the data support the conclusion that in O. mykiss the behavioural responses to acute Cu exposure are Ca-dependent....

  8. A novel approach reveals that zinc oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and toxic after dietary exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, M.-N.; Dybowska, A.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2011-01-01

    If engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, some are likely to end up associated with the food of animals due to aggregation and sorption processes. However, few studies have considered dietary exposure of nanomaterials. Here we show that zinc (Zn) from isotopically modified 67ZnO particles is efficiently assimilated by freshwater snails when ingested with food. The 67Zn from nano-sized 67ZnO appears as bioavailable as 67Zn internalized by diatoms. Apparent agglomeration of the zinc oxide (ZnO) particles did not reduce bioavailability, nor preclude toxicity. In the diet, ZnO nanoparticles damage digestion: snails ate less, defecated less and inefficiently processed the ingested food when exposed to high concentrations of ZnO. It was not clear whether the toxicity was due to the high Zn dose achieved with nanoparticles or to the ZnO nanoparticles themselves. Further study of exposure from nanoparticles in food would greatly benefit assessment of ecological and human health risks. ?? 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  9. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Norwegian foods and beverages and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit K; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Voorspoels, Stefan; Carlsen, Monica H; Løken, Elin B; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2014-12-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous in our environment. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disruptors that can cause functional impairment of development and reproduction. Processed and packaged foods are among the major sources of human exposure to these chemicals. No previous report showing the levels of these chemicals in food items purchased in Norway is available. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of ten different phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages purchased on the Norwegian market and estimate the daily dietary exposure in the Norwegian adult population. Commonly consumed foods and beverages in Norway were purchased in a grocery store and analysed using gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Daily dietary exposures to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population were estimated using the latest National dietary survey, Norkost 3 (2010-2011). This study showed that phthalates and BPA are found in all foods and beverages that are common to consume in Norway. The detection frequency of phthalates in the food items varied from 11% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 84% for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), one of the substitutes for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). BPA was found in 54% of the food items analysed. Among the different phthalates, the highest concentrations were found for DEHP and DiNP in the food items. Estimated dietary exposures were also equally high and dominated by DEHP and DiNP (400-500 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day), followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) (30-40 ng/kg bw/day). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and DCHP had the lowest concentrations and the exposures were around 10-20 ng/kg bw/day. Estimated dietary exposure to BPA was 5 ng/kg bw/day. In general, levels of phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages from the Norwegian market

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Normolipidemic Acute Myocardial Infarct Patients on Admission – Do Dietary Fruits and Vegetables Offer Any Benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI is a leading cause of death in India. Whether dietary vitamins could reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among Indians is still not clear and very few studies have addressed the association between dietary vitamin acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant and its effect on risk reduction or aggravation in normolipidemic AMI patients. Objective: The goal of the current study was to address the association between dietary vitamin and cardiovascular risk in normolipidemic acute myocardial infarct patients compared with healthy controls. Design: Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both AMI patients and age/sex-matched controls. The associated changes in risk factors due to antioxidant vitamins intake was also assessed in normolipidemic acute myocardial patients and was compared with controls. Results: Dietary intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B3 was significantly higher in AMI patients compared to healthy controls but the intake of vitamin C was significantly higher in controls compared to AMI patients. Even though the vitamins intake was higher in patients, the associated cardiovascular risk factors were not reduced compared to controls. The total cholesterol, LDL-c, TAG were significantly higher (p<0.001 in AMI patients except HDL-c which was significantly higher (p<0.001 in controls. The endogenous antioxidants were found to be significantly lowered in patients compared to controls in spite of higher vitamin intake. Similarly the enzymatic antioxidants were also significantly lowered in patients. The mean serum Lipoprotein (a malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated diene (CD levels in patients were significantly elevated compared with controls. The levels of caeruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ischemia-modified albumin were significantly higher but arylesterase activities were lowered in patients. Conclusion: Diets rich in vegetables and fruits do not seem

  11. Statement on a refined dietary exposure assessment of erythritol (E 968) taking into account additional data provided

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Foods (ANS) carried out an assessment of the dietary exposure to erythritol and concluded on the safety of the proposed use in beverages at a maximum use level of 2.5 %, taking into account additional exposure data provided to the Panel. Anticipated exposure to erythritol from its use as food additive including soft-drinks containing a mean concentration of 2.5 % erythritol wou...

  12. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier-Clerc Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA performed on the digestive gland were estimated as biomarkers in clams fed in mesocosm with PAH contaminated phytoplankton. MDA levels and CAT activities were also measured in situ in organisms sampled in a control site (Metis Beach, Québec, Canada as well as organisms sampled in a site receiving domestic effluents (Pointe-au-Père, Québec, Canada, to assess effects of abiotic variables related to seasonal variations and mixed contamination on the selected parameters. Results Results on immune parameters suggest that the PAHs may interfere with the maturation and/or differentiation processes of haemocytes. MDA results showed that lipid peroxidation did not occur following the exposure. The levels of CAT activity corresponded to weak antioxidant activity (no significant differences. Recovery was noted for all the immune endpoints at the end of the experiment. Conclusion Results suggest that immune parameters are early biomarkers that can efficiently detect a physiological change during a short term exposure to low concentrations of PAHs. The in situ survey (in the natural environment suggested that clams from the Pointe-au-Père site did not show any oxidative stress as well as the clams contaminated in mesocosm, probably due to the low concentrations of PAHs used for this study. MDA levels increased however in organisms from Metis Beach, a response probably related to domestic effluents or parasitism.

  13. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Irish foods: Occurrence and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Tlustos, C; Rose, M; Smith, F; Carr, M; Panton, S

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations of selected polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners (PCNs 52, 53, 66/67, 68, 69, 71/72, 73, 74 and 75) were determined in 100 commonly consumed foods, in the first study on occurrence of these contaminants in the Republic of Ireland. Congener selection was based on current knowledge on PCN occurrence and toxicology, and the availability of reliable reference standards. The determinations were carried out using validated analytical methodology based on 13C10 labelled internal standardisation and measurement by HRGC-HRMS. The results showed PCN occurrence in the majority of studied foods--milk, fish, dairy and meat products, eggs, animal fat, shellfish, offal, vegetables, cereal products, etc. ranging from 0.09 ng kg(-1) whole weight for milk to 59.3 ng kg(-1) whole weight for fish, for the sum of the measured PCNs. The most frequently detected congeners were PCNs 66/67, PCN 52, and PCN 73. The highest concentrations were observed in fish, which generally showed congener profiles that reflect some commercial mixtures. The data compares well with other recently reported data for Western Europe. The dioxin-like toxicity (PCN TEQ) associated with these concentrations is lower than that reported for chlorinated dioxins or PCBs in food from Ireland. The dietary exposure of the Irish adult population to PCNs was calculated following a probabilistic approach, using the full dataset of occurrence and current consumption data. The estimates of dietary intakes at approximately 0.14 pg TEQ kg bw(-1) month(-1) for adults on an average diet, reflects the relatively lower occurrence levels.

  14. Gene expression and pathologic alterations in juvenile rainbow trout due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •First report of the effects of dietary TCDD in juvenile trout smaller than 20 g. •TCDD uptake was estimated using published models and confirmed by GC. •First report of dietary TCDD-induced lesions in nasal epithelium in any species. •Several useful biomarkers are identified from microarray-based transcriptomics analysis. -- Abstract: The goal of this project was to use functional genomic methods to identify molecular biomarkers as indicators of the impact of TCDD exposure in rainbow trout. Specifically, we investigated the effects of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on whole juvenile rainbow trout global gene expression associated with histopathological analysis. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb (ng TCDD/g food), and fish were sampled from each group at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after initiation of feeding. 100 ppb TCDD caused 100% mortality at 39 days. Fish fed with 100 ppb TCDD food had TCDD accumulation of 47.37 ppb (ng TCDD/g fish) in whole fish at 28 days. Histological analysis from TCDD-treated trout sampled from 28 and 42 days revealed that obvious lesions were found in skin, oropharynx, liver, gas bladder, intestine, pancreas, nose and kidney. In addition, TCDD caused anemia in peripheral blood, decreases in abdominal fat, increases of remodeling of fin rays, edema in pericardium and retrobulbar hemorrhage in the 100 ppb TCDD-treated rainbow trout compared to the control group at 28 days. Dose- and time-dependent global gene expression analyses were performed using the cGRASP 16,000 (16K) cDNA microarray. TCDD-responsive whole body transcripts identified in the microarray experiments have putative functions involved in various biological processes including growth, cell proliferation, metabolic process, and immune system processes. Nine microarray-identified genes were selected for QPCR validation. CYP1A3 and CYP1A1 were common up-regulated genes and HBB1 was a common down

  15. Gene expression and pathologic alterations in juvenile rainbow trout due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States); Rise, Matthew L. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 Marine Lab Road, St. John' s, NL, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Spitsbergen, Jan M. [Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Hori, Tiago S. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 Marine Lab Road, St. John' s, NL, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Mieritz, Mark; Geis, Steven [Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 465 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McGraw, Joseph E. [School of Pharmacy, Concordia University Wisconsin, 12800 North Lake Shore Drive, Mequon, WI 53097 (United States); Goetz, Giles [School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, 1122 Northeast Boat Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Larson, Jeremy; Hutz, Reinhold J. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Carvan, Michael J., E-mail: carvanmj@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •First report of the effects of dietary TCDD in juvenile trout smaller than 20 g. •TCDD uptake was estimated using published models and confirmed by GC. •First report of dietary TCDD-induced lesions in nasal epithelium in any species. •Several useful biomarkers are identified from microarray-based transcriptomics analysis. -- Abstract: The goal of this project was to use functional genomic methods to identify molecular biomarkers as indicators of the impact of TCDD exposure in rainbow trout. Specifically, we investigated the effects of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on whole juvenile rainbow trout global gene expression associated with histopathological analysis. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb (ng TCDD/g food), and fish were sampled from each group at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after initiation of feeding. 100 ppb TCDD caused 100% mortality at 39 days. Fish fed with 100 ppb TCDD food had TCDD accumulation of 47.37 ppb (ng TCDD/g fish) in whole fish at 28 days. Histological analysis from TCDD-treated trout sampled from 28 and 42 days revealed that obvious lesions were found in skin, oropharynx, liver, gas bladder, intestine, pancreas, nose and kidney. In addition, TCDD caused anemia in peripheral blood, decreases in abdominal fat, increases of remodeling of fin rays, edema in pericardium and retrobulbar hemorrhage in the 100 ppb TCDD-treated rainbow trout compared to the control group at 28 days. Dose- and time-dependent global gene expression analyses were performed using the cGRASP 16,000 (16K) cDNA microarray. TCDD-responsive whole body transcripts identified in the microarray experiments have putative functions involved in various biological processes including growth, cell proliferation, metabolic process, and immune system processes. Nine microarray-identified genes were selected for QPCR validation. CYP1A3 and CYP1A1 were common up-regulated genes and HBB1 was a common down

  16. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  17. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...

  18. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...

  19. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  20. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap-water...

  1. Acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to exposure to cotton dust

    OpenAIRE

    Thind Gurcharan

    2009-01-01

    Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is rare but may occur in association with malignancy, certain infections, and exposure to inorganic or organic dust and some toxic fumes. This case report describes the second recorded case of PAP due to exposure to cotton dust. A 24-year-old man developed PAP after working as a spinner for eight years without respiratory protection. He was admitted as an emergency patient with very severe dyspnea for four months and cough for several years. Ches...

  2. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  3. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi A Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA, is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  4. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524

  5. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; Kanthi, Yogendra; Aster, Richard; McCrae, Keith

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.

  6. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  7. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  8. Acute exposure to silica nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation: different effects according to surface characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jung; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Park, Yoon Hee; Han, Heejae; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Kangtaek; Choi, Hoon; Um, Kiju; Choi,In-Hong; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields despite the lack of proper evaluation of their potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of acute exposure to SNPs, either alone or in conjunction with ovalbumin (OVA), by studying the respiratory systems in exposed mouse models. Three types of SNPs were used: spherical SNPs (S-SNPs), mesoporous SNPs (M-SNPs), and PEGylated SNPs (P-SNPs). In the acute SNP exposure model performed, 6-week-old BALB/c ...

  9. Occupational exposure to solvents and acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar;

    2014-01-01

    by using conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significantly increased risk for exposure to any of the solvents. HR estimates for high levels of toluene (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.74-2.46), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (ARHC) (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.76-1.86), and moderate......-to-high levels of trichloroethylene were slightly but non-significantly elevated. We did not observe an association between benzene exposure and AML in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide clear evidence for an association between occupational solvent exposure and AML. There was some indication...... for an excess risk in the groups of workers exposed to toluene, trichloroethylene and ARHC....

  10. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of occupational exposure to ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D L; Purdham, J T; Nethercott, J R

    1989-12-01

    In a soda ash plant, 58 workers exposed to mean airborne ammonia levels of 9.2 +/- 1.4 ppm were compared with 31 control workers with a mean exposure of 0.3 +/- 0.1 ppm. There were no differences between the groups in the reporting of respiratory or cutaneous symptoms, sense of smell, baseline lung function, or change in lung function over a work shift at the beginning and end of a workweek. No relationships between level or length of ammonia exposure and lung function results were demonstrated. PMID:2596404

  11. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P.E.; Sioen, I.; Voet, van der, Monique; Huybrechts, I.; Neve, De, M.; Amiano, P.; Azpiri, M; Busk, L.; Christensen, T.; Hilbig, A.; Hirvonen, T. (Teemu); Koulouridaki, S.; Lafay, L.; Liukkonen, K.H.; Moschandreas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to allow for linkage with lead concentration data in a standardised way. Two different models were used for the calculations: the beta-binomial-normal (BBN) model and the observed individual means (OI...

  12. Reliable estimation of dietary exposure to furan from coffee: An automatic vending machine as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide Food Safety Agencies have classified furan as carcinogenic and cytotoxic due to its effects in animal studies, and it has been associated with harmful effects to human health. It has been pointed out that coffee consumption is the major contributor to dietary furan exposure for adults. However, furan is highly volatile and its losses due to volatilization in the cup during the time expend to consume the coffee brew should be taken into account for a realistic estimation of the level...

  13. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, A M; Kim, D H; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L; Klotz, J L

    2014-04-01

    vasoactive in the bovine midgut, and steers exposed to E+ had diminished contractility to some ergot alkaloids in small intestinal vasculature. The findings of this study suggest that dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids has the potential to alter nutrient absorption from the midgut by decreasing blood flow to and from the midgut due to vasoconstriction. PMID:24492572

  14. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.

  15. Commuters’ air pollution exposure and acute health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    People spend a substantial proportion of their time in traffic. In Europe, the average daily time in traffic is one to one and a half hour. Because of high in-traffic exposures and because most of the journeys are made during rush hours, the one to one and a half hour in traffic contributes dispropo

  16. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    day−1) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels...

  17. Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncko, Roman; Johnson, Linda; Merikangas, Kathleen; Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Effects of acute stress exposure on learning and memory have been frequently studied in both animals and humans. However, only a few studies have focused specifically on working memory performance and the available data are equivocal. The present study examined working memory performance during the Sternberg item recognition task after exposure to a predominantly adrenergic stressor. Twenty four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a stress group or a control group. The stress group was...

  18. Individualised dietary counselling for nutritionally at-risk older patients following discharge from acute hospital to home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Tolstrup, U; Beck, A M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many older patients are undernourished after hospitalisation. Undernutrition impacts negatively on physical function and the ability of older patients to perform activities of daily living at home after discharge from acute hospital. The present study aimed to evaluate the evidence...... for an effect of individualised dietary counselling following discharge from acute hospital to home on physical function, and, second, on readmissions, mortality, nutritional status, nutritional intake and quality of life (QoL), in nutritionally at-risk older patients. METHODS: A systematic review of randomised.......01 kg, 95% CI = 0.08-1.95, P = 0.03). Meta-analyses revealed no significant effect on physical function assessed using hand grip strength, and similarly on mortality. Narrative summation of effects on physical function using other instruments revealed inconsistent effects. Meta-analyses were...

  19. Cement dust exposure and acute lung function: A cross shift study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Bente E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out on acute effects of cement dust exposure. This study is conducted to investigate the associations between current "total" dust exposure and acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function among cement factory workers. Methods A combined cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in Dire Dawa cement factory in Ethiopia. 40 exposed production workers from the crusher and packing sections and 20 controls from the guards were included. Personal "total" dust was measured in the workers' breathing zone and peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured for all selected workers before and after the shift. When the day shift ended, the acute respiratory symptoms experienced were scored and recorded on a five-point Likert scale using a modified respiratory symptom score questionnaire. Results The highest geometric mean dust exposure was found in the crusher section (38.6 mg/m3 followed by the packing section (18.5 mg/m3 and the guards (0.4 mg/m3. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms for the high exposed workers was stuffy nose (85% followed by shortness of breath (47% and "sneezing" (45%. PEF decreased significantly across the shift in the high exposed group. Multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between the percentage cross-shift change in PEF and total dust exposure. The number of years of work in high-exposure sections and current smoking were also associated with cross-shift decrease in PEF. Conclusions Total cement dust exposure was related to acute respiratory symptoms and acute ventilatory effects. Implementing measures to control dust and providing adequate personal respiratory protective equipment for the production workers are highly recommended.

  20. Chronic and acute effects of coal tar pitch exposure and cardiopulmonary mortality among aluminum smelter workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Demers, Paul A; Spinelli, John J; Eisen, Ellen A; Lorenzi, Maria F; Le, Nhu D

    2010-10-01

    Air pollution causes several adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In occupational studies, where levels of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are higher, the evidence is inconsistent. The effects of acute and chronic PAH exposure on cardiopulmonary mortality were examined within a Kitimat, Canada, aluminum smelter cohort (n = 7,026) linked to a national mortality database (1957-1999). No standardized mortality ratio was significantly elevated compared with the province's population. Smoking-adjusted internal comparisons were conducted using Cox regression for male subjects (n = 6,423). Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality (n = 281) was associated with cumulative benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) exposure (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.46) in the highest category. A monotonic but nonsignificant trend was observed with chronic B(a)P exposure and acute myocardial infarction (n = 184). When follow-up was restricted to active employment, the hazard ratio for IHD was 2.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 6.05) in the highest cumulative B(a)P category. The stronger associations observed during employment suggest that risk may not persist after exposure cessation. No associations with recent or current exposure were observed. IHD was associated with chronic (but not current) PAH exposure in a high-exposure occupational setting. Given the widespread workplace exposure to PAHs and heart disease's high prevalence, even modest associations produce a high burden.

  1. The effects of acute radiation exposure on the serum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood samples were collected from the experimental animals 24 hrs after irradiation of gamma doses upto 80 Gy. Native PAGE showed a decreasing trend in gamma globulin fraction of serum from the irradiated group compared to control, while SDS PAGE indicated an enhanced tendency in protein of molecular weight 30,000 to 40,000. Serum albumin slightly decreased with radiation doses as a result of decrease in total protein amount. Radiation exposure had little or no effects on such lipid related components as phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol, respectively. Among others, glutamic pyryvic transaminase (GPT) showed a drastic decrease in its amount 24 hrs after radiation exposure, which can be applied to the health care program for radiation workers. (Author)

  2. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest ∑diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010. - Highlights: • Three PFOS precursors and six diPAPs were detected in food pools. • Precursor concentrations were highest in 1999 and 2005 food pools, and lowest in 2010. • The relative importance of precursors to total PFOS dietary intake was <4%. • The relative importance of diPAPs as an indirect dietary source of PFCAs was chain length dependent. - The relative contribution of precursors to PFOS dietary intakes is small, whereas the contribution of diPAPs to PFCA dietary intakes varies with the PFCA chain length

  3. A semi-probabilistic modelling approach for the estimation of dietary exposure to phthalates in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Standaert, A; Cornelis, C; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Willems, H; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates--one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were calculated for the Belgian adult population and several subgroups of this population for two considered scenarios using an extended version of the EN-forc model. The highest intake rates were found for DEHP, followed by DnBP, BBP and DEP. In the Belgian adult population, men and young adults generally had the highest dietary phthalate intake estimates. Nevertheless, predicted dietary intake rates for all four investigated phthalates were far below the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (i.e. P99 intake values were 6.4% of the TDI at most), which is reassuring because adults are also exposed to phthalates via other contamination pathways (e.g. dust ingestion and inhalation). The food groups contributing most to the dietary exposure were grains and grain-based products for DEP, milk and dairy products for DnBP, meat and meat products or grains and grain-based products (depending on the scenario) for BBP and meat and meat products for DEHP. Comparison of the predicted intake results based on modelled phthalate concentrations in food products with intake estimates from other surveys (mostly based on measured concentrations) showed that the extended version of the EN-forc model is a suitable semi-probabilistic tool for the estimation and evaluation of the long-term dietary intake of phthalates in humans.

  4. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  5. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  6. Protective effect of dietary antioxidants and plant extracts on acute inflammation and hepatotoxicity in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    El-Saadany, Mohamed Abdel Meged Marawan

    2009-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants are believed to play an important role in the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Although there is a wide range of dietary antioxidants, the bulk of the research to date has been focused on the nutrient antioxidants vitamin C, E, and carotenoids. Certain relatively uncommon antioxidants such as lipoic acid (LA), and phenolic compounds such as (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), a...

  7. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Poulet, Laurent; Anderson, Richard A; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Canini, Frédéric; Batandier, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), which is a leading cause of the metabolic syndrome, results in early brain function alterations which may alter brain mitochondrial functioning. Previously, we demonstrated that rats fed a control diet and submitted to an acute restraint stress exhibited a delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of dietary and emotional stressors as found in western way of life. We studied, in rats submitted or not to an acute stress, the effects of diet-induced IR on brain mitochondria, using a high fat/high fructose diet (HF(2)), as an IR inducer, with addition or not of cinnamon as an insulin sensitizer. We measured Ca(2+) retention capacity, respiration, ROS production, enzymatic activities and cell signaling activation. Under stress, HF(2) diet dramatically decreased the amount of Ca(2+) required to open the mPTP (13%) suggesting an adverse effect on mitochondrial survival. Cinnamon added to the diet corrected this negative effect and resulted in a partial recovery (30%). The effects related to cinnamon addition to the diet could be due to its antioxidant properties or to the observed modulation of PI3K-AKT-GSK3β and MAPK-P38 pathways or to a combination of both. These data suggest a protective effect of cinnamon on brain mitochondria against the negative impact of an HF(2) diet. Cinnamon could be beneficial to counteract deleterious dietary effects in stressed conditions. PMID:26878796

  8. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  9. The bioaccumulation and effects of selenium in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus via dissolved and dietary exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Luo, Yongju; Guo, Zhongbao; Mu, Jingli; Blankson, Emmanuel R; Dong, Wu; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic organisms take up selenium from solution and from their diets. Many questions remain regarding the relative importance of selenium accumulation from these sources and resulting effects in benthic invertebrates. The present study addressed the toxicity and accumulation of Se via dissolved and dietary exposures to three different Se species, in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Worms were exposed to 20μg/g dry weight of selenite (Se(IV)), selenate (Se(VI)), or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) in their diet (sediment) or to 15μg/L dissolved Se in water-only exposures. While the dissolved and sediment Se levels differed greatly, such levels may co-occur at a Se-contaminated site. Se accumulation, worm population growth, lipid peroxidation (as TBARS), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were quantified at the end of the 2-week exposure. The sediment Se-Met exposure caused 100% mortality, while worm densities were reduced by the other exposures except the Se(VI) one. Se bioaccumulation was generally higher for the sediment-Se exposure than the dissolved-Se ones, and was higher for Se(IV) than Se(VI) in the dissolved-Se exposure but not the sediment-Se one. The Se accumulation was highest for Se-Met. The oligochaetes that accumulated Se had higher levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. The present study's findings of differences in Se accumulation and toxicity for the three Se species, with effects generally but not exclusively a function of Se body burdens, underscore the need for research on these issues in invertebrates. Moreover, the results imply that the dietary uptake route is the predominant one for Se accumulation in L. variegatus. PMID:27450235

  10. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Happy; Kimanya, Martin; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Infants less than 6 months of age receiving foods other than breast milk are at a high risk of exposure to mycotoxins. We surveyed food intake and estimated the risk of exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin mycotoxins for infants less than 6 months of age in Northern Tanzania. A total of 143 infants were progressively recruited and three follow-up visits were made at 1, 3 and 5 months of age. A 24-h dietary recall technique was used to estimate flour intake of infants who had been introduced to maize foods. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the flours were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Exposure to aflatoxins or fumonisins was estimated using the deterministic approach. By the age of 3 months, 98 infants had started taking food; 67 of them, maize flours at levels ranging from 0.57 to 37.50 g per infant per day (average 8 g per infant per day). Fifty-eight per cent of 67 maize flour samples contained detectable aflatoxins (range 0.33-69.47 μg kg(-1) ; median 6 μg kg(-1) ) and 31% contained detectable fumonisins (range 48-1224 μg kg(-1) ; median 124 μg kg(-1) ). For infants who consumed contaminated flours, aflatoxin exposure ranged from 0.14 to 120 ng kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day (all above the health concern level of 0.017 ng kg(-1) BW per day as recommended by the European Food Safety Agency) and fumonisin exposure ranged from 0.005 to 0.88 μg kg(-1) BW per day. Insignificant association was observed between exposure to fumonisins or aflatoxins and stunting or underweight. Reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize and dietary diversification can prevent infants and the public, in general, from exposure to the toxins. PMID:25422038

  11. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, H.; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing...... and there is a need to build more knowledge so that authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. 22 foods or food groups...... and from wastewater-fed production systems. The results showed little or no risk of toxic elements from the Hanoi diet in general. Further, element contributions from wastewater-fed products were low and does not seem to constitute a problem with respect to potentially toxic elements. A comparison...

  12. Acute and chronic metal exposure impairs locomotion activity in Drosophila melanogaster: a model to study Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Ramirez, Leonardo; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    The biometals iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) have been associated to Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinsonism. In this work, we report for the first time that acute (15 mM for up to 5 days) or chronic (0.5 mM for up to 15 days) Fe, Mn and Cu exposure significantly reduced life span and locomotor activity (i.e. climbing capabilities) in Drosophila melanogaster. It is shown that the concentration of those biometals dramatically increase in Drosophila's brain acutely or chronically fed with metal. We demonstrate that the metal accumulation in the fly's head is associated with the neurodegeneration of several dopaminergic neuronal clusters. Interestingly, it is found that the PPL2ab DAergic neuronal cluster was erode by the three metals in acute and chronic metal exposure and the PPL3 DAergic cluster was also erode by the three metals but in acute metal exposure only. Furthermore, we found that the chelator desferoxamine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and D: -penicillamine were able to protect but not rescue D. melanogaster against metal intoxication. Taken together these data suggest that iron, manganese and copper are capable to destroy DAergic neurons in the fly's brain, thereby impairing their movement capabilities. This work provides for the first time metal-induced Parkinson-like symptoms in D. melanogaster. Understanding therefore the effects of biometals in the Drosophila model may provide insights into the toxic effect of metal ions and more effective therapeutic approaches to Parkinsonism. PMID:21594680

  13. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  14. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  15. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  16. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  17. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time

  18. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloy, J., E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lozano, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Alpan, L.; Masereel, B. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, J. M. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lucas, S. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  19. Cancer Events After Acute or Chronic Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been considered as a carcinogen in the laboratory studies. However, its carcinogenic effects on human beings were not well discussed. The main purpose of our study is to assess carcinogenesis of SM following acute and/or chronic exposures in human beings. Methods: The valid scientific English and Persian databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, IranMedex, and Irandoc were searched and the collected papers reviewed. The used keywords were in two languages: English and Persian. The inclusion criteria were the published original articles indexed in above-mentioned databases. Eleven full-texts out of 296 articles were found relevant and then assessed. Results: Studies on the workers of the SM factories during the World Wars showed that the long-term chronic exposure to mustards can cause a variety of cancers in the organs such as oral cavity, larynx, lung, and skin. Respiratory system was the most important affected system. Acute single exposure to SM was assumed as the carcinogenic inducer in the lung and blood and for few cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: SM is a proven carcinogen in chronic situations although data are not enough to strongly conclude in acute exposure. PMID:27280012

  20. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  1. Long term dietary methoxychlor exposure in rats increases sodium solution consumption but has few effects on other sexually dimorphic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K M; Delclos, K B; Newbold, R R; Ferguson, S A

    2005-09-01

    Methoxychlor is an insecticide with estrogen-like activity, thus exposure during development might cause sexually dimorphic behavioral alterations. To evaluate this, pregnant rats consumed diets containing 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppm methoxychlor from gestational day 7, and offspring continued on these diets until postnatal day (PND) 77. Assessments of sexually dimorphic behaviors in offspring indicated that intake of a 3.0% sodium chloride solution was significantly increased (41%) in males and females of the 1000 ppm group. No treatment group differed from controls in open field nor running wheel activity, play behavior, nor 0.3% saccharin solution intake. Offspring of the 1000 ppm group showed significantly decreased body weight, reaching 17% less than controls at PND 77, but not clearly related to their salt solution intake. During pregnancy, 1000 ppm dams consumed 23% less food and weighed 10% less than controls, but this did not affect litter outcomes. These results indicate that in rodents, developmental and chronic exposure to dietary methoxychlor alters the sexually dimorphic behavior of salt-solution intake in young adults of both sexes. Similar behavioral alterations with other xenoestrogens, and the potential for interactions among xenoestrogens, suggest that this report may minimize the true effects of dietary methoxychlor exposure.

  2. Effects of Parental Dietary Exposure to GMRice TT51 on the Male Reproductive System of Rat Off spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Er Hui; YU Zhou; JIA Xu Dong; ZHANG Wen Zhong; andXU Hai Bin

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluatethehealth effects of parental dietary exposure to GM rice TT51 on the male reproductive system of rat offspring. MethodsRice-based diets, containing 60% ordinary grocery rice, MingHui63, or TT51 by weight, were given to parental rats (15 males/30 females each group) for 70 days prior mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, eightmale offspringratswere randomly selected at each group and fed with dietscorrespondent to their parents’ for 70 days. The effects of exposure to TT51 on male reproductive system of offspring rats were assessed through sperm parameters, testicular function enzyme activities, serumhormones (FSH, LH, and testosterone levels), testis histopathological examination, and the relativeexpression levels of selected genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis. ResultsNo significant differences were observed in body weight, food intake, organ/body weights, serum hormone, sperm parameters, testis function enzyme ACP, LDH, and SDH activities, testis histopathological changes, and relative mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R, FSH-R, LH-R, and AR along the HPT axis. ConclusionThe resultsof this studydemonstrate that parental dietary exposure to TT51 reveals no significant differences on the reproductive system of male offspring rats compared with MingHui63 and control.

  3. Hepatic and renal trace element concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) following chronic dietary exposure to coal fly ash contaminated prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E; Metts, Brian S; Finger, John W; Hamilton, Matthew T

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the propensity of crocodilians to bioaccumulate trace elements as a result of chronic dietary exposure. We exposed 36 juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to one of four dietary treatments that varied in the relative frequency of meals containing prey from coal combustion waste (CCW)-contaminated habitats vs. prey from uncontaminated sites, and evaluated tissue residues and growth rates after 12 mo and 25 mo of exposure. Hepatic and renal concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) varied significantly among dietary treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner and were higher in kidneys than in livers. Exposure period did not affect Se or As levels but Cd levels were significantly higher after 25 mo than 12 mo of exposure. Kidney As and Se levels were negatively correlated with body size but neither growth rates nor body condition varied significantly among dietary treatment groups. Our study is among the first to experimentally examine bioaccumulation of trace element contaminants in crocodilians as a result of chronic dietary exposure. A combination of field surveys and laboratory experiments will be required to understand the effects of different exposure scenarios on tissue residues, and ultimately link these concentrations with effects on individual health. PMID:27149145

  4. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ostry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples were collected in 2011–2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01–0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4–6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for “average consumer” was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0 and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification. Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for “high consumers” in the group 4–6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound. For men aged 18–59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day (“high consumers”, middle bound. Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18–59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18–59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  5. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  6. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  7. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  8. Dietary n-3 fatty acids promote arrhythmias during acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated pig hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F.J.G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Belterman, C.N.; Schumacher, C.A.; Opthof, T.; Hovernier, R.; Lemmens, A.G.; Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic

  9. Influence of dietary patterns on the risk of acute myocardial infarction in China population: the INTERHEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some dietary patterns are risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Chinese traditional food and habits vary from other cultures.The present study determined whether different dietary patterns were associated with AMI in Chinese people.Methods We conducted a case-control study.There were 1312 cases of first AMI and 2235 control subjects who did not have previous angina,diabetes mellitus,hypertension or stroke.Controls were matched to cases on age and gender.Diet was measured with a validated,19 item food frequency questionnaire.We identified three major dietary patterns using factor analysis:vitamin and microelement pattern (high intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu),carbohydrate pattern (high in grain),and fat and protein pattern (high in meat,fish,eggs and fried foods).Results After adjusting for all risk factors,the vitamin and microelement pattern was inversely associated with AMI risk (global P value,0.0001).Compared with the first quartile,the adjusted ORs of AMI were 0.81 (95% CI:0.66-1.00) for the second quartile,0.67 (95% CI:0.54-0.82) for the third,and 0.70 (95% CI:0.56-0.88) for the fourth.Several dietary frequencies (serves per week) including vegetables,fruits and tofu were closely associated with decrease of AMI risk.Carbohydrate pattern showed weak relationship with AMI.We observed a U-shaped association between frequencies of fat and protein pattern and AMI risk.Excessive fat intake increased the AMI risk.The adjusted OR of AMI associated with the higher level of green vegetables was 0.37 (95% CI:0.24-0.57) in women and 0.65 (95% CI:0.51-0.82) in men (P value for heterogeneity,0.0140).Conclusions Unhealthy dietary intake can increase the AMI risk.Improving intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu have the potential to partially prevent the rising epidemic of cardiovascular disease in China.

  10. Characterisation of cochlear inflammation in mice following acute and chronic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Winston J T; Thorne, Peter R; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as the key mechanism of the cochlear damage underlying noise-induced hearing loss, however, emerging evidence suggests that cochlear inflammation may also be a major contributor. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the cochlear inflammatory response associated with acute and chronic noise exposure. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute traumatic noise (100 dBSPL, 8-16 kHz for 24 h) and their cochleae collected at various intervals thereafter, up to 7 days. Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, changes in expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), chemokines (CCL2) and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) were studied. All gene transcripts displayed similar dynamics of expression, with an early upregulation at 6 h post-exposure, followed by a second peak at 7 days. ICAM-1 immunoexpression increased significantly in the inferior region of the spiral ligament, peaking 24 h post-exposure. The early expression of proinflammatory mediators likely mediates the recruitment and extravasation of inflammatory cells into the noise-exposed cochlea. The occurrence of the latter expression peak is not clear, but it may be associated with reparative processes initiated in response to cochlear damage. Chronic exposure to moderate noise (90 dBSPL, 8-16 kHz, 2 h/day, up to 4 weeks) also elicited an inflammatory response, reaching a maximum after 2 weeks, suggesting that cochlear damage and hearing loss associated with chronic environmental noise exposure may be linked to inflammatory processes in the cochlea. This study thus provides further insight into the dynamics of the cochlear inflammatory response induced by exposure to acute and chronic noise. PMID:27109494

  11. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LCLO, LC10 and LC50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  13. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pani; Mieke Verslegers; Roel Quintens; Nada Samari; Louis de Saint-Georges; Patrick Van Oostveldt; Sarah Baatout; Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during ch...

  14. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  15. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P power in healthy men and women.

  16. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – A controlled case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The dependence of urinary OHPAHs on PAH intake was explored. • Consumption of lamb kabob resulted in large increase of most urinary OHPAHs. • Gender differences in PAH metabolism was observed. • Urinary metabolites of PHE and PYR can be used as biomarkers for dietary PAH intake. • Urinary 3-BaA may serve as the indicator for the inhalation exposure to BaPeq. -- Severe exposure to PAHs via dietary and inhalation pathways indicated by the intake of parent PAHs as well as the urinary excretion of OHPAHs, was observed for students in Beijing

  17. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette;

    2009-01-01

    in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform...... system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level......In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...

  18. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  19. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P Pettit

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  20. Accumulation and effects of Cr(VI) in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) during chronic dissolved and dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxing; Mu, Lei; Cao, Jinling; Mu, Jingli; Klerks, Paul L; Luo, Yongju; Guo, Zhongbao; Xie, Lingtian

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an essential metal and a nutritional supplement for both human and agricultural uses. It is also a pollutant from a variety of industrial uses. These uses can lead to elevated Cr levels in aquatic environments, where it can enter and affect aquatic organisms. Its accumulation and subsequent effects in fish have received relatively little attention, especially for chronic exposure. In the present study, Japanese medaka were chronically exposed to dissolved or dietary Cr(VI) for 3 months. Cr accumulation in liver, gills, intestine, and brain was evaluated. Effects on the antioxidant system, nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), digestive system (α-glucosidase, α-Glu), and tissue histology (liver and gills) were also assessed. Cr accumulation was observed in the intestine and liver of fish exposed to Cr-contaminated brine shrimp. However, chronic dissolved Cr exposure led to significant Cr accumulation in all organs tested. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of Cr in medaka livers revealed that 37% of the Cr was present in the heat stable protein fraction. The dissolved Cr exposure had pronounced effects on the antioxidant system in the liver, with an elevated ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and decreases in GSH and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The α-Glu activity in the intestine was significantly inhibited. In addition, Cr exposure caused histopathological alterations in the gills and liver. In general, the effects of dietary Cr were relatively minor, possible due to the much lower accumulation in the fish. Our results imply that Japanese medaka accumulate Cr mainly via uptake of dissolved Cr(VI).

  1. Accumulation and effects of Cr(VI) in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) during chronic dissolved and dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxing; Mu, Lei; Cao, Jinling; Mu, Jingli; Klerks, Paul L; Luo, Yongju; Guo, Zhongbao; Xie, Lingtian

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an essential metal and a nutritional supplement for both human and agricultural uses. It is also a pollutant from a variety of industrial uses. These uses can lead to elevated Cr levels in aquatic environments, where it can enter and affect aquatic organisms. Its accumulation and subsequent effects in fish have received relatively little attention, especially for chronic exposure. In the present study, Japanese medaka were chronically exposed to dissolved or dietary Cr(VI) for 3 months. Cr accumulation in liver, gills, intestine, and brain was evaluated. Effects on the antioxidant system, nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), digestive system (α-glucosidase, α-Glu), and tissue histology (liver and gills) were also assessed. Cr accumulation was observed in the intestine and liver of fish exposed to Cr-contaminated brine shrimp. However, chronic dissolved Cr exposure led to significant Cr accumulation in all organs tested. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of Cr in medaka livers revealed that 37% of the Cr was present in the heat stable protein fraction. The dissolved Cr exposure had pronounced effects on the antioxidant system in the liver, with an elevated ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and decreases in GSH and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The α-Glu activity in the intestine was significantly inhibited. In addition, Cr exposure caused histopathological alterations in the gills and liver. In general, the effects of dietary Cr were relatively minor, possible due to the much lower accumulation in the fish. Our results imply that Japanese medaka accumulate Cr mainly via uptake of dissolved Cr(VI). PMID:27162070

  2. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided di

  3. Biomarkers of Dietary Exposure Are Associated with Lower Risk of Breast Fibroadenomas in Chinese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Lampe, J.W.; Ray, R.M.; Brown, R.; Wu, C.Y.; Li, W.J.; Chen, C.; King, I.B.; Gao, D.L.; Hu, Y.W.; Shannon, J.; Wahala, K.; Thomas, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast condition among women and account for up to 50% of all breast biopsies being performed. Although considered a benign condition, fibroadenomas utilize substantial resources for management and treatment to rule out potential malignancies. Dietary factors

  4. Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, R. K.; Larsen, S. B.; Meyer, Otto A.;

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers (171 tradit...

  5. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H Y; Chung, Stephen W C; Chan, B T P; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A total of 290 individual food samples were collected in Hong Kong, China, for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters analysis. Most samples were processed food and in ready-to-eat form. The results show that the levels of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters were high in biscuits, fats and oils, snacks and Chinese pastry with mean bound 3-MCPD levels of 440, 390, 270 and 270 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. The dietary exposures to bound 3-MCPD of average and high adult consumers were estimated to be 0.20 and 0.53 μg kg bw⁻¹ day⁻¹, respectively. The primary toxicological concern of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters is its potential to release 3-MCPD in vivo during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. 3-MCPD would affect the kidney, the central nervous system and the male reproductive system of rats. Assuming that 100% of the 3-MCPD was released from 3-MCPD fatty acid esters by hydrolysis in the digestive system, the dietary exposures to 3-MCPD for average and high adult consumers were only 10% and 26% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 3-MCPD established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2 μg kg bw⁻¹ day⁻¹), respectively. The results suggest that both average and high adult consumers are unlikely to experience major toxicological effects of 3-MCPD.

  6. Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Lotufo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. The oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to 14C-labeled TNT, RDX or DDT for 5 hours in water, frozen in meal-size packages and subsequently fed to individual juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas. Fish were sampled for body residue determination on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 following an 8-hour gut purging period. Extensive metabolism of the parent compound in worms occurred for TNT but not for RDX and DDT. Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. The bioaccumulation factor (concentration in fish relative to concentration in worms was 0.018, 0.010, and 0.422 g/g for TNT, RDX and DDT, respectively, confirming the expected relatively low bioaccumulative potential for TNT and RDX through the dietary route. The experimental design was deemed successful in determining the potential for trophic transfer of organic contaminants via a realistic predator/prey exposure scenario.

  7. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. PMID:26313468

  8. Comparative sensitivity of three populations of the cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, M; Holdway, D A; van Dam, R A

    2001-10-01

    Assessment of differences in the response of three different populations of the tropical cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to uranium exposure was evaluated. The populations tested included a laboratory stock (maintained for 10 years), a wild population collected from Bowerbird Billabong (an uncontaminated environment), and a population collected from Djalkmara Billabong (a relatively contaminated environment with elevated levels of uranium), located on the Ranger uranium mine site, Jabiru East, NT, Australia. Chronic and acute toxicity of uranium was determined for all three populations. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC; reproduction) and lowest observed-effect-concentration (LOEC; reproduction) for uranium ranged between 8-31 micrograms L-1 and 20-49 micrograms L-1, respectively, for all three populations. The 48 h EC50 (immobilization-lethality) for uranium ranged between 160-390 micrograms L-1 for all three populations. There was little difference in the response of the three populations of M. macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure, although the response of the laboratory population to chronic uranium exposure appeared more variable than the "wild" populations. There was no apparent tolerance in the population of M. macleayi obtained from Djalkmara Billabong when exposed to elevated levels of uranium. M. macleayi was significantly more sensitive to uranium exposure than other species previously tested. It was concluded that the sensitivity of the laboratory population (to uranium) is still representative of natural M. macleayi populations. PMID:11594022

  9. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  10. Effect of Alcohol Administration on Blood Sugar of Normal and Alcohol Habituated Rates during Acute Cold Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory failure of alcohol administered fasted rates has been studied under acute cold stress. Twentyfour hour fasted rates developed acute hypoglycemia on being given a single oral dose of ethanol (1.3g/kg body weight during a two hour exposure at -20 degree calcius. Alcohol habituated rates, under similar conditions, more or less maintained their blood sugar concentration.

  11. Chromosomal bands affected by acute oil exposure and DNA repair errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Monyarch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. RESULTS: Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure.

  12. Acute systemic exposure to silver-based nanoparticles induces hepatotoxicity and NLRP3-dependent inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadi, Khalil B; Mohamed, Yassir A; Al-Sbiei, Ashraf; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Bashir, Ghada; Al Dhanhani, Aisha; Sarawathiamma, Dhanya; Qadri, Shahnaz; Yasin, Javed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Fernandez-Cabezudo, Maria J; Haik, Yousef; Al-Ramadi, Basel K

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being commercialized for use in biomedicine. NP toxicity following acute or chronic exposure has been described, but mechanistic insight into this process remains incomplete. Recent evidence from in vitro studies suggested a role for NLRP3 in NP cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effect of systemic administration of composite inorganic NP, consisting of Ag:Cu:B (dose range 1-20 mg/kg), on the early acute (4-24 h post-exposure) and late phase response (96 h post-exposure) in normal and NLRP3-deficient mice. Our findings indicate that systemic exposure (≥2 mg/kg) was associated with acute liver injury due to preferential accumulation of NP in this organ and resulted in elevated AST, ALT and LDH levels. Moreover, within 24 h of NP administration, there was a dose-dependent increase in intraperitoneal neutrophil recruitment and upregulation in gene expression of several proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β and S100A9. Histological analysis of liver tissue revealed evidence of dose-dependent hepatocyte necrosis, increase in sinusoidal Kupffer cells, lobular granulomas and foci of abscess formation which were most pronounced at 24 h following NP administration. NP deposition in the liver led to a significant upregulation in gene expression of S100A9, an endogenous danger signal recognition molecule of phagocytes, IL-1β and IL-6. The extent of proinflammatory cytokine activation and hepatotoxicity was significantly attenuated in mice deficient in the NLRP3 inflammasome, demonstrating the critical role of this innate immune system recognition receptor in the response to NP. PMID:26956548

  13. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on reproduction of saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday: Implications in water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Yan, Changzhou; Hyne, Ross V

    2010-02-01

    The chronic toxicity of dietary cadmium to the saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday and its relative toxicity compared with aquatic exposure were investigated in the present study. The microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, exposed to cadmium in growth inhibition tests, had a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 81.2 microg Cd/L (95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 71.9-95.1). C. pyrenoidosa exposed for 96 h to sublethal dissolved cadmium concentrations in the range 4.10 +/- 0.30 to 70.29 +/- 0.31 microg/L resulted in algal cadmium burdens up to 73.86 x 10(-16) g Cd/cell. Cellular cadmium burdens accumulated in a dose-dependent manner, whereas cell densities inversely declined from 670 x 10(4) to 38 x 10(4) cells/ml with exposure to the increasing aqueous cadmium concentrations. C. pyrenoidosa preexposed to cadmium and used as food in a chronic 21-d toxicity test with the cladoceran M. monogolica, containing no added dissolved cadmium, inhibited reproduction. Significant reductions of the net reproduction rate (R(0)) per brood were observed in all broods, and the decline in the number of neonates produced increased with each subsequent brood. The cadmium concentration (4.10 +/- 0.30 microg/L) in the algal culture water that produced the lowest algal cadmium burden (2.85 +/- 0.76 x 10(-16) g Cd/cell) was shown to inhibit M. monogolica reproduction and was compared with the water quality criteria (WQC) of China. This comparison indicated that dietary exposure to cadmium may cause sublethal responses at concentrations below the current cadmium WQC of China for aquaculture. PMID:20821455

  14. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in marketed foods and risk estimates of dietary exposure in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shim, Won Bo; Lee, Hyomin; Bae, Dong-Ho; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2007-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an unavoidable food contaminant. To evaluate the potential health risk of AFB1 to Koreans posed by food consumption, we determined the natural occurrence of AFB1 in food and estimated the excess risk for liver cancer through dietary exposure to AFB1. A total of 694 food samples collected from six different regions of South Korea were analyzed for their AFB, content. One hundred four of the 694 samples were found to give positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) readings for AFB1 and were further investigated with high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-two samples, including 2 maize samples, 3 soybean products, 20 peanut samples, nut samples, and their products, and 7 spices, were found to be contaminated with AFB1 (4.6% incidence), up to 48.6 microg kg(-1). The level of AFB1 contamination in 28 of the 32 food products was below 10 microg kg(-1), which is the legal tolerance limit in Korea. From data on daily food consumption, the exposure dose of AFB1 was estimated to be 6.42 x 10(-7) mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1). The major contributors to the dietary intake of AFB1 were soybean paste and soy sauce, which composed 91% of the total exposure to AFB1. The excess risk of liver cancer for those exposed to AFB1 through food intake was estimated to be 5.78 x 10(-6) for hepatitis B-negative individuals and 1.48 x 10(-4) for hepatitis B-positive individuals. These results suggest that special consideration is required to reduce the intake of AFB1 in hepatitis B-positive individuals.

  15. Dietary fats and pharmaceutical lipid excipients increase systemic exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgair, Atheer; Wong, Jonathan CM; Lee, Jong Bong; Mistry, Jatin; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Kishor M; Hennig, Ivo M; Barrett, David A; Constantinescu, Cris S; Fischer, Peter M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to lipid-free formulations. In vitro lipolysis was conducted to explore the effect of lipids on the intestinal solubilisation of cannabinoids. More than 30% of THC and CBD were distributed into micellar fraction following lipolysis, suggesting that at least one-third of the administered dose will be available for absorption following co-administration with lipids. Both cannabinoids showed very high affinity for artificial CM-like particles, as well as for rat and human CM, suggesting high potential for intestinal lymphatic transport. Moreover, comparable affinity of cannabinoids for rat and human CM suggests that similar increased exposure effects may be expected in humans. In conclusion, co-administration of dietary lipids or pharmaceutical lipid excipients has the potential to substantially increase the exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. The increase in patient exposure to cannabinoids is of high clinical importance as it could affect the therapeutic effect, but also toxicity, of orally administered cannabis or cannabis-based medicines. PMID:27648135

  16. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Stone, Daniel; Barrington, Dani J.; Sinang, Som C.; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants. PMID:27589798

  17. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Stone, Daniel; Barrington, Dani J; Sinang, Som C; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a 'high' risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a 'low' or 'medium' risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants. PMID:27589798

  18. Assessing the Effects of Acute Amyloid β Oligomer Exposure in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ryan S.; Cechetto, David F.; Whitehead, Shawn N.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, yet there are no therapeutic treatments that can either cure or delay its onset. Currently, the pathogenesis of AD is still uncertain, especially with respect to how the disease develops from a normal healthy brain. Amyloid β oligomers (AβO) are highly neurotoxic proteins and are considered potential initiators to the pathogenesis of AD. Rat brains were exposed to AβO via bilateral intracerebroventricular injections. Rats were then euthanized at either 1, 3, 7 or 21-days post surgery. Rat behavioural testing was performed using the Morris water maze and open field tests. Post-mortem brain tissue was immunolabelled for Aβ, microglia, and cholinergic neurons. Rats exposed to AβO showed deficits in spatial learning and anxiety-like behaviour. Acute positive staining for Aβ was only observed in the corpus callosum surrounding the lateral ventricles. AβO exposed rat brains also showed a delayed increase in activated microglia within the corpus callosum and a decreased number of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain. Acute exposure to AβO resulted in mild learning and memory impairments with co-concomitant white matter pathology within the corpus callosum and cholinergic cell loss within the basal forebrain. Results suggest that acute exposure to AβO in the rat may be a useful tool in assessing the early phases for the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:27563885

  19. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke S. Reichwaldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

  20. Southern Dietary Pattern is Associated with Hazard of Acute Coronary Heart Disease in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Safford, Monika M.; Newby, P. K.; Durant, Raegan W.; Brown, Todd M.; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of overall diet, as characterized by dietary patterns, with risk of incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been studied extensively in samples including sociodemographic and regional diversity. Methods and Results We used data from 17,418 participants in Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥45 years, enrolled from 2003-2007. We derived dietary patterns with factor analysis, and used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine hazard of incident acute CHD events – nonfatal myocardial infarction and acute CHD death – associated with quartiles of consumption of each pattern, adjusted for various levels of covariates. Five primary dietary patterns emerged: Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad. A total of 536 acute CHD events occurred over a median (IQR) 5.8 (2.1) years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and energy intake, highest consumers of the Southern pattern (characterized by added fats, fried food, eggs, organ and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages) experienced a 56% higher hazard of acute CHD (comparing quartile 4 to quartile 1: HR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.08; P for trend across quartiles = 0.003). Adding anthropometric and medical history variables to the model attenuated the association somewhat (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.85; P = 0.036). Conclusions A dietary pattern characteristic of the southern US was associated with greater hazard of CHD in this sample of white and black adults in diverse regions of the US. PMID:26260732

  1. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The...

  2. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  3. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S.; Baer, Christine E.; Dennis, William E.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Leonard, Stephen S.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Lewis, John A.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na2Cr2O7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers. PMID:25993096

  4. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

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    Xiaoxia Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2 of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year. In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade.

  5. Statement on a refined dietary exposure assessment of erythritol (E 968 taking into account additional data provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Foods (ANS carried out an assessment of the dietary exposure to erythritol and concluded on the safety of the proposed use in beverages at a maximum use level of 2.5 %, taking into account additional exposure data provided to the Panel. Anticipated exposure to erythritol from its use as food additive including soft-drinks containing a mean concentration of 2.5 % erythritol would be in the range of 0.004-0.04 g/kg bw/day for toddlers, 0-0.05 g/kg bw/day for children, 0-0.08 g/kg bw/day for adolescents, 0-0.14 g/kg bw/day for adults, and 0-0.01 g/kg bw/day for the elderly. At high level, exposure estimates would be in the range of 0.29-0.48 g/kg bw/day (toddlers, 0.13-0.76 g/kg bw/day (children, 0.04-0.50 g/kg bw/day (adolescents, 0.05-0.43 g/kg bw/day (adults, and 0.01-0.25 g/kg bw/day (the elderly. The main categories contributing to the exposure to erythritol were table-top sweeteners and soft drinks for all age groups except toddlers where soft drinks were the only main contributor. The Panel concluded that based on the new data provided on use levels of erythritol in foods and on the basis of the extension of the authorisation for the use of erythritol to soft drinks at a use level of 2.5 % the Margin of Safety of 1.54 is too low to protect children adequately.

  6. Effects of mother's dietary exposure to acesulfame-K in Pregnancy or lactation on the adult offspring's sweet preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen-Hua; Chen, Meng-Ling; Liu, Si-Si; Zhan, Yue-Hua; Quan, Ying; Qin, Yu-Mei; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates whether mother's exposure to the artificial sweetener acesulfame-K (AK) during pregnancy or lactation affected her adult offspring's sweet preference. It was found that mother's dietary exposure to AK in pregnancy or lactation decreased the preference thresholds for AK and sucrose solutions in the adult offspring, whereas the preference pattern and the most preferred concentration for AK or sucrose solution were unchanged. Furthermore, the preference scores in the exposure groups were increased significantly when compared with the control group at a range of concentrations for AK or sucrose solution. The existence of AK and its dynamic changes within 24 h in amniotic fluid during pregnancy or in mother's milk during lactation after a single oral infusion of AK solution were revealed by the methods of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that AK can be ingested by the prenatal or postnatal mice through their mother's amniotic fluid or breast milk, producing a long-dated function on the adult's sweet preference. PMID:21653241

  7. Dietary exposure assessment of pregnant women to bisphenol-A from cans and microwave containers in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Arcas, M; Rivas, A; Granada, A; Monteagudo, C; Murcia, M A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2009-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), material for polycarbonate and epoxy resin synthesis, has been detected in canned food, among other food containers. In mammal studies, BPA transferred from mother to fetus, caused abnormality of reproductive organs, and advanced female puberty. BPA from canned food and microwave containers was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population was cohort of mother-son pairs established at Granada University Hospital. Frequency of food consumption (including canned food) was studied with a semi-quantitative questionnaire. The most frequently consumed products were fish and juice cans, consumed 1-3 times/week by 34.7% and 22.3% of the study population, respectively. The women made little use of polymer microwave containers, 52.8% never using them and 45.9% using them BPA was 1.1(0.839) microgram/day. No relationship was found between BPA exposure and maternal socio-demographic variables or newborn characteristics. This study offers the first estimate of BPA dietary intake by pregnant women in Southern Spain. The consumption of canned foods and drinks by these women means that their exposure was lower than EFSA estimates for the European population. Nevertheless it remains of concern, given the proven undesirable effects of low-level exposure and higher susceptibility of pregnant women. PMID:19121362

  8. Dietary exposure to trace elements and radionuclides: the methodology of the Italian total diet study 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena D'Amato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the methodology of the Italian Total Diet Study 2012-2014 aimed at assessing the dietary exposure of the general Italian population to selected non-essential trace elements (Al, inorganic As, Cd, Pb, methyl-Hg, inorganic Hg, U and radionuclides (40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr. The establishment of the TDS food list, the design of the sampling plan, and details about the collection of food samples, their standardized culinary treatment, pooling into analytical samples and subsequent sample treatment are described. Analytical techniques and quality assurance are discussed, with emphasis on the need for speciation data and for minimizing the percentage of left-censored data so as to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessment. Finally the methodology for estimating the exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age (children, teenagers, adults, and the elderly and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy, is presented.

  9. Effects of exposure time and dietary ochratoxin A level on broiler performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeljković-Trailović Jelena; Jovanović N.; Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the harmful effects of low level ochratoxin A (OTA) for different period and different dietary OTA levels for same period of ingestion as well as to assess the resting period necessary to revoke any adverse effects of OTA. The trial was performed on 72 day-old chickens with 12 broilers in each group. The experimental groups were offered feed contaminated with 0.5 ppm OA during 7, 14 or 21 days in the first evaluation, and feed contaminated with 0.5, 1...

  10. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Walthall, William K

    2003-12-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental concentration (EEC) of 0.79 mg/L, indicating that none of these adjuvants should cause high levels of mortality in wild D. pulex populations. Extinction, defined as negative population growth rate, occurred after exposure to 0.9 mg/L R-11, 13 mg/L X-77, 25 mg/L Kinetic, 28 mg/L Silwet, 18 mg/L Sylgard, 450 mg/L Bond, 610 mg/L Plyac, and 1,600 mg/L WaterMaxx. Concentrations that caused extinction were substantially below the acute LC50 for R-11, Kinetic, Plyac, X-77, and Bond. The no-observable-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effects concentration (LOEC) for the number of offspring per surviving female after exposure to R-11 were 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for population size after exposure to R-11 were (1.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Both of these values were lower than the EEC, indicating that R-11 does have the potential to cause damage to D. pulex populations after application at recommended field rates. The wide range of concentrations causing extinction makes it difficult to generalize about the potential impacts that agricultural adjuvants might have on aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional studies that examine effects on other nontarget organisms and determine residues in aquatic ecosystems may be warranted.

  11. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury and transverse myelitis due to naive heroin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heroin exposure can cause various complications like seizures, stroke, spongiform encephalopathy, transverse myelopathy, plexopathy, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure due to various mechanisms. We report here a young male who smoked heroin for the first time and developed transverse myelitis, rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. His renal recovery was complete by four weeks, while neurological improvement occurred 8 to 12 weeks later. This case suggests a common pathogenic mechanism of heroin intoxication involving multiple systems of the body.

  13. Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.

    On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer. However, there are significant uncertainties in the risk estimates for the probability of developing heavy particle-induced cancer, and in the amount of shielding needed to provide an adequate level of radiation protection. The results of this preliminary study, using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, show reduced tumorigenesis in rats maintained on diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract prior to exposure to 56Fe particles. Because the study was not initially designed to evaluate tumorigenesis following exposure to 56Fe particles, additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strawberry and blueberry supplementation. However, the preliminary results presented in this study suggest that diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals can provide additional radiation protection on interplanetary voyages.

  14. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L(-1) for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained. PMID:27382568

  15. Hepatic Steatosis in Response to Acute Alcohol Exposure in Zebrafish requires Srebp Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Michael J.; Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2008-01-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse and may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying steatosis following acute alcohol exposure are unknown. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying alcoholic liver disease (ALD), because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ∼80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidant stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop hepatomegaly and steatosis accompanied by changes in the expression of genes required for hepatic lipid metabolism. Based on the importance of SREPBs in chronic ALD, we explored the role of Srebps in this model of acute ALD. Srebp activation was prevented in gonzo larvae, which harbor a mutation in the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1) gene, and in embryos injected with a morpholino to knock-down Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap). Both gonzo mutants and scap morphants were resistant to steatosis in response to 2% EtOH, and the expression of many Srebp target genes are down regulated in gonzo mutant livers. Conclusion Zebrafish larvae develop signs of acute ALD, including steatosis. Srebp activation is required for steatosis in this model. The tractability of zebrafish genetics provides a valuable tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of acute ALD. PMID:19127516

  16. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.

  17. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors. PMID:9650558

  18. Association of bisphenol A exposure with dietary quality indices in Spanish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ana; Monteagudo, Celia; Heras-Gonzalez, Leticia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Lorenzo-Tovar, Maria Luisa; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2016-08-01

    Young children, whose growth and development are highly dependent on the endocrine system, are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruptor exposure. The main objectives of this study were to measure BPA migration levels from cans, fruit juice bottles/packs, and microwave containers used for food/drinks consumed by a sample of 6- to 8-year old schoolchildren in Spain and to estimate the relationship between their resulting BPA exposure and diet quality index scores (Mediterranean Diet Score and Breakfast Quality Index). The mean BPA concentration was 11.8 ng/mL for vegetable cans, 22.1 ng/mL for pulse cans, 3.6 ng/mL for juice bottles/packs, and 1.2 ng/mL for microwave containers. Results revealed a significant association between the Mediterranean Diet Score and low BPA exposure of the children. BPA exposure below the median level was significantly associated with a higher score in both the first-grade (P = 0.030) and second-grade (p = 0.0001) groups. However, no association was found between BPA exposure and the Breakfast Quality Index. In conclusion, children with a stronger adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet appear to be less exposed to BPA migrating from food packaging and microwave containers. Further research is warranted on the inadvertent exposure of children to endocrinedisrupting chemicals from these sources. PMID:27208728

  19. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  20. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Baer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014 with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648.

  1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Christine E.; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Hussainzada, Naissan; Lewis, John A.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively). Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014) with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648). PMID:26484131

  2. Telomere dynamics in human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to acute oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M.; Koelvraa, S.; Serakinci, N.;

    2012-01-01

    A gradual shortening of telomeres due to replication can be measured using the standard telomere restriction fragments (TRF) assay and other methods by measuring the mean length of all the telomeres in a cell. In contrast, stress-induced telomere shortening, which is believed to be just...... due to the advantages of the newly developed Universal single telomere length assay (STELA), and we therefore believe that this method should be considered the method of choice when measuring the length of telomeres after exposure to oxidative stress. In order to test our hypothesis, cultured human...... estimated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. The exposure to acute oxidative stress resulted in an increased number of ultra-short telomeres, which correlated strongly with the percentage of senescent cells, whereas a correlation between mean telomere length and the percentage...

  3. TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATSDavid R. Geter', Tanya M. Moore', Michael H. George', Steve R. Kilburn', Gloria Huggins-Clark', James W. Allen', and Anthony B. DeAngelo' 'National H...

  4. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity. PMID:24194397

  5. Estimates of dietary exposure of children to artificial food colours in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, A; Sawaya, W; Al-Omair, A; Al-Zenki, S; Al-Amiri, H; Ahmed, N; Al-Sinan, M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the intake of artificial food colour additives by 5-14-year-old children in the State of Kuwait, a 24-h dietary recall was conducted twice on 3141 male and female Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti children from 58 schools. The determination of colour additives in 344 foods items consumed was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. A comparison with the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) was undertaken to evaluate the potential risk associated with the consumption of artificial colour additives by children in Kuwait. The results indicated that out of nine permitted colours, four exceeded their ADIs by factors of 2-8: tartrazine, sunset yellow, carmoisine and allura red. Further, follow-up studies to provide insight into potential adverse health effects associated with the high intakes of these artificial colour additives on the test population are warranted.

  6. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden;

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined...... or as mixtures in combination with different diets: one low fat diet and two high fat diets with different protein:sucrose ratios. We measured accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue and liver and determined obesity development, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of genes involved...... in metabolism of xenobiotics. Compared with mice fed diets with a low protein:sucrose ratio, mice fed diets with a high protein:sucrose ratio had significantly lower total burden of POPs in adipose tissue, were protected from obesity development and exhibited enhanced hepatic expression of genes involved...

  7. Dietary exposure to benzoxazinoids enhances bacteria-induced monokine responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Palarasah, Yaseelan;

    2015-01-01

    with LPS. No effect was observed on T-cell cytokines or proliferation. BX levels in serum after a single meal did not modify cytokine responses. CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of BXs enhances bacteria-induced production of pro-inflammatory monokines by PBMCs, but not T-cell responses; presumably due......-out, the groups switched diets. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or tetanus toxoid (TT). PBMCs from a healthy donor received the same stimuli in presence of serum from each participant receiving BXs. The production...... of monokines, T-cell cytokines and T-helper cell proliferation were assessed. A 3-wk diet with high BX content enhanced IL-1β responses against LPS and P. gingivalis, as well as TNF-α response against P. gingivalis, after 24 h of stimulation. Moreover, IL-6 was found to be increased after 7 days of stimulation...

  8. [Reactive microglial changes in rat neocortex and hippocampus after exposure to acute perinatal hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaĭ, L I; Otellin, V A

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of reactive changes of a population density of microglial cells and the reversibility of their phenotypic forms were studied in the brain of neonatal rats at different time intervals after 1 hr-long exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia in the pressure chamber at the second postnatal day. Different areas of the neocortex (frontal, motor, somatosensory and visual) and of the hippocampus (CAI, CA3, CA4 and fascia dentata) were examined 1 hr, 3 hrs, 1 and 5 days after exposure to hypoxia. Microglial cells were demonstrated using an immunocytochemical staining with the monoclonal antibodies against Iba- 1 antigen. The results have shown that the reaction of microglia to acute hypoxia in both the neocortex and the hippocampus of the new-borns developed simultaneously and synchronously with the augmentation of cell death. The increase of a population density of amoeboid form of microglial cells in the brain areas studied was recorded already after 1 hour as a result of their migration from the subventricular region and the areas adjacent to large vessels from where they practically disappeared. The number of amoeboid microglial cells in this area has recovered rather quickly (in 3 hrs). The population densify of microglial cells, especially of amoeboid forms, sharply increased with the augmentation of cell death and remained unchanged for about 5 days.

  9. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  10. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  12. Acute exposure to apolipoprotein A1 inhibits macrophage chemotaxis in vitro and monocyte recruitment in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; Barrett, Tessa J; Taylor, Lewis; McNeill, Eileen; Manmadhan, Arun; Recio, Carlota; Carmineri, Alfredo; Brodermann, Maximillian H; White, Gemma E; Cooper, Dianne; DiDonato, Joseph A; Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; Hazen, Stanley L; Channon, Keith M

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has well documented anti-inflammatory properties. To better understand the cellular and molecular basis of the anti-inflammatory actions of apoA1, we explored the effect of acute human apoA1 exposure on the migratory capacity of monocyte-derived cells in vitro and in vivo. Acute (20–60 min) apoA1 treatment induced a substantial (50–90%) reduction in macrophage chemotaxis to a range of chemoattractants. This acute treatment was anti-inflammatory in vivo as shown by pre-treatment of monocytes prior to adoptive transfer into an on-going murine peritonitis model. We find that apoA1 rapidly disrupts membrane lipid rafts, and as a consequence, dampens the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway that coordinates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our data strengthen the evidence base for therapeutic apoA1 infusions in situations where reduced monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation could have beneficial outcomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15190.001 PMID:27572261

  13. Dietary acrylamide exposure among Finnish adults and children: The potential effect of reduction measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Tero; Jestoi, Marika; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Kontto, Jukka; Virtamo, Jarmo; Simell, Olli; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A deterministic exposure assessment using the Nusser method that adjusts for within-subject variation and for nuisance effects among Finnish children and adults was carried out. The food consumption data covered 2,038 adults (25?74 years old) and 1,514 children of one, three, and six years of age, with the data on foods? acrylamide content obtained from published Finnish studies. We found that acrylamide exposure was highest among the three-year-old children (median: 1.01 ...

  14. Role of carbon monoxide in impaired endothelial function mediated by acute second-hand tobacco, incense, and candle smoke exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lynn P; Al-Dissi, Ahmad; Marit, Jordan S; German, Timothy N; Terletski, Sharilyn D

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for acute adverse cardiovascular effects of different sources of smoke: second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), incense and candle smoke. Endothelial function was tested using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in pigs and was shown to be sensitive to nitric oxide synthase blockade. Subsequent experiments showed that FMD was significantly impaired compared to sham-exposed pigs at 30 min after a 30-min exposure to all three sources of smoke. In contrast, SHS significantly increased systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures compared to sham-exposure, while both incense and candle smoke exposure had no effect. The FMD impairment correlated well with CO levels in the exposure chamber, but not total particulates or venous CO-hemoglobin. Therefore, this study suggests a gas phase component of smoke that accompanies CO, but not CO itself, is responsible for acute endothelial dysfunction after SHS, incense or candle smoke exposure.

  15. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  16. High-Throughput Dietary Exposure Predictions for Chemical Migrants from Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency researchers have developed a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation High -Throughput (SHEDS-HT) model for use in prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. In this research, new methods were implemented in SHEDS-HT...

  17. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides : a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldas, E.D.; Tressou, J.; Boon, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS(2), for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues

  18. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for deter

  19. Dietary nucleotide and nucleoside exposure in infancy and atopic dermatitis, recurrent wheeze, and allergic sensitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Theunisz, E.H.; Ewalds, D.; Thijs, C.; Mommers, M.; Arts, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that early life exposure to nucleotides and nucleosides lowers the risk of recurrent wheeze, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization among n = 429 children. Concentrations in breast milk were established by high-performance liquid chromatography; concentrations in formula milks

  20. The Role of Dietary Management in the Reoccurrence of Acute Pancreatitis%饮食管理在急性胰腺炎复发中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绪兰; 张树荣; 罗莉; 余友敏; 赵小晶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of dietary management on the reoccurrence in discharged patients with acute pancreati-tis. Methods Dietary management was performed to 489 cases with acute pancreatitis, who were divided into 2 groups:research group including 281 cases obeying dietary management after discharge and control group including 208 cases disobeying dietary management after discharge;the reoccurrence of acute pancreatitis in the 2 groups was comparatively analyzed. Results The reoccurrence in research group was 8.9%, much lower than that in control group (15.4%), there existed a statistical difference between the 2 groups (P<0.05);out of the cases of reoccurrence in control group, 22 cases (68.8%) had improper diet before reoccurrence. Conclusions Dietary manage-ment by professional nutritionist in cases with acute pancreatitis after discharge can reduce the reoccurrence, which may be even lower in cases obeying dietary management.%目的:探讨急性胰腺炎患者出院后饮食管理对急性胰腺炎复发的影响。方法对489例急性胰腺炎患者进行营养管理,将患者按其出院后是否遵从饮食管理分为两组:研究组281例,为出院后遵从饮食管理者;对照组208例,为出院后不遵从饮食管理者。比较两组急性胰腺炎患者的复发情况。结果研究组急性胰腺炎患者复发率为8.9%,对照组为15.4%,两组比较P<0.05,研究组显著低于对照组;对照组复发患者中,22例(68.8%)复发前有不当饮食。结论专业营养师对出院的急性胰腺炎患者进行饮食管理可减少本病的复发,对饮食管理依从性较好者复发率更低。

  1. Acrylamide in commercial potato crisps from Spanish market: Trends from 2004 to 2014 and assessment of the dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-07-01

    This research updates the acrylamide content of commercial potato crisps marketed in Spain with the aim to evaluate its trend since 2004. Two different batches of 40 potato crisps brands from 18 producers were analysed. Acrylamide content ranged from 108 to 2180 µg/kg, with an average value of 630 µg/kg and a median of 556 µg/kg. Data revealed a continuous decreased trend from 2004 to 2014. In 2014, potato crisps showed an average acrylamide content 14.6% lower than the previous report in 2009 and 57.6% lower than the first report in 2004. These data confirm the overall effectiveness in the mitigation strategies implemented by the Spanish industrial sector, although variations up to 80% were observed between a number of brands. However, 17.5% of the samples registered values higher than the indicative value recommended by European Commission for potato crisps. The dietary exposure of the Spanish population to this contaminant through potato crisps intake was estimated to be 0.035 µg/kg body weight/day. Although exposure has decreased over the last ten years, it is necessary to continue efforts to reduce acrylamide content in potato crisps since there is still margin for it.

  2. Assessment of dietary background exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs particularly taking into account additional exposure due to the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident

    OpenAIRE

    Tlustos, Christina L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Irish monitoring data on PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and Marker PCBs were collated and combined with Irish Adult Food Consumption Data, to estimate dietary background exposure of Irish adults to dioxins and PCBs. Furthermore, all available information on the 2008 Irish pork dioxin food contamination incident was collated and analysed with a view to evaluate any potential impact the incident may have had on general dioxin and PCB background exposure levels estimated for the adult population in Ireland. T...

  3. Carryover Effects of Acute DEHP Exposure on Ovarian Function and Oocyte Developmental Competence in Lactating Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Kalo

    Full Text Available We examined acute exposure of Holstein cows to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and its carryover effects on ovarian function and oocyte developmental competence. Synchronized cows were tube-fed with water or 100 mg/kg DEHP per day for 3 days. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected before, during and after DEHP exposure to examine its clearance pattern. Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored through an entire estrous cycle by ultrasonographic scanning. Follicular fluids were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles on days 0 and 29 of the experiment and analyzed for phthalate metabolites and estradiol concentration. The aspirated follicular fluid was used as maturation medium for in-vitro embryo production. Findings revealed that DEHP impairs the pattern of follicular development, with a prominent effect on dominant follicles. The diameter and growth rate of the first- and second-wave dominant follicles were lower (P 25 mm. The pattern of growth and regression of the corpus luteum differed between groups, with a lower volume in the DEHP-treated group (P < 0.05. The follicular fluid aspirated from the DEHP-treated group, but not the controls, contained 23 nM mono(2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Culturing of cumulus oocyte complexes in the follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows reduced the proportion of oocytes progressing to the MII stage, and the proportions of 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (P < 0.04 and 7-day blastocysts (P < 0.06. The results describe the risk associated with acute exposure to DEHP and its deleterious carryover effects on ovarian function, nuclear maturation and oocyte developmental competence.

  4. Carryover Effects of Acute DEHP Exposure on Ovarian Function and Oocyte Developmental Competence in Lactating Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalo, Dorit; Hadas, Ron; Furman, Ori; Ben-Ari, Julius; Maor, Yehoshua; Patterson, Donald G; Tomey, Cynthia; Roth, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    We examined acute exposure of Holstein cows to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its carryover effects on ovarian function and oocyte developmental competence. Synchronized cows were tube-fed with water or 100 mg/kg DEHP per day for 3 days. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected before, during and after DEHP exposure to examine its clearance pattern. Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored through an entire estrous cycle by ultrasonographic scanning. Follicular fluids were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles on days 0 and 29 of the experiment and analyzed for phthalate metabolites and estradiol concentration. The aspirated follicular fluid was used as maturation medium for in-vitro embryo production. Findings revealed that DEHP impairs the pattern of follicular development, with a prominent effect on dominant follicles. The diameter and growth rate of the first- and second-wave dominant follicles were lower (P 25 mm). The pattern of growth and regression of the corpus luteum differed between groups, with a lower volume in the DEHP-treated group (P < 0.05). The follicular fluid aspirated from the DEHP-treated group, but not the controls, contained 23 nM mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Culturing of cumulus oocyte complexes in the follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows reduced the proportion of oocytes progressing to the MII stage, and the proportions of 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (P < 0.04) and 7-day blastocysts (P < 0.06). The results describe the risk associated with acute exposure to DEHP and its deleterious carryover effects on ovarian function, nuclear maturation and oocyte developmental competence.

  5. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  6. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pani

    Full Text Available During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays or during chronic (Californium-252 exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight.

  7. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Giuseppe; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight. PMID:27203085

  8. DOSE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN FOREBRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE, LOW-LEVEL CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE IN NEONATAL RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Anamika; Liu, Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 hr following acute CPF exposure in seven day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following e...

  9. Effects of dietary exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 on thyroid condition, gonadal development and growth of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Orazio, Carl E.; Peterman, Paul H.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of brominated flame retardants in teleosts and some of the information currently available is inconsistent. This study examined effects of dietary exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on thyroid condition, body mass and size, and gonadal development of zebrafish. Pubertal, 49-day-old (posthatch) fish were fed diets without BDE-47 (control) or with 1, 5 or 25 μg/g BDE-47/diet. Treatments were conducted in triplicate 30-L tanks each containing 50 zebrafish, and 15 fish per treatment (5 per tank) were sampled at days 40, 80 and 120 of exposure. Measurements were taken of body mass, standard length, head depth and head length. Sex (at 40–120 days of exposure), germ cell stage (at 40 days) and thyroid condition (at 120 days; follicular cell height, colloid depletion, angiogenesis) were histologically determined. Whole-body BDE-47 levels at study completion were within the high end of levels reported in environmentally exposed (wild) fishes. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences among treatments at each sampling time. No effects were observed on thyroid condition or germ cell stage in either sex. Reduced head length was observed in females exposed to BDE-47 at 80 days but not at 40 or 120 days. In males, no apparent effects of BDE-47 were observed at 40 and 80 days, but fish exposed to 25 μg/g had lower body mass at 120 days compared to control fish. These observations suggest that BDE-47 at environmentally relevant whole-body concentrations does not affect thyroid condition or pubertal development of zebrafish but does affect growth during the juvenile-to-adult transition, especially in males.

  10. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  11. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  12. Acute pergolide exposure stiffens engineered valve interstitial cell tissues and reduces contractility in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capulli, Andrew K; MacQueen, Luke A; O'Connor, Blakely B; Dauth, Stephanie; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    Medications based on ergoline-derived dopamine and serotonin agonists are associated with off-target toxicities that include valvular heart disease (VHD). Reports of drug-induced VHD resulted in the withdrawal of appetite suppressants containing fenfluramine and phentermine from the US market in 1997 and pergolide, a Parkinson's disease medication, in 2007. Recent evidence suggests that serotonin receptor activity affected by these medications modulates cardiac valve interstitial cell activation and subsequent valvular remodeling, which can lead to cardiac valve fibrosis and dysfunction similar to that seen in carcinoid heart disease. Failure to identify these risks prior to market and continued use of similar drugs reaffirm the need to improve preclinical evaluation of drug-induced VHD. Here, we present two complimentary assays to measure stiffness and contractile stresses generated by engineered valvular tissues in vitro. As a case study, we measured the effects of acute (24 h) pergolide exposure to engineered porcine aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) tissues. Pergolide exposure led to increased tissue stiffness, but it decreased both basal and active contractile tone stresses generated by AVIC tissues. Pergolide exposure also disrupted AVIC tissue organization (i.e., tissue anisotropy), suggesting that the mechanical properties and contractile functionality of these tissues are governed by their ability to maintain their structure. We expect further use of these assays to identify off-target drug effects that alter the phenotypic balance of AVICs, disrupt their ability to maintain mechanical homeostasis, and lead to VHD. PMID:27174867

  13. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight

  14. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  15. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  16. Self-supplementation and effects of dietary antioxidants during acute thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Haas, Anabel; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-02-01

    Thermal stress leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species. If an organism is not able to simultaneously mount an efficient antioxidant defense system, this may lead to increased oxidative damage, which is potentially deleterious in terms of health and fitness. Exposure to cold or heat is therefore expected to be associated with a high demand for antioxidants. In agreement, several studies have shown that supplementing the diet of thermally stressed organisms with antioxidants leads to a reduction of oxidative damage. However, whether organisms can actively supplement their diet with antioxidants to alleviate temperature-induced oxidative damage is unknown. Here, we show that captive Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) supplement their diet more with seeds rich in antioxidants below than within their thermoneutral zone. Moreover, having access to seeds rich in antioxidants at temperatures below thermoneutrality decreases their oxidative damage. These results indicate that, when facing a thermal challenge, animals are able to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of their food to improve their oxidative balance. Having access to food resources rich in antioxidants may therefore be of primary importance for organisms in their natural habitat, as it may help them to cope with oxidative constraints due to challenging temperature regimes.

  17. A case of acute psychosis in a patient following exposure to a single high dose of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunsoo; Suh, Hwagyu; Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Hee Jeong

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of acute psychotic symptoms following exposure to a single high dose of styrene monomer. The 24-year-old male patient showed psychotic and cognitive symptoms immediately after exposure. His psychotic symptoms included auditory hallucinations and delusions of reference. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and laboratory examinations were performed to evaluate any other causes. The clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory review in this case suggested that the suddenly developed psychotic symptoms that led to chronic deterioration were caused by the single exposure to styrene monomer. This is the first recent report in which acute psychotic symptoms developed from a single high dose of styrene suffocation compared with previous findings showing symptoms because of long-term low-dose exposure.

  18. Dietary Exposure Assessment of Danish Consumers to Dithiocarbamate Residues in Food: a Comparison of the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    of the point estimate calculations was generally higher or comparable with the outcome of the probabilistic approach at the 99.9 percentile (consumers only). The chronic exposures for adults and children were 0.35 and 0.76 mu g kg(-1) body weight day(-1) at the 99.9 percentile, representing 0.7% and 1...... the probabilistic approach, the daily acute intakes at the 99.9% percentile for adults and children were 11.2 and 28.2 mu g kg(-1) body weight day(-1), representing 5.6% and 14.1% of the ARfD for maneb, respectively. When comparing the point estimate approach with the probabilistic approach, the outcome...

  19. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  20. Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P N; Price, A H; Raab, A; Hossain, S A; Feldmann, J; Meharg, A A

    2005-08-01

    Ingestion of drinking water is not the only elevated source of arsenic to the diet in the Bengal Delta. Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets. We set out to survey As speciation in different rice varieties from different parts of the globe to understand the contribution of rice to arsenic exposure. Pot experiments were utilized to ascertain whether growing rice on As contaminated soil affected speciation and whether genetic variation accounted for uptake and speciation. USA long grain rice had the highest mean arsenic level in the grain at 0.26 microg As g(-1) (n = 7), and the highest grain arsenic value of the survey at 0.40 microg As g(-1). The mean arsenic level of Bangladeshi rice was 0.13 microg As g(-1) (n = 15). The main As species detected in the rice extract were AsIII, DMAV, and AsV. In European, Bangladeshi, and Indian rice 64 +/- 1% (n = 7), 80 +/- 3% (n = 11), and 81 +/- 4% (n = 15), respectively, of the recovered arsenic was found to be inorganic. In contrast, DMAV was the predominant species in rice from the USA, with only 42 +/- 5% (n = 12) of the arsenic being inorganic. Pot experiments show that the proportions of DMAV in the grain are significantly dependent on rice cultivar (p = 0.026) and that plant nutrient status is effected by arsenic exposure. PMID:16124284

  1. Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic in Milled Rice from China and Associated Dietary Exposure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yatao; Wang, Min; Mao, Xuefei; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-23

    Total arsenic (As) and inorganic As (Asi) in milled rice (n = 1653) collected from China were studied to evaluate the contamination level, distribution, and health risks. The mean concentrations of the total As and Asi were 116.5 and 90.9 μg/kg, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 11 provinces, and 1.1% of samples exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by Chinese legislation. According to the exposure assessment method of probabilistic simulation, all values of the target hazard quotients (THQs) for chronic noncarcinogenic risks (skin lesions as the point of departure) were below 1, suggesting that the Chinese population will not encounter a significant noncarcinogenic risk. However, the mean values of margin of exposure (MOE) for lung cancer risks ranging from 3.86 to 8.54 were under 100 for all age groups and genders of the Chinese population; moreover, MOE values for some major rice-producing and -consuming countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and the United States, were all also below 100. More attention should be paid to carcinogenic risks from rice Asi intake, and some control measures to reduce rice Asi intake should be taken.

  2. Quantitative risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Finnish children and adults to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice. PMID:26609554

  3. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (presistance (TEER) by 180.0% (pchange in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05). Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium. PMID:27643990

  4. Cognitive functions and cerebral oxygenation changes during acute and prolonged hypoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davranche, Karen; Casini, Laurence; Arnal, Pierrick J; Rupp, Thomas; Perrey, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess specific cognitive processes (cognitive control and time perception) and hemodynamic correlates using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure. Eleven male subjects were transported via helicopter and dropped at 14 272 ft (4 350 meters) of altitude where they stayed for 4 days. Cognitive tasks, involving a conflict task and temporal bisection task, were performed at sea level the week before ascending to high altitude, the day of arrival (D0), the second (D2) and fourth (D4) day at high altitude. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) area were monitored with fNIRS at rest and during the conflict task. Results showed that high altitude impacts information processing in terms of speed and accuracy. In the early hours of exposure (D0), participants displayed slower reaction times (RT) and decision errors were twice as high. While error rate for simple spontaneous responses remained twice that at sea level, the slow-down of RT was not detectable after 2 days at high-altitude. The larger fNIRS responses from D0 to D2 suggest that higher prefrontal activity partially counteracted cognitive performance decrements. Cognitive control, assessed through the build-up of a top-down response suppression mechanism, the early automatic response activation and the post-error adjustment were not impacted by hypoxia. However, during prolonged hypoxic exposure the temporal judgments were underestimated suggesting a slowdown of the internal clock. A decrease in cortical arousal level induced by hypoxia could consistently explain both the slowdown of the internal clock and the persistence of a higher number of errors after several days of exposure. PMID:27262217

  5. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (presistance (TEER) by 180.0% (pchange in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05). Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium. PMID:27643990

  6. Absence of acute ocular damage in humans after prolonged exposure to intense RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibzadeh, F.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Verduijn, G. M.; Naus-Postema, N. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The eye is considered to be a critical organ when determining safety standards for radio frequency (RF) radiation. Experimental data obtained using animals showed that RF heating of the eye, particularly over a specific threshold, can induce cataracts. During the treatment of cancer in the head and neck by hyperthermia, the eyes receive a considerable dose of RF radiation due to stray radiation from the prolonged (60 min) and intense exposure at 434 MHz of this region. In the current study, we verified the exposure guidelines for humans by determining the association between the electromagnetic and thermal dose in the eyes with the reported ocular effects. We performed a simulation study to retrospectively assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in the eyes of 16 selected patients (encompassing a total of 74 treatment sessions) whose treatment involved high power delivery as well as a minimal distance between the tumor site and the eye. Our results show that the basic restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (10 W kg-1) and peak tissue temperature increase (1 °C) are exceeded by up to 10.4 and 4.6 times, on average, and by at least 6.2 and 1.8 times when considering the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval. Evaluation of the acute effects according to patients’ feedback (all patients), the common toxicity criteria scores (all patients) and an ophthalmology investigation (one patient with the highest exposure) revealed no indication of any serious acute ocular effect, even though the eyes were exposed to high electromagnetic fields, leading to a high thermal dose. We also found that, although there is a strong correlation (R 2  =  0.88) between the predicted induced SAR and temperature in the eye, there are large uncertainties regarding the temperature-SAR relationship. Given this large uncertainty (129%) compared with the uncertainty of 3D temperature simulations (61%), we recommend using temperature

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the renal transcriptional response to acute uranyl nitrate exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiles Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and radiological toxicities related to uranium acute exposure have been widely studied in nuclear fuel workers and military personnel. It is well known that uranyl nitrate induces acute renal failure (ARF. However, the mechanisms of this metal-induced injury are not well defined at the molecular level. Results Renal function and histology were assessed in mice receiving uranyl nitrate (UN(+ and controls (UN(-. To identify the genomic response to uranium exposure, serial analysis gene expression (SAGE of the kidney was performed in both groups. Over 43,000 mRNA SAGE tags were sequenced. A selection of the differentially expressed transcripts was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. UN(+ animals developed renal failure and displayed the characteristic histological lesions of UN nephropathy. Of the >14,500 unique tags identified in both libraries, 224 had a modified expression level; they are known to participate in inflammation, ion transport, signal transduction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, metabolism, and catabolism. Several genes that were identified had not previously been evaluated within the context of toxic ARF such as translationally controlled tumor protein, insulin like growth factor binding protein 7 and ribosomal protein S29, all apoptosis related genes. Conclusion We report a comprehensive description of the UN induced modifications in gene expression levels, including the identification of genes previously unrelated to ARF. The study of these genes and the metabolisms they control should improve our understanding of toxic ARF and enlighten on the molecular targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

  8. Effects of Acutely Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Running Economy and Physical Performance in Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Dobson, Bryan P; Ikeda, Erika

    2016-07-01

    Kilding, AE, Dobson, BP, and Ikeda, E. Effects of acutely intermittent hypoxic exposure on running economy and physical performance in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2033-2042, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short duration intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) on physical performance in basketball players. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled group design, 14 trained basketball players were subjected to 15 days of passive short duration IHE (n = 7), or normoxic control (CON, n = 7), using a biofeedback nitrogen dilution device. A range of physiological, performance, and hematological variables were measured at baseline, and 10 days after IHE. After intervention, the IHE group, relative to the CON group, exhibited improvements in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (+4.8 ± 1.6%; effect size [ES]: 1.0 ± 0.4) and repeated high-intensity exercise test performance (-3.5 ± 1.6%; ES: -0.4 ± 0.2). Changes in hematological parameters were minimal, although soluble transferrin receptor increased after IHE (+9.2 ± 10.1%; ES: 0.3 ± 0.3). Running economy at 11 km·h (-9.0 ± 9.7%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.7) and 13 km·h was improved (-8.2 ± 6.9%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.5), but changes to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, HRpeak, and lactate were unclear. In summary, acutely IHE resulted in worthwhile changes in physical performance tests among competitive basketball players. However, physiological measures explaining the performance enhancement were in most part unclear. PMID:26677826

  9. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Feriche

    Full Text Available When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17 in conditions of normoxia (N1 and hypobaric hypoxia (HH and G2 (n = 11 in conditions of normoxia (N2 and normobaric hypoxia (NH. Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax was recorded as the highest P(mean obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max (∼ 3% and maximal strength (1 RM (∼ 6% in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05. We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean and P(peak in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01 and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001. No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press.

  10. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriche, Belén; García-Ramos, Amador; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Drobnic, Franchek; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan G; Galilea, Pedro A; Riera, Joan; Padial, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17) in conditions of normoxia (N1) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and G2 (n = 11) in conditions of normoxia (N2) and normobaric hypoxia (NH). Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax) was recorded as the highest P(mean) obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max) (∼ 3%) and maximal strength (1 RM) (∼ 6%) in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05). We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean) and P(peak) in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01) and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001). No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press. PMID:25474104

  11. Caffeine improves performance in double poling during acute exposure to 2,000-m altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadheim, H K; Nossum, E M; Olsen, R; Spencer, M; Jensen, J

    2015-12-15

    There is limited research on the physiological effects of caffeine (CAF) ingestion on exercise performance during acute hypoxia. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the effect of placebo (PLA) and CAF (4.5 mg/kg) on double poling (DP) performance during acute hypoxia. Thirteen male subelite cross-country skiers (V̇o2max 72.6 ± 5.68 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were included. Performance was assessed as 1) an 8-km cross-country DP time-trial (C-PT), and 2) time until task failure at a set workload equal to ∼90% of DP V̇o2max. Testing was carried out in a hypobaric chamber, at 800 mbar (Pio2: ∼125 mmHg) corresponding to ∼2,000 m above sea level in a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. CAF improved time to task failure from 6.10 ± 1.40 to 7.22 ± 1.30 min (P exercise subjects reported lower pain in arms and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) following CAF ingestion. Throughout C-PTs similar RPE and pain was shown between treatments. However, higher heart rate was observed during the CAF 8 km (187 ± 7 vs. 185 ± 7; P < 0.05) and 90% C-PT (185 ± 7 vs. 181 ± 9) associated with increased ventilation, blood lactate, glucose, adrenaline, decreased pH, and bicarbonate. The present study demonstrates for the first time that CAF ingestion improves DP time to task failure although not consistently time trial performance during acute exposure to altitude. Mechanisms underpinning improvements seem related to reduced pain RPE and increased heart rate during CAF C-PTs. PMID:26494444

  12. Alterations in catecholamine turnover in specific regions of the rat brain following acute exposure to nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Kugel, G; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on steady-state concentrations and turnover rates of catecholamines in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, brain stem, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord were determined in rats. Animals were exposed for 2 h to either 60% N2O or air. Immediately following exposure, all animals were injected intraperitoneally with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alphaMPT), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postinjection. Brain catecholamine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Results indicate that N2O exposure significantly elevates steady-state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus and striatum yet decreases amine levels in the brain stem region. Steady-state levels of dopamine (DA) were not significantly altered in any region of the CNS by N2O exposure. Acute exposure to N2O also resulted in significant decreases in the turnover rate of NE in the brain stem, yet it increased turnover of this amine in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and striatum. Acute exposure to N2O resulted in a decreased turnover rate of DA in the hippocampus and striatum. In contrast, N2O appears to increase DA turnover in the olfactory bulb. These results indicate that acute exposure to N2O in rats causes region-specific alterations in steady-state levels and turnover rates of DA and NE within the central nervous system.

  13. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  15. Effects of Pubertal Exposure to Dietary Soy on Estrogen Receptor Activity in the Breast of Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Fitriya N; Wood, Charles E; Willson, Cynthia J; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Howard, Timothy D; Huang, Zhiqing; Murphy, Susan K; Tooze, Janet A; Chou, Jeff W; Miller, Lance D; Cline, J Mark

    2016-05-01

    Endogenous estrogens influence mammary gland development during puberty and breast cancer risk during adulthood. Early-life exposure to dietary or environmental estrogens may alter estrogen-mediated processes. Soy foods contain phytoestrogenic isoflavones (IF), which have mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist properties. Here, we evaluated mammary gland responses over time in pubertal female cynomolgus macaques fed diets containing either casein/lactalbumin (n = 12) or soy protein containing a human-equivalent dose of 120 mg IF/day (n = 17) for approximately 4.5 years spanning menarche. We assessed estrogen receptor (ER) expression and activity, promoter methylation of ERs and their downstream targets, and markers of estrogen metabolism. Expression of ERα and classical ERα response genes (TFF1, PGR, and GREB1) decreased with maturity, independent of diet. A significant inverse correlation was observed between TFF1 mRNA and methylation of CpG sites within the TFF1 promoter. Soy effects included lower ERβ expression before menarche and lower mRNA for ERα and GREB1 after menarche. Expression of GATA-3, an epithelial differentiation marker that regulates ERα-mediated transcription, was elevated before menarche and decreased after menarche in soy-fed animals. Soy did not significantly alter expression of other ER activity markers, estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, or promoter methylation for ERs or ER-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate greater ER expression and activity during the pubertal transition, supporting the idea that this life stage is a critical window for phenotypic modulation by estrogenic compounds. Pubertal soy exposure decreases mammary ERα expression after menarche and exerts subtle effects on receptor activity and mammary gland differentiation. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 385-95. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27006379

  16. Dietary and Household Sources of Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the INMA Birth Cohort (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Olga; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vizcaino, Esther; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Grimalt, Joan O; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana

    2016-06-01

    This study looked at predictors of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with a focus on dietary and household-level factors. Concentrations of BDE-47, -99, -153, and -209 and their sum (∑PBDEs) were measured in cord serum. Spanish women (n = 541) completed two semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. The daily mean intake (grams) of eggs, dairy products, meat, cereals and pasta, vegetables and pulses, fruits, shellfish and cephalopods, and fish, and the weekly mean intake (servings) of lean, large oily, other oily, and other fish from both questionnaires were averaged. Information on house size, curtains and carpets at home, mattress type, housekeeping frequency, and television use was also collected later in gestation. Multivariate censored regression was used to assess the association between PBDE concentration (log2 transformed) and potential predictors. BDE-47, -99, -209 and ∑PBDE concentrations increased by 13.6%(95% CI:0.0, 29.0%), 21.1%(2.3, 43.5%), 21.7%(0.4, 47.5%) and 11.5%(2.2, 21.7%), respectively, per interquartile range increment in daily intake of shellfish and cephalopods. Fish intake was associated with BDE-99 (20.8%[1.7, 43.4%]). When fish was disaggregated by types, BDE-99 and ∑PBDEs increased by 13.8%(4.0, 24.7%) and 5.7%(0.8, 10.8%), respectively, per 1-serving/week increment in large oily fish intake. BDE-153 was associated with higher housekeeping frequency (35.9%[0.4, 83.9%]) and BDE-209 with foam mattress use (48.9%[5.8, 109.7%]). In conclusion, seafood consumption, higher housekeeping frequency, and foam mattress were associated with prenatal PBDE exposure. PMID:27123793

  17. Dietary exposure of children and teenagers to benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) in Beirut (Lebanon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubra, L; Sarkis, D; Hilan, C; Verger, Ph

    2007-02-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a considered chemical is by definition the amount of that substance which can be ingested every day during the life time without appreciable health risk. The theoretical risk of exceeding the ADI for benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) has often been examined on the basis of worst case scenario. The aim of this paper is to assess the actual intake of the food additives listed above for a group of the Lebanese population (students aged between 9 and 18 years old) likely to be highly exposed to food additives through the consumption of processed foods. Dietary exposure was obtained by combining food consumption data with food additives levels determined by chemical analysis. Food products available in Lebanon and containing added benzoates, sulphites, BHA and BHT were identified. Overall 420 samples of foods and beverages were analysed. The determination of food additives residue levels was carried out according to the official methods adopted in "Lebanese Institute for agronomic research" (IRAL) on food as consumed. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) could be exceeded for sulphites and BHT by a fraction of the population, in particular within children of 9-13 years old. Among all food additive-containing foods, the highest contributors were: soft drinks to benzoates intake, nuts and canned juices to sulphites intake, bread and biscuits to BHA intake and chewing gum to BHT intake.

  18. Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) dietary exposure to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coefield, Sarah J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Nadeau, Michael W; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Moore, Jeremy N; Kay, Denise P; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2010-10-01

    Soils and sediments in the floodplain of the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA contain elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). As a long-lived, resident top predator, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO) has the potential to be exposed to bioaccumulative compounds such as PCDD/DF. Site-specific components of the GHO diet were collected along 115 km of the Tittabawassee, Pine, Chippewa, and Saginaw Rivers during 2005 and 2006. The site-specific GHO biomass-based diet was dominated by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Incidental soil ingestion and cottontail rabbits were the primary contributors of PCDD/DF to the GHO diet. The great horned owl daily dietary exposure estimates were greater in the study area (SA) (3.3 to 5.0 ng 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQ(WHO-avian))/kg body wt/d) than the reference area (RA) (0.07 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg body wt/d). Hazard quotients (HQs) based on central tendency estimates of the average daily dose and no-observable-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the screech owl and uncertainty factors were <1.0 for both the RA and the SA. Hazard quotients based on upper end estimates of the average daily dose and NOAEL were <1.0 in the RA and up to 3.4 in the SA. PMID:20872700

  19. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  20. 50例急性痛风药物治疗及饮食控制%50 cases of acute gout drug treatment and dietary control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文艳; 沈闻文

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨急性痛风药物治疗、适应症、用法用量、不良反应及饮食控制。方法根据我院50例急性痛风患者临床资料进行分析。结果50例患者通过上述药物治疗及合理饮食控制后,效果满意。讨论急性痛风药物治疗效果与合理的饮食控制成正相关。%Purpose Explore the acute gout drug treatment ,indications, usage, dosage, adverse reactions and dietary control.Methods According to our hospital 50 patients of acute gout clinical data for analysis. Results After these 50 patients by the above drug treatment and reasonable dietary control, the results were satisfactory.Discussion Acute gout drug treatment was positively correlated with the reasonable control diet.

  1. Effects of acute exposure to magnetic field on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the possible interaction between magnetic field and cadmium on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve. Design: The combined effect of magnetic field and cadmium (1.5mg/kg; in lymphatic sac) were studied in frog sciatic nerves (Rana Esculenta). Sciatic nerve samples were extracted, weighed and mixed in bidistilled water in order to analyze by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionic composition. Setting: Frogs (Rana Esculenta) were reared in swimming-pool (Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Tunisia). Frogs were cared for under the Tunisian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific purpose and the Experimental Protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee. Subjects: Treated and control groups (n=6) weighing 50-100g at the time of experiments were housed in the same condition three weeks before the beginning of the experiments. Results: Acute exposure to magnetic field increased significantly the calcium (+298%, p<0.05) and iron (+50%, p<0.05) contents of frog sciatic nerve, whereas magnesium and copper contents remained unchanged. The association between magnetic field and cadmium, induced marked increase of calcium (+360%, p<0.05), whereas magnesium content remained stable. Conclusions: Magnetic field exposure alters the ionic composition in the frog sciatic nerve, especially calcium and iron. Magnetic field magnifies the effect of cadmium on calcium homeostasis. (author)

  2. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pdevelopment and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  3. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  4. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98, while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%, were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  5. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevant shellfish consumption data for dietary exposure assessment among high shellfish consumers, Western Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Cyndie; Nguyen, Thuan Anh; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Parent-Massin, Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Shellfish consumption can be a major pathway of exposure to pollutants for humans. It is fundamental to know if people eat enough shellfish to cause health problems, firstly in high consumers as recreational shellfish harvesters. The objectives of this study were to investigate the types of shellfish eaten, number of meals, portion size, sources of shellfish and shellfish consumption rates among French recreational shellfish harvesters; to determine factors affecting consumption patterns and to examine the reliability of the two methods used: a Food Frequency Questionnaire and a one-month food diary. The mean consumption rates were 11.63 and 26.21 g/person/day for shellfish derived from a self-harvested source only and from all sources, respectively. Harvester consumption rates were between 6- and 15-fold higher than the general French population. The comparison between the FFQ and the food diary showed that results were reliable. Thereby, our results are relevant to assess risk due to shellfish consumption.

  7. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  8. Impact of acute exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military firemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of acute short-term exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military fireman living and working in the city of Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-five healthy non-smoking firemen aged 24 to 45 years had about 1 h of exposure to low and high levels of air pollution. The tests consisted of two phases: phase A, in Bertioga, a town with low levels of air pollution, and phase B, in Cubatão, a polluted town, with a 7-day interval between phases. The volunteers remained in the cities (Bertioga/Cubatão only for the time required to perform the tests. Cumulative load 10 ± 2 min-long exertion tests were performed on a treadmill, consisting of a 2-min stage at a load of 7 km/h, followed by increasing exertion of 1 km h-1 min-1 until the maximum individual limit. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 in anaerobic threshold (AT between Cubatão (35.04 ± 4.91 mL kg-1 min-1 and Bertioga (36.98 ± 5.62 mL kg-1 min-1; P = 0.01, in the heart rate at AT (AT HR; Cubatão 152.08 ± 14.86 bpm, Bertioga 157.44 ± 13.64 bpm; P = 0.001, and in percent maximal oxygen consumption at AT (AT%VO2max; Cubatão 64.56 ± 6.55%, Bertioga 67.40 ± 5.35%; P = 0.03. However, there were no differences in VO2max, maximal heart rate or velocity at AT (ATvel observed in firemen between towns. The acute exposure to pollutants in Cubatão, SP, caused a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion.

  9. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed. PMID:19276707

  10. Dietary exposure and health risk assessment for 14 toxic and essential trace elements in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Pouillot, Régis; Charrondiere, U Ruth; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to trace elements (aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium) was assessed by the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared "as consumed" before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a households' budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with health-based guidance or nutritional values and to worldwide TDS results. The health-based guidance value was exceeded by ≤ 0.2% of the study population for aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. For lead, the observed 95th percentile of exposure (3.05 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) equals the critical value considered by JECFA for cardiovascular effects; therefore, risk to health cannot be excluded for certain consumer groups. The population at risk of excess intake for manganese, copper, molybdenum and nickel was considered to be low (≤ 0.3%). The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated at 5.9% for copper and was nil for molybdenum. Due to the lack of toxicological and/or nutritional consistent data to perform a risk assessment, dietary exposures to germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium were provided as supplementary data. The food groups highest contributors to exposure were "tubers and starches" for aluminium (27%), lead (39%) and copper (26%), "cereals and cereal products" for cadmium (54%) and manganese (35%), "fruits, vegetables and oilseeds" for barium (34%), molybdenum (49%) and nickel (31%), "beverages" for antimony (27%) and "fish" for vanadium (43% - lower bound). Measures should be recommended to maintain low levels of exposure before the problem could become an important health or trade issue.

  11. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  12. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially regulate CB1 receptor function at glutamatergic synapses in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stacey L; Alexander, Nancy J; Bluett, Rebecca J; Patel, Sachin; McCool, Brian A

    2016-09-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system has been suggested to play a key role in ethanol preference and intake, the acute effects of ethanol, and in the development of withdrawal symptoms following ethanol dependence. Ethanol-dependent alterations in glutamatergic signaling within the lateral/basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) are critical for the development and expression of withdrawal-induced anxiety. Notably, the eCB system significantly regulates both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity within the BLA. Chronic ethanol exposure significantly alters eCB system expression within regions critical to the expression of emotionality and anxiety-related behavior, including the BLA. Here, we investigated specific interactions between the BLA eCB system and its functional regulation of synaptic activity during acute and chronic ethanol exposure. In tissue from ethanol naïve-rats, a prolonged acute ethanol exposure caused a dose dependent inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic activity via a presynaptic mechanism that was occluded by CB1 antagonist/inverse agonists SR141716a and AM251. Importantly, this acute ethanol inhibition was attenuated following 10 day chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE). CIE exposure also significantly down-regulated CB1-mediated presynaptic inhibition at glutamatergic afferent terminals but spared CB1-inhibition of GABAergic synapses arising from local inhibitory-interneurons. CIE also significantly elevated BLA N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA or anandamide) levels and decreased CB1 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data suggest a dynamic regulation of the BLA eCB system by acute and chronic ethanol. PMID:26707595

  13. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saili, Linda; Hanini, Amel; Smirani, Chiraz; Azzouz, Ines; Azzouz, Amina; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-09-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system. PMID:26356390

  14. Neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects after acute exposure to a single peak of 200 ppm toluene in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobald, S Oliver; Wascher, Edmund; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; van Thriel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    The solvent toluene has neurotoxic properties that are especially relevant in the working environment. Short-term exposure limits (STELs) vary from 50 ppm up to 300 ppm across countries but their acute effects remain elusive in humans. Several in vitro and in vivo studies elucidated that toluene acutely acts by perturbations of different neurotransmitter systems. More specifically visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of rats are decreased after acute toluene exposure, leading to the assumption that particularly visual attention processes might be a target of toluene in humans. Therefore a visual change detection task was applied to measure both neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects by using electroencephalography (EEG) after a single peak exposure to 200 ppm toluene. Performance and event-related components of the EEG were examined before and after exposure in a toluene-exposed and a control group. Thirty-three young healthy volunteers participated in this study. The behavioral results of the experiment indicate that toluene impairs the rate of correct responses especially in task conditions in which an irrelevant distractor is given, while the response times did not differ between both groups. The neurophysiological findings hint toward a less efficient visual processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli and an increased distractibility by irrelevant distractors. Thus the present results are a promising starting point for further research specifically targeting visual attention after toluene exposure and the reconsideration of the presently very heterogeneous STELs.

  15. Development of short, acute exposure hazard estimates: a tool for assessing the effects of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K

    2013-08-01

    Management decisions aimed at protecting aquatic resources following accidental chemical spills into rivers and coastal estuaries require estimates of toxic thresholds derived from realistic spill conditions: acute pulse exposures of short duration (h), information which often is unavailable. Most existing toxicity data (median lethal concentration or median effective concentration) come from tests performed under constant exposure concentrations and exposure durations in the 24-h to 96-h range, conditions not typical of most chemical spills. Short-exposure hazard concentration estimates were derived for selected chemicals using empirical toxicity data. Chemical-specific 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HC5) of species sensitivity distributions (SSD) from individual exposure durations (6-96 h) were derived via bootstrap resampling and were plotted against their original exposure durations to estimate HC5s and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at shorter exposures (1, 2, and 4 h). This approach allowed the development of short-exposure HC5s for 12 chemicals. Model verification showed agreement between observed and estimated short-exposure HC5s (r(2) adjusted = 0.95, p overprotective, these were derived from environmentally realistic exposure durations, providing risk-assessors with a tool to manage field decisions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1918-1927. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23625642

  16. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Alexandra; Hildur, Kristin; Barberà, Joan Albert; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; de Castro Reis, Fernanda; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Templado, Cristina; Fuster, Carme

    2016-01-01

    analyses were performed in 47 exposed individuals. A total of 251 breakpoints in exposed individuals) were identified, showing a non-uniform distribution in the human ideogram. Ten chromosome bands were found to be especially prone to breakage through both statistical methods. By comparing these bands with those observed in certain exposed individuals who had already participated the previous study, it was found in both studies that four bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2) are particularly sensitive to breakage. Additionally, the dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms was not significantly higher in oil-exposed individuals than in non-exposed individuals. Limitations The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the high number of individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks. Conclusion Our findings show the existence of at least four target bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2) with a greater propensity to break over time after an acute exposure to oil. The breaks in these bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, may explain the increase of cancer risk reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, a more efficiency of the DNA repair mechanisms has been detected six years after in fishermen who were highly exposed to the oil spill. To date, only this study, performed by our group on the previous and present genotoxic effects, has analyzed the chromosomal regions affected by breakage after an acute oil exposure. PMID:27479010

  17. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  18. Analysis, distribution, and dietary exposure of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in cookies and their relationship with other heat-induced contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema; Morales, Francisco J

    2010-03-10

    Thermal processing of food leads to the formation of dicarbonyls such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which are potentially harmful because they are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). GO and MGO formation was examined during the baking process of cookies as cookies are a widely distributed food commodity in Western diets. GO and MGO were chromatographically analyzed after employment of an improved method of derivatization with orthophenylenediamine to produce stable quinoxaline derivatives. Sample extraction, cleanup, and chromatographic conditions were evaluated to provide an in-house validated procedure for GO and MGO analysis in cookies. Quantification limits were set at 1.5 and 2 mg/kg for GO and MGO, respectively, with an average recovery of 103% and a calculated precision lower than 7%. Studies were carried out both on laboratory-scale cookies under controlled conditions and on commercial samples as well. GO and MGO values in commercial cookies ranged from 4.8 to 26.0 mg/kg and from 3.7 to 81.4 mg/kg, respectively. Commercial cookies made from ammonium bicarbonate and fructose showed the highest levels of MGO. Dicarbonyls were rapidly formed on the upper side of the cookie regardless of the shape or thickness of the samples, confirming there was a surface effect. Under controlled baking conditions, the formations of GO and MGO were linearly correlated with baking time. MGO formation was related with acrylamide, a heat-processing contaminant, in commercial cookies, but this relationship was not observed for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Dietary exposure of the Spanish population to GO and MGO from cookies was estimated to be 213 and 216 microg/person/day, respectively. PMID:20131787

  19. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in Pacific cods from coastal areas in northern Japan: A major source of human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) contamination of edible fish muscle from Japanese coastal waters. The concentrations of PFCAs with 8–14 carbon atoms (C8–C14) in Pacific cods in Hokkaido, Japan were 51 (median: pg/g-wet weight) for C8, 93 for C9, 99 for C10, 746 for C11, 416 for C12, 404 for C13, and 93 for C14. The levels of C9–C14 PFCAs in fish were strongly correlated to each other, but not to C8 and the other chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, indicating that C9–C14 PFCAs have a different emission source and/or bioaccumulation mechanism. The relative ratios between estimated PFCAs intake through fish consumption and the reported total dietary exposure of PFCAs were less than 1 for C8 to C9, but were more than 1 for C10 to C14. This result strongly suggests that fish consumption is a significant source of human dietary exposure to C10–C14 PFCAs. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were detected in edible cod fish from Japanese coastal waters. • The levels of long-chain PFCAs in fish were independent from those of C8 and other POPs. • Long chain PFCAs intake through fish and the reported total dietary exposure were comparable. • Sea fish such as Pacific cod may be a significant human dietary source of long-chain PFCAs. - Sea fish are a significant source of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids for the Japanese population

  20. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50 were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained.

  1. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A M; Groen, Albert K; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid partitioning in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats by use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). After baseline measurements, rats were randomized to exercise or no-exercise groups. A subset of animals was subjected to MRS directly after 1 h of treadmill running for measurement of total intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content (n=7 lean and diabetic rats). The other animals were administered 13C-labeled lipids orally after treadmill visit (with or without exercise) followed by MRS measurements after 4 and 24 h to determine the 13C enrichment of IHCL and IMCL (n=8 per group). Total IHCL and IMCL content were fivefold higher in diabetic vs. lean rats (Plean and diabetic rats (Plean rats (Plean and diabetic rats, lipid uptake was 44% reduced after acute exercise (Plean and diabetic rats, and exercise differentially affects dietary lipid uptake in muscle and liver.

  2. Oral exposure to Phytomonas serpens attenuates thrombocytopenia and leukopenia during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane V da Silva

    Full Text Available Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, rapidly develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. These effects are partially promoted by the parasite trans-sialidase (TS, which is shed in the blood and depletes sialic acid from the platelets, inducing accelerated platelet clearance and causing thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of disease. Here, we demonstrate that oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice with Phytomonas serpens, a phytoflagellate parasite that shares common antigens with T. cruzi but has no TS activity, reduces parasite burden and prevents thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Immunization also reduces platelet loss after intraperitoneal injection of TS. In addition, passive transfer of immune sera raised in mice against P. serpens prevented platelet clearance. Thus, oral exposure to P. serpens attenuates the progression of thrombocytopenia induced by TS from T. cruzi. These findings are not only important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection but also for developing novel approaches of intervention in Chagas disease.

  3. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  4. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3− or NO2−. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl2 gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor. • Alterations in surfactant homeostasis and pulmonary mechanics

  5. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  6. Assessment of locomotion behavioral defects induced by acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dayong; XING Xiaojuan

    2008-01-01

    Locomotion behaviors are susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals and environmental stresses. However, no systematic testing of locomotion behavior defects induced by metal exposure has been conducted in the model organism of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, the acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure on the locomotion behaviors was analyzed in nematodes. Endpoints of head thrash, body bend, forward turn, backward turn, and Omega/U turn were chosen to evaluate the locomotion behavioral defects. Our data suggest that the endpoints of head thrash, body bend, and forward turn will be useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity in nematodes. The endpoint of head thrash could detect the toxicity from Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb exposures at a low concentration (2.5 μmol/L). The endpoint of body bend could be explored to evaluate the toxicity from all assayed heavy metal exposures at different concentrations, whereas the endpoint of forward turn will be more useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity at high concentrations. Thus, endpoints of these locomotion behaviors establish a fast and economic way to assess the presence of acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode C. elegans.

  7. Effect of prior dietary exposure to cow’s milk protein on antigen-specific and nonspecific cellular proliferation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Magyar, O.H.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2005-01-01

    in cell donors. Focusing on the immunostimulatory potential of cows' milk proteins and peptides, we studied the impact of prior dietary exposure to cows' milk on proliferation of murine immune cells upon ex vivo stimulation with bovine milk proteins. Nonspecific proliferation induced by beta-casein...... the importance of employing immune cells from mice unexposed to cows' milk for studies of the immunomodulating capacity of cows' milk proteins and peptides, in order to rule out the interference caused by antigen-specific immune responses. By using such cells, we here show that some beta-casein peptides possess......The impact of dietary components on the immune system is gaining increased attention in the effort to develop safe food products, some even with health-promoting potential, as well as to improve the basic understanding of the immunomodulatory potential of common food components. In such studies...

  8. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... activity in the colon and small intestine of the rat. METHODS: Rats were fed ethanol in a liquid diet for six weeks. Control rats received a similar diet but with ethanol isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates. Retinol dehydrogenase was analyzed from cell cytosol samples from the small and the large...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p retinol...

  9. From pure compounds to complex exposure: Effects of dietary cadmium and lignans on estrogen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Hurmerinta, Teija; Nurmi, Tarja; Berglund, Marika; Rüegg, Joelle; Poutanen, Matti; Halldin, Krister; Mäkelä, Sari; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina

    2016-06-24

    Exposure to environmental endocrine active compounds correlates with altered susceptibility to disease in human populations. Chemical risk assessment is single compound based, although exposure often takes place as heterogeneous mixtures of man-made and natural substances within complex matrices like diet. Here we studied whether the effects of cadmium and enterolactone on endocrine endpoints in dietary exposure can be predicted based on pure compound effects. Ovariectomized estrogen reporter ERE-luciferase (ERE-luc) mice were maintained on diets that intrinsically contain increasing concentrations of cadmium and enterolactone precursors for three and 21 days. The activation of the ERE-luc, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2, and classical estrogen responses were measured. Interactions between the diets and endogenous hormone were evaluated by challenging the animals with 17β-estradiol. Compared to animals on basal purified diet, mice consuming experimental diets were exposed to significantly higher levels of cadmium and enterolactone, yet the exposure remained comparable to typical human dietary intake. Surprisingly, we could not detect effects on endpoints regulated by pure enterolactone, such as ERE-luc activation. However, cadmium accumulation in the liver was accompanied with activation of EGFR and MAPK-ERK1/2 in line with our earlier CdCl2 studies. Further, attenuation of 17β-estradiol-induced ERE-luc response in liver by experimental diets was observed. Our findings indicate that the exposure context can have substantial effects on the activity of endocrine active compounds in vivo. Thus, whenever possible, a context that mimics human exposure should be tested along with pure compounds. PMID:27108949

  10. The Influence of Age of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James W.; Flores, Adrianne; Harty, Seth; Berlin, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent and adult onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision makin...

  11. Effects of acute and chronic waterborne lead exposure on the swimming performance and aerobic scope of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Fathead minnows were subjected to an incremental velocity test using swim tunnel respirometry for the analysis of aerobic scope and swimming performance, as critical aerobic swim speed (U(crit)), following chronic exposures (33-57 ) to 0.9±0.4, 157±18 or 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb and an acute exposure (24 h) to 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (mean±SEM). Assessment of Pb-induced anemia and neurological impairment were evaluated by blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and a cost of transport (COT) analysis, respectively. Fish from the acute 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.4±1.2 BL s⁻¹) and chronic 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.6±0.9 BL s⁻¹) treatments exhibited reduced U(crits) compared to control fish (27.6±0.8 BL s⁻¹). Aerobic scope was reduced by acute Pb exposure (8.6±2.6 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 22.6±3.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls) owing to a decrease in maximum oxygen consumption rate (38.8±0.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 54.0±4.2 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls). However, no effect on aerobic scope was observed with fish chronically exposed to Pb. Significant differences were not observed for Hb concentrations or COT. These findings suggest that the impaired swimming performances arising from acute and chronic Pb exposures reflect different mechanisms of toxicity.

  12. Acute exposure to stress improves performance in trace eyeblink conditioning and spatial learning tasks in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure, participants completed a trace eyeblink conditioning task followed by a virtual navigation Morris water task (VNMWT). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adreno...

  13. Comments on: High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, O'Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, Kumar S, McTernan PG. High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2: 375-82

  14. Effects of smoking cessation, acute re-exposure and nicotine replacement in smokers on AIR® inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Alan X; de la Peña, Amparo; Yeo, Kwee P; Chan, Clark; Loh, Mei T; Wise, Stephen D; Silverman, Bernard L; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    Aims To explore the effects of smoking cessation and acute smoking re-exposure on the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic (GD) profiles of AIR® inhaled insulin (AIR Insulin) with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Methods Nondiabetic smokers (n = 24) with normal pulmonary function completed a two-phase (four-period), open-label, randomized euglycaemic clamp study. During the initial study phase, subjects underwent glucose clamps following AIR Insulin dosing, shortly after smoking, 8–12 h after smoking, or following subcutaneous insulin lispro shortly after smoking. AIR Insulin PK and GD were again assessed during and after a 4-week smoking-cessation period with or without NRT. In the last study period, subjects smoked one cigarette shortly before final AIR Insulin dosing and glucose clamp, to study the effect of acute smoking re-exposure on inhaled insulin PK and GD. Results Compared with the preceding active smoking phase, the administration of AIR Insulin in nondiabetic subjects undergoing a 4-week period of smoking abstinence resulted in a decrease in PK and GD of approximately 25% (P = 0.008 for both), an effect which was greater in subjects using NRT. Following rechallenge with a single cigarette (without NRT), GD response to AIR Insulin increased significantly (P = 0.006) towards precessation levels, relative to smoking abstinence. In subjects using NRT, however, the increase in GD was less pronounced. Conclusion Smoking, smoking cessation and acute re-exposure with a single cigarette are associated with clinically significant alterations in AIR Insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics. AIR Insulin should not be used by smokers or those at risk for recidivism. What is already known about this subject Only one other study (Becker et al.) has reported on the influence of smoking cessation and smoking resumption on inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics, concluding that the rapid changes associated with smoking resumption carry the

  15. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L-1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L-1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L-1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  16. Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and biomarkers of oxidative stress among patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian L Megson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. SETTING: Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (admission serum cotinine ≥3.0 ng/mL were compared with 60 never smokers who had not (admission serum cotinine ≤0.1 ng/mL. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three biomarkers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured on admission blood samples and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with serum concentrations of both protein carbonyl (beta coefficient 7.96, 95% CI 0.76, 15.17, p = 0.031 and MDA (beta coefficient 10.57, 95% CI 4.32, 16.81, p = 0.001 but not ox-LDL (beta coefficient 2.14, 95% CI -8.94, 13.21, p = 0.703. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with increased oxidative stress. Further studies are requires to explore the role of oxidative stress in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction.

  17. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  18. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  19. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  20. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  1. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  2. Micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes as a bio dosimeter of in vivo acute and chronic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the persistence over time of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes of cancer patients after radiotherapy and, consequently, to verify the suitability of MN test as a dosimeter for monitoring in vivo ionizing radiation damage, the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay was applied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cervix and head and neck cancer patients (n = 34). The evaluation of data suggests that: 1) MN frequency increases linearly with the equivalent total-body absorbed dose (R2 = 0,9; P=0,015); 2) The distribution of the MN yields deviates significantly from Poisson with the increase of equivalent total-body dose (σ2/y = 1,14 mean value); 3) The comparison of spontaneous MN frequencies in healthy subjects with those in cancer patients, prior to radiotherapy, shows significant differences (p<0,01); and 4) It is observed a general decline in MN frequencies with time after radiotherapy, with considerable variations between patients. The kinetics of elimination of MN seems to follow a two-term exponential function, with a short and a long term. Patients with the highest equivalent total-body dose (total tumoral dose: 60-80 Gy) initially tend to have the fastest decline. At 6-18 months of follow-up time 11 of the 17 patients, evaluated 2-480 months post-treatment, showed higher frequencies of MN than their respective levels before radiation therapy, indicating persistence of radiation induced cytogenetic damage. Further studies modeling changes in chromosome aberrations with acute and chronic exposures should provide perspectives on biological dosimetry in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay and on biological monitoring of human populations exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO2-NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO2-NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO2-NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO2-NPs and bulk TiO2. Injected TiO2-NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO2-NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO2-NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO2-NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO2-NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO2-NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  4. Dietary salt loading and ion-poor water exposure provide insight into the molecular physiology of the rainbow trout gill epithelium tight junction complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-08-01

    This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet. Dietary salt loading altered the morphology (reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive cell numbers and surface exposure of mitochondrion-rich cells), biochemistry (decreased vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase activity) and molecular physiology (decreased nkaα1a and cftrII mRNA abundance) of the gill in a manner indicative of reduced active ion uptake activity. But in control fish and not salt-fed fish, gill mRNA abundance of nkaα1c increased and nbc decreased after IPW exposure. Genes encoding TJ proteins were typically either responsive to salt feeding or IPW, but select genes responded to combined experimental treatment (e.g. IPW responsive but only if fish were salt-fed). Therefore, using salt feeding and IPW exposure, new insights into what factors influence gill TJ proteins and the role that specific TJ proteins might play in regulating the barrier properties of the gill epithelium have been acquired. In particular, evidence suggests that TJ proteins in the gill epithelium, or the regulatory networks that control them, respond independently to external or internal stimuli. PMID:27083431

  5. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  6. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis

  7. Modelling the Role of Dietary Habits and Eating Behaviours on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome or Stroke: Aims, Design, and Validation Properties of a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Kastorini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology and procedures of a case-control study that will be developed for assessing the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome and stroke is presented. Based on statistical power calculations, 1000 participants will be enrolled; of them, 250 will be consecutive patients with a first acute coronary event, 250 consecutive patients with a first ischaemic stroke, and 500 population-based healthy subjects (controls, age and sex matched to the cases. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological, and other lifestyle characteristics will be measured. Dietary habits and eating behaviours will be evaluated with a special questionnaire that has been developed for the study.

  8. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, Jacob D; Boon, Polly E

    2009-12-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we developed an electronic platform of food consumption and chemical concentration databases harmonised at raw agricultural commodity level. In this platform the databases are connected to probabilistic software to allow probabilistic modelling of dietary exposure in a standardised way. The usefulness of this platform is demonstrated in two papers, which describe the exposure to pesticides and glycoalkaloids in several European countries. Furthermore, an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model was developed: a new tool to integrate exposure and effect modelling, including uncertainty analyses. The use of this model was shown in a paper on the cumulative exposure to anti-androgen pesticides. Combined with a health impact prioritization system, developed within this work package to compare heath risks between chemicals, the IPRA tool can also be used to compare health risks between multiple chemicals in complex risk assessment situation such as risk-benefit and risk trade-off analyses. Both the electronic platform of databases as the IPRA model may proof to be powerful tools to tackle the challenges risk managers are or will be faced with in the future.

  10. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD50-30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  11. An incident study about acute and chronic human exposure to uranium by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2009-01-01

    From the year 2003 to 2005 around 1700 Dutch soldiers made a part of the international stabilisation force in Iraq. An incident happened as a group of four Dutch soldiers found a 30mm bullet identified as containing depleted uranium (DU). The main pathway of the acute exposure is via inhalation of small uranium containing particles, e.g. from a bullet during its explosion. To develop a method for acute exposure investigations were carried out about finding an efficient and suitable way to sample nasal mucus as medium of inhalation. Generally, in human exposure studies with regard to natural uranium (NU) or DU, urine is the matrix for analysis. Uranium concentrations in urine are based on daily ingestion depending on the composition of drinking water and food. A second possibility is the acute exposure to uranium after an incident, either through inhalation or impact. Nevertheless, the results deliver only interpretations in respect to chronic/long-term exposure. For the acute exposure procedures like sniffling out into cleansing tissues and rinsing the nose were tested with real-life samples from four soldiers involved in an incident with possibly acute exposure to uranium. For the quantification of uranium high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS) was applied. PMID:18187363

  12. Sensitivity of a green alga to atrazine is not enhanced by previous acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Prosser, Ryan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to atrazine in small lotic systems can be episodic, with short-term pulses (peaks) followed by lower, decreasing concentrations. Algae and macrophytes recover rapidly from pulsed exposure to atrazine, but reported observations of population response to subsequent exposures are minimal and inconclusive. Consequently, the sensitivity of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to atrazine following a pulsed exposure was assessed. Exposure concentrations reflected amplifications of those observed in streams from highly vulnerable watersheds in regions of intense use. Initial pulsed atrazine exposure at 0, 150 or 300 μg/L for 24-h was followed by 72-h exposure to 0, 5, 10, 25, or 50 μg/L. Measured responses were cell density, growth rate, chlorophyll-a, and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II. Algal recovery was rapid and prior pulsed exposure to atrazine did not significantly affect subsequent sensitivity (EC10s, EC25s) for any endpoint, indicating no changes in tolerance at the population level for this species.

  13. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  14. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  15. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  16. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool. PMID:24237351

  17. Assessment of dietary exposure to bisphenol A in the French population with a special focus on risk characterisation for pregnant French women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Jean, Julien; Rivière, Gilles; Sanaa, Moez; Leconte, Stéphane; Bachelot, Morgane; Deceuninck, Yoann; Bizec, Bruno Le; Dauchy, Xavier; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Camel, Valérie; Grob, Konrad; Feidt, Cyril; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Foures, Franck; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a wide variety of products and objects for consumers use (digital media such as CD's and DVD's, sport equipment, food and beverage containers, medical equipment). Here, we demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of this contaminant in foods with a background level of contamination of less than 5 μg/kg in 85% of the 1498 analysed samples. High levels of contamination (up to 400 μg/kg) were found in some foods of animal origin. We used a probabilistic approach to calculate dietary exposure from French individual consumption data for infants under 36 months, children and adolescents from 3 to 17 years, adults over 18 years and pregnant women. The estimated average dietary exposure ranged from 0.12 to 0.14 μg/kg body weight per day (bw/d) for infants, from 0.05 to 0.06 μg/kg bw/d for children and adolescents, from 0.038 to 0.040 μg/kg bw/d for adults and from 0.05 to 0.06 μg/kg bw/d for pregnant women. The main sources of exposure were canned foods (50% of the total exposure), products of animal origin (20%) and 30% as a background level. Based on the toxicological values set by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) for pregnant women, the risk was non negligible. Thus, we simulated scenarios to study the influence of cans and/or food of animal origin on the BPA-related risk for this specific population. PMID:25014159

  18. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis TP53 mutation analysis reflects a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Gonçalves, Patrícia Lofego; Jarske, Robson Dettmann; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Louro, Iuri Drumond

    2013-08-01

    The close relationship between aflatoxins and 249ser TP53 gene mutation (AGG to AGT, Arg to Ser) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes this mutation an indirect indicator of dietary contamination with this toxin. We have examined the prevalence of codon 249 TP53 mutation in 41 HCC and 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases diagnosed at the HUCAM University Hospital in Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. DNA was extracted from paraffin sections and from plasma. The mutation was detected by DNA amplification, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion and confirmed by direct sequencing. DNA restriction showed 249ser mutation in 16 HCC and 13 liver cirrhosis, but sequencing confirmed mutations in only 6 HCC and 1 liver cirrhosis. In addition, sequencing revealed 4 patients with mutations at codon 250 (250ser and 250leu) in HCC cases. The prevalence of TP53 mutation was 10/41 (24.3%) in HCC and 1/74 (1.4%) in liver cirrhosis. No relationship between the presence of mutations and the etiology of HCC was observed. TP53 exon 7 mutations, which are related to aflatoxins exposure, were found at 14.6% (249ser), 7.3% (250leu) and 2.4% (250ser) in 41 cases of HCC and 1.4% in 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases, suggesting a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

  20. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans: Annual Report (Year 1 of 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2006-01-18

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of male U.S. cancer deaths, with African-Americans having the highest rate of PC mortality worldwide, as well as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA) clinical biomarkers of PC risk in 400 African-American men 50 to 70 years of age who undergo PC screening in Oakland, CA (East Bay San Francisco area), as well as possible association of PC screening results for these men with their dietary exposures to the cancer-causing heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) that forms when meat is cooked. This study expands an ongoing NIH-funded study (by the same research team) to add a new %-free-PSA test, results of which will be compared with PSA/DRE results and PhIP exposures estimated by dietary interviews. For 392 men studied under the NIH protocol, an odds ratio (95% CL) of 32 (3.2, 720) for highly elevated PSA ({ge}20 ng/mL) was observed in the highest 15% vs. the lower 50% of estimated daily PhIP intakes. Approximately 100 additional men have completed participation in the expanded NIH/DOD-supported study. This study will help define the potential value of improved screening and dietary/behavioral intervention to reduce PC risk, namely, prevention of PhIP intake by avoiding overcooked meats.

  1. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  2. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  3. Acute toxicity and effects of malathion exposure on behavior and hematological indices in Indian carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture. This study was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of malathion as an aquatic pollutant on the behavior and hematological indices in Indian carp (Cirrhinus mrigala. A static experiment was conducted and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs LC50 values of malathion for the test fish were estimated as 14.55 mg/L, 12.48 mg/L, 11.56 mg/L, 10.85 mg/L and 9.32 mg/L, respectively. During 96 hrs exposure to 9.32 mg/L of malathion, behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, cough, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of balance, rapid opercular movements, gill mucous secretion, surfacing and gulping of air were observed in the test fish. The hematological changes in exposed fish after 96 hrs exposure to malathion included a significant decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, leukocyte count and a significant increase in neutrophils count as compared to the control fish. In conclusion, acute exposure to 9.32 mg/L of malathion provoked behavioral and hematological abnormalities in Indian carp which offers a valuable tool to monitor malathion induced toxicity in fish.

  4. The effects of acute waterborne exposure to sublethal concentrations of molybdenum on the stress response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea D Ricketts

    Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.

  5. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  6. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  7. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being. PMID:27235903

  8. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePalomino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression (CB1 receptors and enzymes that produce (DAGLα/β and NAPE-PLD and degrade (MAGL and FAAH eCB were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system (glutamate synthesizing enzymes LGA and KGA, mGluR3/5 metabotropic receptors, and NR1/2A/2B/2C-NMDA and GluR1/2/3/4-AMPA ionotropic receptor subunits and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-AG production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and glutamate systems. Repeated cocaine results in normalization of glutamate receptor expression, although sustained changes in eCB is observed. We suggest that cocaine-induced alterations to cerebellar eCB should be considered when analyzing the adaptations imposed by psychostimulants that

  9. NORMAL MAMMARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY IN PUBERTAL FEMALE MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AT LEVELS COMPARABLE TO HUMAN DIETARY EXPOSURE. (R827402)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbest...

  10. Acute and sublethal effects of sequential exposure to the pesticide azinphos-methyl on juvenile earthworms (Eisenia andrei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Martine S; Reinecke, Sophié A; Reinecke, Adriaan J

    2012-04-01

    The use of organophosphate pesticides is an integral part of commercial farming activities and these substances have been implicated as a major source of environmental contamination and may impact on a range of non-target fauna. The extent to which soil dwelling non-target organisms are affected by exposure to the organophosphate azinphos-methyl was investigated through monitoring selected biomarker responses and life cycle effects under laboratory conditions in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Standard acute toxicity tests were conducted followed by a sequential exposure regime experiment, in order to assess the effects of multiple pesticide applications on biomarker (cholinesterase activity and neutral red retention time), life-cycle (growth and reproduction) and behaviour (avoidance and burrowing activity) responses. The present study indicates that the time between exposure events was a more important variable than concentration and that a longer interval between exposures may mitigate the effects of pesticide exposure provided that the exposure concentration is low. Additionally, it was shown that E. andrei was unable to avoid the presence of azinphos-methyl in soil, even at concentrations as high as 50% of the LC(50) value, indicating that the presence of azinphos-methyl in the soil pose a realistic threat to earthworms and other soil dwelling organisms. The ChE inhibition test showed a high percentage inhibition of the enzyme in all exposure groups that survived and NRR times of exposed organisms were lower than that of the controls. The present study yielded important results that contribute to the understanding of biological impacts of pesticide pollution on the environment. Extrapolating these results can aid in optimising pesticide application regimes to mitigate the environmental effects thereof and thus ensuring sustained soil biodiversity in agricultural areas. PMID:22086221

  11. Augmented Pulmonary Responses to Acute Ozone Exposure in Obese Mice: Roles of TNFR2 and IL-13

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alison Suzanne; Mathews, Joel Andrew; Kasahara, David Itiro; Chen, Lucas; Wurmbrand, Allison Patricia; Si, Huiqing; Shore, Stephanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute ozone (O3) exposure results in greater inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in obese versus lean mice. Objectives: We examined the hypothesis that these augmented responses to O3 are the result of greater signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) and/or interleukin (IL)-13. Methods: We exposed lean wild-type (WT) and TNFR2-deficient (TNFR2–/–) mice, and obese Cpefat and TNFR2-deficient Cpefat mice (Cpefat/TNFR2–/–), to O3 (2 ppm for 3 hr) either...

  12. Augmented Pulmonary Responses to Acute Ozone Exposure in Obese Mice: Roles of TNFR2 and IL-13

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alison Suzanne; Mathews, Joel Andrew; Kasahara, David Itiro; Chen, Lucas; Wurmbrand, Allison Patricia; Si, Huiqing; Shore, Stephanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute ozone (O3) exposure results in greater inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in obese versus lean mice. Objectives: We examined the hypothesis that these augmented responses to O3 are the result of greater signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) and/or interleukin (IL)-13. Methods: We exposed lean wild-type (WT) and TNFR2-deficient (TNFR2–/– ) mice, and obese Cpefat and TNFR2-deficient Cpefat mice (Cpefat /TNFR2–/– ), to O3 (2 ppm for 3 hr) eit...

  13. Food selection, growth and physiology in relation to dietary sodium chloride content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under chronic waterborne Cu exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, S; Kamunde, C N; Wood, C M

    2006-05-01

    Waterborne Cu is toxic to Na(+) and Cl(-) regulation in freshwater fish, and Cu is taken up, at least in part, via the Na(+)-transport pathway in the gills. Therefore, we hypothesized that freshwater fish may mitigate the toxic effects of waterborne Cu by selecting a NaCl-enriched diet over a normal diet. We tested this hypothesis in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by offering them the choice between NaCl-enriched (1.9 mmol g(-1)Na(+)) and normal (0.2 mmol g(-1)Na(+)) diets under a chronic waterborne Cu exposure of 55 microg L(-1) for a period of 28 days. Contrary to expectation, trout exhibited a preference for NaCl-enriched diet under control conditions, while exposure to chronic waterborne Cu severely disrupted their normal feeding pattern with an accompanying loss of preference for the NaCl-enriched diet. Waterborne Cu exposure also severely affected appetite and growth. Both appetite and growth gradually recovered with time, but remained significantly impaired relative to Cu-unexposed fish until the end of the exposure. Waterborne Cu exposure also significantly increased Cu accumulations in target organs (gill, liver, and gut), plasma and whole body. However, Cu accumulation decreased substantially towards the end of the exposure in target organs and whole body as well as in plasma in Cu-exposed fish with dietary choice relative to Cu-exposed fish with normal diet. These adjustments were concurrent with the gradual recovery of appetite, which also led to increased ingestion of the NaCl-enriched diet. Interestingly, this elevated dietary uptake of NaCl produced significant stimulation of Na(+) efflux in Cu-exposed fish. Subsequently, it also led to significant elevation of Na(+) levels in target organs and whole body, and restored the decrease of plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels in Cu-exposed fish. The NaCl supplemented diet appeared to be beneficial in compensating Na(+) and Cl(-) losses from the body induced by waterborne Cu. Overall, these results

  14. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Jozef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Yauk, Carole L.; Wallin, Hakan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and pla...

  15. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis

  16. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  17. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2016-10-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F0 and F1Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F0Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F2 progeny of irradiated F0Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. PMID:27288911

  18. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  19. Comparison of different exposute assessment methods to estimate the long-term dietary exposure to dioxins and ochratoxin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Bonthuis, M.; Voet, van der H.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposures to dioxins (PCCD/F and dioxin-like PCBs) and ochratoxin A were calculated using food consumption data of the European concise database combined with concentration data of the Netherlands (NL) using a deterministic approach. To refine these assessments, exposures were also calcula

  20. Moderate (2%, v/v) Ethanol Feeding Alters Hepatic Wound Healing after Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Krutika T; Liu, Shinlan; McCracken, Jennifer M; Jiang, Lu; Gaw, Ta Ehpaw; Kaydo, Lindsey N; Richard, Zachary C; O'Neil, Maura F; Pritchard, Michele T

    2016-01-06

    Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl₄-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl₄ exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v) for two days and then were exposed to CCl₄ and euthanized 24-96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl₄-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl₄ exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl₄-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl₄. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure.

  1. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  2. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  3. Enhanced biosynthesis of quercetin occurs as A photoprotective measure in Lycopersicon esculentum mill. under Acute UV-B exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Shourie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lycopersicon esculentum respond to UV-B by enhanced synthesis of flavonoid quercetin, a strong antioxidant that helps the plants to well acclimatize to UV-B stress. Three weeks old plants of L. esculentum were subjected to acute UV-B irradiation for 20, 40 and 60 minutes daily until 28 days and analyzed for the morphological and biochemical changes. UV-B exposure for 40 and 60 minutes considerably affected the growth and biomass of L. esculentum. The leaves were deformed, developed chlorosis and abscised early as compared to the unexposed plants. Biomass declined by 35% and total chlorophyll decreased by 24.7% due to disintegration of chloroplasts. Enhancement was seen in the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins and total flavonoids by 15, 33.3 and 22.8%, respectively, which was attributed to the photoprotective role of these compounds as potential quenchers of excess excitation energy. Quercetin content decreased on UV-B exposure to 20 and 40 min, and thereafter increased significantly by 5.19% on 60 min of exposure. This pattern probably indicated that the over-expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR occurred only after certain threshold exposure (60 min, which could be the strategy for developing tolerance against UV-B stress in L. esculentum.

  4. The effects of acute stress exposure on neural correlates of Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea H Lewis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence brain regions involved in associative learning such as the ventral striatum.

  5. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea H; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers.

  6. Effects of human food grade titanium dioxide nanoparticle dietary exposure on Drosophila melanogaster survival, fecundity, pupation and expression of antioxidant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Cvetković, Vladimir J; Mitrović, Tatjana Lj

    2016-02-01

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster was exposed to the human food grade of E171 titanium dioxide (TiO2). This is a special grade of TiO2 which is frequently omitted in nanotoxicology studies dealing with TiO2, yet it is the most relevant grade regarding oral exposure of humans. D. melanogaster larvae were exposed to 0.002 mg mL(-1), 0.02 mg mL(-1), 0.2 mg mL(-1), and 2 mg mL(-1) of TiO2 in feeding medium, and the survival, fecundity, pupation time, and expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response were monitored. TiO2 did not affect survival but significantly increased time to pupation (p < 0.001). Fecundity of D. melanogaster was unaffected by the treatment. Expression of the gene for catalase was markedly downregulated by the treatment, while the effect on the downregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 was less pronounced. After four days of dietary exposure TiO2 was present in a significant amount in larvae, but was not transferred to adults during metamorphosis. Two individuals with aberrant phenotype similar to previously described gold nanoparticles induced mutant phenotypes were detected in the group exposed to TiO2. In general, TiO2 showed little toxicity toward D. melanogaster at concentrations relevant to oral exposure of humans.

  7. Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin in cola-flavoured soft drinks to improve the assessment of their dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Antonio; D'Aloise, Antonio; Magrì, Antonio L; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin was carried out in 70 samples of cola-flavoured soft drinks purchased in eight European countries with the purpose of assessing the variability in the levels of these substances. Results indicated a limited variability in the content of the three substances: the ratio between the 90th and the 10th percentile concentration amounted to 21, 6 and 13 for tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin, respectively. The uncertainty in the assessment of dietary exposure to these substances due to the variability of their level in cola-flavoured drinks was low. Based on these analytical data and on refined food consumption data, estimates of exposure to safrole associated to cola drink consumption, along with Margin of Exposure (MOE) values, were obtained. For high consumers of cola-flavoured soft drinks in certain age groups, within some European countries, MOE values lower than 10,000 resulted, MOE values of 10,000 or higher having been stated by the EFSA as a quantitative criterion to identify low concern from a public health point of view and low priority for risk management actions. The lowest MOE values, from 1900 to 3000, were observed for children and teen agers in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

  8. Acute and chronic effects of pulse exposure of Daphnia magna to dimethoate and pirimicarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tobias Henrik; Tjørnhøj, Rikke; Wollenberger, Leah; Slothuus, Tina; Baun, Anders

    2006-05-01

    Short-term (Daphnia magna exposed to pulses of 0.5 to 8 h in duration. During a 21-d postexposure observation period, the following parameters were monitored: Mortality, mobility, day for first offspring, animal size, weight of offspring and adults, and number of offspring produced. In general, animals exposed to a single pulse of dimethoate or pirimicarb regained mobility after 24 to 48 h in clean media. Animals exposed to repeated pulses of dimethoate did not recover mobility during a 48-h postexposure observation period, and mortality was significantly increased. Animals exposed to two pulses of pirimicarb showed less recovery of mobility compared with those exposed to one pulse. Exposure of D. magna to 30 mg/L of dimethoate or 100 microg/L of pirimicarb for 2 to 6 h resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring and in the average weight of offspring. The average body length was reduced after pulse exposure to 30 mg/L of dimethoate for 3 h or 70 microg/L of pirimicarb for 4 h, and these exposure concentrations caused a delay in the day for first offspring at exposure durations of 2 to 6 h. The most important new findings in the present study are that short-term (<4 h) pulse exposure of neonates to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides caused reproductive damage in D. magna and that repeated-pulse exposure significantly increased mortality in animals that apparently had recovered after a single-pulse exposure. PMID:16704047

  9. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunji Hwang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated using conditional regression models.While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27-3.87 and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52-8.58 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31-40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10-2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06-5.80 and women (31-40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62-2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36-5.05 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage.The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC.

  10. Evaluation of dietary exposure to minerals, trace elements and heavy metals from the muscle tissue of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo Fung, Leslie A; Antoine, Johann M R; Grant, Charles N; Buddo, Dayne St A

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-five samples of Pterois volitans caught in Jamaican waters were analyzed for 25 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The mean values for calcium (355 mg/kg), copper (107 μg/kg), iron (0.81 mg/kg), potassium (3481 mg/kg), magnesium (322 mg/kg), manganese (0.04 mg/kg), selenium (0.47 mg/kg), sodium (700 mg/kg) and zinc (4.46 mg/kg) were used to estimate dietary intake. The percentage contribution to provisional tolerable weekly intake for a 70 kg male and a 65 kg female were also estimated for the toxic elements arsenic (1.28% M, 1.38% F), cadmium (0.26% M. 0.28% F), mercury (3.85% M, 4.15% F) and lead (0.17% M, 0.18% F). To further assess the risk of mercury toxicity and the role of mitigation provided by selenium, selenium-mercury molar ratios were calculated for all samples. All samples were shown to have a molar excess of selenium. In addition the suggested selenium health benefit value was calculated, and was positive for all samples. It was concluded that P. volitans appears to contribute modestly to mineral and trace element nutrition, while not being a significant contributor to dietary exposure of toxic elements. PMID:23891700

  11. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  12. The combined impact of plant-derived dietary ingredients and acute stress on the intestinal arachidonic acid cascade in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Anthony; Jolly, Cecile; Eide, Torunn; Jordal, Ann-Elise O; Svardal, Asbjørn; Olsen, Rolf-Erik

    2010-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of substituting high levels of dietary fish oil (FO) and fishmeal (FM) for vegetable oil (VO) and plant protein (PP) on the intestinal arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the carnivorous fish species Atlantic salmon. Four diets were fed to salmon over a period of 12 months, including a control FMFO diet, with varying replacements of plant-derived ingredients: 80 % PP and 35 % VO; 40 % PP and 70 % VO; 80 % PP and 70 %VO. Subsequently, fish were examined pre- (0 h) and post- (1 h) acute stress for blood parameters and intestinal bioactive lipidic mediators of inflammation (prostaglandins). Plasma cortisol responses were greatest in the FMFO group, while 80 % PP and 70 % VO fish exhibited increased plasma chloride concentrations. The n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in intestinal glycerophospholipids from 70 % VO groups significantly decreased in both proximal and distal regions due to elevated levels of 18 : 2n-6 and the elongation/desaturation products 20 : 2n-6 and 20 : 3n-6. Increases in n-6 PUFA were not concomitant with increased AA, although the AA:EPA ratio did vary significantly. The 40 % PP and 70 % VO diet produced the highest intestinal AA:EPA ratio proximally, which coincided with a trend in elevated levels of PGF2alpha, PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in response to stress. PGE2 predominated over PGF2alpha and 6-keto-PGF1alpha (stable metabolite of PGI2) with comparable concentrations in both intestinal regions. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression was an order of magnitude higher in distal intestine, compared with proximal, and was significantly up-regulated following stress. Furthermore, the 80 % PP and 70 % VO diet significantly amplified proximal COX-2 induction post-stress. Results demonstrate that high replacements with plant-derived dietary ingredients can enhance COX-2 induction and synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the intestine of salmon in response to acute physiological stress. PMID:19943982

  13. Acute Phase Response, Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers of Libby Asbestos Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. Objective: We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help ...

  14. Acute Phase Response and Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers of Libby Asbestos Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the disease diagnosis and environmental health risk assessment. Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that rats exposed to LA would present a unique serum proteomic pro...

  15. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  16. River transport of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and risks for dietary mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, Sarah E; Feingold, Beth J; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Gallis, John A; Araújo-Flores, Julio M; Berky, Axel; Pan, William K Y; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-02-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major contributor to deforestation and the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric mercury worldwide. Despite significant information on the direct health impacts of mercury to ASGM miners, the impact of mercury contamination on downstream communities has not been well characterized, particularly in Peru's Madre de Dios region. In this area, ASGM has increased significantly since 2000 and has led to substantial political and social controversy. This research examined the spatial distribution and transport of mercury through the Madre de Dios River with distance from ASGM activity. This study also characterized risks for dietary mercury exposure to local residents who depend on fish from the river. River sediment, suspended solids from the water column, and fish samples were collected in 2013 at 62 sites near 17 communities over a 560 km stretch of the Madre de Dios River and its major tributaries. In areas downstream of known ASGM activity, mercury concentrations in sediment, suspended solids, and fish within the Madre de Dios River were elevated relative to locations upstream of mining. Fish tissue mercury concentrations were observed at levels representing a public health threat, with greater than one-third of carnivorous fish exceeding the international health standard of 0.5 mg kg(-1). This study demonstrates that communities located hundreds of kilometers downstream of ASGM activity, including children and indigenous populations who may not be involved in mining, are at risk of dietary mercury exposure that exceed acceptable body burdens. This report represents the first systematic study of the region to aid policy decision-making related to ASGM activities in Peru.

  17. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  18. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  19. Chronic Responses of Daphnia magna Under Dietary Exposure to Leaves of a Transgenic (Event MON810) Bt-Maize Hybrid and its Conventional Near-Isoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderbaum, Daniel Ferreira; Cuhra, Marek; Wickson, Fern; Orth, Afonso Inácio; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Bøhn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance is the second most common trait globally in cultivated genetically modified (GM) plants. Resistance is usually obtained by introducing into the plant's genome genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) coding for insecticidal proteins (Cry proteins or toxins) that target insect pests. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that a chronic, high-dose dietary exposure to leaves of a Bt-maize hybrid (GM event MON810, expressing a transgenic or recombinant Cry1Ab toxin), exerted no adverse effects on fitness parameters of the aquatic nontarget organism Daphnia magna (water flea) when compared to an identical control diet based on leaves of the non-GM near-isoline. Cry1Ab was immunologically detected and quantified in GM maize leaf material used for Daphnia feed. A 69-kD protein near Bt's active core-toxin size and a 34-kD protein were identified. The D. magna bioassay showed a resource allocation to production of resting eggs and early fecundity in D. magna fed GM maize, with adverse effects for body size and fecundity later in life. This is the first study to examine GM-plant leaf material in the D. magna model, and provides of negative fitness effects of a MON810 maize hybrid in a nontarget model organism under chronic, high dietary exposure. Based upon these results, it is postulated that the observed transgenic proteins exert a nontarget effect in D. magna and/or unintended changes were produced in the maize genome/metabolome by the transformation process, producing a nutritional difference between GM-maize and non-GM near-isoline. PMID:26262442

  20. Functional Alterations in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Following Acute and Chronic Ethanol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a pervasive disorder perpetuated in part to relieve negative mood states like anxiety experienced during alcohol withdrawal. Emerging evidence demonstrates a role for the serotonin-rich dorsal raphe (DR) in anxiety following ethanol withdrawal. The current study examined the effects of chronic ethanol vapor exposure on the DR using slice electrophysiology in male DBA2/J mice. We found that chronic ethanol exposure resulted in deficits in social approach indicative of increased a...

  1. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  2. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  3. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony.

  4. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony. PMID:26802564

  5. Other Perspectives for Developing Exposure Estimates: “SHEDS-Lite: Rapid Scenario-Based ExposurePredictions for Chemicals with Near-Field and Dietary Pathways”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative advances in exposure science are needed to support efficient and effective evaluation and management of chemical risks, particularly for chemicals in consumer products. This presentation will describe the development of EPA’s screening-level, probabilistic SHEDS-Li...

  6. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMrespiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued.

  7. Acute and chronic exposure in mussel (aulacomya ater) and clam (semelle solida) with Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the most common Peruvian benthonic molluscs, have been shown to be effective concentrators of Cesium-137 and have also proven useful as indicators of that radionuclide in their natural environment, according with results in this paper. However the clam is a better indicator, when determining environmental acute release of Cesium-137 due to reactor accidents, nuclear tests, accidents in nuclear ships, submarines and radioactive material transport, and the mussel for a continuous monitoring of environmental radio contaminant levels. (author). 11 refs

  8. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiliang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2 to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. METHODS: Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip. We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (-34 ± 9% and load-independent (-33 ± 12% contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47 ± 10%, elongated QT-interval (+38 ± 4%, enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial

  9. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses.

  10. Discovery of Food Exposure Markers in Urine and Evaluation of Dietary Compliance by Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt

    . Biomarkers measured in biological samples are objective measures and therefore advantageous to determine what a person has consumed. Unfortunately, only few well evidenced biomarkers are commonly applied in nutrition studies. Therefore, there is a need to find new biomarkers, in particular for intake...... markers. Several of the markers have also been found in other metabolomics studies. It was possible to distinguish NND and ADD in 24 h urine samples by a multivariate model based on measures of 52 metabolites. The metabolites in the model reflected intake of characteristic foods from both diets –however......, mainly the ADD. In a validation of the model, 81% of 139 samples were classified to the correct dietary pattern. There was a higher number of misclassified NND samples compared to ADD samples. A comparison of subjects with correctly classified and misclassified NND samples in the model for different...

  11. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  12. DNA adduct formation and oxidative stress in colon and liver of Big Blue rats after dietary exposure to diesel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Marianne; Risom, Lotte; Møller, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) via the gastrointestinal route may impose risk of cancer in the colon and liver. We investigated the effects of DEP given in the diet to Big Blue rats by quantifying a panel of markers of DNA damage and repair, mutation, oxidative damage to proteins...... in liver accompanied by enhanced vitamin C levels. In plasma, we found no significant effects on oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, antioxidant enzymes or vitamin C levels. Our data indicate that gastrointestinal exposure to DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress resulting in DNA strand breaks...

  13. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a 14C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O3 at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O3 resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O3, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O3, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O3 exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema

  14. Acute short-term dim light exposure can lower muscle strength endurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnold G. Nelson; Joke Kokkonen; Megan Mickenberg

    2015-01-01

    Background:Since it has been shown that spending 18 h under dim light conditions can result in reduced handgrip endurance, it was questioned whether or not a shorter exposure to dim light (i.e., 1 h) would have similar influence upon muscular endurance. Therefore this study compared the number of weighted knee extension lifts that could be done after spending 1 h in either dim or bright light. Methods:Participants (5 women, 11 men, college students 19-26 years) performed knee extension lifts to exhaustion with a load approximating 40%of their body weight. The lifts to exhaustion were measured immediately following 1 h of exposure to each of the following three con-ditions:dark (DL), room light (RL), and room light plus 5 mg melatonin (RLM). A minimum of 48 h separated each condition, and all par-ticipants started the exposures in a rested fed condition. Results:Average (±SD) number of knee extension lifts for RL (62.0 ± 22.0) was significantly ( p<0.05) greater than DL (51.4 ± 14.7) and RLM (57.8 ± 22.9). The number of RLM knee extension lifts was not significantly different from DL. Exposure to 1 h of dim light immediately prior to activity can result in a reduction in thigh muscle endurance. The decline in performance to short-term dim light exposure was similar to that found following longer-term exposure. Conclusion: It appears that light intensity can influence muscle endurance, however, at this time this effect cannot be directly related to endogenous melatonin production.

  15. Estimation of the exposure of the UK population to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent through dietary intake during the period 1980 to 1996.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chih Chen

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD has declined to 1 since 2012 in the UK, uncertainty remains regarding possible future cases and the size of the subclinical population that may cause secondary transmission of the disease through blood transfusion. Estimating the number of individuals who were exposed to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE infectious agent and may be susceptible to vCJD will help to clarify related public health concerns and plan strategies. In this paper, we explore this estimate by describing the probability of potential exposure due to dietary intake throughout the BSE epidemic period from 1980 to 1996 as a stochastic Poisson process. We estimate the age- and gender-specific exposure intensities in food categories of beef and beef-containing dishes, burgers and kebabs, pies, and sausages, separating the two periods of 1980-1989 and 1990-1996 due to the specified bovine offal legislation of 1989. The estimated total number of (living exposed individuals during each period is 5,089,027 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4,514,963-6,410,317, which was obtained by multiplying the population size of different birth cohorts by the probability of exposure via dietary intake and the probability of survival until the end of 2013. The estimated number is approximately doubled, assuming a contamination rate of [Formula: see text]. Among those individuals estimated, 31,855 (95% CI 26,849-42,541 are susceptible to infection. We also examined the threshold hypothesis by fitting an extreme-value distribution to the estimated infectious dose of the exposed individuals and obtained a threshold estimate of 13.7 bID50 (95% CI 6.6-26.2 bID50 (Weibull. The results provide useful information on potential carriers of prion disease who may pose a threat of infection via blood transfusion and thus provide insight into the likelihood of new incidents of vCJD occurring in the future.

  16. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the effect of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in prostate cancer patients referred to radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A total of 130 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 64), instructed to reduce their intake of insoluble dietary fibres and lactose, a standard care group (SC, n = 66), instructed to continue their normal diet. Gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of HRQOL were evaluated from baseline up to 2 months after completed radiotherapy, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 and the study-specific Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire (GISEQ). A scale indicating adherence to dietary instructions was developed from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), with lower scores representing better compliance. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Results: There was an interaction effect between randomization and time in the FFQ Scores (p < 0.001), indicating that both groups followed their assigned dietary instructions. The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms and bloated abdomen was lower in IG compared to SC, but the between-group differences were not statistically significant. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, pain, fatigue and diminished physical and role functioning increased in both groups. Conclusions: The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. The tendency towards lower prevalence of bowel symptoms in IG may indicate some positive effect of the dietary intervention, but methodological refinements, clearer results and longer follow-up are needed before the value of diet change can be established with certainty.

  17. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  18. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper;

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...

  19. Electrocardiographic and autonomic effects of acute particulate matter (PM) exposure in a rat model of cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiac disease--especially heart failure (HF). Cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of heart failure. The mechanisms ...

  20. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on hepatic metallothionein, zinc and glutathione in male and female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.; Harrell, B. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the simultaneous responses of hepatic metallothionein (MT), zinc (Zn) and glutathione (GSH) in male and female rats to an acute ethanol dose. In male rats, hepatic MT has been shown to be induced by an acute ethanol dose. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the Lieber-DeCarli control diet for a five day period and then divided into 6 groups: baseline females and males, ethanol-treated females and males, pair-fed females and males. At t=0, baseline rats were killed, ethanol-treated rats were given ethanol by intragastric tube, and pair-fed rats were given ethanol by intragastric tube, and pair-fed rats were given an isocaloric sucrose solution by intragastric tube. At t=24 h, the ethanol-treated and pair-fed rats were killed. Livers were assayed for MT. Zn and GSH. Concentrations of blood ethanol (BEC) were significantly greater for male than female rats. A two way ANOVA with the independent variables being time and sex was performed to analyze differences for hepatic MT, Zn and GSH. For rats dosed with ethanol and killed 24 h later compared with rats at baseline, hepatic MT was significantly greater and hepatic Zn and GSH were not significantly different. Hepatic MT, Zn and GSH were not significantly different by sex. A significant correlation existed between hepatic Zn/g and MT/g. In conclusion, 24 h after an acute dose of ethanol, female as well as male rats responded with the induction of hepatic MT; and enough cysteine was available for the induction of hepatic MT and the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels. The measurement of Zn bound to hepatic MT rather than total hepatic Zn would be desirable to discern if changes in Zn distribution occur.

  1. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  2. Changes of autonomic nervous system function in healthy young men during initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Long Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level male residents were studied in Chengdu plain and then Tibet plateau. Heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT), resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline (560 m altitude) and in 2 to 4 d after arriving at Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) to assess the ANS function. Results: Compared with baseline, on day 2 in Tibet the standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), percentage of delta RR>50 ms (PNN50), normalized high-frequency (Hfnu) and fractal dimension (FD) decreased significantly (SDNN, HF,TP P<0.01, rMSSD, PNNs0, Hfnu, FD P<0.05), while the normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) and LF/HF increased significantly (P<0.01). During day 3-4 in Tibet, SDNN, rMSSD, HF, TP and Hfnu tended to rebound while Lfnu and LF/HF decreased towards baseline day by day. In addition, in Tibet the increase in systolic pressure (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) during CPT decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05), but resting HR increased compared with baseline (P<0.01). Conclusion: ANS modulation is generally blunted, and the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced originally, then it reverts to the sea level states gradually during the initial days of acute high-altitude exposure.

  3. Combined exposure to simulated microgravity and acute or chronic radiation reduces neuronal network integrity and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Rafi

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. This study aimed at assessing the effect of these combined conditions on neuronal network density, cell morphology and survival, using well-connected mouse cortical neuron cultures. To this end, neurons were exposed to acute low and high doses of low LET (X-rays) radiation or to chronic low dose-rate of high LET neutron irradiation (Californium-252), under the simulated microgravity generated by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch space). High content image analysis of cortical neurons positive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin unveiled a reduced neuronal network integrity and connectivity, and an altered cell morphology after exposure to acute/chronic radiation or to simulated microgravity. Additionally, in both conditions, a defect in DNA-repair efficiency was revealed by an increased number of γH2AX-positive foci, as well as an increased number of Annexin V-positive apoptotic neurons. Of interest, when combining both simulated space conditions, we noted a synergistic effect on neuronal network density, neuronal morphology, cell survival and DNA repair. Furthermore, these observations are in agreement with preliminary gene expression data, revealing modulations in cytoskeletal and apoptosis-related genes after exposure to simulated microgravity. In conclusion, the observed in vitro changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by space simulated conditions provide us with mechanistic understanding to evaluate health risks and the development of countermeasures to prevent neurological disorders in astronauts over long-term space travels. Acknowledgements: This work is supported partly by the EU-FP7 projects CEREBRAD (n° 295552)

  4. Cellular metabolic, stress, and histological response on exposure to acute toxicity of endosulfan in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Rupam; Tripathi, Gayatri; Kumar, Kundan; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Krishna, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Endosulfan is one of the most hazardous organochlorines pesticides responsible for environmental pollution, as it is very persistent and shows bio-magnification. This study evaluated the impact of acute endosulfan toxicity on metabolic enzymes, lysozyme activities, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression, and histopathology in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Among the indicators that were induced in dose dependent manner were the enzymes of amino acid metabolism (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), carbohydrate metabolism (serum lactate dehydrogenase), pentose phosphate pathway (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) as well as lysozyme and Hsp70 in liver and gill, while liver and gill Isocitrate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle enzyme) and marker of general energetics (Total adenosine triphosphatase) were inhibited. Histopathological alterations in gill were clubbing of secondary gill lamellae, marked hyperplasia, complete loss of secondary lamellae and atrophy of primary gill filaments. Whereas in liver, swollen hepatocyte, and degeneration with loss of cellular boundaries were distinctly noticed. Overall results clearly demonstrated the unbalanced metabolism and damage of the vital organs like liver and gill in Tilapia due to acute endosulfan exposure.

  5. Longitudinal tracking of cytokines after acute exposure to tuberculosis: association of distinct cytokine patterns with protection and disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rabia; Talat, Najeeha; Shahid, Firdaus; Dawood, Ghaffar

    2007-12-01

    Household contacts (HCs) of patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at higher risk of infection as well as the development of active disease. Longitudinal tracking of antigen-specific cytokines after acute exposure may significantly advance our understanding of the dynamic changes in cytokine patterns associated with disease establishment. To achieve this objective, we carried out a prospective cohort study with healthy HCs after exposure to TB. The patterns of cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] and interleukin 10 [IL-10]) in response to mycobacterial antigens (culture filtrate [CF] proteins) and nonspecific mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA] and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months after exposure. Seven of 109 (6.4%) HCs developed active disease. Six of the seven individuals were females, and active disease developed between 12 and 15 months after exposure in 5/20 families. The most significant findings were the exponential increases ( approximately 1,000-fold) in both the CF protein- and the PHA- or LPS-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio in healthy HCs (n = 26), which peaked at 12 months, compared to the levels in HCs who developed disease (n = 7), in whom relatively flat responses were observed during the 24-month period. Linear trends for 0 to 12 and 0 to 24 months for the CF protein-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio showed significant differences between the two groups, as determined by the use of the Mantel extension test for chi(2) analysis (odds ratio = 0.45; 95% confidence interval = 0.295 to 0.685; P = 0.0002). Our results strongly suggest that the magnitude of the IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio at 12 months after exposure may be a critical determinant in the resolution of infection. These studies provide new insights into the cytokine responses associated with disease establishment or the resolution of infection after natural exposure to TB and have implications for TB control programs as well vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:17928427

  6. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.;

    2012-01-01

    in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... linkage between foods analysed and consumed for that country. In the case of lack of occurrence data, these data can be supplemented with data from the "European" concentration database or by generating additional concentration data at country level. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  7. Induction of genomic instability after an acute whole-body exposure of mice to 56Fe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn; Supanpaiboon, Wisa; Whorton, Elbert

    Different types of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are present in space and have large mass and energy (HZE particles). Among these, stripped 56 Fe ions are of major concern. Although HZE particles are approximately 1% of GCR, their contribution to health risk could be significant because of (1) their high linear energy transfer (LET) resulting in a larger amount of energy being deposited in the hit cells, and (2) the lack of information on the effectiveness of these particles in cancer induction. To better protect astronauts in space environments, it is essential that we improve our understanding of the 56 Fe-ion-induced damage associated with the increased risk of late occurring diseases (such as cancer). It has been well established that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the major malignancies associated with exposure to ionizing radiation in both human beings and in mice. It is therefore one of the most important cancers related to space flights. For these reasons, it is important to investigate 56 Fe ion-induced damage in in vivo systems, especially in those cells that are known to be at risk for health problems associated with radiation, such as hematopoietic cells, the known target cell for radiation-induced leukemia. Since in vivo studies of humans are not possible, animal studies are critically important. It has been widely suggested that elevation of delayed chromosomal damage (normally known as genomic instability) is associated with cancer risk. We therefore determined dose-response relationships for the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) in mouse blood erythrocytes as a measure of both initial radiation damage and the induction of genomic instability. The frequencies of MN were measured in mature normochromatic-erythrocytes (MN-NCEs) and immature polychromatic-erythrocytes (MN-PCEs). These measurements were made as a function of radiation dose, radiation quality, time after irradiation and the genetic background of exposed mice. Blood samples were

  8. Effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine and acute exposure to fluphenazine-N-mustard on dopaminergic behavior and radioligand binding in supersensitive mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Mice with unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the corpus striatum were exposed to continuous infusion of apomorphine via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump. The turning response of these mice when challenged with an acute injection of apomorphine was significantly reduced at one day after chronic implantation and was totally absent at two and four days after implantation. This effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine was found to be concentration- and time-dependent as well as reversible when the implant was removed. Mice tolerant to apomorphine were cross-tolerant to the rotational effects of the D{sub 1} dopaminergic agonist SKF 38393 and the D{sub 2} dopaminergic agonist Ly 171555, but not to amphetamine. Continuous exposure to apomorphine resulted in a decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol (D{sub 2} sites) by 44%, whereas the binding of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 (D{sub 1} sites) was not affected. Fluphenazine-N-mustard (FNM) has been shown to bind irreversibly to dopaminergic sites. Experiments using varying doses of FNM demonstrated that FNM inhibited Ly 171555-induced rotational behavior at doses ten fold lower than those required to block rotations induced by SKF 38393. In vitro, FNM inhibited the specific binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol at concentrations ten fold lower than those required to inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)Sch23390. In vivo, FNM inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol measured ex vivo, but did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H) Sch 23390, even when given in doses as high as 100 mg/kg. These studies indicate that FNM was approximately ten times more potent at inhibiting D{sub 2} than D{sub 1} mediated behavior and at displacing D{sub 2} versus D{sub 1} ligands, suggesting that FNM may be useful for studying and differentiating D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} mediated events.

  9. Fumonisin B1 Toxicity in Grower-Finisher Pigs: A Comparative Analysis of Genetically Engineered Bt Corn and non-Bt Corn by Using Quantitative Dietary Exposure Assessment Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wolt, Jeffrey D.; Delgado, James E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the long-term exposure (20 weeks) to fumonisin B1 (FB1) in grower-finisher pigs by conducting a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA). Our analytical approach involved both deterministic and semi-stochastic modeling for dietary comparative analyses of FB1 exposures originating from genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn, conventional non-Bt corn and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from Bt and/or non-Bt corn. Results from bo...

  10. Neonatal Exposure to Parathion Alters Lipid Metabolism in Adulthood: Interactions with Dietary Fat Intake and Implications for Neurodevelopmental Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Lassiter, T. Leon; Ryde, Ian T.; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphates are developmental neurotoxicants but recent evidence also points to metabolic dysfunction. We determined whether neonatal parathion exposure in rats has long-term effects on regulation of adipokines and lipid peroxidation. We also assessed the interaction of these effects with increased fat intake. Rats were given parathion on postnatal days 1–4 using doses (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day) that straddle the threshold for barely detectable cholinesterase inhibition and the first signs o...

  11. Improved analytical methods for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors – a focus on human dietary exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances are a large group of global environmental contaminants. They can be divided into two sub-groups, 1) perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and 2) so called precursors, i.e. compounds that can potentially be transformed to form PFAAs. PFAAs are today ubiquitous in wildlife and humans. Food and drinking water are assumed to be the dominant human exposure pathways for PFAAs. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was to develop highly sensitive and fully validated analyti...

  12. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  13. Sub-lethal effects of dietary neonicotinoid insecticide exposure on honey bee queen fecundity and colony development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Smart, Judy; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Many factors can negatively affect honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health including the pervasive use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides. Through direct consumption of contaminated nectar and pollen from treated plants, neonicotinoids can affect foraging, learning, and memory in worker bees. Less well studied are the potential effects of neonicotinoids on queen bees, which may be exposed indirectly through trophallaxis, or food-sharing. To assess effects on queen productivity, small colonies of different sizes (1500, 3000, and 7000 bees) were fed imidacloprid (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) in syrup for three weeks. We found adverse effects of imidacloprid on queens (egg-laying and locomotor activity), worker bees (foraging and hygienic activities), and colony development (brood production and pollen stores) in all treated colonies. Some effects were less evident as colony size increased, suggesting that larger colony populations may act as a buffer to pesticide exposure. This study is the first to show adverse effects of imidacloprid on queen bee fecundity and behavior and improves our understanding of how neonicotinoids may impair short-term colony functioning. These data indicate that risk-mitigation efforts should focus on reducing neonicotinoid exposure in the early spring when colonies are smallest and queens are most vulnerable to exposure. PMID:27562025

  14. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  15. Effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Ghosh, Debabrata; Saha, Dhira Rani; Padhy, Pratap Kumar; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-02-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. The present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of A. hydrophila. Exposure to arsenic (1 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to arsenic. Arsenic-adapted bacteria were developed by repeated sub-culturing in presence of arsenic. Arsenic-adaptation led to significant recovery in hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. The arsenic-adapted bacteria exhibited normal membrane integrity, decreased cytoplasmic condensation and possessed scattered polysome like structures in the cytoplasm. A positive correlation was observed between arsenic tolerance and resistance to several antimicrobials. Arsenic-adaptation failed to confer cross-protection to mercury and cadmium stress. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the expression of two new proteins of approximately 85 kDa and 79 kDa respectively in arsenic-adapted A. hydrophila. Plasmid-curing and transformation studies clearly indicate plasmid has no role on arsenic resistance trait of the bacteria. Our study, for the first time, reports a structure and function relationship of xenobiotics on bacteria.

  16. Study on the therapeutic effect of cytokine on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Co γ ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To examine the therapeutic effect of combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Coγ ray exposure in beagles. Methods: Sixteen beagles were randomly divided into the control (n=5), symptomatic treatment group (n=5) and cytokine treatment group (n=6). All the beagles in the three groups were exposed to the whole-body irradiation of 60Co γ ray at a dose of 4.5 Gy. The animals in the second group accepted active symptomatic treatment. The animals in the cytokine treatment group were sub-cutaneously administered rhIL -11 and rhG -CSF besides active symptomatic treatment. Hemogram of peripheral blood, pristine apoptosis and necrosis ratio of nucleated cells, the content of IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma and formation of bone marrow were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Results: In the cytokine treatment group, the animal' survival rate 45 days after exposure was increased and hemogram of peripheral blood was improved significantly. The rate of pristine apoptosis and necrosis of nucleated cell declined obviously. Early, the content of both IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma was up significantly, then the content of IL-2 rapidly descended, but that of IFN-γ was relatively stable. Conclusion: The combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF significantly improved the recovery of hematopoietic and immunological function. (authors)

  17. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the inflammatory response, acute phase response and genotoxic effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs, NIST1650b) following a single intratracheal instillation. C57BL/6J BomTac mice received 18, 54 or 162 µg/mouse and were killed 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. Vehicle controls...

  18. Use of a custom RT-PCR array to analyze toxicity pathways at different life stages in Brown Norway Rat Brain following acute Toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we utilized a custom designed RT-PCR array to examine the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.65 or 1.0 glkg) in the brains of ma1e Brown Norwa...

  19. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. Aft

  20. Transcriptional response of rat frontal cortex following acute In Vivo exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornero-Velez Rogelio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides that interact with membrane bound ion channels in neurons and disrupt nerve function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and explore changes in gene expression that occur in the rat frontal cortex, an area of CNS affected by pyrethroids, following an acute low-dose exposure. Results Rats were acutely exposed to either deltamethrin (0.3 – 3 mg/kg or permethrin (1 – 100 mg/kg followed by collection of cortical tissue at 6 hours. The doses used range from those that cause minimal signs of intoxication at the behavioral level to doses well below apparent no effect levels in the whole animal. A statistical framework based on parallel linear (SAM and isotonic regression (PIR methods identified 95 and 53 probe sets as dose-responsive. The PIR analysis was most sensitive for detecting transcripts with changes in expression at the NOAEL dose. A sub-set of genes (Camk1g, Ddc, Gpd3, c-fos and Egr1 was then confirmed by qRT-PCR and examined in a time course study. Changes in mRNA levels were typically less than 3-fold in magnitude across all components of the study. The responses observed are consistent with pyrethroids producing increased neuronal excitation in the cortex following a low-dose in vivo exposure. In addition, Significance Analysis of Function and Expression (SAFE identified significantly enriched gene categories common for both pyrethroids, including some relating to branching morphogenesis. Exposure of primary cortical cell cultures to both compounds resulted in an increase (~25% in the number of neurite branch points, supporting the results of the SAFE analysis. Conclusion In the present study, pyrethroids induced changes in gene expression in the frontal cortex near the threshold for decreases in ambulatory motor activity in vivo. The penalized regression methods performed similarly in detecting dose-dependent changes in gene transcription. Finally, SAFE analysis of

  1. Induction of glutathione synthesis in human hepatocytes by acute and chronic arsenic exposure: Differential roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arsenic exposure increased intracellular levels of glutathione. • Mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in glutathione homeostasis. • ERK contributed to glutathione synthesis during acute arsenic exposure. • Glutathione synthesis was regulated by p38 at least in part independent of NRF2 during chronic arsenic exposure. - Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a vital component of antioxidant defense which protects cells from toxic insults. Previously we found intracellular GSH was involved in cell resistance against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. However, molecular mechanisms of GSH homeostasis during arsenic exposure are largely undefined. Here, we investigated roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in GSH synthesis pathway with two arsenic exposure strategies by using Chang human hepatocytes. In one strategy, acute arsenic exposure (20 μM, 24 h) was applied, as MAPK signaling is generally considered to be transient. In the other one, chronic arsenic exposure (500 nM, 20 weeks) was applied, which mimicked the general human exposure to arsenic. We found that acute arsenic exposure activated extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 kinases (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in parallel with increased transcription and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), resulting in elevated intracellular GSH levels. Specific ERK inhibitor abolished arsenic-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and GSH synthesis. During chronic arsenic exposure which induced a malignant cellular phenotype, continuous p38 activation and NRF2 nuclear translocation were observed with enhanced GSH synthesis. Specific p38 inhibitor attenuated arsenic-enhanced GSH synthesis without changing NRF2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate MAPK pathways play an important role in cellular GSH homeostasis in response to arsenic. However, the

  2. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PM2.5 induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM2.5-induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM2.5-induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease

  3. Efficacy of multiple exposure with low level He-Ne laser dose on acute wound healing: a pre-clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S.; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on the use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for wound healing especially with the red laser light have demonstrated its pro-healing potential on a variety of pre-clinical and surgical wounds. However, until now, in LLLT the effect of multiple exposure of low dose laser irradiation on acute wound healing on well-designed pre-clinical model is not much explored. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of multiple exposure of low dose Helium Neon laser on healing progression of full thickness excision wounds in Swiss albino mice. Further, the efficacy of the multiple exposure of low dose laser irradiation was compared with the single exposure of optimum dose. Full thickness excision wounds (circular) of 15 mm diameter were created, and subsequently illuminated with the multiple exposures (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 exposure/ week until healing) of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 4.02 mWcm-2) laser at 0.5 Jcm-2 along with single exposure of optimum laser dose (2 J/cm-2) and un-illuminated controls. Classical biophysical parameters such as contraction kinetics, area under the curve and the mean healing time were documented as the assessment parameters to examine the efficacy of multiple exposures with low level laser dose. Experimental findings substantiated that either single or multiple exposures of 0.5 J/cm2 failed to produce any detectable alterations on wound contraction, area under the curve and mean healing time compared to single exposure of optimum dose (2 Jcm-2) and un-illuminated controls. Single exposure of optimum, laser dose was found to be ideal for acute wound healing.

  4. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drinking contaminated or raw foods and beverages. Screening/Diagnosis Most episodes of acute diarrhea resolve quickly without antibiotic therapy and with simple dietary modifications. See a ...

  5. Effects of Dietary Honey andArdehCombination on Chemotherapy- Induced Gastrointestinal and Infectious Complications in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Hesam, Hesam; Hosseini, Golkoo; Karimi, Mohammad; Rezaiean, Amin; Kazemi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary combination of honey and Ardeh on chemotherapy-induced complications in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 107 AML patients who underwent chemotherapy for at least 30 consecutive dayswere recruited to this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical-trial which was conducted in the Imam Reza and Ghaem teaching hospitals (Mashhad, Iran). They weredivided into two age and sex-matched groups: 58 treated and 49 untreated patients. A combination of 50 grams of honey and 150 grams of Ardehwas added to the treated group's diet for 30consecutive days, three times each day; while the untreated group received their regular diet.Both groups received their standard medication for AML as well. After one month, they were all examined and lab tests were done on them by an internist and laboratory technicians who were blinded to the subject allocations. Mean value of WBC count in treated group was significantly lower than that of untreated group. Duration of fever and admission in the hospital due to fever were both significantly lower in the treated group (P=0.014, P=0.032 respectively). Total gastrointestinal complications were significantly less in the treated group one month after therapy with the special honey and Ardeh compound.No unusual or unexpected side effects were observed. Honey and Ardehare easily accessible materials that can be helpfully administered in AML patientsreceiving chemotherapy, since their useful effects in ameliorating gastrointestinal complications and reducingfever and neutropenia in AML patients have been shown. PMID:27642340

  6. Cholinesterase inhibition and depression of the photic after discharge of flash evoked potentials following acute or repeated exposures to a mixture of carbaryl and propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Lyke, Danielle F; Hertzberg, Richard C; Haber, Lynne; Kohrman-Vincent, Melissa; Li, Ruosha; Pan, Yi; Lyles, Robert H; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Macmillan, Denise K; Zehr, R Dan; Swank, Adam E; Herr, David W

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we reported that acute treatment with propoxur or carbaryl decreased the duration of the photic after discharge (PhAD) of flash evoked potentials (FEPs). In the current studies, we compared the effects of acute or repeated exposure to a mixture of carbaryl and propoxur (1:1.45 ratio; propoxur:carbaryl) on the duration of the PhAD and brain ChE activity in Long Evans rats. Animals were exposed (po) either to a single dose (0, 3, 10, 45 or 75 mg/kg), or 14 daily dosages (0, 3, 10, 30, 45 mg/kg), of the mixture. Acute and repeated treatment with 3mg/kg (or greater) of the mixture produced dose-related inhibition of brain ChE activity. Compared to controls, the PhAD duration decreased after acute administration of 75 mg/kg or repeated treatment with 30 mg/kg of the mixture. The linear relationship between the percent of control brain ChE activity and the PhAD duration was similar for both exposure paradigms. Dose-response models for the acute and repeated exposure data did not differ for brain ChE activity or the duration of the PhAD. Repeated treatment with the mixture resulted in slightly less (13-22%) erythrocyte ChE inhibition than acute exposure. Both acute and repeated treatment resulted in dose-additive results for the PhAD duration and less than dose-additive responses (6-16%) for brain ChE activity for the middle range of dosages. Acute treatment resulted in greater than dose-additive erythrocyte ChE inhibition (15-18%) at the highest dosages. In contrast, repeated treatment resulted in less than dose-additive erythrocyte ChE inhibition (16-22%) at the middle dosages. Brain and plasma levels of propoxur and carbaryl did not differ between the acute and repeated dosing paradigms. In summary, a physiological measure of central nervous system function and brain ChE activity had similar responses after acute or repeated treatment with the carbamate mixture, and brain ChE showed only small deviations from dose-additivity. Erythrocyte ChE activity had

  7. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1-0.3 ng/mL and 0.4-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%-105.4%, 98.2%-114.0% and 92.2%-108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDrats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive profiling of toxicokinetics and daily internal exposure evaluations of acrylamide in vivo.

  8. Arsenic (As Contamination in Different Food and Dietary Samples from Several Districts of Bangladesh and Arsenic (As Detection, Mitigation and Toxicity Measurement and impact of Dietary Arsenic Exposure on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Awal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the level of arsenic concentration in vegetables and other food categories in three selected areas of Pabna district and to estimate quantitatively the dietary arsenic exposure in one of the arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in CharRuppur, Char mirkamari and Lakshmikunda village of IshwardiUpzila in Pabna district. Ishwardi (Town consists of 12 wardsand 37 mahallas. Arsenic was detected in the ADM Lab,Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS; PG-990, PG Instruments Ltd. UK. Arsenic was detected by forming AsH3 at below pH 1.0 after the reaction of As with a solution of sodiumborohydride (NaBH4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, M=40,000g/mol, and 10% HCl. In this test, standard was maintained asAsV ranging from 0 to 12.5 μg/L.Results: A total of 120 vegetable samples, 15 rice samples and15 fish samples were collected from five different markets ofthree different villages of Pabna district and were tested forarsenic concentration. Findings demonstrated that the mean concentration of As in leafy vegetables (0.52 μg g-1 was significantly higher compared to those found in fruity (0.422μg g-1 and root & tuber vegetables (0.486 μg g-1.Conclusion: Underground Contaminated water was the major source for the As contamination of various products in Pabna.The arsenic levels were found higher among the leafy vegetables samples in comparison to fruit and root & tuber vegetables. Further studies will be conducted to search the genetic risk factors of arsenic toxicity in the population of the mostly affected people.

  9. Inflammatory markers following acute fuel oil exposure or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly A; Tell, Lisa A; Mohr, F Charles

    2012-12-01

    Adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were orally dosed with bunker C fuel oil for 5 days, and five different inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin, ceruloplasmin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and plasma iron) were measured in blood plasma prior to and 8, 24, 48, and 72 hr following exposure. In order to contrast the response to fuel oil with that of a systemic inflammatory response, an additional five ducks were injected intramuscularly with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oil-treated birds had an inflammatory marker profile that was significantly different from control and LPS-treated birds, showing decreases in mannan-binding lectin-dependent hemolysis and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, but no changes in any of the other inflammatory markers. Birds treated with oil also exhibited increased liver weights, decreased body and splenic weights, and decreased packed cell volume.

  10. Effects of Air Pollutant Exposure on Acute Myocardial Infarction, According to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Tássia Soldi; Venâncio, Taís Siqueira; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the effects of air pollution on hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction. Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to air pollutants and hospital admissions due to myocardial infarction according to gender, between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, in São Jose dos Campos-SP. Methods: An ecological time series study was carried out with daily data of admissions due to AMI, pollutants CO, O3, PM10, SO2, and NO2, according to gender. We used the Poisson regression generalized linear model to estimate the relative risks of hospital admissions with lags of 0-5 days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, seasonality and days of the week. Results: There were 1837 admissions for ischemic heart diseases, with 636 women and 1201 men. For females, the risks were significant for CO in lag 0 (RR = 1,09), lag1 (RR = 1,08) and lag 5 (RR = 1,10) and SO2 in lag 0 (RR = 1,10) and 3 (RR = 1,09). For men there was significance of the CO in, lag 3 and lag 5 (RR = 1,05). There was significance, regardless of gender, for CO at lag 1 (RR = 1,05) and lag 5 (RR = 1,07) and lag 0 for SO2 (RR = 1,06). Conclusion: The data presented show the important role of CO and SO2 in the genesis of myocardial infarction admissions, and responses to pollutant exposure are different if analyzed by gender and together - hence the importance of a stratified analyses. PMID:27533257

  11. Early biochemical biomarkers for zinc in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitemperger, Jossiele; Menezes, Charlene; Santi, Adriana; Murussi, Camila; Lópes, Thais; Costa, Maiara; Nogueira, Lygia Sega; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals causes various biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. Silver catfish were exposed to six concentrations of zinc (Zn): 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/L for 96 h to determine the mean lethal concentration (LC50). The value obtained was 8.07 mg/L. In a second experiment, fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.0 or 5.0 mg/L Zn and a control for 96 h. Afterward, the tissues were collected for biochemical analysis. Lipid peroxidation, as indicated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), decreased in the liver and brain for all Zn concentrations tested, while in the gills TBARS levels increased at 1.0 mg/L and declined at 5.0 mg/L. Zn increased protein carbonyls in the muscle of silver catfish and decreased it in the other tissues. The enzyme superoxide dismutase increased in both exposed groups. However, catalase did not change. Glutathione S-transferase decreased in the liver and increased in the gills (1.0 mg/L), muscle (5.0 mg/L) and brain (1.0 and 5.0 mg/L). Nonprotein thiols changed only in brain and muscle tissue. Zn exposure inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain at both concentrations tested, but did not change it in muscle. Exposure to Zn inhibited the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the gills and intestine at both concentrations tested. Our results demonstrate that Zn alters biochemical parameters in silver catfish and that some parameters such as AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase could be considered as early biomarkers of waterborne Zn toxicity. PMID:26744269

  12. Atrazine in sub-acute exposure results in sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity in rats

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    Rajab-Ali Sadrkhanloo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the detrimental effect of atrazine (ATR on germinal epitheliums (GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate (CH and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA ratio and to clarify the effect of ATR on serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin-B (INH-B. The impact of ATR exposure on total antioxidant capacity (TAC, sperm DNA packing and integrity were also investigated. Seventy two Wistar rats were used. The rats in control group received vehicle and the animals in test groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW of ATR orally on daily bases for 12, 24 and 48 days. In ATR-received groups the spermatogenesis cell were presented with dense reactive sites for lipidophilic staining associated with faint cytoplasmic CH accumulation. Dissociated germinal epithelium, negative tubular and repopulation indexes were manifested. The serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and INH-B decreased by 85% after 48 days exposure to high dose of ATR. TAC was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The sperm DNA damage was marked in animals which exposed to high dose of ATR (72.50 ± 2.25% and the percentage of nuclear immature sperm increased up to 83.40 ± 0.89%. In conclusion, ATR not only induced its detrimental effect on the endocrine function of the testes and pituitary gland but also affected the cytoplasmic CH ratio and consequently leads to inadequate energy supplement in spermatogenesis cells. Therefore the imbalanced oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue, which in turn enhances the sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity.

  13. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g−1 with a median value of 1092 ng g−1, while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day−1 (median 12 ng day−1). - Highlights: • PBDEs were investigated in dust of A/C filters in occupational settings in Thessaloniki, Greece. • BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. • High levels of PBDEs were found in a newspaper building, internet cafes and electronic shops. • PBDEs were attributable to the extensive presence and/or usage of electronic devices. • Exposure of employees to PBDEs via indoor dust ingestion was estimated at 12 ng day−1. - PBDEs were for the first time measured in dust from central A/C filters in workplaces of Greece and their concentrations were used to estimate the non-dietary human exposure

  14. Dietary choline supplementation to dams during pregnancy and lactation mitigates the effects of in utero stress exposure on adult anxiety-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Pearson, Jennifer N.; Gasparrini, Mary E.; Brooks, Kayla F.; Drake-Frazier, Chakeer; Zajkowski, Megan E.; Kreisler, Alison D.; Adams, Catherine E.; Leonard, Sherry; Stevens, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain cholinergic dysfunction is associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Maternal stress exposure is associated with these same illnesses in adult offspring, yet the relationship between prenatal stress and brain cholinergic function is largely unexplored. Thus, using a rodent model, the current study implemented an intervention aimed at buffering the potential effects of prenatal stress on the developing brain cholinergic system. Specifically, control and stressed dams were fed choline-supplemented or control chow during pregnancy and lactation, and the anxiety-related behaviors of adult offspring were assessed in the open field, elevated zero maze and social interaction tests. In the open field test, choline supplementation significantly increased center investigation in both stressed and nonstressed female offspring, suggesting that choline-supplementation decreases female anxiety-related behavior irrespective of prenatal stress exposure. In the elevated zero maze, prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behaviors of female offspring fed a control diet (normal choline levels). However, prenatal stress failed to increase anxiety-related behaviors in female offspring receiving supplemental choline during gestation and lactation, suggesting that dietary choline supplementation ameliorated the effects of prenatal stress on anxiety-related behaviors. For male rats, neither prenatal stress nor diet impacted anxiety-related behaviors in the open field or elevated zero maze. In contrast, perinatal choline supplementation mitigated prenatal stress-induced social behavioral deficits in males, whereas neither prenatal stress nor choline supplementation influenced female social behaviors. Taken together, these data suggest that perinatal choline supplementation ameliorates the sex-specific effects of prenatal stress. PMID:24675162

  15. Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Bisesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids while present in the gastrointestinal (GI tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  16. Acute exposure of mice to high-dose ultrafine carbon black decreases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia

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    Gordon Stephen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of carbonaceous particulate matter from biomass combustion increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. In vitro studies report that phagocytosis of carbon black by alveolar macrophages (AM impairs killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously reported high levels of black carbon in AM from biomass smoke-exposed children and adults. We therefore aimed to use a mouse model to test the hypothesis that high levels of carbon loading of AM in vivo increases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Female outbred mice were treated with either intranasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS or ultrafine carbon black (UF-CB in PBS; 500 μg on day 1 and day 4, and then infected with S. pneumoniae strain D39 on day 5. Survival was assessed over 72 h. The effect of UF-CB on AM carbon loading, airway inflammation, and a urinary marker of pulmonary oxidative stress was assessed in uninfected animals. Results Instillation of UF-CB in mice resulted a pattern of AM carbon loading similar to that of biomass-smoke exposed humans. In uninfected animals, UF-CB treated animals had increased urinary 8-oxodG (P = 0.055, and an increased airway neutrophil differential count (P . pneumoniae, whereas morbidity and mortality after infection was reduced in UF-CB treated animals (median survival 48 h vs. 30 h, P . pneumoniae colony forming unit counts, and lower airway levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth-related oncogene (KC/GRO, and interferon gamma. Conclusion Acute high level loading of AM with ultrafine carbon black particles per se does not increase the susceptibility of mice to pneumococcal infection in vivo.

  17. Continuous exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to dietary bioactive agents does not induce drug resistance unlike chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P; Zhang, Y; Liu, L; Zhao, Z; Yin, Y; Xiao, X; Bauer, N; Gladkich, J; Mattern, J; Gao, C; Schemmer, P; Gross, W; Herr, I

    2016-01-01

    The repeated treatment of cancer cells with chemo- or radiotherapy induces therapy resistance, but it was previously unknown whether the same effect occurs upon continuous exposure of cancer cells to diet-derived chemopreventive agents. We elucidated this interesting question in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which is a highly aggressive cancer entity with a marked resistance toward gemcitabine and other cytotoxic drugs. The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in cruciferous vegetables, and the polyphenol quercetin, present in many fruits and vegetables induced apoptosis and reduced viability in gemcitabine-sensitive BxPC-3 cells but not in non-malignant ductal pancreas cells and mesenchymal stromal cells. In turn, BxPC-3 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of gemcitabine, sulforaphane or quercetin for more than 1 year and the surviving subclones Bx-GEM, Bx-SF and Bx-Q were selected, respectively. While Bx-GEM cells acquired a total resistance, Bx-SF or Bx-Q cells largely kept their sensitivity as proved by MTT assay, annexin staining and FACS analysis. The evaluation of the self-renewal-, differentiation- and migration-potential by colony formation, differentiation or migration assays demonstrated that cancer stem cell features were enriched in gemcitabine-resistant cells, but decreased in sulforaphane- and quercetin-long time-treated cells. These results were confirmed by orthotopic xenotransplantation of cancer cells to the mouse pancreas, where Bx-GEM formed large, Bx-Q small and Bx-SF cells almost undetectable tumors. An mRNA expression profiling array and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis and qRT-PCR confirmed that tumor progression markers were enriched in Bx-GEM, but reduced in Bx-SF and Bx-Q cells. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to sulforaphane or quercetin does not induce resistance in surviving cells but reduces tumorigenicity by inhibition of tumor progression markers. These

  18. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  19. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ambruosi

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM, CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05. This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001 and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001. At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM, DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001 and ROS increase (P<0.0001 in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity, intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05, possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into

  20. Urinary and dietary analysis of 18,470 bangladeshis reveal a correlation of rice consumption with arsenic exposure and toxicity.

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    Stephanie Melkonian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We utilized data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the association of steamed rice consumption with urinary total arsenic concentration and arsenical skin lesions in the overall study cohort (N=18,470 and in a subset with available urinary arsenic metabolite data (N=4,517. METHODS: General linear models with standardized beta coefficients were used to estimate associations between steamed rice consumption and urinary total arsenic concentration and urinary arsenic metabolites. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations between rice intake and prevalent skin lesions at baseline. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate discrete time (HRs ratios and their 95% CIs for the associations between rice intake and incident skin lesions. RESULTS: Steamed rice consumption was positively associated with creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic (β=0.041, 95% CI: 0.032-0.051 and urinary total arsenic with statistical adjustment for creatinine in the model (β=0.043, 95% CI: 0.032-0.053. Additionally, we observed a significant trend in skin lesion prevalence (P-trend=0.007 and a moderate trend in skin lesion incidence (P-trend=0.07 associated with increased intake of steamed rice. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that rice intake may be a source of arsenic exposure beyond drinking water.

  1. 厦门市居民食品塑化剂暴露风险评估%Exposure risk assessment of plasticizer in dietary food in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄群瑛; 杨月; 苏艳华; 吕婵雯; 王素梅; 喻欢; 秦梦婷; 李燕妮; 赵本华

    2014-01-01

    )均小于美国环境保护署提出的经口摄入参考剂量(RfD)(800、100、20 μg· kg-1·d-1),风险指数分别为0.02%、4.20%、90.50%.水产品为DEP膳食暴露的首要来源,暴露量和贡献率分别为0.18 μg·kg-1·d-1、94.74%.蔬菜类为DBP和DEHP的主要暴露来源,暴露量和贡献率分别为1.48 μg·kg-1·d-1、35.24%和6.07 μg· kg-1·d-1、33.54%.结论 厦门市居民膳食整体处于安全水平,存在一定程度的DEHP暴露风险.%Objective To understand the dietary consumption of residents in Xiamen and the content of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in food,and to assess the plasticizer exposure risk of diet in Xiamen.Methods The survey was conducted by stratified cluster random sampling method in Xiamen from September to October in 2010.According to the Xiamen administrative division,six neighborhood communities were selected as sampling units,then 25 families were randomly chosen from each sampling units.From the above 150 families,the permanent residents over the age of six were permitted to our study.The survey included 495 residents totally.These participants' information,such as basic personal information,physical activity levels,meal frequency and the average consumption of 33 kinds of food in 13 categories were collected using questionnaires.Thirteen categories included cereal and tubers,beans,vegetables,fungi and algae,fruits,dairy products,meat,seafood,eggs,snacks,beverages,cooking oil and spices.The height and weight of residents were measured and the average daily dietary intake was calculated.Thirty-three kinds of food in 13 categories were collected in supermarkets in Xiamen.According to the annual sales ranking,the top three-five brands of each kinds of food were selected and numbered,then two or three brands were chosen by random number table method from them; three completely individual packed samples in the same batch of each brand were detected; 243 samples were included in our study.100-500 g solid

  2. An Exploratory Study on the Development of an Animal Model of Acute Pancreatitis Following Nicotine Exposure

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    Chowdhury P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is known to be a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis is believed to be a predisposed condition for pancreatic cancer. As of this date, there is no established experimental animal model to conduct detailed studies on these two deadly diseases. Our aim is to establish a rodent model by which we can systematically study the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Methods Adult Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to graded doses of nicotine by various routes for periods of three to 16 weeks. Blood samples were measured for hormonal and metabolic parameters. The pancreas was evaluated for histopathological changes and its function was assessed in isolated pancreatic acini upon stimulation with cholecystokinin (CCK or carbachol (Cch. The pancreatic tissue was evaluated further for oncogene expression. Results Body weight, food and fluid intakes, plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in animals with nicotine exposure when compared to control. However, CCK and gastrin levels in the blood were significantly elevated. Pancreatic function was decreased significantly with no alteration in CCK receptor binding. Pancreatic histology revealed vacuolation, swelling, cellular pyknosis and karyorrhexis. Mutant oncogene, H-ras, was overexpressed in nicotine-treated pancreatic tissue. Summary and conclusion The results suggest that alterations in metabolic, hormonal and pathologic parameters following nicotine-treatment appear consistent with diagnostic criteria of human pancreatitis. It is proposed that rats could be considered as a potential animal model to study the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

  3. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  4. An integrated functional genomic study of acute phenobarbital exposure in the rat

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    Dow Jacky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-genotoxic carcinogens are notoriously difficult to identify as they do not damage DNA directly and have diverse modes of action, necessitating long term in vivo studies. The early effects of the classic rodent non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen phenobarbital have been investigated in the Fisher rat using a combination of metabolomics and transcriptomics, to investige early stage mechanistic changes that are predictive of longer term pathology. Results Liver and blood plasma were profiled across 14 days, and multivariate statistics used to identify perturbed pathways. Both metabolomics and transcriptomics detected changes in the liver which were dose dependent, even after one day of exposure. Integration of the two datasets associated perturbations with specific pathways. Hepatic glycogen was decreased due to a decrease in synthesis, and plasma triglycerides were decreased due to an increase in fatty acid uptake by the liver. Hepatic succinate was increased and this was associated with increased heme biosynthesis. Glutathione synthesis was also increased, presumably in response to oxidative stress. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry demonstrated a remodeling of lipid species, possibly resulting from proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Conclusions The data fusion of metabolomic and transcriptomic changes proved to be a highly sensitive approach for monitoring early stage changes in altered hepatic metabolism, oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 induction simultaneously. This approach is particularly useful in interpreting changes in metabolites such as succinate which are hubs of metabolism.

  5. Assessment of dietary exposure to annatto (E160b), nitrites (E249-250), sulphites (E220-228) and tartaric acid (E334) in the French population: the second French total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, N; Vin, K; Sirot, V; Aguilar, F; Ladrat, A-C; Ducasse, C; Gey, J-L; Rétho, C; Nougadere, A; Leblanc, J-C

    2012-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the dietary exposure to annatto, nitrites, tartaric acid and sulphites within the framework of the second French total diet study (TDS) are reported. These 4 additives were selected from the Bemrah et al. study [Bemrah N, Leblanc JC, Volatier JL. 2008. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners. Food Addit Contam B. 1(1):2-14] on 13 food additives which identified a possible health risk for annatto, sulphites and nitrites and a lack of data for tartaric acid. Among the composite samples selected for the whole TDS, 524 were analysed for additives (a sample was analysed for a given additive when it was identified as a major contributor for this additive only): 130 for tartaric acid, 135 for nitrites, 59 for annatto and 200 for sulphites. Estimated concentrations (minimum lower bound to maximum upper bound) vary nationally from 0 to 9 mg/kg for annatto, 0 to 420 mg/kg for tartaric acid, 0 to 108 mg/kg for sulphites and 0 to 3.4 mg/kg for nitrites. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure was calculated for adults and children, separately, using lower bound and upper bound assumptions. The European ADIs for these 4 additives were not exceeded except for the dietary exposure for sulphites among 2.9% of the adult population, where the major contributors were alcoholic drinks and especially wine under both hypotheses (lower and upper bound).

  6. Confirmation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia variants, ARID5B and IKZF1, and interaction with parental environmental exposures.

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    Tiffany-Jane Evans

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS have established association of ARID5B and IKZF1 variants with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors alone appear to make a relatively minor contribution to disease risk. The polygenic nature of childhood ALL predisposition together with the timing of environmental triggers may hold vital clues for disease etiology. This study presents results from an Australian GWAS of childhood ALL cases (n = 358 and population controls (n = 1192. Furthermore, we utilised family trio (n = 204 genotypes to extend our investigation to gene-environment interaction of significant loci with parental exposures before conception, and child's sex and age. Thirteen SNPs achieved genome wide significance in the population based case/control analysis; ten annotated to ARID5B and three to IKZF1. The most significant SNPs in these regions were ARID5B rs4245595 (OR 1.63, CI 1.38-1.93, P = 2.13×10(-9, and IKZF1 rs1110701 (OR 1.69, CI 1.42-2.02, p = 7.26×10(-9. There was evidence of gene-environment interaction for risk genotype at IKZF1, whereby an apparently stronger genetic effect was observed if the mother took folic acid or if the father did not smoke prior to pregnancy (respective interaction P-values: 0.04, 0.05. There were no interactions of risk genotypes with age or sex (P-values >0.2. Our results evidence that interaction of genetic variants and environmental exposures may further alter risk of childhood ALL however, investigation in a larger population is required. If interaction of folic acid supplementation and IKZF1 variants holds, it may be useful to quantify folate levels prior to initiating use of folic acid supplements.

  7. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki: antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B; Antunes, S C; Gomes, R; Campos, J C; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Correia, A T

    2015-02-01

    A large body of evidence was compiled in the recent decades showing a noteworthy increase in the detection of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems. Due to its ubiquitous presence, chemical nature, and practical purpose, this type of contaminant can exert toxic effects in nontarget organisms. Exposure to pharmaceutical drugs can result in adaptive alterations, such as changes in tissues, or in key homeostatic mechanisms, such as antioxidant mechanisms, biochemical/physiological pathways, and cellular damage. These alterations can be monitored to determine the impact of these compounds on exposed aquatic organisms. Among pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, antibiotics are particularly important because they include a variety of substances widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production, and aquaculture. This wide use constitutes a decisive factor contributing for their frequent detection in the aquatic environment. Tetracyclines are the individual antibiotic subclass with the second highest frequency of detection in environmental matrices. The characterization of the potential ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline is a much-required task; to attain this objective, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of tetracycline in the freshwater fish species Gambusia holbrooki by the determination of histological changes in the gills and liver, changes in antioxidant defense [glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and lipoperoxidative damage] as well as potential neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). The obtained results suggest the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the exposure to tetracycline and histological alterations (more specifically in gills) and enzymatic activity (particularly the enzyme CAT in liver and GST in gills) indicating that this compound can exert a pro-oxidative activity. PMID:25475590

  8. Point-of-care procalcitonin test to reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Caspar; Fally, Markus; Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas; Mortensen, Katrine; Jensen, Birgitte Nybo; Andreassen, Helle F; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to investigate whether point-of-care (POC) procalcitonin (PCT) measurement can reduce redundant antibiotic treatment in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods One-hundred and twenty adult patients admitted with AECOPD were enrolled in this open-label randomized trial. Patients were allocated to either the POC PCT-guided intervention arm (n=62) or the control arm, in which antibiotic therapy followed local guidelines (n=58). Results The median duration of antibiotic exposure was 3.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 0–10) days in the PCT-arm vs 8.5 (IQR 1–11) days in the control arm (P=0.0169, Wilcoxon) for the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of patients using antibiotics for ≥5 days within the 28-day follow-up was 41.9% (PCT-arm) vs 67.2% (P=0.006, Fisher’s exact) in the intention-to-treat population. For the per-protocol population, the proportions were 21.1% (PCT-arm) vs 73.9% (P<0.00001, Fisher’s exact). Within 28-day follow-up, one patient died in the PCT-arm and two died in the control arm. A composite harm end point consisting of death, rehospitalization, or intensive care unit admission, all within 28 days, showed no apparent difference. Conclusion Our study shows that the implementation of a POC PCT-guided algorithm can be used to substantially reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with AECOPD, with no apparent harm. PMID:27382274

  9. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  10. Acute pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure of the airways to staphylococcal enterotoxin type B in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staphylocococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that produces several enterotoxins, which are responsible for most part of pathological conditions associated to staphylococcal infections, including lung inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the underlying inflammatory mechanisms involved in leukocyte recruitment in rats exposed to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and intratracheally injected with either SEB or sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, 0.4 ml). Airways exposition to SEB (7.5-250 ng/trachea) caused a dose- and time-dependent neutrophil accumulation in BAL fluid, the maximal effects of which were observed at 4 h post-SEB exposure (250 ng/trachea). Eosinophils were virtually absent in BAL fluid, whereas mononuclear cell counts increased only at 24 h post-SEB. Significant elevations of granulocytes in bone marrow (mature and immature forms) and peripheral blood have also been detected. In BAL fluid, marked elevations in the levels of lipid mediators (LTB4 and PGE2) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) were observed after SEB instillation. The SEB-induced neutrophil accumulation in BAL fluid was reduced by pretreatment with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (3 mg/kg), the selective iNOS inhibitor compound 1400 W (5 mg/kg) and the lipoxygenase inhibitor AA-861 (200 μg/kg). In separate experiments carried out with rat isolated peripheral neutrophils, SEB failed to induce neutrophil adhesion to serum-coated plates and chemotaxis. In conclusion, rat airways exposition to SEB causes a neutrophil-dependent lung inflammation at 4 h as result of the release of proinflammatory (NO, PGE2, LTB4, TNF-α, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-10)

  11. 上海市居民膳食中铅镉暴露水平评估%Assessment on the dietary exposure of lead and cadmium in Shanghai residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘弘; 吴春峰; 陆屹; 方亚敏; 高围溦; 邢之慧; 陆冬磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To obtain the basic data of lead and cadmium exposure from food for Shanghai residents, and to estimate the health risk of dietary lead and cadmium contamination in Shanghai. Methods A method recommended by WHO on the dietary exposure assessment of chemicals in food was applied. Surveillance on the content of lead and cadmium in food combined with a survey on dietary nutrients intake of Shanghai residents was conducted. Results The average dietary lead and cadmium exposure of Shanghai residents per week were estimated to be 0.006 2 mg/kg BW and 0.002 5 mg/kg BW, accounted for 24.77% and 35.06% of provisional tolerable weekly intake ( PTWI), respectively.The dietary lead and cadmium exposure per week of top consumers ( the food consumption was higher than the upper 90th percentile) were estimated to be 0.012 3 and 0.004 8 mg/kg Bw, accounted for 49.08% and 68.09% of PTWI.Conclusion The level of dietary cadmium exposure in Shanghai residents was higher than that of dietary lead exposure.Although both dietary lead and cadmium exposure level in Shanghai residents is usually lower than PTWI, cutting it down is necessary.%目的 了解上海市居民膳食中铅、镉暴露的基础数据,评估上海市市售食品中铅、镉污染的危险性.方法 对上海市市售食品中铅、镉含量进行监测,并结合上海市居民膳食营养素摄入量调查,应用WHO推荐的食品中化学污染物膳食暴露评估方法,对上海市居民膳食中铅、镉暴露水平进行评估.结果 上海市居民平均每周膳食中铅、镉暴露量分别为0.006 2、0.002 5 mg/kg BW,占暂定每周可耐受摄入量(PTWI)的24.77%、35.06%.高端消费人群(食物消费量第90百分位数)每周膳食中铅、镉暴露量分别为0.012 3和0.0048 mg/kg BW,占PTWI的49.08%、68.09%.结论 上海市居民膳食中镉暴露水平高于铅暴露水平,正常情况下均低于PTWI,但仍有进一步降低的必要.

  12. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wei, E-mail: qu@niehs.nih.gov; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  13. Exposure assessment of liver cancer attributed to dietary aflatoxins exposure in Chinese residents%中国人群膳食黄曲霉毒素致肝癌的暴露评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君; 刘秀梅; 张志强

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk of liver cancer attributed to dietary aflatoxins exposure in Chinese residents. Methods Mathematics model and "Margin of Exposure (MOE)" methods were employed in this study. The data used in mathematics model came from Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the detection results of hepatitis B virus (HBV) indicator in Chinese residents' blood sample in 2004. The data used in MOE model came from animal experiments, the fourth nutrition and health investigation among Chinese residents, and national inspection network for food contaminations. Results Mathematics model indicated that for those people who were exposed to aflatoxins at average level (665.43 ng/d), the liver cancer incidence rate resulting from aflatoxins exposure was 0.4033 per 100 thousand person years. For those people who were exposed to aflatoxins at a high level (97.5 percentile ,24 787.20 ng/d) the liver cancer incidence rate attributed to aflatoxins exposure was 15. 0215 per 100 thou and person years. Results from the MOE method showed that for the people in whole country,urban and rural areas who were exposed to aflatoxins at average level (0.011 09,0.008 13 and 0.012 49 μg · kg-1·d-1 respectively) ,the MOE values for aflatoxins to cause liver cancer were 9017. 1,12 304. 7 and 8006.4 respectively. For those people who were exposed to aflatoxins at a high level (97.5 percentile, 0.413 10,0.289 30 and 0.489 50 μg ·kg-1· d-1 respectively) ,the MOE values for aflatoxins to cause liver cancer were 242.1,345.7 and 204.3 for whole country,urban and rural areas,respectively. Conclusion For the people whose dietary aflatoxins exposure at average level, the risk of liver cancer attributed to aflatoxins is middle. For the people whose dietary aflatoxins exposure at high level ,this kind of risk should be high.%目的 评估我国人群膳食黄曲霉毒素暴露引发肝癌的危险.方法 用数学模型和暴露限