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Sample records for acute dialysis quality

  1. Cardio-renal syndromes : report from the consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronco, Claudio; McCullough, Peter; Anker, Stefan D.; Anand, Inder; Aspromonte, Nadia; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Berl, Tomas; Bobek, Ilona; Cruz, Dinna N.; Daliento, Luciano; Davenport, Andrew; Haapio, Mikko; Hillege, Hans; House, Andrew A.; Katz, Nevin; Maisel, Alan; Mankad, Sunil; Zanco, Pierluigi; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ronco, Federico; Shaw, Andrew; Sheinfeld, Geoff; Soni, Sachin; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zamperetti, Nereo; Ponikowski, Piotr

    A consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) was held in Venice Italy, in September 2008 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). The following topics were matter of discussion after a systematic literature review and the appraisal of the best available evidence:

  2. Peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linfeng; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Guan J; Fu, Ping

    2017-12-04

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been suggested as an effective and safe dialysis modality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, whether PD is superior to extracorporeal therapy (e.g. haemodialysis) in terms of improving survival, recovery of kidney function, metabolic and clinical outcomes is still inconclusive. The aim of this review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of PD for patients with AKI compared with extracorporeal therapy or different PD modalities. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies to 29 May 2017 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched the China Biological Medicine Database. We included patients with AKI who were randomised to receive PD, extracorporeal therapy, or different PD modalities regardless of their age, sex, primary disease and clinical course. Screening, selection, data extraction and quality assessments for each retrieved article were carried out by two authors using standardised forms. Authors contacted when published data were incomplete. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and results expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity among studies was explored using the Cochran Q statistic and the I 2 test. Outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality, recovery of kidney function, weekly delivered Kt/V, correction of acidosis, fluid removal, duration of dialysis, and infectious complications. Confidence in the evidence was assessing using GRADE. Six studies (484 participants) met our inclusion criteria. Five studies compared high volume PD with daily haemodialysis, extended daily haemodialysis, or continuous renal replacement therapy. One study focused on the

  3. [QUALITY OF LIFE OF DIALYSIS PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrduljaš-Dujić, N

    2016-12-01

    Measuring the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is part of the general concept of quality of life. According to the survey, quality of life in dialysis patients is significantly lower as compared to general population. The aim is to show the importance and impact of the quality of life in dialysis patients on treatment outcomes. In October 2016, the MEDLINE and EBSCO databases were searched for the 2005-2016 period. Kidney transplantation offers better HRQOL as compared to dialysis, since there is no significant difference in HRQOL between patients on hemodialysis and those on peritoneal dialysis. Good clinical practice in the treatment of dialysis patients is based on individual approach and on improving the quality of life, for which collaboration of family doctors and consultant nephrologists is necessary. In daily practice, using questionnaires on the quality of life of dialysis patients would increase the awareness of this very important segment of care for dialysis patients because quality of life is an outcome measure of treatment in these patients.

  4. Complications, effects on dialysis dose, and survival of tunneled femoral dialysis catheters in acute renal failure.

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    Klouche, Kada; Amigues, Laurent; Deleuze, Sebastien; Beraud, Jean-Jacques; Canaud, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Availability of a functional vascular access is a mandatory prerequisite for extracorporeal renal replacement therapy in patients with acute renal failure. The femoral site of insertion commonly is chosen because it is an easy and convenient access. However, an array of complications may substantially alter the quality of treatment, and it appears that catheter-related morbidity and dysfunction are more frequent with the femoral than internal jugular site. This study is designed to evaluate the potential benefits of using soft silicone tunneled catheters ((ST)Caths) at the femoral site. Thirty patients with acute renal failure treated by intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and/or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were assigned to either twin (ST)Caths or twin polyurethane nontunneled femoral catheters. Time necessary for catheter insertion, catheter-related complications, and catheter lifespan were monitored. Catheter performance during IHD and the effect of catheter type on dialysis dose were evaluated. The time necessary for (ST)Cath insertion was significantly longer. The incidence of vein thrombosis and catheter-related infection was lower, and the ratio of venous return pressure to catheter blood flow was better with an (ST)Cath. Recirculation rates were similar for both types of catheters. Whether treated by using IHD or CVVHDF, patients with an (ST)Cath benefited from a greater delivered dialysis dose. Multivariate analysis confirmed that (ST)Cath use was a determinant factor to optimize dialysis dose delivery. (ST)Cath patency was significantly longer. In patients with acute renal failure, use of an (ST)Cath minimizes catheter-related morbidity and improves dialysis efficiency compared with conventional femoral catheters.

  5. Acute hydrothorax complicating peritoneal dialysis: a case report

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    Ranganathan Dwarkanathan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute hydrothorax is an uncommon but a well-recognized complication of peritoneal dialysis. No single test is definitive for diagnosis. Although it is not a life-threatening condition, hydrothorax often requires abandonment of peritoneal dialysis. Delay in diagnosis can lead to worsening of the clinical status. Case Presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian woman with lupus, who was successfully treated with temporary peritoneal dialysis 17 years previously, presented with acute dyspnea and a right pleural effusion after recommencing peritoneal dialysis. Investigations eliminated infective, cardiac, and primary respiratory causes. Peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax was suggested by biochemistry, and a pleuroperitoneal leak was definitively confirmed by using a Tc-99 m DTPA (diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid scintigraphy scan. Subsequently, she underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy-guided talc pleurodesis and was able to return successfully to peritoneal dialysis. Conclusion Although our case is not the first report that describes the occurrence of acute hydrothorax in peritoneal dialysis, it is an important condition to recognize for the wider general medical community. Furthermore, this case demonstrates that peritoneal dialysis can be continued with a hydrothorax, provided the underlying cause can be corrected. We review the literature pertaining to the utility and reliability of different diagnostic approaches to hydrothorax.

  6. Laboratory predictors of acute dialysis in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

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    Balestracci, Alejandro; Martin, Sandra Mariel; Toledo, Ismael; Alvarado, Caupolican; Wainsztein, Raquel Eva

    2014-04-01

    Strict guidelines on use of dialysis in children with post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D + HUS) are lacking. This study investigated laboratory predictors of acute dialysis because they are more objective than clinical features. Added to this, given that urine output is also an objective parameter, its ability to predict dialysis requirements was also investigated. Out of 153 D + HUS children reviewed, 88 received dialysis and 65 did not. Initial laboratory parameters and diuresis between both groups were analyzed. Dialyzed patients had higher creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase, hematocrit and leukocyte count; and lower sodium, bicarbonate, and pH compared to non-dialyzed ones. Serum creatinine was the only independent predictor (P = 0.003) of dialysis; therefore, its ability to predict dialysis was estimated on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) staging system. Area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.83-1) with a creatinine cut-off of 1.25 mg/dL (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 76.5%) for children dialysis with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 84.2%. Urine output had the highest accuracy for dialysis prediction (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 95.3%). Initial serum creatinine concentration was the best laboratory predictor of dialysis, but the first 24 h diuresis was even better for this purpose. But, given that serum creatinine is an immediate available parameter, the cut-offs identified may label D + HUS children who will probably need dialysis, prompting early referral to centers able to provide dialysis. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Dialysis Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Cerebrovascular Accident Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Patel, Achint A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Kamat, Sunil; Annapureddy, Narender; Benjo, Alexandre; Thakar, Charuhas V

    2015-11-01

    The epidemiology of dialysis requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) admissions is poorly understood with previous studies being from a single center or year. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to evaluate the yearly incidence trends of AKI-D in hospitalizations with AIS and ICH from 2002 to 2011. We also evaluated the trend of impact of AKI-D on in-hospital mortality and adverse discharge using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity indices. We extracted a total of 3,937,928 and 696,754 hospitalizations with AIS and ICH, respectively. AKI-D occurred in 1.5 and 3.5 per 1000 in AIS and ICH admissions, respectively. Incidence of admissions complicated by AKI-D doubled from 0.9/1000 to 1.7/1000 in AIS and from 2.1/1000 to 4.3/1000 in ICH admissions. In AIS admissions, AKI-D was associated with 30% higher odds of mortality (aOR, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.48; Paccident continues to grow and is associated with increased mortality and adverse discharge. This highlights the need for early diagnosis, better risk stratification, and preparedness for need for complex long-term care in this vulnerable population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. HEPATIC DIALYSIS IN NEONATES WITH ACUTE LIVER FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Stancu, Samantha Mc Kenzie; Cirstoveanu, Catalin Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic dialysis is an artificial extracorporeal liver support device designed to filter out toxins accumulated in patients with acute liver failure. Although it is a rare entity encountered in neonates, acute liver failure is a highly fatal condition, with seventy percent resulting in mortality without liver transplantation. Scientific data on extracorporeal liver support concerning the pediatric population is scarce in literature. Artificial extracorporeal liver support devices in the form ...

  9. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

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    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  10. Diabetic patients treated with dialysis: complications and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Watt, T

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of complications, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the influence of beliefs about control over health in diabetic dialysis patients. METHODS: Of 53 eligible diabetic patients on chronic dialysis during January 2004...... in our clinic, 38 (76%) completed a kidney-specific (Kidney Disease Quality of Life) and a generic (SF-36) questionnaire and were characterised in terms of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications. Matched groups of non-diabetic dialysis patients (n = 40) and diabetic patients with a long...... population (47 +/- 19). The diabetic dialysis patients had similar levels of kidney-specific quality of life and mental health compared with the control groups. Reduced physical health was predicted by the presence of end-stage renal disease, diabetes and short time spent in education. Among the diabetic...

  11. Acute renal failure requiring dialysis--a 5 year series.

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    Hooi, L S

    1997-09-01

    A retrospective review of 246 patients with established acute renal failure (ARF) needing dialysis from 1990-1994 is reported from Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru. Peritoneal dialysis was more commonly used than haemodialysis or haemofiltration. Patients on mechanical ventilation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) who were hypercatabolic and fluid overloaded were treated with haemofiltration. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 1.5:1. The majority were Malays (61.4%). Most patients were from the district of Johor Bahru, but 41.5% were from other districts in the Johor state. The mean age was 47.1 years (SD 18.2). The ARF was caused by acute tubular necrosis in 55.3%, post-renal obstruction in 22.8%, nephrotoxins in 5.7% and other causes in 16.2%. The proportions of patients referred from the medical, surgical and obstetric and gynaecology units were 50.8%, 45.5% and 3.7% respectively. The mortality rate was 48%. Patients with established ARF should be dialysed early as they tolerate uraemia poorly. Prevention is by prompt treatment of patients with sepsis, avoidance of hypovolaemia and nephrotoxic drugs.

  12. The medical director and quality requirements in the dialysis facility.

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    Schiller, Brigitte

    2015-03-06

    Four decades after the successful implementation of the ESRD program currently providing life-saving dialysis therapy to >430,000 patients, the definitions of and demands for a high-quality program have evolved and increased at the same time. Through substantial technological advances ESRD care improved, with a predominant focus on the technical aspects of care and the introduction of medications such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and active vitamin D for anemia and bone disease management. Despite many advances, the size of the program and the increasingly older and multimorbid patient population have contributed to continuing challenges for providing consistently high-quality care. Medicare's Final Rule of the Conditions for Coverage (April 2008) define the medical director of the dialysis center as the leader of the interdisciplinary team and the person ultimately accountable for quality, safety, and care provided in the center. Knowledge and active leadership with a hands-on approach in the quality assessment and performance improvement process (QAPI) is essential for the achievement of high-quality outcomes in dialysis centers. A collaborative approach between the dialysis provider and medical director is required to optimize outcomes and deliver evidence-based quality care. In 2011 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services introduced a pay-for-performance program-the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP)- with yearly varying quality metrics that result in payment reductions in subsequent years when targets are not achieved during the performance period. Success with the QIP requires a clear understanding of the structure, metrics, and scoring methods. Information on achievement and nonachievement is publicly available, both in facilities (through the facility performance score card) and on public websites (including Medicare's Dialysis Facility Compare). By assuming the leadership role in the quality program of dialysis facilities, the medical

  13. Quality of life on chronic dialysis: comparison between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Halabi, Georges; Saudan, Patrick; Perneger, Thomas; Feldman, Harold I.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Wauters, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background. Quality of life (QOL) assessment in patients on chronic haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) has only rarely been carried out with the generic Euroqol-5D® questionnaire. Methods. All chronic HD and PD patients in the 19 centres of western Switzerland were requested to fill in the validated Euroqol-5D® generic QOL questionnaire, assessing health status in five dimensions and on a visual analogue scale, allowing computation of a predicted QOL value, to be compared with the...

  14. Economics of dialysis dependence following renal replacement therapy for critically ill acute kidney injury patients.

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    Ethgen, Olivier; Schneider, Antoine G; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A

    2015-01-01

    The obective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing intermittent with continuous renal replacement therapy (IRRT versus CRRT) as initial therapy for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Assuming some patients would potentially be eligible for either modality, we modeled life year gained, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs for a cohort of 1000 IRRT patients and a cohort of 1000 CRRT patients. We used a 1-year, 5-year and a lifetime horizon. A Markov model with two health states for AKI survivors was designed: dialysis dependence and dialysis independence. We applied Weibull regression from published estimates to fit survival curves for CRRT and IRRT patients and to fit the proportion of dialysis dependence among CRRT and IRRT survivors. We then applied a risk ratio reported in a large retrospective cohort study to the fitted CRRT estimates in order to determine the proportion of dialysis dependence for IRRT survivors. We conducted sensitivity analyses based on a range of differences for daily implementation cost between CRRT and IRRT (base case: CRRT day $632 more expensive than IRRT day; range from $200 to $1000) and a range of risk ratios for dialysis dependence for CRRT as compared with IRRT (from 0.65 to 0.95; base case: 0.80). Continuous renal replacement therapy was associated with a marginally greater gain in QALY as compared with IRRT (1.093 versus 1.078). Despite higher upfront costs for CRRT in the ICU ($4046 for CRRT versus $1423 for IRRT in average), the 5-year total cost including the cost of dialysis dependence was lower for CRRT ($37 780 for CRRT versus $39 448 for IRRT on average). The base case incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed that CRRT dominated IRRT. This dominance was confirmed by extensive sensitivity analysis. Initial CRRT is cost-effective compared with initial IRRT by reducing the rate of long-term dialysis dependence among critically ill AKI

  15. Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in Denmark 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury is a severe illness associated with poor prognosis. However, information pertaining to incidence rates and prevalence of risk factors remains limited in spite of increasing focus. We evaluate time trends of incidence rates and changing patterns...... in prevalence of comorbidities, concurrent medication, and other risk factors in nationwide retrospective cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury were identified between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2012. By cross-referencing data from national...... administrative registries, the association of changing patterns in dialysis treatment, comorbidity, concurrent medication and demographics with incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 18,561 adult patients with dialysis-requiring AKI were identified between 2000...

  16. Acute Stylet Peritoneal Dialysis in Acute Kidney Injury: The Soul Never Dies.

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    D'Souza, Amith Vijay Leon; Raveendran, Nishad; Tanwar, Rajendra Singh; Kimmatkar, Piyush; Beniwal, Pankaj; Agarwal, Dhananjai; Vinay, Vinay

    2017-07-01

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) has a significant mortality rate. In developing countries, mortality due to AKI is high due to lack of access to dialysis facilities and related cost. The main goal of International Society of Nephrology (ISN) 0 by 25 initiative is to eliminate deaths due to AKI. Peritoneal dialysis is an underutilized modality in such a scenario. The aim of this study was to look into effectiveness of starting Acute stylet Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) in a resource constraint settings. In this prospective study conducted over a year, patients with AKI due to various aetiologies were subjected to Acute stylet PD. The clinical Outcome, demographic, biochemical and treatment data was assessed. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. A total of 79 (41 anuric, 33 oliguric and 5 nonoliguric) patients were included in the study. Sepsis was the predominant cause of AKI. Recovery was seen in 34% of patients. Patients with relatively preserved urine output recovered with PD in comparison to the anuric patients (p value <0.01). 58% of patients, majority of whom were anuric needed Hemodialysis (HD) in due course (7 ± 3 days) of time. The mortality in our study was 7.5%. Acute stylet PD can be considered as a modality of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) to treat a selected (oliguric, nonoliguric) group of AKI patients and as a bridge therapy for HD in those AKI patients in anuria.

  17. Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a machine. It is sometimes called an artificial kidney. You usually go to a special clinic for treatments several times a week. Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of your abdomen, called the peritoneal membrane, to filter your blood. NIH: National Institute of ...

  18. Metformin-associated risk of acute dialysis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidelines governing anti-diabetic medications increasingly advocate metformin as first-line therapy in all patients with type 2 diabetes. However, metformin could be associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute dialysis and lactate acidosis in marginal patients. In a...

  19. Acute pancreatitis in peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: risk, clinical course, outcome, and possible aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; van Westerloo, D. J.; van Dorp, W. T.; Dekker, W.; Ferwerda, J.; Tytgat, G. N.; Schut, N. H.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that the incidence of acute pancreatitis in patients with end stage renal failure is increased. To assess the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on long term peritoneal dialysis and long term haemodialysis compared with the general population, to evaluate its clinical

  20. Pleuroperitoneal Leak: An Unusual Cause of Acute Shortness of Breath in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

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    D. P. Ramaema

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pleuroperitoneal leak is an uncommon complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, with an estimated incidence of 1.6%. It should be suspected in these patients when they present with recurrent unilateral pleural effusions and/or acute shortness of breath following dialysate infusion. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 25-year-old female patient who had acute hydrothorax as a result of pleuroperitoneal leak complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, which was confirmed on peritoneal scintigraphy. Conclusion. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients presenting with acute shortness of breath and/or recurrent unilateral pleural effusion should be investigated with peritoneal scintigraphy to exclude pleuroperitoneal leak.

  1. Quality of life on chronic dialysis: comparison between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

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    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Halabi, Georges; Saudan, Patrick; Perneger, Thomas; Feldman, Harold I; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Wauters, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Quality of life (QOL) assessment in patients on chronic haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) has only rarely been carried out with the generic Euroqol-5D questionnaire. All chronic HD and PD patients in the 19 centres of western Switzerland were requested to fill in the validated Euroqol-5D generic QOL questionnaire, assessing health status in five dimensions and on a visual analogue scale, allowing computation of a predicted QOL value, to be compared with the value measured on the visual analogue scale. Of the 558 questionnaires distributed to chronic HD patients, 455 were returned (response rate 82%). Fifty of 64 PD patients (78%) returned the questionnaire. The two groups were similar in age, gender and duration of dialysis treatment. Mean QOL was rated at 60+/-18% for HD and 61+/-19% for PD, for a mean predicted QOL value of 62+/-30 and 58+/-32% respectively. Results of the five dimensions were similar in both groups, except for a greater restriction in usual activities for PD patients (P = 0.007). The highest scores were recorded for self-care, with 71% HD and 74% PD patients reporting no limitation, and the lowest scores for usual activities, with 14% HD and 23% PD patients reporting severe limitation. Experiencing pain/discomfort (for HD and PD) or anxiety/depression (for PD) had the highest impact on QOL. QOL was equally diminished in HD and PD patients. The questionnaire was well accepted and performed well. Improvement could be achievable in both groups if pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression could be more effectively treated.

  2. [10 years of external quality assurance in dialysis in Germany: Results and future prospects].

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    Büchtemann, Dorothea; Meinhold, Stefan; Follert, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In 2006, the Federal Joint Committee introduced a quality assurance programme for ambulatory dialysis treatment in Germany. Regarding the impact of chronic dialysis treatment on the quality of life of patients and on health care costs, quality assurance in dialysis is considered highly relevant. The directive on Quality Assurance in Dialysis (QSD-RL) established an external quality assurance programme on the basis of the assessment of certain quality parameters combined with an internal quality management system based on benchmarking parameters in all dialysis practices and centres. Data on quality parameters are collected and analysed quarterly. Regional associations of statutory health insurance physicians take responsibility for quality improvement measures and sanctions. This article aims to provide an overview of the development of quality parameters from 2008 to 2015. We analysed the summarised annual quality reports published on the website of the Federal Joint Committee between 2009 and 2016. We present results on the so-called core quality parameters duration and frequency of dialysis sessions (both for haemodialysis patients), wKt/V for peritoneal dialysis patients, and percentage of haemodialysis patients with central venous catheters which has only been measured since 2014. In 2015, 92,000 patients received outpatient dialysis. Between 2008 and 2015, the results for the core quality parameters duration and frequency of haemodialysis improved while the results for wKt/V seemingly show an unfavourable trend. The percentage of patients with central venous catheters appears to be quite high, and thus indicates that there is potential for quality improvement. For the future, the Federal Joint Committee has resolved to merge the quality assurance programmes in dialysis and in kidney transplantation into a newly designed programme that has the potential to follow patients through all stages and kinds of renal replacement therapy and to focus on further aspects

  3. Acute Peritonitis Caused by Propionibacterium Acnes in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

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    Basic-Jukic Nikolina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive human skin commensal that is involved in the pathogenesis of acne and prefers anaerobic growth conditions. It has been considered as a low virulence pathogen in different clinical conditions. We present the case of acute peritonitis caused by Propionibacterium acnes in a peritoneal dialysis patient.

  4. Inpatient Dialysis Unit Project Development: Redesigning Acute Hemodialysis Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Executive leaders of an acute care hospital performed a market and financial analysis, and created a business plan to establish an inpatient hemodialysis unit operated by the hospital to provide safe, high-quality, evidence-based care to the population of individuals experiencing end stage renal disease (ESRD) within the community. The business plan included a SWOT (Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities - Threats) analysis to assess advantages of the hospital providing inpatient hemodialysis services versus outsourcing the services with a contracted agency. The results of the project were a newly constructed tandem hemodialysis room and an operational plan with clearly defined key performance indicators, process improvement initiatives, and financial goals. This article provides an overview of essential components of a business plan to guide the establishment of an inpatient hemodialysis unit. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  5. A comparison of the quality of life of the patients undergoing hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis and its correlation to the quality of dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolamir Atapour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, there has been a steady increase in the number of patients requiring dialysis. However, no consensus exists between choosing either hemodialysis (HD or peritoneal dialysis (PD as the preferred method of dialysis for patients. In this study, we have compared the quality of life of the patients undergoing either HD or PD. This cross-sectional study was performed in the dialysis center of the Noor and Saint Ali Asghar University Hospital in Isfahan, Iran in 2012. Forty-six patients who underwent PD (28 males and 18 females and 46 similar patients undergoing HD (26 males and 20 females were compared. A standardized Persian version of the short form-36 (SF-36 tool was used to assess the quality of life and to assess the quality of dialysis weekly Kt/V in patients undergoing PD and single random Kt/V sampling in HD patients were assessed. Patients undergoing PD reported higher scores in physical functioning. The lowest scores in both groups were reported in mental health section. In physical functioning section, physical role functioning section and overall score of the SF-36 tool, PD patients reported significantly higher scores compared to the HD patients (P <0.05. There was no significant difference between the qualities of the dialysis in the two patient groups. Aspects of quality of life such as physical functioning, physical role functioning, bodily pain, general health perceptions, and overall score were significantly different between the two groups. If these results are substantiated by subsequent longitudinal studies, then the choice of dialysis could be better guided in patients by the quality of life issues.

  6. Quality Measures for Dialysis: Time for a Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Alan S

    2016-02-05

    Recent federal legislation establishes a merit-based incentive payment system for physicians, with a scorecard for each professional. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services evaluate quality of care with clinical performance measures and have used these metrics for public reporting and payment to dialysis facilities. Similar metrics may be used for the future merit-based incentive payment system. In nephrology, most clinical performance measures measure processes and intermediate outcomes of care. These metrics were developed from population studies of best practice and do not identify opportunities for individualizing care on the basis of patient characteristics and individual goals of treatment. The In-Center Hemodialysis (ICH) Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey examines patients' perception of care and has entered the arena to evaluate quality of care. A balanced scorecard of quality performance should include three elements: population-based best clinical practice, patient perceptions, and individually crafted patient goals of care. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury among Hospitalized Adults with Documented Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Nationwide Inpatient Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Patel, Achint; Simoes, Priya K; Yacoub, Rabi; Annapureddy, Narender; Kamat, Sunil; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Perumalswami, Ponni; Branch, Andrea; Coca, Steven G; Wyatt, Christina M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may cause kidney injury, particularly in the setting of cryoglobulinemia or cirrhosis; however, few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of acute kidney injury in patients with HCV. We aimed to describe national temporal trends of incidence and impact of severe AKI requiring renal replacement (“dialysis-requiring AKI”) in hospitalized adults with HCV. We extracted our study cohort from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project using data from 2004–2012. We defined HCV and dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury based on previously validated ICD-9-CM codes. We analyzed temporal changes in the proportion of hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring AKI and utilized survey multivariable logistic regression models to estimate its impact on in-hospital mortality. We identified a total of 4,603,718 adult hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of HCV from 2004–2012, of which 51,434 (1.12%) were complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury increased significantly from 0.86% in 2004 to 1.28% in 2012. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury vs. those without (27.38% vs. 2.95%; adjusted odds ratio 2.09, 95% Confidence Interval 1.74–2.51). The proportion of HCV hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury increased significantly between 2004–2012. Similar to observations in the general population, dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury was associated with a two-fold increase in odds of in-hospital mortality in adults with HCV. These results highlight the burden of acute kidney injury in hospitalized adults with HCV infection. PMID:26189719

  8. Renal failure requiring dialysis complicating slow continuous ultrafiltration in acute heart failure: importance of systolic perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Edgard; Patarroyo, Maria; Taliercio, Jonathan J; Starling, Randall C; Nally, Joseph V; Tang, W H Wilson; Demirjian, Sevag

    2015-02-01

    Recent reports have raised concerns regarding renal outcomes in patients with decompensated acute heart failure (HF) treated with slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF). The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for renal failure (RF) requiring dialysis in patients with acute HF initiated on SCUF. We studied 63 consecutive patients with acute HF who required SCUF because of congestion refractory to hemodynamically guided intensive medical therapy. Median serum creatinine at SCUF initiation was higher in patients who developed RF requiring dialysis [2.5 (interquartile range 1.8-3.3) vs 1.6 (1.2-2.3) mg/dL; P acute HF initiated on SCUF, onset of RF requiring dialysis is associated with high mortality. Systolic perfusion pressure which incorporates both perfusion and venous congestion parameters may present a modifiable risk factor for worsening RF during SCUF in acute HF patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion for the management of pediatric acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Maria; Price, Neil; Ronaldson, Jane; Prestidge, Chanel; Wong, William; Kara, Tonya

    2016-02-01

    Acute pediatric dialysis is provided by a single center in New Zealand. Most acute dialysis in our center is performed in the under 5 age group. The advantage of using peritoneal dialysis (PD) in these children is the ability to perform continuous renal replacement therapy without always requiring an ICU setting, avoiding central venous access and promoting greater cardiovascular stability. The disadvantage of PD in the acute setting includes the requirement for immediate use and the potential for early leaks due to peritoneal disruption with resulting delayed use and restricted volumes. There is a growing trend toward minimally invasive surgery and the laparoscopic method allows this. Surgeons at this center have been using a laparoscopic technique since 2005. We performed a 10-year review of acute PD at the Starship Hospital from 2003 to 2013. Data on 102 children who met the criteria were collected. These 102 children had 113 acute PD catheters. The two groups were comparable in terms of age and reason for presentation. The median age of the laparoscopic group was 2 years (interquartile range [IQR] 6) and the open group was 3 years (IQR 3.2). The predominant diagnosis for both groups was hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) accounting for 71% of laparoscopic cases, and 72% of open cases. The incidence of infection was 0% versus 7% in the laparoscopic versus open approach. Ten percent of patients required further manipulation of the catheter after initial insertion in the laparoscopic group, compared with 11% in the open approach. Conversion to hemodialysis (HD) due to catheter-related complications was seen in 10% of laparoscopic cases and 9% of the open cases. Dialysate fluid leak was noted in 26% in the laparoscopic group compared with 11% in the open group (p = 0.08). Anesthesia time is longer in the laparoscopic group (p = 0.008). We found no significant differences in complication rates between laparoscopic and open surgical approaches regarding acute PD

  10. Quality of Life and Physical Function in Older Patients on Dialysis: A Comparison of Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis with Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Osasuyi U; Brown, Edwina A; Johansson, Lina; Huson, Les; Smee, Joanna; Maxwell, Alexander P; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-03-07

    In-center hemodialysis (HD) is often the default dialysis modality for older patients. Few centers use assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD), which enables treatment at home. This observational study compared quality of life (QoL) and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and HD. Patients on assisted PD who were >60 years old and on dialysis for >3 months were recruited and matched to patients on HD (needing hospital transport) by age, sex, diabetes, dialysis vintage, ethnicity, and index of deprivation. Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale. QoL assessments included Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form-12, Palliative Outcomes Symptom Scale (renal), Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, and Renal Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RTSQ). Physical function was evaluated by Barthel Score and timed up and go test. In total, 251 patients (129 PD and 122 HD) were recruited. In unadjusted analysis, patients on assisted PD had a higher prevalence of possible depression (HADS>8; PD=38.8%; HD=23.8%; P=0.05) and higher HADS depression score (median: PD=6; HD=5; P=0.05) but higher RTSQ scores (median: PD=55; HD=51; Pdialysis vintage, and frailty, assisted PD continued to be associated with higher RTSQ scores (P=0.04) but not with other QoL measures. There are no differences in measures of QoL and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and comparable patients on HD, except for treatment satisfaction, which is higher in patients on PD. Assisted PD should be considered as an alternative to HD for older patients, allowing them to make their preferred choices. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Patient-Centered Dialysis Care: Depression, Pain, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable advancements have been made in the provision of chronic dialysis therapy since its inception decades ago. A series of studies inform current dialysis dosing recommendations, while advancements in strategies to treat mineral and bone disease, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances, and anemia have facilitated the management of these well-recognized complications of ESRD. The collective result has been a model of chronic dialysis care focused principally on the achievement of metabolic and dialysis-related targets. In fact, guidelines such as the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative put forth by the National Kidney Foundation recommend metrics that characterize successful dialysis care, including the attainment of specific solute clearance targets; maintenance of hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid hormone levels within target ranges; and the preferred use of primary arteriovenous fistulae for vascular access. This focus on serologic and dialysis-specific outcomes has helped renal providers manage the biochemical effects related to the loss of kidney function and has reduced ESRD-related morbidity and mortality. Yet, absent from this model of care is an emphasis on the treatment of bothersome symptoms and the impact of such treatment on quality of life (QOL). Among the many symptoms that affect patients on chronic dialysis, depression and pain are particularly common, strongly associated with decrements in QOL, and potentially treatable. This review discusses key research findings and unanswered questions pertaining to the prevalence, significance, and treatment of depression and pain and the effect of such treatment on QOL in patients dependent on chronic dialysis, with the broad goal of incorporating symptom management strategies into a paradigm of patient-centered dialysis care. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Quality of life in patients treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis: what are the important determinants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, B; Johnson, J A; Taub, K; Mortis, G; Ghali, W A; Donaldson, C

    2003-11-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have significant impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In part, this is due to the intrusiveness of the treatment (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) that is required. It is unclear whether hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is associated with a higher HRQOL. 192 prevalent patients who self-selected treatment with hemodialysis (either in-center, satellite or home/self-care hemodialysis) or peritoneal dialysis were studied to determine whether treatment with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is associated with a higher HRQOL. Demographic, laboratory and clinical information (including the presence of comorbid conditions using the Charlson comorbidity index) was assessed at baseline. The outcome of interest was HRQOL, which was measured using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF), the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and the EuroQol EQ-5D at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference in HRQOL scores for the SF-36, the EQ-5D and for 9 of 11 KDQOL dimensions for patients treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis at baseline. As expected, HRQOL was significantly lower for patients who had more comorbid disease, required assistance with their daily care, and for patients with less than a grade 12 education. After controlling for the effect of other important variables, HRQOL (as measured by the EQ-5D visual analog or index scores) did not differ between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. HRQOL was stable over time, both for patients who started on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. There is no significant difference in HRQOL for prevalent ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. It will be important to determine if this finding holds true for incident patients treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

  13. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Theofilou, Paraskevi

    2011-01-01

    Background “Does the type of dialysis treatment make a difference to the quality of life (QoL) and mental health of renal patients in Athens?” The study investigated the differences in 84 in-center hemodialysis (HD) and 60 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD) patients. Methods Patient-reported assessments included: WHOQOL-BREF inventory of World Health Organization, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) of Goldberg, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studie...

  14. Peritoneal Dialysis in Childhood Acute Kidney Injury: Experience in Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Asinobi, Adanze Onyenonachi; Ogunkunle, Oluwatoyin Olufunmilayo; Yusuf, Bamidele Nurudeen; Ojo, Olalekan Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: The choices for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in childhood acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited in low-resource settings. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) appears to be the most practical modality for RRT in young children with AKI in such settings. Data from sub-Saharan Africa on the use of PD in childhood AKI are few. ♦ Methods: We performed a retrospective study of children who underwent PD for AKI at a tertiary-care hospital in southwest Nigeria from February 2004 to March 2011 (85 months). ♦ Results: The study included 27 children (55.6% female). Mean age was 3.1 ± 2.6 years, with the youngest being 7 days, and the oldest, 9 years. The causes of AKI were intravascular hemolysis (n = 11), septicemia (n = 8), acute glomerulonephritis (n = 3), gastroenteritis (n = 3), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 2). Peritoneal dialysis was performed manually using percutaneous or adapted catheters. Duration of PD ranged from 6 hours to 12 days (mean: 5.0 ± 3.3 days). The main complications were peritonitis (n = 10), pericatheter leakage (n = 9), and catheter outflow obstruction (n = 5). Of the 27 patients, 19 (70%) survived till discharge. ♦ Conclusions: In low-resource settings, PD can be successfully performed for the management of childhood AKI. In our hospital, the use of adapted catheters may have contributed to the high complication rates. Peritoneal dialysis should be promoted for the management of childhood AKI in low-resource settings, and access to percutaneous or Tenckhoff catheters, dialysis fluid, and automated PD should be increased. PMID:22550119

  15. Depression, anxiety and stress among patients with dialysis and the association with quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujang, Mohamad A; Musa, Ramli; Liu, Wen J; Chew, Thian F; Lim, Christopher T S; Morad, Zaki

    2015-12-01

    Studies addressing the nature of relationship between psychological symptoms and quality of life among dialysis patients in Malaysia are scarce. Hence, this study is intended to investigate the association between psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety and stress on the quality of life in dialysis patients. A cross sectional multicentre study was conducted from May to October 2012 at 15 centres that provide haemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis. Apart from socio-demographic profile data collection, WHOQOL-BREF and DASS21 questionnaires were administered to study subjects. All three psychological symptoms had significant impact on quality of life domains of physical health, psychological health, social impact, perceived environment and overall quality of life. These findings suggest that subjects with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress had poorer quality of life than those without, highlighting the negative impact of psychological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversal of acute renal injury after peritoneal dialysis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Êmille Gedoz Guiot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Guiot E.G., Guimarães-Okamoto P.T.C., Chacar F.C., Gomide P., Lourenço M.L.G. & Melchert A. [Reversal of acute renal injury after peritoneal dialysis in a dog.] Reversão da injúria renal aguda após diálise peritoneal em cão. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:153-157, 2015. Departamento de Clínica Cirúrgica de Pequenos Animais, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, UnespBotucatu, Distrito de Ribião Júnior, s/n, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brasil. E-mail: tatiana@fmvz.unesp.br Acute renal injury is characterized by a sudden injury in renal parenchyma that causes loss in its excretory, metabolic and endocrine function. The dialysis therapy has been instituted in the small animal clinic aimed at removing metabolic waste and correcting electrolyte disturbances of renal dysfunction. Peritoneal dialysis is a therapy based on the use of the peritoneum as a semipermeable membrane through which there is exchange of solutes and fluid between blood from the peritoneal capillaries and the dialysis solution. We describe a case of acute kidney injury refractory to drug therapy in a canine female mixed-breed, with 13 years old. The patient was presenting anorexia, vomiting, decubitus and anuria, had a history of prolonged treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, was azotemic and in metabolic acidosis. Anuria persisted after drug therapy (volume restoration, chemical and osmotic diuresis and renal vasodilation then starting to peritoneal dialysis (PD. Were performed three cycles of PD, during the second cycle patient left anuria and at the end of the third cycle showed clinical improvement, reduction of azotemia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. PD has shown satisfactory results, reversing the anuria, reducing azotemia and electrolyte disturbances, thereby providing clinical improvement.

  17. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system in acute-on-chronic liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañares, Rafael; Nevens, Frederik; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2013-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a frequent cause of death in cirrhosis. Albumin dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) decreases retained substances and improves hemodynamics and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, its survival impact is unknown. In all, 189...... sessions were scheduled. The main endpoint was 28-day ITT and PP survival. There were no significant differences at inclusion, although the proportion of patients with Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) score over 20 points and with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) as a precipitating event...

  18. Measuring patient experience in dialysis: a new paradigm of quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M; Brunelli, Steven M; Subramanian, Lalita; Tentori, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    Patients' experience of care (PEC) is as an important dimension in quality of care. As a distinct entity from patient satisfaction and patient health-related quality of life, PEC is defined as patients' perceptions of the range of interactions they have with the health care system, including care from providers, facilities, and health plans. While traditionally PEC may be ascertained via informal assessments, in recent years, especially in the United States, there has been a shift towards standardized surveillance of PEC amongst dialysis patients in order to: (1) set a normative expectation regarding the importance of PEC; (2) standardize the components of patients' experience that are assessed to minimize potential "blind spots"; (3) provide a direct "voice" to the patient in communicating perceptions of their care; (4) facilitate comparisons of quality across facilities; and (5) broaden accountability for PEC to the entire multidisciplinary dialysis care team. In this review, we will discuss the significance of PEC as a quality of care metric in dialysis patients; the history of PEC assessment across other health care arenas; the development of the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Provider and Systems survey as a means to standardize PEC assessment among US dialysis patients; experiences in PEC assessment across international dialysis populations; and future areas of research needed to refine the ascertainment of PEC and its impact upon patient outcomes.

  19. Acute dialysis-associated peritonitis in children with D+ hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, Marta; Balestracci, Alejandro; García Chervo, Laura; Steinbrun, Silvina; Delgado, Norma; Briones, Liliana

    2012-04-01

    Acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred therapy for renal replacement in children with post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS), but peritonitis remains a frequent complication of this procedure. We reviewed data from 149 patients with D+ HUS who had undergone acute PD with the aim of determining the prevalence and risk factors for the development of peritonitis. A total of 36 patients (24.2%) presented peritonitis. The median onset of peritonitis manifestations was 6 (range 2-18) days after the initiation of dialysis treatment, and Gram-positive microorganisms were the predominant bacterial type isolated (15/36 patients). The patients were divided into two groups: with or without peritonitis, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that a longer duration of the oligoanuric period, more days of dialysis, catheter replacement, stay in the intensive care unit, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated to the development of peritonitis. The multivariate analysis, controlled by duration of PD, identified the following independent risk factors for peritonitis: catheter replacement [p = 0.037, odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.73], stay in intensive care unit (p = 0.0001, OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.65-4.19), and hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.0076, OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.91). Based on these findings, we conclude that the optimization of the aseptic technique during catheter manipulation and early nutritional support are targets for the prevention of peritonitis, especially in critically ill patients.

  20. Acute pancreatitis in peritoneal dialysis: a case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Farhabanu; Lim, Chung Sim; Mangena, Lendaba; Guest, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal pain with a discoloured dialysate in a patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is usually attributed to infective peritonitis. Although acute pancreatitis (AP) is not usually a complication of end-stage renal disease, some studies suggest an increased risk especially in patients on PD. We report a case of idiopathic AP in a 41-year-old female on PD who presented with abdominal pain, fever, vomiting and a clear dark dialysate. Initial diagnosis of PD-associated infective peritonitis was made but dialysate cultures proved negative. Serum amylase showed a mild rise and computed tomography revealed necrotising pancreatitis. No common risk factors for AP were identified and she was successfully treated with conservative therapy. A literature review was carried out using a PubMed search with the words 'acute pancreatitis and peritoneal dialysis'. The literature search found a total of 94 cases of AP in the setting of PD. In more than a quarter, no cause for AP was found. Serum amylase was normal in 12.8% of episodes. Complications developed in 25 cases, and 28 patients died from the condition. Therefore, AP can be a rare, but serious complication of PD with a high mortality and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in a PD patient.

  1. Health-related quality of life and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østhus Tone Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tests the hypotheses that health-related quality of life (HRQOL in prevalent dialysis patients with diabetes is lower than in dialysis patients without diabetes, and is at least as poor as diabetic patients with another severe complication, i.e. foot ulcers. This study also explores the mortality risk associated with diabetes in dialysis patients. Methods HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, in a cross-sectional study of 301 prevalent dialysis patients (26% with diabetes, and compared with diabetic patients not on dialysis (n = 221, diabetic patients with foot ulcers (n = 127, and a sample of the general population (n = 5903. Mortality risk was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results Self-assessed vitality, general and mental health, and physical function were significantly lower in dialysis patients with diabetes than in those without. Vitality (p = 0.011 and general health (p Conclusions Physical aspects of HRQOL were perceived very low in dialysis patients with diabetes, and lower than in other dialysis patients and diabetic patients without dialysis. Mental aspects predicted mortality in dialysis patients with diabetes. Increased awareness and measures to assist physical function impairment may be particularly important in diabetes patients on dialysis.

  2. Successful treatment of acute renal failure secondary to complicated infective endocarditis by peritoneal dialysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osail, Aisha M; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim M; Al-Abdulwahab, Abdullah A; Alhajri, Sarah M; Al-Osail, Emad M; Al-Hwiesh, Abdullah K; Al-Muhanna, Fahad A

    2017-09-07

    Infective endocarditis is one of the most common infections among intravenous drug addicts. Its complications can affect many systems, and these can include acute renal failure. There is a scarcity of cases in the literature related to acute renal failure secondary to infective endocarditis treated with peritoneal dialysis. In this paper, the case of a 48-year-old Saudi male is reported, who presented with features suggestive of infective endocarditis and who developed acute kidney injury that was treated successfully with high tidal volume automated peritoneal dialysis. To our knowledge, this is the second report of such an association in the literature. A 48-year-old Saudi gentleman diagnosed to have a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and hepatitis C infection for the last 9 years, presented to the emergency department with a history of fever of 2 days' duration. On examination: his temperature = 41 °C, there was clubbing of the fingers bilaterally and a pansystolic murmur in the left parasternal area. The results of the blood cultures and echocardiogram were supportive of the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, and the patient subsequently developed acute kidney injury, and his creatinine reached 5.2 mg/dl, a level for which dialysis is essential for the patient to survive. High tidal volume automated peritoneal dialysis is highly effective as a renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure secondary to infective endocarditis if no contraindication is present.

  3. Effects of Higher Quality of Care on Initiation of Long-term Dialysis in Patients With CKD and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Fukuma, Shingo; Shimizu, Sayaka; Norton, Edward C; Tu, Yu-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Mei-Ru; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-11-01

    The burden of diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individuals and society is increasing, shifting attention toward improving the quality of care for patients with CKD and diabetes. We assessed the quality of CKD care and its association with long-term dialysis, acute kidney injury (AKI), and death. Retrospective cohort study (2004-2011). Adults in Taiwan with incident CKD enrolled in the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients. 3 CKD-care quality indicators based on medical and pharmacy claims data were studied: prescription of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, testing for proteinuria, and nutritional guidance. Each was examined individually, and all were summed into an overall quality score. The primary outcome was initiation of long-term dialysis therapy. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization due to AKI and death from any cause. Using instrumental variables related to the quality indicators to minimize both unmeasured and measured confounding, we fit a 2-stage residual inclusion model to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for each outcome. Among the 63,260 patients enrolled, 43.9% were prescribed renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, 60.6% were tested for proteinuria, and 13.4% received nutritional guidance. During a median follow-up of 37.9 months, 1,471 patients started long-term dialysis therapy, 2,739 patients were hospitalized due to AKI, and 4,407 patients died. Higher overall quality scores were associated with lower hazards for long-term dialysis in instrumental variable analyses (HR of 0.62 [95% CI, 0.40-0.98] per 1-point greater score) and hospitalization due to AKI (HR of 0.69 [95% CI, 0.50-0.96] per 1-point greater score). The hazard for all-cause death was nonsignificantly lower (HR of 0.80 [95% CI, 0.62-1.03] per 1-point greater score). Potential misclassification and uncontrolled confounding by indication. Our findings suggest potential opportunities to improve long-term outcomes among patients with diabetes and CKD by improving the quality

  4. Trends in One-Year Outcomes of Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in Denmark 2005-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with substantial mortality and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite considerable growth in incidence of severe AKI, information pertaining to trends in outcomes remains limited. We evaluated time trends in one year .......78-0.97, p = 0.010) for ESRD and death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide retrospective study on time trends in one year outcomes following dialysis-requiring AKI, risk of all-cause mortality and ESRD decreased over a period of 8 years.......BACKGROUND: Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with substantial mortality and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite considerable growth in incidence of severe AKI, information pertaining to trends in outcomes remains limited. We evaluated time trends in one year...

  5. Illness perceptions in dialysis patients and their association with quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, L.; Thong, M.; Dekker, F.W.; Boeschoten, E.W.; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.; Weinman, J.; Kaptein, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored illness perceptions of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on both haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment, and their associations with quality of life. Leventhal's self-regulation model (SRM) was used as a theoretical framework. Illness perceptions

  6. [The manner of care, self care and quality of life dialysis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricka, Regula; Evers, Georges C

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe specific strategies used by ESRD patients to manage their illness on their own behalf in order to attain their health goals, promote personal development and well-being. A representative sample of 178 patients on dialysis of the Swiss German-speaking population was selected. The participants were treated in-centre on hemodialysis (HD) or had ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Data collection procedure for specific self-care activities was structured interviews. Self-care capabilities were measured with the ASA-scale and well-being was rated on the Cantril's ladder. Both patient groups were comparable on demographics, severity of illness except for dialysis duration, social support and general self-care capabilities. Both patient groups scored their subjective well-being 7 or higher on a scale of 10. There was a significant positive correlation between amount of dialysis self-care and subjective well-being. There was no difference in effectiveness of dialysis self-care between in-centre HD and CAPD patients. The results demonstrate that patients in this study perform a substantial amount of self-care and perceive their subjective well-being as good. These findings indicate that treatment modalities both of HD and CAPD provide equal opportunities for quality of life if patient selection is based on history of renal disease, available social support and self-care capabilities.

  7. [Peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure: Rediscovery of an old modality of renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issad, Belkacem; Rostoker, Guy; Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert

    2016-07-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often evolves in a context of multiple organ failure, which explains the high mortality rate and increase treatment needs. Among, two modalities of renal replacement therapy, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first modality used for the treatment of ARF in the 1950s. Today, while PD is generalized for chronic renal failure treatment, its use in the ICU is limited, particularly, due to the advent of new hemodialysis techniques and the development of continuous replacement therapy. Recently, a renewed interest in the use of PD in patients with ARF has manifested in several emerging countries (Brazil, Vietnam). A systematic review in 2013 showed a similar mortality in ARF patients having PD (58%) and those treated by hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration/hemofiltration (56.1%). In the International society of peritoneal dialysis (ISPD)'s guideline (2013), PD may be used in adult ARF as the other blood extracorporeal epuration technics (recommendation with grade 1B). PD is the preferred method in cardiorenal syndromes, in frailty patients with hemodynamic instability and those lacking vascular access; finally PD is also an option in elderly and patients with bleeding tendency. In industrial countries, high volume automated PD with a flexible catheter (usually Tenckhoff) is advocated. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful Treatment of Severe Metabolic Acidosis Due to Acute Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning With Peritoneal Dialysis: a Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoust, Bahman; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Seyyed Sadeghi, Mir Salim

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum phosphide poisoning is common in our region. It can cause severe metabolic acidosis and persistent hypotension, which lead to cardiogenic shock and subsequently mortality. Oliguric or anuric acute kidney injury is seen in almost all patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning. Renal replacement therapies are recommended in these patients to improve metabolic acidosis and increase the rate of survival. We report 2 cases of severe acute aluminum phosphide poisoning treated successfully with peritoneal dialysis.

  9. Dialysis-related factors affecting quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Muhammad; Hameed, Farooq; Mumtaz, Asim; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saeed Khan, Muhammad Nasir

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Treatment modalities for end-stage renal disease affect quality of life (QOL) of the patients. This study was conducted to assess the QOL of patients on hemodialysis and compare it with caregivers of these patients. Cause of ESRD and dialysis-related factors affecting QOL were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patient on maintenance hemodialysis for more than 3 months at 3 dialysis centers of Lahore. Fifty healthy individuals were included as controls from among the patients' caregivers. The QOL index was measured using the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire, with higher scores corresponding to better QOL of patients. RESULTS. Eighty-nine patients (71.2%) were men, 99 (79.2%) were married, 75 (60.0%) were older than 45 years, and 77 (61.6%) were on dialysis for more than 8 months. Patients on hemodialysis had a poorer QOL as compared to their caregivers in all domains except for domain 4 (environment). There was no difference in the QOL between the three dialysis centers of the study, except for domain 3 (social relationship) of the patients at Mayo Hospital (a public hospital), which was significantly better. Nondiabetic patients had a better QOL in domain 1 (physical health) as compared to diabetic patients. Duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with the overall QOL. CONCLUSIONS. We found that QOL of hemodialysis patients was poor as compared to caregivers of the patients, especially that of diabetics. Also, duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with QOL.

  10. Long-Term Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors of Post-Hospitalization Dialysis-Dependent Acute Kidney Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ajay S; Chopra, Tushar; Ma, Jennie Z; Xin, Wenjun; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is associated with poor outcomes. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have reversed their clarification allowing AKI-D patients to be dialyzed at outpatient dialysis units. Data assessing long-term outcomes of AKI-D patients and their predictors is needed to adopt guidelines to ensure adequate management. We assessed long-term outcomes and associated risk factors of AKI-D patients who survived 90 days post-hemodialysis (HD) initiation. AKI-D patients surviving hospitalization and dialyzed at a specialized outpatient AKI dialysis unit between April 11, 2012 and December 25, 2013 were prospectively followed. Long-term outcomes of AKI-D patients were obtained by a single provider through a telephone survey, and factors affecting their outcomes were statistically analyzed. Ninety-one out of 108 patients were reached for telephone survey. At baseline (90 days post-HD initiation), 52/91 patients were declared end-stage renal disease (ESRD; group 1) and 39/91 were dialysis-independent (group 2). At the end of an average follow up period of 859.7 days, 32/91 (35.2%) were dialysis-independent (3/52 from group 1 and 29/39 from group 2), with 28/91 dead (25/52 from group 1 and 3/39 from group 2). After adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, baseline renal function, prior AKI, ESRD, and requirement for continuous renal replacement therapy were associated with poor outcomes. Sustaining long-term dialysis independence in AKI-D patients is significant. Baseline renal function, prior AKI, and hemodynamic changes during hospitalization are predictors of long-term outcomes. Meticulous follow up of AKI-D patients in the outpatient dialysis facilities in their first 90 days post-HD initiation is crucial. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Diet quality in patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lauren A; Lambert, Kelly; Holt, Jane L; Meyer, Barbara J

    2017-12-01

    People on haemodialysis (HD) are at risk of consuming a poor quality diet. This includes inadequate intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). This study aims to investigate diet quality, with a particular focus on n-3 LCPUFA intake, in a population of incentre HD patients. Dietary intake was measured using three 24 hour recalls; the Polyunsaturated food frequency questionnaire (PUFA FFQ) and the Total Diet Score (TDS). Dietary intake was also compared to evidence based practice guidelines (EBPG). Nutritional status was assessed using the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG SGA). A total of 32 dialysis patients were recruited, from two regional HD centres in New South Wales, Australia. Diet quality was the main outcome measure. Diet quality of study participants was poor, with the majority not meeting the EBPG for energy, protein and potassium. All participants exceeded the recommended amount of saturated fat. The mean TDS of the dialysis cohort was 10.2, which was significantly higher than the TDS of 9.3 of a healthy disease free cohort (p patients in this study had suboptimal diet quality. Improvements are required for better adherence to the EBPG. Increased consumption of n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids may also be of benefit. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  12. Health-related quality of life in dialysis patients with constipation: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang JS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JiSheng Zhang,1,* CongYang Huang,1,* YanLi Li,1 Jun Chen,2 FangYuan Shen,1 Qiang Yao,3 JiaQi Qian,4 BeiYan Bao,1 XuPing Yao51Division of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 2Blood Purification Center, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 3Baxter Healthcare Pty Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Nephrology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjectives: To evaluate differences in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL between patients with constipation receiving hemodialysis (HD and those receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 605 dialysis patients (478 HD cases and 127 PD cases; all patients were older than 18 years from our hospital were included. A questionnaire was used to evaluate their constipation statuses. The effect of constipation on HRQoL was assessed, using the Chinese version of the 12-item short-form (SF-12 general health survey. Karnofsky score, sociodemographic, and clinical data were also collected. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to define independent risk factors for constipation and impaired HRQoL.Results: A total of 605 participants (326 men [53.9%] and 279 women [46.1%] were surveyed. The incidence of constipation was 71.7% in HD patients and 14.2% in PD patients. Dialysis patients with constipation had significantly lower mean SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale and Mental Component Summary scale scores than the nonconstipation group (P < 0.05, whereas HD patients had better SF-12 Physical Component

  13. Assessment and clinical aspects of health-related quality of life in dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Prescott, Lotte; Heaf, James

    2007-01-01

    with hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) and to investigate the prediction of dialysis quality control parameters (blood hemoglobin, plasma albumin, and Kt/V) and tobacco smoking in disease-specific HRQOL. METHODS: Seventy-one HD, 59 PD, and 63 CKD patients participated in the study. Dialysis quality...... control parameters were measured and the patients completed the questionnaire Kidney Disease Quality Of Life. RESULTS: PD patients rated Dialysis Staff Encouragement and Patient Satisfaction better than HD patients (p... on a number of HRQOL scales. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, it is suggested to include elements of HRQOL as a supplement to standard quality control parameters. It is also suggested routinely to include information of the beneficial effects of physical activity already in the predialysis program...

  14. Quality of life of chronic renal patients in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elizabeth Cristina Carpena; Santos, Iná da Silva dos; Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Ramos, José Maurício Grahl

    2015-01-01

    There are controversies regarding differences in quality of life (QOL) of chronic renal disease patients treated with different dialytic methods. To compare QOL among chronic renal disease patients in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and in hemodialysis (HD). Cross-sectional study in all the three centers of dialysis in Pelotas/Brazil. Patients in PD were interviewed after the monthly-routine-consultation and those in HD between the 1st-2nd hours of the dialysis session by employing structured questionnaires. QOL was assessed with Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Means in the eight SF-36 domains were compared between groups. Among 345 eligible patients (63 in PD and 282 in HD) 317 were interviewed (8% losses/refusals). About half of patients in both groups were in dialysis treatment for 3 years at most. There were more women in PD and more men in HD. Patients in PD reported less "pain" than those in HD (mean scores 76.5 and 64.3, respectively; p = 0.0040). There was no difference for the remaining SF-36 domains. Utilization of HD in Pelotas is a bit lower than detected at the Brazilian Dialysis Census (2011), whereas the frequency of PD is similar to frequency observed in some European countries. The higher score on "pain" among patients in PD is consistent with findings from other studies although no difference and even additional advantages of PD over HD have already been reported. QOL is similar among patients in DP or in HD, except in terms of pain, that was less severe in PD patients.

  15. The Burden of Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury among Hospitalized Adults with HIV Infection: A Nationwide Inpatient Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    NADKARNI, Girish N.; PATEL, Achint A.; YACOUB, Rabi; BENJO, Alexandre M.; KONSTANTINIDIS, Ioannis; ANNAPUREDDY, Narender; AGARWAL, Shiv Kumar; SIMOES, Priya K.; KAMAT, Sunil; MENON, Madhav C.; WYATT, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (“dialysis-requiring AKI”) and the impact on in-hospital mortality among hospitalized adults with HIV infection. Design Longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative administrative database. Methods We reviewed the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database, a large, nationally representative sample of inpatient hospital admissions, to identify all adult hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of HIV infection from 2002–2010. We analyzed temporal trends in the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI and the associated odds of in-hospital mortality. We also explored potential reasons behind temporal changes. Results Among 1830041 hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of HIV infection, the proportion complicated by dialysis-requiring AKI increased from 0.7% in 2002 to 1.35% in 2010. This temporal rise was completely explained by changes in demographics and increase in concurrent comorbidities and procedure utilization. The adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality associated with dialysis-requiring AKI also increased over the study period, from 1.45 (95% CI 0.97–2.12) in 2002 to 2.64 (95% CI 2.04–3.42) in 2010. Conclusions These data suggest that the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI among hospitalized adults with HIV infection continues to increase, and that severe AKI remains a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality in this population. The increased incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI was largely explained by aging of the HIV population and increasing prevalence of chronic non-AIDS comorbidities, suggesting that these trends will continue. PMID:26125139

  16. Dialysis Facility Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Dialysis Facility Compare helps you find detailed information about Medicare-certified dialysis facilities. You can compare the services and the quality of care that...

  17. Quality of life of elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yosuke; Naruse, Tomohiko; Tawada, Naoto; Tokomoto, Mitsuhiro; Noda, Yuhei; Taniguchi, Yohei; Nagahara, Yasuko; Yamashita, Ryoko; Karasawa, Munetoshi; Watanabe, Yuzo; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    The number of elderly dialysis patients in Japan is dramatically increasing. Receiving therapy with better satisfaction through home care is one of the important factors in their daily lives. Thus, the quality of life of elderly patients on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) was evaluated. Clinical information of patients aged ≥80 years who started dialysis at our hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 was retrospectively collected. The mortality rate, length of hospitalization, and place of death were identified to evaluate patient quality of life. In total, 56 patients (14 PD and 42 HD) were enrolled. The mean age of study subjects was 85.2 ± 4.0 years. The proportion of PD patients who lived with their family or have professional caregivers who could assist them in their daily life was higher than that of HD patients (100 vs. 76.2%, respectively; p = 0.044). Mortality rate was higher in PD patients than in HD patients (p = 0.003), but long-term hospitalization of >180 days was observed only in HD patients (PD vs. HD: 0.0 vs. 16.7%; p = 0.102). In patients with Barthel index scores home (p = 0.002). PD is a desirable home care therapy for elderly patients, but the burden on caregivers should be considered.

  18. Trends in Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction Among Dialysis Patients in the United States Over 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Gautam R; Li, Shuling; Herzog, Charles A

    2015-10-12

    We sought to determine 15-year trends in mortality rates among dialysis patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the contemporary era. Using the US Renal Data System database, we assembled 4 study cohorts of period-prevalent dialysis patients in 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008 who were hospitalized for an index AMI in that calendar year. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI were identified, and in-hospital mortality was calculated. Cumulative probability of death during 2-year follow-up after AMI admission was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and adjusted for patient characteristics. A total of 42 933 dialysis patients with AMI were included. Between 1993 (n=4494) and 2008 (n=16 361), proportional increases occurred in patient groups aged ≥75 years (23% and 31%, respectively; Pfollowing AMI among dialysis patients decreased between 1993 and 2008 but only among STEMI patients, coincident with increased in-hospital percutaneous coronary intervention rates. Period-prevalent cases of non-STEMI markedly increased without interval change in survival. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Change in quality of life and one-year mortality risk in maintenance dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Scott; Li, Nien-Chen; Lacson, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important metric of high-quality dialysis care. QOL is commonly measured by the Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), which provides two summary scores: a mental component score (MCS) and a physical component score (PCS). Poor QOL is associated with mortality in dialysis patients. Small studies show that changes in QOL also predicts mortality. We investigated whether changes in QOL over time are associated with mortality in a large cohort of maintenance hemodialysis patients. This retrospective study was conducted in 1017 outpatient dialysis facilities. Over 10,000 hemodialysis patients completed two SF-36 surveys. We compared 1-year morality rates in those whose MCS or PCS increased or decreased ±5 vs. those whose did not. For those who completed two surveys, mean score for PCS was unchanged, whereas MCS increased slightly (48.6 vs. 48.9, p = 0.05). Individual patients, however, showed marked variation. On the second survey, more than half of patients demonstrated a ± 5 point change in the PCS and/or MCS. After multivariate adjustment, a ≥ 5 decrease in MCS was associated with an increase in mortality (HR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.18, 1.50). Clinicians should be aware that many patients experience a significant change in both the MCS and PCS on dialysis. A MCS decrease of ≥5 was associated with increased mortality. More study is needed to determine whether this is a causal relationship. Physicians should evaluate root causes and seek to mitigate declines in QOL whenever possible.

  20. Temporal trends of dialysis requiring acute kidney injury after orthotopic cardiac and liver transplant hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Chauhan, Kinsuk; Patel, Achint; Saha, Aparna; Poojary, Priti; Kamat, Sunil; Patel, Shanti; Ferrandino, Rocco; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Garimella, Pranav S; Menon, Madhav C; Thakar, Charuhas V

    2017-07-19

    The epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in prevalent non-renal solid organ transplant recipients is unknown. We assessed the epidemiology of trends in acute kidney injury (AKI) in orthotopic cardiac and liver transplant recipients in the United States. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to evaluate the yearly incidence trends (2002 to 2013) of the primary outcome, defined as AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-D) in hospitalizations after cardiac and liver transplantation. We also evaluated the trend and impact of AKI-D on hospital mortality and adverse discharge using adjusted odds ratios (aOR). The proportion of hospitalizations with AKI (9.7 to 32.7% in cardiac and 8.5 to 28.1% in liver transplant hospitalizations; p trend <0.01) and AKI-D (1.63 to 2.33% in cardiac and 1.32 to 2.65% in liver transplant hospitalizations; p trend <0.01) increased from 2002-2013. This increase in AKI-D was explained by changes in race and increase in age and comorbidity burden of transplant hospitalizations. AKI-D was associated with increased odds of in hospital mortality (aOR 2.85; 95% CI 2.11-3.80 in cardiac and aOR 2.00; 95% CI 1.55-2.59 in liver transplant hospitalizations) and adverse discharge [discharge other than home] (aOR 1.97; 95% CI 1.53-2.55 in cardiac and 1.91; 95% CI 1.57-2.30 in liver transplant hospitalizations). This study highlights the growing burden of AKI-D in non-renal solid organ transplant recipients and its devastating impact, and emphasizes the need to develop strategies to reduce the risk of AKI to improve health outcomes.

  1. QUALITY OF LIFE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS ASSESSED BY MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY IN HEMODIALYSIS VERSUS PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsiri, Somchai; Dinchuthai, Pakapan; Prongnamjai, Suriya; Cheunsuwan, Rachneeporn; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Tangjaturonrasami, Siriporn; Annanon, Nattaphon

    2012-01-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy with body composition model is a validated method to assess hydration and nutritional status in dialysis patients. The aim of this study is to compare quality of life, nutrition status and hydration status between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. There were 26 PD and 32 HD patients included in this study. Multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy were measured by BCM-body composition monitor (Fresenius medical care) device, the device provided body compo...

  2. Peritoneal dialysis in the neonatal intensive care unit. Management of acute renal failure after a severe subgaleal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kristi; Lail, Candace

    2007-08-01

    Acute renal failure is common in the neonatal intensive care unit but is often not recognized in its early phases, when it is potentially reversible. The typical patient with acute renal failure is premature, but many term infants are also at risk. One such group is those with severe bleeding, such as a subgaleal hemorrhage. In these cases, hypovolemia can quickly progress to ischemia, which affects many organs but has profound effects on the kidney. In term infants, acute renal failure is most commonly diagnosed in those with perinatal depression. This article presents a unique case of an infant with subgaleal and intracranial bleeding that resulted in acute renal failure requiring peritoneal dialysis in the hopes of the eventual restoration of kidney function.

  3. Symptom clusters in incident dialysis patients: associations with clinical variables and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Melissa S Y; van Dijk, Sandra; Noordzij, Marlies; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W; Krediet, Raymond T; Dekker, Friedo W; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2009-01-01

    To date, the pathophysiology underlying symptoms in renal patients is still unclear. Symptom management research suggests that identification of related clusters of symptoms could provide insight into underlying determinants associated with multiple symptom experience. Theoretically, symptoms within a cluster could have a synergistic relationship. We aimed to identify symptom clusters in incident dialysis patients, and investigated associations between symptom clusters, clinical variables, functional status as measured by the Karnofsky Index and quality of life. 1553 haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form symptom/problem list at 3 months after the start of dialysis. Principal component analysis using varimax rotation was used to identify symptom clusters. Patients were bothered by an average of 2.8 (+/-2.4) symptoms of 'moderate bother' or more. Three clusters were identified, explaining 49% of the total variance. All clusters showed strong negative associations with the SF-36 quality of life dimensions (-0.142 to -0.593) and with functional status (-0.130 to -0.332) in HD and PD patients. In contrast, only the clinical variables serum albumin (-0.084 to -0.232) and haemoglobin (-0.068 to -0.126) were associated with all clusters in HD patients, and Kt/V(urea) (-0.089 to -0.125) in PD patients. Symptom clustering does not explain the lack of meaningful associations between symptoms and clinical variables. Strong associations of symptom clusters with quality of life dimensions suggest that psychological factors could better explain symptom burden. Patients' perceptions of symptoms should be routinely assessed as part of clinical care to improve self-management strategies.

  4. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  5. Dialysis dose in acute kidney injury: no time for therapeutic nihilism – a critical appraisal of the Acute Renal Failure Trial Network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio; Cruz, Dinna; van Straaten, Helen Oudemans; Honore, Patrick; House, Andrew; Bin, Du; Gibney, Noel

    2008-01-01

    The optimal dialysis dose for acute kidney injury is a matter of great controversy. Clinical trials, predominantly single-center studies, have shown conflicting results. The Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (ATN) Study was designed to compare clinical outcomes between patients allocated to an intensive dose versus a less-intensive dose of renal replacement therapy. Recently, the results of this large randomized controlled multicenter study were published. The present article will discuss certain aspects of this trial: the overall design, the baseline patient characteristics, and comparison of the results with earlier studies. Finally, the article will address the implications of the ATN Study results for clinical practice. PMID:18983695

  6. Dialysis dose in acute kidney injury: no time for therapeutic nihilism--a critical appraisal of the Acute Renal Failure Trial Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio; Cruz, Dinna; Oudemans van Straaten, Helen; Honore, Patrick; House, Andrew; Bin, Du; Gibney, Noel

    2008-01-01

    The optimal dialysis dose for acute kidney injury is a matter of great controversy. Clinical trials, predominantly single-center studies, have shown conflicting results. The Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (ATN) Study was designed to compare clinical outcomes between patients allocated to an intensive dose versus a less-intensive dose of renal replacement therapy. Recently, the results of this large randomized controlled multicenter study were published. The present article will discuss certain aspects of this trial: the overall design, the baseline patient characteristics, and comparison of the results with earlier studies. Finally, the article will address the implications of the ATN Study results for clinical practice.

  7. The impact of an “acute dialysis start” on the mortality attributed to the use of central venous catheters: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennankore Karthik K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central venous catheters (CVCs are associated with early mortality in dialysis patients. However, some patients progress to end stage renal disease after an acute illness, prior to reaching an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at which one would expect to establish alternative access (fistula/peritoneal dialysis catheter. The purpose of this study was to determine if exclusion of this “acute start” patient group alters the association between CVCs and mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 406 incident dialysis patients from 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2009. Patients were classified as acute starts if 1 the eGFR was >25 ml/min/1.73 m2, ≤3 months prior to dialysis initiation and declined after an acute event (n = 45, or 2 in those without prior eGFR measurements, there was no supporting evidence of chronic kidney disease on history or imaging (n = 12. Remaining patients were classified as chronic start (n = 349. Results 98 % and 52 % of acute and chronic starts initiated dialysis with a CVC. There were 148 deaths. The adjusted mortality hazard ratio (HR for acute vs. chronic start patients was 1.84, (95 % CI [1.19-2.85]. The adjusted mortality HR for patients dialyzing with a CVC compared to alternative access was 1.19 (95 % CI [0.80-1.77]. After excluding acute start patients, the adjusted HR fell to 1.03 (95 % CI [0.67-1.57]. Conclusions A significant proportion of early dialysis mortality occurs after an acute start. Exclusion of this population attenuates the mortality risk associated with CVCs.

  8. Impact of continuous quality improvement initiatives on clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Han; Zhou, Tingting; Li, Qing; Li, Taoyu; Wu, Yan; Liu, Zhihong

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the role of a quality improvement initiative in improving clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD). In a retrospective analysis of 6 years of data from a hospital registry, the period between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008 (control group) provided baseline data from before implementation of systemic outcomes monitoring, and the period between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2011 [continuous quality improvement (CQI) group] represented the time when a CQI program was in place. Peritonitis incidence, patient and technique survival, cardiovascular status, causes of death, and drop-out were compared between the groups. In the 370 patients of the CQI group and the 249 patients of the control group, the predominant underlying kidney diseases were chronic glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy. After implementation of the CQI initiative, the peritonitis rate declined to 1 episode in 77.25 patient-months from 1 episode in 22.86 patient-months. Ultrasound parameters of cardiac structure were generally unchanged in the CQI group, but significant increases in cardiothoracic ratio and interventricular septal thickness were observed in the control group (both p improve technique survival rates: 95.6%, 92.6%, and 92.6% in the CQI group compared with 89.6%, 79.2%, and 76.8% in the control group (p improve the quality of therapy and its outcomes. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  9. Multifaceted Assessment of Health Literacy in People Receiving Dialysis: Associations With Psychological Stress and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Sarity; Osicka, Tanya; Huang, Louis; McMahon, Lawrence P; Roberts, Matthew A

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) refers to a person's ability to engage effectively with health information and services. We aimed to describe the HL of people receiving dialysis and the factors associated with it. A cross-sectional design was used, with demographic and clinical data as predictors. Participants were people receiving dialysis at a metropolitan health service in Melbourne, Australia. Health consumers with conditions not requiring dialysis were included for comparison. The Health Literacy Questionnaire, Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 were administered. Participants (M age = 68.2 ± 13.7 years; n = 57 males) were 76 people receiving hemodialysis within a dialysis unit, 16 people receiving home peritoneal dialysis, and 8 people receiving home hemodialysis. Participants scored higher on the HL domains social support for health and engagement with health care providers but lower on active management of health than the comparison group (n = 813). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed 2 clusters within the dialysis sample representing higher (n = 43) and lower (n = 57) profiles of HL. The higher HL cluster reported better quality of life across 4 of 5 domains of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36, fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and higher serum albumin (mean difference = 2.06 g/L, p = .04) than the lower HL cluster. These results show that people receiving dialysis feel better supported and informed about their health than other health consumers but are less active in managing it. Higher HL is associated with better mental health and quality of life. Identifying HL characteristics may help direct specific interventions to improve patient education and support.

  10. Development and validation of the Consumer Quality index instrument to measure the experience and priority of chronic dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Sabine N.; Jager, Kitty J.; Visserman, Ella; Beekman, Robert J.; Boeschoten, Els W.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Heuveling, Lara; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2012-01-01

    Patient experience is an established indicator of quality of care. Validated tools that measure both experiences and priorities are lacking for chronic dialysis care, hampering identification of negative experiences that patients actually rate important. We developed two Consumer Quality (CQ) index

  11. Extended daily veno-venous high-flux haemodialysis in patients with acute renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome using a single path batch dialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, G; Floege, J; Kliem, V; Brunkhorst, R; Koch, K M

    2000-08-01

    In the treatment of acute renal failure in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are increasingly used because of excellent volume control in the presence of improved cardiovascular stability. Patients with MODS, however, are frequently catabolic and have a high urea generation rate requiring either cost-intensive high-volume CRRT or additional intermittent haemodialysis to provide adequate clearance of small-molecular waste products. We tested the closed-loop batch haemodialysis system (called Genius((R))) for the treatment of acute renal failure in patients with MODS in the intensive care unit. Blood flow and countercurrent dialysate flow were reduced to 70 ml/min. Thus the 75 l dialysate tank of the Genius((R)) system lasts for 18 h of extended single-path high-flux haemodialysis (18 h-HFD) using polysulphous F60 S((R)) dialysers. Blood pressure, body temperature, and venous blood temperature in the extracorporeal circuit (no heating of the dialysate), ultrafiltration rate, serum urea levels, dialyser urea clearance, and total urea removal were monitored. In addition we tested the bacteriological quality of the spent dialysate at the end of 18-h treatments. Twenty patients with acute renal failure and MODS were investigated. Averaged dialyser urea clearance was 59.8 ml/min (equal to 3.6 l/h or 64.8 l/day). Total removal of urea was 14.1+/-6.5 g/day keeping serum levels of urea below 13 mmol/l. Mean arterial pressure remained stable during the 18-h treatments with a mean ultrafiltration rate of 120 ml/h. The temperature in the venous blood tubing dropped by 5+/-0.5 degrees C during the 18-h treatment (0.28 degrees C/h) in the presence of unchanged core temperature in the patients. There was no bacterial growth in 2.5 l of spent dialysate (dialysis using the Genius((R)) system combines the benefits of CRRT (good cardiovascular stability, sterile dialysate) with the advantages of intermittent

  12. Quality of life and emotional distress in patients and burden in caregivers: a comparison between assisted peritoneal dialysis and self-care peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, K; Goh, C S; Kang, W C A; Yu, Z L; Chan, M C; Wu, S Y; Krishnasamy, T; Foo, M

    2016-02-01

    Assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD) involving caregivers allows more patients to get started on home-based dialysis with good clinical outcomes, but evidence on patient-reported and caregiver-reported outcomes is lacking. This study aimed to compare assisted PD versus self-care PD on quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial outcomes for patients and caregivers. The effect of PD modality [automated PD (APD); continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD)] in relation to self-care or assisted care was also examined. A cross-sectional sample of 231 PD patients [142 self-care (57 APD/85 CAPD) and 89 assisted care PD (45 APD/44 CAPD)], 72 caregivers of assisted PD patients and 39 family members of self-care PD patients completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF), World Health Organisation Quality of Life Instrument-brief and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Caregivers and family members completed the Lay Care-Giving for Adults Receiving Dialysis questionnaire and Zarit Burden Interview. Case-mix-adjusted comparisons indicated comparable QoL in all dimensions with the exception of physical SF-12 (p = .001) and the KDQOL effects of kidney disease in favour of self-care PD. Levels of anxiety (9.72 ± 4.90; 8.25 ± 5.22) and depression (8.63 ± 3.80; 6.35 ± 4.76) were equivalent in assisted PD and self-care PD, respectively. Assisted PD caregivers reported more task-orientated duties (p = .007), yet levels of perceived burden were equal to those reported by family members of self-care PD. Our findings of mostly comparable patient and caregiver outcomes in assisted PD and self-care PD suggest that caregiver burden and QoL should not be a barrier to using assisted PD.

  13. Comparison of outcome and quality of life: haemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshad, H; Sadreddini, S; Nezami, N; Salekzamani, Y; Ardalan, M R

    2009-02-01

    Ever since peritoneal dialysis (PD) was introduced as a form of renal replacement therapy, its efficacy and complications have been compared with that of haemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and outcome of PD in comparison to HD in our region. We compared 60 patients on PD with 60 matched patients on HD in Tabriz's Sina Hospital during the period 2004-2006. The technique, patients' survival and quality of life were compared by means of a health-related quality-of-life questionnaire (GHQ-28). There was no significant difference in the mean age and duration of dialysis between patients on PD and HD. Survival of diabetic patients was better with HD than PD, but in non-diabetic patients, there was no difference in the survival rates between the two groups. Among patients on PD, diabetics had a 25 percent higher mortality rate and non-diabetic patients had a three percent higher mortality rate than their corresponding counterparts on HD. In all four axes of the questionnaire, i.e. psychophysical dysfunction, stress and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and major depression, PD patients had lower scores than HD patients (p-values are less than 0.001, less than 0.001, equal to 0.002 and less than 0.001, respectively), indicating that patients on PD had a better quality of life compared to those on HD. In this study, technique, patients' survival and their quality of life were better on PD than on HD. However, survival and mortality of diabetic patients on HD were better than those on PD.

  14. Quality of life in patients undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilou, Paraskevi

    2011-05-19

    Does the type of dialysis treatment make a difference to the quality of life (QoL) and mental health of renal patients in Athens? The study investigated the differences in 84 in-center hemodialysis (HD) and 60 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD) patients. Patient-reported assessments included: WHOQOL-BREF inventory of World Health Organization, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) of Goldberg, State-Trait Anxiety Inνentory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). Results indicated that HD patients reported lower QoL in the environment and social relationships domains. More symptoms were also reported in the GHQ-28 subscales of anxiety/insomnia and severe depression. This measurement includes sleep problems and suicidal thoughts. The findings confirm the differences between the two treatment modalities, indicating that HD patients have poorer QoL in several aspects of their environment and their social relationships. Both groups reported elevated depression. However, HD patients reported more suicidal thoughts and sleep problems compared to PD patients.

  15. Back to the future: extended dialysis for treatment of acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielstein, Jan T; Schiffer, Mario; Hafer, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    On September 11, 1945, Maria Schafstaat was the first patient who successfully underwent a dialysis treatment for acute kidney injury (AKI). The ingenious design of the first dialysis machine, made of cellophane tubing wrapped around a cylinder that rotated in a bath of fluid, together with the brave determination to treat patients with AKI, enabled the Dutch physician W.J. Kolff to save the life of the 67-year-old woman. By treating her for 690 minutes (i.e., 11.5 hours) with a blood flow rate of 116 ml/min, Kolff also set the coordinates of a renal replacement therapy that has enjoyed an unsurpassed renaissance over the last decade for treatment of severely ill patients with AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). Prolonged dialysis time with low flow rates - these days, called extended dialysis (ED) - combines several advantages of both intermittent and continuous techniques, which makes it an ideal treatment method for ICU patients with AKI. This review summarizes our knowledge of this method, which is increasingly used in many centers worldwide. We reflect on prospective controlled studies in critically ill patients that have documented that small-solute clearance with ED is comparable with that of intermittent hemodialysis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration, as well as on studies showing that patients' cardiovascular stability during ED is similar to that with continuous renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, we report on logistic and economic advantages of this method. We share our view on how extended dialysis offers ample opportunity for a collaborative interaction between nephrologists and intensivists as the nephrology staff, enabling optimal treatment of complex critically ill patients by using the skill and knowledge of 2 indispensable specialties in the ICU. Lastly, we address the problem of ED intensity, which does not seem to have an impact on survival at higher doses, a finding that might be caused by the fact that we still adhere to dosing

  16. Central vein perforation during tunneled dialysis catheter insertion: principles of acute management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Uei

    2014-10-01

    Central venous perforation during dialysis catheter insertion is a potentially fatal complication. Prompt recognition and judicious initial steps are important in optimizing the outcome. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the imaging features and steps in initial management. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  17. Economic Impact of a Peritoneal Dialysis Continuous Quality Improvement Program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Dilip U; Walton, Surrey M; Mora, Juan P; Sanabria, Rafael M

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the financial burden of peritonitis and the economic impact of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The objectives of this study were to measure the costs of peritonitis, and determine the net savings of a PD CQI program in Colombia. ♦ METHODS: The Renal Therapy Services (RTS) network in Colombia, along with Coomeva EPS, provided healthcare resource utilization data for PD patients with and without peritonitis between January 2012 and December 2013. Propensity score matching and regression analysis were performed to estimate the incremental cost of peritonitis. Patient months at risk, episodes of peritonitis pre- and post-CQI, and costs of CQI were obtained. Annual net savings of the CQI program were estimated based on the number of peritonitis events prevented. ♦ RESULTS: The incremental cost of a peritonitis episode was $250. In an 8-year period, peritonitis decreased from 1,837 episodes per 38,596 patient-months in 2006 to 841 episodes per 50,910 patient-months in 2014. Overall, the CQI program prevented an estimated 10,409 episodes of peritonitis. The cost of implementing the CQI program was $147,000 in the first year and $119,000 annually thereafter. Using a five percent discount rate, the net present value of the program was $1,346,431, with an average annual net savings of $207,027. The return on investment (i.e. total savings-program cost/program cost) of CQI was 169%. ♦ CONCLUSION: Continuous quality improvement initiatives designed to reduce rates of peritonitis have a strong potential to generate cost savings. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  18. Key factors for a high-quality peritoneal dialysis program--the role of the PD team and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2014-06-01

    The proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased very fast in China over the last decade. Renji Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, is a recognized high-quality PD unit with a high PD utilization rate, excellent patient and technique survival (1-year and 5-year patient survival rate of 93% and 71%, and 1-year and 5-year technique survival of 96% and 82%, respectively), low peritonitis rate and a well-documented good quality of life of the treated patients. We believe that a dedicated and experienced PD team, a structured patient training program, continuous patient support, establishing and utilizing standardized protocols, starting PD with low dialysis dose, monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) are the key factors underlying this successful PD program. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  19. Acute Hydrothorax Complicating continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechrid Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here hydrothorax that occurred in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD and highlight the problems of diagnosis and management. A 48 years-old man with history of obstructive uropathy secondary to urolithiasis was stared on CAPD when he reached end-stage renal failure. Two months later, he was admitted with two days history of shortness of breath on exertion and dry cough increasing in supine position. Chest examination was suggestive of right sided pleural effusion confusion confirmed by chest X-ray. Radioisotope Technetium 99m labeled albumin instilled through the peritoneal catheter was detected in the right pleural fluid confirming the peritoneo-pleural leak. The peritoneal dialysis (PD was discontinued and the patient was switched to hemodialysis. The pleural effusion subsided and has not recurred for the following three years.

  20. NUTRITION AND HEMODIALYSIS: THE ASSOCIATION OF DIETITIAN INTERVENTION TOWARDS ACHIEVING QUALITY PATIENT DIALYSIS OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    archied bunani ali mohammed lehbi

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, an influence of Dietitian Intervention was notable to all patients receiving dialysis treatments. The Clinical Dietitian’s facility in assisting dialysis patients on the proper diet to be taken associated to condition will enable the individual to lower mortality risk ratio.

  1. Development and validation of the Consumer Quality index instrument to measure the experience and priority of chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Sabine N; Jager, Kitty J; Visserman, Ella; Beekman, Robert J; Boeschoten, Els W; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Heuveling, Lara; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2012-08-01

    Patient experience is an established indicator of quality of care. Validated tools that measure both experiences and priorities are lacking for chronic dialysis care, hampering identification of negative experiences that patients actually rate important. We developed two Consumer Quality (CQ) index questionnaires, one for in-centre haemodialysis (CHD) and the other for peritoneal dialysis and home haemodialysis (PHHD) care. The instruments were validated using exploratory factor analyses, reliability analysis of identified scales and assessing the association between reliable scales and global ratings. We investigated opportunities for improvement by combining suboptimal experience with patient priority. Sixteen dialysis centres participated in our study. The pilot CQ index for CHD care consisted of 71 questions. Based on data of 592 respondents, we identified 42 core experience items in 10 scales with Cronbach's α ranging from 0.38 to 0.88; five were reliable (α ≥ 0.70). The instrument identified information on centres' fire procedures as the aspect of care exhibiting the biggest opportunity for improvement. The pilot CQ index PHHD comprised 56 questions. The response of 248 patients yielded 31 core experience items in nine scales with Cronbach's α ranging between 0.53 and 0.85; six were reliable. Information on kidney transplantation during pre-dialysis showed most room for improvement. However, for both types of care, opportunities for improvement were mostly limited. The CQ index reliably and validly captures dialysis patient experience. Overall, most care aspects showed limited room for improvement, mainly because patients participating in our study rated their experience to be optimal. To evaluate items with high priority, but with which relatively few patients have experience, more qualitative instruments should be considered.

  2. The impact of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury on long-term prognosis of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ter Chao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV is increasingly common worldwide, consuming enormous healthcare resources. Factors that modify PMV outcome are still obscure. METHODS: We selected patients without preceding mechanical ventilation within the one past year and who developed PMV during index admission in Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI system during 1998-2007 for comparison of mortality and resource use. They were divided into three groups: (1 patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD before the index admission for PMV onset; (2 patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-dialysis during the hospitalization course; and (3 patients without AKI or with non dialysis-requiring AKI during the hospitalization course (non-AKI. We used a random-effects logistic regression model to identify factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Compared with the other two groups, patients with AKI-dialysis had significantly longer mechanical ventilation, more frequent use of vasopressors, longer intensive care unit/hospital stay and higher inpatient expenditures during the index admission. Relative to non-AKI patients, patients with AKI-dialysis had an elevated mortality hazard; the adjusted relative risk ratios were 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]:1.46-1.56, 1.27 (95% CI: 1.23-1.32, and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 for mortality rates at discharge, 3 months, and 4 years after PMV, respectively. Patients with AKI-dialysis also consumed significantly higher total in-patient expenditure than the other two patient groups (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients that need PMV care during an admission, the presence of de novo AKI requiring dialysis significantly increased short and long term mortality, and demand for health care resources.

  3. Health status and quality of life reported by incident patients after 1 year on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Barnhart, Huiman; Collins, Allan J

    2005-10-01

    It has been suggested that there are no large differences in the quality of life of incident patients starting on haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD), but few studies have addressed this issue. Association of modality with incident patients' health status and quality of life scores was investigated with propensity score (PS) analysis and also with traditional multivariable regression analyses. We compared patient reported health status and quality of life scores after 1 year of therapy in 455 HD and 413 PD patients who participated in a national study, stayed on the same modality and had complete socio-demographic and clinical information needed to create a PS indicating their expected probability of starting on PD. One year scores on the majority of health status and quality of life measures were not significantly different for HD and PD patients within propensity-matched quintiles. PD patients' scores were higher than HD patients' scores on effects of kidney disease, burden of kidney disease, staff encouragement and satisfaction with care in some quintiles, and traditional regression analyses confirmed that dialysis modality was associated with patients' scores on these variables. This study provides support for making the choice of PD more widely available as an option to patients initiating chronic dialysis therapy. Patient lifestyle opportunities associated with use of PD, a home-based and self-care therapy, may also apply to home-based HD or in-centre self-care HD. Patients' expectations regarding treatment and their attitudes toward management of their health may interact with treatment modality to shape patient-reported experience on dialysis; this is an important focus for future studies.

  4. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Dialysis as a Result of Concomitant Use of Atypical Neuroleptics and Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs is associated with many severe adverse effects that are not observed with marijuana use. We report a unique case of a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI requiring dialysis after use of SCBs combined with quetiapine. Causes for the different adverse effects profile between SCBs and marijuana are not defined yet. Cases reported in literature with SCBs use have been associated with reversible AKI characterized by acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Recent studies have showed the involvement of cytochromes P450s (CYPs in biotransformation of SCBs. The use of quetiapine which is a substrate of the CYP3A4 and is excreted (73% as urine metabolites may worsen the side effect profiles of both quetiapine and K2. SCBs use should be included in the differential diagnosis of AKI and serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK level should be monitored. Further research is needed to identify the mechanism of SCBs nephrotoxicity.

  5. The artificial kidney dialysis to treat acute renal failure by LOXOSCELISM

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Rodríguez, Luis Enrique; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    1 - . Were submitted 3 cases of Acute Renal Loxosceles laeta produced and who were treated with artificial kidney. 2 - . Artificial Kidney saved the lives of 2 patients , allowing the recovery of renal function . 3 - . Loxoscelism Anuria caused by one of the cases, it was the longest among all observed by different etiologies in the Service of Metabolic and Kidney Diseases. April . Nitrogen retention and anuria were significant in all 3 cases of acute renal failure due Loxoscelism . May . The...

  6. Anxiety, depression, resilience and quality of life in children and adolescents with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Janaina Matos; Bouissou Morais Soares, Cristina Maria; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Simões E Silva, Ana Cristina; Kummer, Arthur Melo

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for psychosocial impairment and psychiatric symptoms. Children and adolescents on dialysis frequently have compromised daily life activities and a worse quality of life (QoL) compared with healthy peers. However, few studies have investigated these aspects of CKD in pediatric pre-dialysis CKD patients. Therefore, we have analyzed resilience, QoL and anxiety and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with pre-dialysis CKD and compared these to the values of healthy controls. Demographic and clinical data were collected from 28 children and adolescents with pre-dialysis CKD and 28 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Psychological assessment of the participants was performed using the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life (QoL) Inventory 4.0 , Child Depression Inventory and Self-report for Childhood Anxiety Related Disorders scales. Of the 56 children enrolled in our study, the CKD patients were referred to mental health professionals more frequently than the controls. Patients exhibited higher scores for separation anxiety and a higher frequency of clinically significant depressive symptoms. They also had lower overall QoL scores, as well as poorer scores for the psychological, educational and psychosocial subdomains of QoL instruments. There was a negative correlation between anxiety and depressive symptoms and all domains of QoL. Resilience was similar in both groups, but lower in patients with significant depressive symptoms. No significant association was found between clinical or laboratory findings and psychological variables in CKD patients. Although patients and controls exhibited similar scores of resilience, CKD negatively impacted the QoL of pediatric patients, contributing to a higher frequency of depression and separation anxiety.

  7. The impact of Kt/V urea-based dialysis adequacy on quality of life and adherence in haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence of a link between dialysis adequacy (as measured by urea kinetic modeling or urea reduction ratio and such important clinical outcomes as morbidity and mortality. Evidence regarding the relationship between dialysis adequacy and quality of life (QOL outcomes as well as adherence is less clear. The present paper is a study protocol which is planning to answer the following research question: what is the impact of dialysis adequacy on QOL and adherence in a sample of hemodialysis patients? The final sample size will be around 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis. Each subject’s QOL and adherence will be measured using the following instruments: i the Missoula-VITAS quality of life index 25; ii the multidimensional scale of perceived social support and iii the simplified medication adherence questionnaire. Dialysis adequacy is expected to be related to QOL and adherence scores.

  8. Key Factors for a High-Quality Peritoneal Dialysis Program — The Role of the PD Team and Continuous Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased very fast in China over the last decade. Renji Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, is a recognized high-quality PD unit with a high PD utilization rate, excellent patient and technique survival (1-year and 5-year patient survival rate of 93% and 71%, and 1-year and 5-year technique survival of 96% and 82%, respectively), low peritonitis rate and a well-documented good quality of life of the treated patients. We believe that a dedicated and experienced PD team, a structured patient training program, continuous patient support, establishing and utilizing standardized protocols, starting PD with low dialysis dose, monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) are the key factors underlying this successful PD program. PMID:24962961

  9. Health-related quality of life of children with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hee Sun; Kang, Hee Gyung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Cheong, Hae Il; Ha, Il Soo; Han, Kyung Hee; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Hee Yeon; Shin, Jae Il; Park, Young Seo; Lee, Joo Hoon; Lee, Joongyub; Ahn, Curie; Cho, Min Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of Asian children with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to reveal the factors influencing the QOL of children with CKD. We performed a cross-sectional study of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale Module in the KNOW-PedCKD (KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients with Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease) cohort, and compared the child self-reported and parent proxy-reported QOL of the pediatric cohort. From 2011 through 2016, a total of 376 children with CKD were enrolled after informed consent was obtained from parents or caregivers in seven pediatric nephrology centers. In parent proxy-reports, male patients had a better QOL than female patients in the Physical Functioning category. In child self-reports, male patients had better QOL than female patients in the Physical, Emotional, and School Functioning categories. According to CKD stage, there were significant differences in the QOL score in all categories of parent proxy-reports, and patients with higher CKD stage (lower glomerular filtration rate) had a worse QOL. Growth parameters showed a significantly positive correlation with the QOL score in all categories. The QOL of children with predialysis CKD is affected by various factors, including sex, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), socio-economic status, existence of co-morbidities, anemia, growth retardation, and behavioral disorders. To improve their QOL, it is important to objectively understand the respective effects of these factors and attempt early intervention.

  10. The association between bioimpedance analysis and quality of life in pre-dialysis stage 5 chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsiri, Somchai; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Prongnamchai, Suriya; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Chueansuwan, Rachaneeporn; Tangjaturonrasme, Siriporn; Chaivanit, Pechngam

    2014-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting is a significant problem in End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Furthermore, it compromises the patient's Quality of life (QOL). Multifrequency Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) is a validated method to assess body composition in dialysis patients. There has been no data on the relationship between body composition and QOL in ESRD patients who were treated with different modalities. To explore the association between body composition as assessed by BIS and QOL in ESRD patients who received different treatment modalities. The present study is a cross sectional, descriptive analytic study of the association between QOL and BIS in ESRD patients in Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand. QOL was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, body composition was measured by BIS technique. The difference between groups was tested by one-way ANOVA test, relationship between groups was tested with Pearson correlation test. Eighteen predialysis-CKD5, 26 peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 34 hemodialysis (HD) patients were included in the present study. All PD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 1.7 per week and all HD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 3.6 per week. There were no statistically difference in baseline characteristics including Charlson comorbidity index, dietary intake, BMI, and blood pressure between groups. Mean QOL scores in each group were in the middle range and not significantly difference. PD patients had more over hydration when compare to HD patients (16.18 +/- 11.24 vs. 2.36 +/- 11.07 %OH/ECW p < 0.0001). There were inversed correlation between overhydration and physical health in HD patients (r = -0.372, p = 0.033) but not in PD and CKD5 patients. CKD5 patients had more lean tissue index (LTI) than PD and HD patients (LTI = 14.34 +/- 3.13, 12.26 +/- 3.65, 11.48 +/- 3.48 kg/m2 respectively, p = 0.023). There were correlation between LTI and overall QOL in CKD5 (r = 0.690, p = 0.002) and PD patients (r = 0.498, p = 0.010). In HD patients, LTI

  11. Peritoneal Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines. Peritoneal dialysis is done more continuously than hemodialysis, resulting in less accumulation of potassium, sodium and fluid. More stable blood chemistry and body hydration. Peritoneal dialysis doesn't require intravenous (IV) access, ...

  12. Patient and kidney survival by dialysis modality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, S.; Bellomo, R.; Kellum, J. A.; Morimatsu, H.; Morgera, S.; Schetz, M. R.; Tan, I.; Bouman, C.; Macedo, E.; Gibney, N.; Tolwani, A.; Oudemans-van Straaten, H. M.; Ronco, C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a large, international cohort, we sought to determine the effect of initial technique of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on the outcome of acute renal failure (ARF) in the intensive care unit (ICU). We enrolled 1218 patients treated with continuous RRT (CRRT) or intermittent RRT (IRRT) for ARF

  13. Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome: Brain death following hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagshaw Sean M

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is the clinical phenomenon of acute neurologic symptoms attributed to cerebral edema that occurs during or following intermittent hemodialysis (HD. We describe a case of DDS-induced cerebral edema that resulted in irreversible brain injury and death following acute HD and review the relevant literature of the association of DDS and HD. Case Presentation A 22-year-old male with obstructive uropathy presented to hospital with severe sepsis syndrome secondary to pneumonia. Laboratory investigations included a pH of 6.95, PaCO2 10 mmHg, HCO3 2 mmol/L, serum sodium 132 mmol/L, serum osmolality 330 mosmol/kg, and urea 130 mg/dL (46.7 mmol/L. Diagnostic imaging demonstrated multifocal pneumonia, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder wall thickening. During HD the patient became progressively obtunded. Repeat laboratory investigations showed pH 7.36, HCO3 19 mmol/L, potassium 1.8 mmol/L, and urea 38.4 mg/dL (13.7 mmol/L (urea-reduction-ratio 71%. Following HD, spontaneous movements were absent with no pupillary or brainstem reflexes. Head CT-scan showed diffuse cerebral edema with effacement of basal cisterns and generalized loss of gray-white differentiation. Brain death was declared. Conclusions Death is a rare consequence of DDS in adults following HD. Several features may have predisposed this patient to DDS including: central nervous system adaptations from chronic kidney disease with efficient serum urea removal and correction of serum hyperosmolality; severe cerebral intracellular acidosis; relative hypercapnea; and post-HD hemodynamic instability with compounded cerebral ischemia.

  14. Relationship between total testosterone, cognitive function, depressive behavior, and sleep quality in chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris

    2013-02-01

    Studies show that testosterone levels are associated with cognitive function, depression, and sleep quality in the general population. However, these relationships in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not on dialysis have not yet been evaluated before. All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure measurement, routine urine and biochemical analysis, 24-h urine collection to measure urinary protein excretion and creatinine clearance, and evaluation of cognitive function, depressive behavior, and sleep quality. In total, 109 CKD patients were enrolled. Total testosterone levels in stage 3, 4, and 5 CKD patients were 8.32 ± 4.35, 6.71 ± 3.12, and 4.22 ± 1.28 ng/ml, respectively (p Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score were 26.2 ± 1.9, 7.1 ± 3.4, and 8.6 ± 6.4, respectively. In linear regression analysis, total testosterone levels were independently associated with SMMSE score [b 0.170, confidence interval (CI) 0.047-0.293, p 0.008] and BDI score (b -0.750, CI -1.283 to -0.216, p 0.006) but not with sleep quality. Total serum testosterone levels were independently associated with cognitive function and depressive behavior but not with sleep disorders in stage 3-5 CKD patients not on dialysis.

  15. How to meet the demand for good quality renal dialysis as part of universal health coverage in resource-limited settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Luz, Alia; Pilasant, Songyot; Tangsathitkulchai, Suteenoot; Chootipongchaivat, Sarocha; Tritasavit, Nattha; Yamabhai, Inthira; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-03-18

    It is very challenging for resource-limited settings to introduce universal health coverage (UHC), particularly regarding the inclusion of high-cost renal dialysis as part of the UHC benefit package. This paper addresses three issues: (1) whether a setting commits to include renal dialysis in its UHC benefit package and if so, why and how; (2) how to ensure quality of renal dialysis services; and (3) how to improve the quality of life of patients using psychosocial and community interventions. This article reviews experiences of renal dialysis programs in seven settings based on presentations and discussions during the International Forum on Peritoneal Dialysis as a Priority Health Policy in Asia. A literature review was conducted to verify and validate the data as well as to fill information gaps presented in the forum. Five out of the seven settings implemented renal dialysis as part of their benefits package, while the other two have pilots or programs in their nascent stage. Renal replacement therapy has become part of the universal access package because these governments recognize the rising number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) cases, the catastrophically high costs of treatment, and that this is the only life-saving treatment available to patients. The recommendations are as follows: Governments should have a holistic approach to CKD interventions, including primary prevention as well as psychosocial interventions. Governments should consider subsidizing CKD treatment costs depending on their resources. Multi-stakeholder cooperation should be facilitated to enact these policies and conduct research and development for all aspects of interventions. International collaboration should be initiated to share experiences, good practices, and joint activities (e.g. capacity building and multinational procurement of medical supplies). This study provides practical recommendations to country governments as well as the international community on how to meet the

  16. Acute Kidney Injury Treated with Dialysis outside the Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Observational Single-Center Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Sprenger-Mähr

    Full Text Available The number of patients suffering from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D is increasing. Whereas causes and outcome of AKI-D in the intensive care unit (ICU are described extensively, few data exist about AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU. Aim of this study was to identify the causes of AKI-D, determine in-depth the comorbid conditions and outcome of this particular patient group and identify possibilities for its prevention.We retrospectively studied all AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU in a single nephrology referral center between January 2010 and June 2015. Data on comorbid conditions, renal function and drug therapy prior to AKI-D, and possible causal events were collected. Patients were grouped into those with renal hypoperfusion as the predominant cause of AKI-D (hemodynamic group and those with other causes (non-hemodynamic group.During 66 months 128 patients (57% male, mean age 69.3 years were treated. AKI-D was community-acquired in 70.3%. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (62.5%, chronic kidney disease (CKD (58.9%, coronary artery disease (CAD (46.1%, diabetes (35.9% and heart failure (34.1%. Most patients were prescribed diuretics (61.7% and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RASI (57.8%; 46.1% had a combination of both. In the 88 patients with hemodynamic AKI-D (68.8% the most frequent initiating events were diarrhea (39.8%, infections (17.0% and acute heart failure (13.6%. In the 40 patients with non-hemodynamic AKI-D (31.2% interstitial nephritis (n = 15 was the prominent diagnosis. Patients with hemodynamic AKI-D were older (72.6 vs. 62.1 years, p = 0.001, suffered more often from CKD (68.2% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003, CAD (54.5% vs. 27.5%, p = 0.004 and diabetes (42.0% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.033, and were more frequently on diuretics (75.0% vs. 32.5%, p<0.001, RASI (67.0% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.002 or their combination (58.0% vs. 20.0%, p<0.001. Twenty-two (17.2% patients died and 27 (21

  17. Preventing Heel Pressure Ulcers: Sustained Quality Improvement Initiative in a Canadian Acute Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Bull, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The setting for this quality improvement initiative designed to reduce the prevalence of facility-acquired heel pressure ulcers was a regional, acute-care, 490-bed facility in Ontario, Canada, responsible for dialysis, vascular, and orthopedic surgery. An interdisciplinary skin and wound care team designed an evidence-based quality improvement initiative based on a systematic literature review and standardization of heel offloading methods. The prevalence of heel pressure ulcers was measured at baseline (immediately prior to implementation of initiative) and at 1 and 4 years following implementation. The prevalence of facility-acquired heel pressure ulcers was 5.8% when measured before project implementation. It was 4.2% at 1 year following implementation and 1.6% when measured at the end of the 4-year initiative. Outcomes demonstrate that the initiative resulted in a continuous and sustained reduction in facility-acquired heel pressure ulcer incidence over a 4-year period.

  18. Equilibrium Dialysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.

  19. The Course of Quality of Life in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis: A 12-month Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Haikel A; Yu, Zhenli; Kang, Augustine W C; Foo, Marjorie W Y; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) impairments are common in patients undergoing dialysis, and have been strongly associated with significant clinical outcomes like mortality and morbidity. Despite this, little is known about the course of QOL over time, especially for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). This prospective study was set to explore course and determinants of QOL over 12 months in PD patients. A total of 115 PD patients completed the SF-12 and Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) at baseline and 12 months later. Intra-individual changes in physical (physical component summary, PCS), mental (mental component summary, MCS), and Kidney Disease Component Summary scores (KDCS) were identified based on the minimally important clinical difference threshold. Clinical information was extracted from medical records. Of the patients, 74-80 % reported physical QOL impairments, as compared to 29-33 % who reported mental/emotional QOL impairments. PCS and MCS scores remained stable across 12 months. Significant deterioration was noted in the domains of patient satisfaction, staff encouragement, and social support, while there were significant increases in the perceived effects of kidney disease. Intra-individual trajectory analyses indicated that one in three patients reported deteriorating QOL. No sociodemographic or clinical variables were found to be associated with course of outcomes. Although PD offers the convenience of home-based care, it is associated with persisting QOL impairments and diminishing QOL over time, especially in domains related to quality of care and support. This highlights the need for improving or maintaining standards of care and support for PD patients as they become increasingly established on their regimes.

  20. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagels Agneta A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Methods Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2–5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. Results All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in ‘physical functioning’, ‘role physical’, ‘general health’ and in physical summary scores (PCS. The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2–3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES ≥ .80 - in ‘general health’ and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in ‘physical function’, ‘general health’ and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2–3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 – 0.79 in ‘role emotional’ and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate Conclusions Having CKD implies impaired HRQoL, also in earlier stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  1. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderkvist, Birgitta Klang; Medin, Charlotte; Hylander, Britta; Heiwe, Susanne

    2012-06-18

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2-5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in 'physical functioning', 'role physical', 'general health' and in physical summary scores (PCS). The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2-3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES) ≥ .80 - in 'general health' and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in 'physical function', 'general health' and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2-3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 - 0.79) in 'role emotional' and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  2. Comparison of Outcomes and Quality of Life between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients in Indian ESRD Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Vikas; Kumar, Manish; Mahajan, Rajesh; Khaira, N S

    2015-03-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are important renal replacement treatments in end stage renal disease (ESRD). There is paucity of data comparing outcomes and quality of life (QOL) between the two modalities in Indian scenario. We followed 60 End stage renal disease patients (30 CAPD and 30 Maintenance hemodialysis) for a period of one year. Patients were analysed and compared for complications, physical quality of life and psychological well being with a two part self reported questionnaire at baseline and subsequently at six and twelve months. For the physical component appropriate sections of the McMaster Health Index Questionnaire (MHIQ) and for psychological component Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB) developed by Dupey was applied. The number of males and females in both groups were comparable (p-value > 0.05).The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, obesity and ischaemic heart disease was comparable in both groups (p-value>0.05). Significantly higher mortality was observed in patients undergoing HD (20% vs 0 %, p-value psychological aspects and have significantly lower mortality when compared with hemodialysis patients.

  3. Satellite dialysis nursing: technology, caring and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of an exploration of nurses' perceptions of the quality of satellite dialysis care and how aspects of power that influenced quality nursing care. In Australia, the majority of people living with established kidney failure undertake haemodialysis in nurse-run satellite dialysis units. Haemodialysis nurses provide the majority of care, and their perceptions of what constitutes quality nursing care may influence their care of the person receiving haemodialysis. A critical ethnographic study was conducted where data were collected from one metropolitan satellite dialysis unit in Australia over a 12-month period throughout 2005. The methods included non-participant observation, interviews, document analysis, reflective field notes and participant feedback. Three theoretical constructs were identified: 'What is quality?', 'What is not quality?' and What influences quality?' Nurses considered technical knowledge, technical skills and personal respect as characteristics of quality. Long-term blood pressure management and arranging transport for people receiving dialysis treatment were not seen to be priorities for quality care. The person receiving dialysis treatment, management, nurse and environment were considered major factors determining quality dialysis nursing care. Aspects of power and oppression operated for nurses and people receiving dialysis treatment within the satellite dialysis context, and this environment was perceived by the nurses as very different from hospital dialysis units. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Relationship between Kt/V urea-based dialysis adequacy and nutritional status and their effect on the components of the quality of life in incident peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin-Bor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease can be improved by dialysis. While previous studies have used retrospective designs and adhered to a standard target prescribed by clinical guidelines, our study prospectively investigates the association between the adequacy of peritoneal dialysis (PD and measures of nutritional status on quality-of-life domains in a cohort of incident PD patients. Methods It was a prospective 6-month observational study. Eighty incident PD participants who were treated in a hospital-based PD center were enrolled. The period of enrollment was January 2009–June 2010; follow-up continued until December 2010. PD adequacy indices, including Kt/V urea, weekly Ccr (WCcr, measures of nutritional status (albumin, BMI, and nPCR were measured at 1 month and 6 months after PD initiation. SF-36 health survey questionnaires were used to measure the quality of life. The outcomes were used to measure the changes in the domains of the SF-36 after 6 months of PD therapy. Results Seventy-seven incident patients who underwent PD for 6 months were included in the study. The mean age was 47.3 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 38:39. A peritoneal Kt/V urea value of 1.2, which was also the baseline cutoff value, was found to have the highest influence on SF-36 domains. Patients with baseline peritoneal Kt/V urea value of Limitations A small cohort and a short observation period. Conclusions The baseline level of peritoneal Kt/V urea affected the components of the quality of life after PD initiation. In contrast, a lower baseline nPCR level was associated with deterioration in the quality of life after PD therapy.

  5. Symptom burden and quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a study of 179 patients on dialysis and palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, D S P; Kwok, A O L; Wong, D M L; Suen, M H P; Chen, W T; Tse, D M W

    2009-03-01

    Palliative care for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is developing in Hong Kong. This is the first local study to explore the symptom burden and quality of life (QOL) of ESRD patients on chronic dialysis and palliative care. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted on ESRD patients in a hospital in Hong Kong from January 2006 to April 2007. Data collected included demographics, socioeconomic status, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), prevalence and intensity of 23 ESRD-related symptoms as rated by numerical rating scale (0-10), Brief Pain Inventory and QOL by MOS SF-36. A total of 179 ESRD patients completed the study; 45 patients (25.1%) were in the palliative care group and 134 patients (74.9%) in the dialysis group. The palliative care group were older (73.1 +/- 7.1 vs 58.2 +/- 11.4 years, P diabetics (62.2 vs 35.8%, P < 0.001) and were of poorer socioeconomic status than the dialysis group. The mean number of symptoms was 8.2 +/- 3.9 and 9.3 +/- 4.7 in the palliative care and the dialysis group, respectively (P = NS). Fatigue, cold aversion, pruritus, lower torso weakness and difficulty sleeping were the five most prevalent symptoms in both groups, and were also among the most intense symptoms. QOL was significantly impaired in both groups. Scores of all QOL domains correlated negatively with the number of symptoms (P < 0.001). Our ESRD patients under palliative care and dialysis had overlapping symptom prevalence and intensity, significant symptom burden and impaired QOL.

  6. Health-related quality of life with KDQOL-36 and its association with self-efficacy and treatment satisfaction in Korean dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Bokyoung; Park, Ki-Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Seo, Jung-Ju; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to measure the level of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to reveal the association of self-efficacy and treatment satisfaction with it in Korean dialysis patients. The study subjects were 237 patients receiving either hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) from two university hospitals, from February to June in 2010. We investigated HRQOL using the Korean version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36), and self-efficacy and treatment satisfaction by self-administrative questionnaire and their dialysis-related variables by reviewing clinical records. The associations of self-efficacy and treatment satisfaction with HRQOL were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. The mean HRQOL results were as follows: Physical component score (PCS) was 39.1 ± 8.5, Mental component score (MCS) 44.6 ± 6.8, symptom/problem list was 67.6 ± 17.1, effects of disease score was 58.5 ± 19.6, and burden of disease score was 41.1 ± 28.4. Between PD and HD patients, we could find significant difference only in the symptom/problem list. After removing confounder's effects by multivariate analysis, respectively, treatment goal self-efficacy and treatment management self-efficacy were significantly related with all 5 domains, except PCS. Treatment satisfaction was significantly related with PCS, MCS, and effects of kidney disease. Patients' self-efficacy and treatment satisfaction could influence their HRQOL. Regular and systematic monitoring using KDQOL-36 and interventions to increase self-efficacy and treatment satisfaction should be considered in dialysis care in Korea.

  7. Sleep disorders, depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life--a cross-sectional comparison between kidney transplant recipients and waitlisted patients on maintenance dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Agnes Zsofia; Molnar, Miklos Zsolt; Szeifert, Lilla; Ambrus, Csaba; Molnar-Varga, Marta; Szentkiralyi, Andras; Mucsi, Istvan; Novak, Marta

    2011-03-01

    Kidney transplantation is believed to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Recent studies suggested that the observed difference in HRQoL between kidney transplant recipients (Tx) vs patients treated with dialysis may reflect differences in patient characteristics. We tested if Tx patients have better HRQoL compared to waitlisted (WL) patients treated with dialysis after extensive adjustment for covariables. Eight hundred and eighty-eight prevalent Tx patients followed at a single outpatient transplant clinic and 187 WL patients treated with maintenance dialysis in nine dialysis centres were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. Data about socio-demographic and clinical parameters, self-reported depressive symptoms and the most frequent sleep disorders assessed by self-reported questionnaires were collected at enrollment. HRQoL was assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire. Patient characteristics were similar in the Tx vs WL groups: the proportion of males (58 vs 60%), mean ± SD age (49 ± 13 vs 49 ± 12) and proportion of diabetics (17 vs 18%), respectively, were all similar. Tx patients had significantly better HRQoL scores compared to the WL group both in generic (Physical function, General health perceptions, Energy/fatigue, Emotional well-being) and in kidney disease-specific domains (Symptoms/problems, Effect- and Burden of kidney disease and Sleep). In multivariate regression models adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, sleep disorders and depressive symptoms, the modality of RRT (WL vs Tx) remained independently associated with three (General health perceptions, Effect- and Burden of kidney disease) out of the eight HRQoL dimensions analysed. Kidney Tx recipients have significantly better HRQoL compared to WL dialysis patients in some, but not all, dimensions of quality of life after accounting for differences in patient

  8. Dialysis centers - what to expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys - dialysis centers; Dialysis - what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers; End-stage renal disease - dialysis ... to a tube that connects to the dialysis machine. Your blood will flow through the tube, into ...

  9. Ultrapure dialysis water obtained with additional ultrafilter may reduce inflammation in patients on hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Iorio, Biagio; Di Micco, Lucia; Bruzzese, Dario; Nardone, Luca; Russo, Luigi; Formisano, Pietro; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Russo, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients on standard dialysis, in particular those on high-flux and high-efficiency dialysis, are exposed to hundreds of liters of dialysis-water per week. The quality of dialysis-water is a factor responsible for inflammation in dialysis patients. Inflammation is a potent trigger of atherosclerosis and a pathogenetic factor in anemia, increasing mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. Current systems for water treatment do not completely eliminate bacteria and endotoxins. Th...

  10. Comparison of health-related quality of life between patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease and patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Jeong; Son, Heesook

    2016-01-01

    This study compared health-related quality of life in patients with early to mid-stage chronic kidney disease. This study utilized a comparative descriptive design. Patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis were recruited from a hospital in Korea. Information from patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease was obtained from Korean national survey data. A total of 75 pairs were matched using the propensity score method. Health-related quality of life was compared using the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire. Only 4% of patients with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease are aware of their disease. These patients have decreased mobility and ability to perform their usual activities (χ(2)  = 10.77, P = 0.001; χ(2)  = 7.22, P = 0.007, respectively). However, they have lower levels of anxiety and depression than patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (χ(2)  = 13.37, P chronic kidney disease. Educational intervention in asymptomatic patients is important to increase awareness and early detection of chronic kidney disease. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. Renal replacement therapy in the ICU: comparison of clinical features and outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Türkay; Karakurt, Sait; Tuğlular, Serhan

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study is to study clinical features and outcomes of the patients who had renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) between 2000 and 2007. We retrospectively studied 222 patients. Overall ICU mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) rates were 58.1 and 61.3 %. The mean APACHE II score was 27.6 ± 8.3. Chronic dialysis (CD) patients formed 45.5 % of the study population. Acute kidney injury (AKI) patients had higher rates of IMV (73 vs. 51.5 %, p = 0.002), cancer (27.8 vs. 7.9 %, p ≤ 0.001) and mortality (67.8 vs. 50.5 %, p = 0.010) than CD patients. AKI patients with normal kidney function (NKF) before ICU admission had poorer prognosis than acute-on-chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CD patients (78.6, 51 and 50.5 %, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that IMV (OR, 14.8; 95 % CI, 5.47-40.05; p ≤ 0.001) and having NKF before hospitalization (OR, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.04-7.37; p = 0.041) were predictors of overall ICU mortality. Additionally, IMV is found as a prognostic factor for both AKI (OR, 18.7; 95 % CI, 4.48-77.72; p ≤ 0.001) and CD patients (OR, 8.14; 95 % CI, 2.01-33.04; p = 0.003), but APACHE II score is meaningful only for CD patients (OR, 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.02-1.26; p = 0.024). The areas under the ROC curves for APACHE II score were 0.52 (95 % CI, 0.39-0.66) for AKI and 0.78 (95 % CI, 0.55-0.89) for CD patients. The observed ICU mortality among patients requiring RRT is high and IMV is associated with mortality. AKI patients have increased mortality compared to CD patients. AKI patients with past NKF have poorer prognosis than acute-on-CKD and CD patients.

  12. [Effect of continuous quality improvement (CQI) on hypertension management in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Tao

    2004-04-01

    To improve hypertension management in peritoneal dialysis patients through CQI process. Using the 4-step problem-solving framework called the PDCA cycle-plan, do, check and act, we conducted a CQI program. One hundred and forty-five peritoneal dialysis patients dialyzed for more than 3 months participated in the study. In 49 prevalent patients, the incidence of uncontrolled hypertension (BP>or=140/90 mm Hg 1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) decreased from 49% to 16.3% although there were no significant changes in antihypertensive medication and total fluid removal. The incidence of uncontrolled hypertension in incident patients decreased from 61.3% to 28%. Height normalized extracellular water decreased significantly. In males it was from (10.8+/-1.4) kg/m to (10.3+/-1.7) kg/m and in females (9.6+/-1.2) kg/m to (8.6+/-1.2) kg/m. CQI is a useful method in the management of hypertension in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  13. Urgent peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis catheter dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Charmaine E

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, there is a steady incident rate of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who require renal replacement therapy. Of these patients, approximately one-third have an "unplanned" or "urgent" start to dialysis. This can be a very challenging situation where patients have either not had adequate time for education and decision making regarding dialysis modality and appropriate dialysis access, or a decision was made and plans were altered due to unforeseen circumstances. Despite such unplanned starts, clinicians must still consider the patient's ESKD "life-plan", which includes the best initial dialysis modality and access to suit the patient's individual goals and their medical, social, logistic, and facility circumstances. This paper will discuss the considerations of peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis catheter access and hemodialysis and central venous catheter access in patients who require an urgent start to dialysis.

  14. Non-machinery dialysis that achieves blood purification therapy without using full-scale dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takaya; Onoda, Mistutaka; Matsuura, Tomohiko; Sugimura, Jun; Obara, Wataru; Sato, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mihoko; Chiba, Kenta; Abe, Tomiya

    2017-09-01

    An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury. The non-machinery dialysis potassium removal rate was at the same level as continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 5 L/h after 15 min and continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 3 L/h after 30 min. Non-machinery dialysis required an exclusive dialysate circuit, the frequent need to replace bags, and new dialysate exchanged once every 30 min. However, it can be seen as an effective renal replacement therapy for crush-related acute kidney injury patients, even in locations or facilities not having the full-scale dialysis machines.

  15. Oral status, quality of life, and anxiety and depression in hemodialysis patients and the effect of the duration of treatment by dialysis on these variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Alonso, F; Cánovas-García, C; Martínez-Ortiz, C; De la Mano-Espinosa, T; Ortuño-Celdrán, T; Marcello-Godino, J I; Ramos-Sánchez, R; Sánchez-Siles, M

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed is to evaluate the oral health status, quality of life, anxiety and depression among hemodialysis patients and to analyze the effect of the duration of dialysis on these variables. 120 patients on hemodialysis and 120 control subjects underwent oral examination, periodontal evaluation, xerostomia study using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), sialometry evaluation; quality of life (QOL) using the OHIP-14 questionnaire and anxiety/depression. Bleeding index, CPTIN, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were significantly higher in the hemodialysis group than the control group (p 10 years, xerostomia and sialorrea was worse in patients treated for 5-9.9, and >10 years, QOL was worse in patients who had spent <1 year; depression and anxiety was greater among those treated for 1-2.9 years. In conclusion, Oral health, QOL, anxiety and depression are worse in patients on hemodialysis, and oral health deteriorates as the time spent in dialysis lengthens, but patients in treatment for <3 years presented the poorest QOL and the greatest anxiety and depression.

  16. Renal function recovery in chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jay K; Folkert, Vaughn W

    2010-01-01

    Renal function recovery (RFR) from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis occurs at a high frequency. RFR from chronic dialysis, on the other hand, is an uncommon but well-recognized phenomenon, occurring at a rate of 1.0-2.4% according to data from large observational studies. The underlying etiology of renal failure is the single most important predicting factor of RFR in chronic dialysis patients. The disease types with the highest RFR rates are atheroembolic renal disease, systemic autoimmune disease, renovascular diseases, and scleroderma. The disease types with the lowest RFR rates are diabetic nephropathy and cystic kidney disease. Initial dialysis modality does not appear to influence RFR. Careful observation and history taking are needed to recognize the often nonspecific clinical and laboratory signs of RFR. When RFR is suspected in a chronic dialysis patient, a 24-hour urine urea and creatinine clearance should be measured. Based on the renal clearance, along with other clinical factors, the dialysis prescription may be gradually reduced until a complete discontinuation of dialysis. After RFR from maintenance dialysis, patients require close follow-up in an office setting for chronic kidney disease management. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Quality of primary care guidelines for acute low back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tulder, Maurits W.; Tuut, Mariska; Pennick, Victoria; Bombardier, Claire; Assendelft, Willem J J

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of clinical guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess the methodologic quality of existing guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Guidelines are playing an increasingly important role in evidence-based practice. After publication of

  18. The hemodynamic tolerability and feasibility of sustained low efficiency dialysis in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisenbaum Rosane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimization of hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy (RRT in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI is often challenging. We examined the relative hemodynamic tolerability of sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT in critically ill patients with AKI. We also compared the feasibility of SLED administration with that of CRRT and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD. Methods This cohort study encompassed four critical care units within a single university-affiliated medical centre. 77 consecutive critically ill patients with AKI who were treated with CRRT (n = 30, SLED (n = 13 or IHD (n = 34 and completed at least two RRT sessions were included in the study. Overall, 223 RRT sessions were analyzed. Hemodynamic instability during a given session was defined as the composite of a > 20% reduction in mean arterial pressure or any escalation in pressor requirements. Treatment feasibility was evaluated based on the fraction of the prescribed therapy time that was delivered. An interrupted session was designated if Results Hemodynamic instability occurred during 22 (56.4% SLED and 43 (50.0% CRRT sessions (p = 0.51. In a multivariable analysis that accounted for clustering of multiple sessions within the same patient, the odds ratio for hemodynamic instability with SLED was 1.20 (95% CI 0.58-2.47, as compared to CRRT. Session interruption occurred in 16 (16.3, 30 (34.9 and 11 (28.2 of IHD, CRRT and SLED therapies, respectively. Conclusions In critically ill patients with AKI, the administration of SLED is feasible and provides comparable hemodynamic control to CRRT.

  19. Effect of sustained low efficient dialysis versus continuous renal replacement therapy on renal recovery after acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Bernadett; Sullivan, Katrina J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Patel, Rakesh V

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill adults with acute kidney injury (AKI) experience considerable morbidity and mortality. Controversy remains regarding the optimal renal replacement intervention for these patients. Our systematic review aimed to determine the effect(s) of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) compared with continuous renal replacement (CRRT) therapy on relevant patient outcomes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Identified citations were screened independently in duplicate for relevance, and the methodological quality of included studies was evaluated. Data were extracted on study, patient and intervention characteristics and relevant clinical outcomes. Results were pooled using inverse variance fixed and random effects meta-analysis. A total of 1564 patients from 18 studies were included. Meta-analysis results indicated no statistically significant difference in our primary outcome, overall proportion of renal recovery (risk ratio (RR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.20, I2 = 66%). No significant difference was observed for the secondary outcome of time to renal recovery (mean difference 1.33, 95% CI 0.23-2.88, I2 = 0%). Statistically, SLED was marginally favoured over CRRT for the secondary outcome of mortality (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43, I2 = 47%); however, this diminished when sensitivity analysis of only randomized controlled trials was conducted (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.57, I2 = 0%). There appears to be no clear for advantage continuous renal replacement in the hemodynamically unstable patient. Currently, both modalities are safe and effective means of treating AKI in the critically ill adult. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Quality of life, mental health and health beliefs in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients: Investigating differences in early and later years of current treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaras V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examines differences regarding quality of life (QoL, mental health and illness beliefs between in-centre haemodialysis (HD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD patients. Differences are examined between patients who recently commenced treatment compared to patients on long term treatment. Methods 144 End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD patients were recruited from three treatment units, of which 135 provided full data on the variables studied. Patients consisted of: a 77 in-centre haemodialysis (HD and 58 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD patients, all currently being treated by dialysis for varied length of time. Patients were compared for differences after being grouped into those who recently commenced treatment ( 4 years. Next, cases were selected as to form two equivalent groups of HD and CAPD/PD patients in terms of length of treatment and sociodemographic variables. The groups consisted of: a 41 in-centre haemodialysis (HD and b 48 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD patients, fitting the selection criteria of recent commencement of treatment and similar sociodemographic characteristics. Patient-reported assessments included: WHOQOL-BREF, GHQ-28 and the MHLC, which is a health locus of control inventory. Results Differences in mean scores were mainly observed in the HD patients with > 4 years of treatment, providing lower mean scores in the QoL domains of physical health, social relationships and environment, as well as in overall mental health. Differences in CAPD/PD groups, between those in early and those in later years of treatment, were not found to be large and significant. Concerning the analysis on equivalent groups derived from selection of cases, HD patients indicated significantly lower mean scores in the QoL domain of environment and higher scores in the GHQ-28 subscales of anxiety/insomnia and severe depression, indicating more symptoms in these areas

  1. Quality of life, mental health and health beliefs in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients: investigating differences in early and later years of current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Theofilou, P; Synodinou, C; Tomaras, V; Soldatos, C

    2008-11-14

    The study examines differences regarding quality of life (QoL), mental health and illness beliefs between in-centre haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD) patients. Differences are examined between patients who recently commenced treatment compared to patients on long term treatment. 144 End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients were recruited from three treatment units, of which 135 provided full data on the variables studied. Patients consisted of: a) 77 in-centre haemodialysis (HD) and 58 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD) patients, all currently being treated by dialysis for varied length of time. Patients were compared for differences after being grouped into those who recently commenced treatment ( 4 years). Next, cases were selected as to form two equivalent groups of HD and CAPD/PD patients in terms of length of treatment and sociodemographic variables. The groups consisted of: a) 41 in-centre haemodialysis (HD) and b) 48 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/PD) patients, fitting the selection criteria of recent commencement of treatment and similar sociodemographic characteristics. Patient-reported assessments included: WHOQOL-BREF, GHQ-28 and the MHLC, which is a health locus of control inventory. Differences in mean scores were mainly observed in the HD patients with > 4 years of treatment, providing lower mean scores in the QoL domains of physical health, social relationships and environment, as well as in overall mental health. Differences in CAPD/PD groups, between those in early and those in later years of treatment, were not found to be large and significant. Concerning the analysis on equivalent groups derived from selection of cases, HD patients indicated significantly lower mean scores in the QoL domain of environment and higher scores in the GHQ-28 subscales of anxiety/insomnia and severe depression, indicating more symptoms in these areas of mental health. With regards to illness

  2. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  3. Quality of primary care guidelines for acute low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, Maurits W.; Tuut, Mariska; Pennick, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of clinical guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess the methodologic quality of existing guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Guidelines are playing an increasingly important role in evidence-based practice. After publication...... of the Quebec Task Force in Canada in 1987 and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines in the United States in 1994, guidelines for acute low back pain were developed in many other countries. However, little is known about the methodologic quality of these guidelines. METHODS: Guidelines were...... selected by electronically searching MEDLINE and the Internet and through personal communication with experts in the field of low back pain research in primary care. The methodologic quality of the guidelines was assessed by two authors independently using the AGREE instrument. RESULTS: A total of 17...

  4. Health status, renal function, and quality of life after multiorgan failure and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulhaber-Walter R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Faulhaber-Walter,1,2 Sebastian Scholz,1,3 Herrmann Haller,1 Jan T Kielstein,1,* Carsten Hafer1,4,* 1Department of Renal and Hypertensive Disease, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2Facharztzentrum Aarberg, Waldshut-Tiengen, Germany; 3Sanitaetsversorgungszentrum Wunstorf, Wunstorf, Germany; 4HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design: Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL. The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results: One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital. Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d. One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]. Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™ index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health. Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion: Mortality after severe AKI is higher than

  5. Effect of the quality of water used for dialysis on the efficacy of hemodialysis: A single-center experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Akhmouch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the water used for dialysis has been suggested as a factor causing inflammation in patients on hemodialysis (HD. We therefore conducted this study to identify the effect of quality of the water on nutritional state, inflammation and need for human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO in patients undergoing HD at Agadir, Morocco. This prospective study included patients on HD for at least one year. The water treatment was done according to the standard protocol, which was followed by additional enhancement of ultrafiltration using an additional polysulfone filter (diasafe, Fresenius, Bad Homburg, Germany before the dialyser. Water was monitored regularly during the study period to ensure acceptable levels of bacterial count as well as endotoxin levels. Various parameters including dry weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (PA before and after an HD session, need for human recombinant EPO, levels of hemoglobin (Hb, albumin, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and the dose of dialysis delivered (Kt/V were measured first at the beginning of the study and thereafter, in the third, sixth and 12 th months of the study. The study involved 47 patients, and after 12 months of the study, an improvement in median dry weight (1.2 kg, P = 0017 and a simultaneous median reduction of 20.7 IU/kg/week of EPO, with an in-crease of the median level of Hb, was noted. The results of our study suggest that by improving the biocompatibility of HD with the use of good quality water, patients acquire a better nutritional, inflammatory and hematologic status.

  6. Critical Care Dialysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Organon Teknika Corporation's REDY 2000 dialysis machine employs technology originally developed under NASA contract by Marquardt Corporation. The chemical process developed during the project could be applied to removing toxic waste from used dialysis fluid. This discovery led to the development of a kidney dialysis machine using "sorbent" dialysis, a method of removing urea from human blood by treating a dialysate solution. The process saves electricity and, because the need for a continuous water supply is eliminated, the patient has greater freedom.

  7. Regional Variation in Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Dialysis in the English National Health Service from 2000 to 2015 - A National Epidemiological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin V Kolhe

    Full Text Available The absence of effective interventions in presence of increasing national incidence and case-fatality in acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D warrants a study of regional variation to explore any potential for improvement. We therefore studied regional variation in the epidemiology of AKI-D in English National Health Service over a period of 15 years.We analysed Hospital Episode Statistics data for all patients with a diagnosis of AKI-D, using ICD-10-CM codes, in English regions between 2000 and 2015 to study temporal changes in regional incidence and case-fatality.Of 203,758,879 completed discharges between 1st April 2000 and 31st March 2015, we identified 54,252 patients who had AKI-D in the nine regions of England. The population incidence of AKI-D increased variably in all regions over 15 years; however, the regional variation decreased from 3·3-fold to 1·3-fold (p<0·01. In a multivariable adjusted model, using London as the reference, in the period of 2000-2005, the North East (odd ratio (OR 1·38; 95%CI 1·01, 1·90, East Midlands (OR 1·38; 95%CI 1·01, 1·90 and West Midlands (OR 1·38; 95%CI 1·01, 1·90 had higher odds for death, while East of England had lower odds for death (OR 0·66; 95% CI 0·49, 0·90. The North East had higher OR in all three five-year periods as compared to the other eight regions. Adjusted case-fatality showed significant variability with temporary improvement in some regions but overall there was no significant improvement in any region over 15 years.We observed considerable regional variation in the epidemiology of AKI-D that was not entirely attributable to variations in demographic or other identifiable clinical factors. These observations make a compelling case for further research to elucidate the reasons and identify interventions to reduce the incidence and case-fatality in all regions.

  8. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

  9. Peritoneal Dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Vickie Wai-Ki; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing demand of dialysis in Asia for end-stage renal failure patients. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries in Asia. The growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Asia is significant and seeing a good trend. With the enhanced practices of PD, the quality of care in PD in Asia is also improved. Overall, PD and hemodialysis (HD) are comparable in clinical outcome. There is a global trend in the reduction of peritonitis rates and Asian countries also witness such improvement. The socio-economic benefits of PD for end-stage renal failure patients in both urban and rural areas in the developed and developing regions of Asia are an important consideration. This can help to reduce the financial burden of renal failure in addressing the growing demand of patients on dialysis. Initiatives should be considered to further drive down the cost of PD in Asia. Growing demand for dialysis by an increasing number of end-stage renal failure patients requires the use of a cost-effective quality dialysis modality. PD is found to be comparable to HD in outcome and quality. In most countries in Asia, PD should be more cost-effective than HD. A 'PD-first' or a 'PD as first considered therapy' policy can be an overall strategy in many countries in Asia in managing renal failure patients, taking the examples of Hong Kong and Thailand. (1) PD is cheaper than HD and provides a better quality of life worldwide, but its prevalence is significantly lower than that of HD in all countries, with the exception of Hong Kong. Allowing reimbursement of PD but not HD has permitted to increase the use of PD over HD in many Asian countries like Hong Kong, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, as well as in New Zealand and Australia over the last years. In the Western world, however, HD is still promoted, and the proportion of patients treated with PD decreases. Japan remains an exception in Asia where PD penetration is very low. Lack of adequate education of

  10. [Quality assurance in acute pain therapy : Development of software for the acute pain service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplik, M; Joppich, R; Rossaint, R

    2010-08-01

    A detailed documentation system is essential for an effectively working acute pain service. Patient-related documentation aids the physician with check lists and algorithms and may thus further improve clinical practice. As adequate software was missing, we developed a database that was first adapted to the in-house conditions, but can also be adjusted to other surroundings. By integrating "one-click documentation" and new codes for clinical observations, a user-friendly software was created that notably improved the quality of documentation. In the first test period more than 30,000 ward rounds were collected, and a considerably improved documentation quality could be achieved.

  11. Off-Hours Admission and Acute Stroke Care Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Nina Sahlertz; Mainz, Jan; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2014-01-01

    chance of compliance with 8 out of 10 performance measures; however, these differences diminished over time. Unadjusted odds ratio for 30 days case-fatality, for patients admitted off-hours compared with patients admitted on-hours, was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.21). Adjusting for patient...... characteristics (in particular, stroke severity) decreased the odds ratio to 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.10). Additional adjustment for hospital characteristics and compliance with performance measures had no effect on the odds ratio. Conclusion-Patients admitted off-hours received a poorer quality......Background and Purpose-Studies have reported higher risks of death and other adverse outcomes in acute stroke patients admitted off-hours; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. According to time of admission, our aim was to examine compliance with performance measures for acute...

  12. Components of A Successful Peritoneal Dialysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xueqing; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Yang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Although varying widely among different countries and geographic regions, the development of peritoneal dialysis invariably requires a well-established program. Key ingredients for the successful delivery of this therapy include adequate chronic kidney disease education, governmental or nongovernmental reimbursement, qualified physicians and nurses trained in the principles and practice of peritoneal dialysis, clinical management that incorporates an excellent and well-trained peritoneal dialysis team, a feasible and well-designed program for catheter insertion, a sound patient training and follow-up scheme, and continuous quality improvement. Some programs are enhanced by an active clinical research portfolio and other appropriate supportive systems. All of these factors are interlinked and inseparable from one another in ensuring a high-quality peritoneal dialysis program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Care for patients carrying out dialysis therapy at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Akio

    2012-01-01

    The goal of home dialysis is to more successfully reintegrate dialysis patients with high activities in daily life (ADL) into society as compared to hemodialysis (HD), which is carried out at a dialysis facility. By achieving this goal, this therapy can prove to be more effective than renal plantation, which has been carried out only in a few cases in Japan. Since self-management forms the basis of home dialysis, dialysis complications can be reduced by arranging meals, fluid management and dialysis schedule according to the lifestyle of the patient himself. In addition, long-term survival rate with health conditions similar to that of a healthy person can be increased. On the other hand, the goal of home dialysis for dialysis patients with a lower ADL is to strengthen the family bond, and improve quality of life and life prognosis, since nursing and support from family members are essential to ensure a long-term survival rate and ADL. For safe operation of home dialysis, which can be more effective than HD carried out in dialysis facilities, it is important for doctors, nurses, clinical engineers, social workers and all other members of the dialysis staff to work together as a united team. The type of nursing varies depending on period (during conservative treatment of end-stage renal disease, during the introduction and maintenance of dialysis, and when changing to end-stage renal disease replacement therapy). It also varies depending on whether continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis is implemented. The important points of nursing in home dialysis for each treatment period, depending on whether by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, are summarized here. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. [Report on chronic dialysis in France in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Société Francophone de Néphrologie Dialyse Et Transplantation

    2017-04-01

    The report on dialysis in France in 2016 from the French Speaking Society of Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (SFNDT) provides an exhaustive and documented inventory on dialysis in France. It underlines the organizations that are important in 2016 to maintain a high quality dialysis. Several measures are proposed to maintain and improve the care of dialysis in France: (1) The regulation of dialysis treatment in France must be maintained; (2) a burden of care indicator is proposed to ensure that patients requiring the most care are treated in the centers. Proposals are also made to stimulate peritoneal dialysis offers, (3) to improve the calculation of the cost of dialysis and warn against lower reimbursement rates of dialysis, (4) to reduce transport costs by minimizing transport by ambulance (5). The SFNDT recalls recent recommendations concerning access to the renal transplant waiting list, are recalled; (6) as well as recommendations that require waiting until clinical signs are present to start dialysis (7). The SFNDT makes the proposal to set up advanced renal failure units. These units are expected to develop care that is not supported today: consultation with a nurse, a dietician, a social worker or psychologist, palliative care, and coordination (8). Finally, the financial and human resources for pediatric dialysis should be maintained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Achieving more frequent and longer dialysis for the majority: wearable dialysis and implantable artificial kidney devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.

  16. Real-World Impact of Cardiovascular Disease and Anemia on Quality of Life and Productivity in Patients with Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Adrian; Jackson, James; Hadfield, Anna; Pike, James; Siriopol, Dimitrie

    2017-07-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of comorbid conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Anemia is prevalent in the CKD population and worsens as kidney function declines, resulting in a diminished quality of life and increased morbidity/mortality. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the real-world prevalence of CVD among patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), with and without comorbid anemia, and to assess the impact of these conditions on quality of life (QoL) and work productivity. Data were drawn from the Adelphi CKD Disease-Specific Programme, conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK (2012). Anonymized data were collected via patient record forms and patient-completed questionnaires. Patient data were stratified by anemic status and the presence of CVD comorbidity. Data were collected by physicians for 1993 patients, of whom 867 completed a patient-completed questionnaire. A total of 61.4% of patients had anemia, and the prevalence of anemia increased with CKD stage. Patients with anemia had a higher mean number of cardiovascular comorbidities than non-anemic patients (1.27 vs 0.95, respectively; P anemia in this cohort of NDD-CKD patients was high. The presence of concomitant cardiovascular conditions was more common in NDD-CKD patients with comorbid anemia, and was associated with reduced QoL and work productivity outcomes.

  17. Transitional dialysis care units: A new approach to increase home dialysis modality uptake and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfín, José A; Yang, Alex; Wang, Elizabeth; Schiller, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    Home hemodialysis (HHD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are associated with better clinical outcomes, lower hospitalization rates, and improved quality of life compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis. However, dialysis therapy use HHD or PD in the United States, even though over 90% of nephrologists would choose home-based dialysis modalities for themselves. Inadequate patient education and decision-making support are key barriers to patients choosing home-based therapy. Likewise, there are key challenges for dialysis providers, including development and optimal delivery of education materials, appropriate staffing, and training. The Satellite Healthcare Optimal Transitions (OT) Program was developed to provide education and decision support to patients during the transitional period. OT provides in-depth education in all dialysis modalities at the start of dialysis over a flexible time period (1-4 weeks, adapted for various learning curves) to allow for time to physical stabilization, self-care training, and modality choice based on each patient's individual life motivations, goals, and environments. OT may provide value to patients and providers by providing comprehensive support for dialysis modality selection, resulting in increased patient confidence to execute home dialysis with the potential for improved patient outcomes, and reduced hospitalizations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessment of quality of care in acute postoperative pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Managing of acute postoperative pain should be of great interest for all hospital institutions, as one of the key components of patients satisfaction, which indicates quality, as well as the outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of nursing care in managing acute postoperative pain and to establish factors which influence patients assessment of the same. Method. The investigation was conducted on the sample of 135 patients hospitalized in surgical clinics of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad in the form of cross-sectional study, by interviewing patients during the second postoperative day and collecting sociodemographic variables, type of surgical procedure and applied analgesic therapy which were taken from their medical documentation. The modified questionnaire of the Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management (SCQIPP was used as the instrument of the investigation. The data were processed with suitable mathematical statistics methods such as multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA, discriminative and other parametric procedures and methods. Roy's test, Pearson's coefficient contingency (χ, multiple correlation coefficient (R were conducted amongst other invariant procedures. Results. The mean score for the individual items of SCQIPP questionnaire was between 2.0 and 4.7 (scale range 1-5 and the percentage of patients answers 'strongly agree' ranged from 4.4 to 77%. The smallest number of positive answers were given by the patients for the item 'In order to assess pain intensity, some of the staff asked me at least once in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening to show the number from 0-10'. Most of the patients (57% evaluated severe pain during the previous 24 hours, as moderate pain, which represents significantly greater number of patients which complain of severe pain and mild pain (p < 0.001. The analysis of patients evaluation (MANOVA p

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life Impacts Mortality but Not Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease in Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesky, Mark D; Dutton, Mary; Dasgupta, Indranil; Yadav, Punit; Ng, Khai Ping; Fenton, Anthony; Kyte, Derek; Ferro, Charles J; Calvert, Melanie; Cockwell, Paul; Stringer, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, the relationship between pre-dialysis CKD, HRQL and clinical outcomes, including mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. All 745 participants recruited into the Renal Impairment In Secondary Care study to end March 2014 were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline including an assessment of HRQL using the Euroqol EQ-5D-3L. Health states were converted into an EQ-5Dindex score using a set of weighted preferences specific to the UK population. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association of HRQL with progression to ESRD or all-cause mortality. Regression analyses were then performed to identify variables associated with the significant HRQL components. Median eGFR was 25.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 19.6-33.7ml/min) and median ACR was 33 mg/mmol (IQR 6.6-130.3 mg/mmol). Five hundred and fifty five participants (75.7%) reported problems with one or more EQ-5D domains. When adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity, eGFR and ACR, both reported problems with self-care [hazard ratio 2.542, 95% confidence interval 1.222-5.286, p = 0.013] and reduced EQ-5Dindex score [hazard ratio 0.283, 95% confidence interval 0.099-0.810, p = 0.019] were significantly associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Similar findings were observed for competing risk analyses. Reduced HRQL was not a risk factor for progression to ESRD in multivariable analyses. Impaired HRQL is common in the pre-dialysis CKD population. Reduced HRQL, as demonstrated by problems with self-care or a lower EQ-5Dindex score, is associated with a higher risk for death but not ESRD. Multiple factors influence these aspects of HRQL but renal function, as measured by eGFR and ACR, are not among them.

  20. QUALITY OF LIFE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS ASSESSED BY MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY IN HEMODIALYSIS VERSUS PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Yongsiri

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, quality of life and Nutritional status were not difference between PD and HD patients. PD patients had more over hydration and ECW to ICW ratio as assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy.

  1. Dialysis Withdrawal: Impact and Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Deliberation Within an Ethics Committee as a Shared-Decision-Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Cartier, Jean Charles; Calvino-Gunther, Silvia; Carron, Pierre Louis; Baro, Patrice; Palacin, Pedro; Vialtel, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Since dialysis withdrawal in maintenance dialysis patients with limited life expectancy results always in short-term death, nephrologists need a referenced process to make their decision. This study reviews 8 years of operation of an Ethics Committee in Nephrology (ECN). The ECN, within a multidisciplinary team, once a month explores cases reported by caregivers when maintaining dialysis seems not to be in the patient's best interest. Discussion is required when the vital prognosis is engaged by the evolution of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) or the occurrence of an acute medical event. Data are analyzed using a discussion guide. The informed decision is completed with an appropriated palliative care project involving the patient, and recorded in their file. Since 2006, the ECN has deliberated yearly for 10 sessions on 6-18 cases, concerning 380 identified maintenance dialysis patients. Characteristics of the population, cases, sessions and proposals are recorded and analyzed. The only variable associated with dialysis withdrawal was having at least one new comorbid condition. End of life is supported with the help of the palliative care team in the hospital or exceptionally at home. The ECN, through a multidisciplinary deliberation and resolution process, proposes an ethical shared-decision-making model ensuring that dialysis withdrawal follows professional guidelines, and is registered as a method for evaluating professional practice (EPP). Annual activity reports are submitted to the Hospital's Medical Evaluation and Quality Unit. Benefits are individual and collective for patients, relatives and caregivers. Prospects for reducing non-implemented decisions and identifying cases earlier would improve the Committee effectiveness. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  2. The Allient dialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Stephen R

    2004-01-01

    The Allient is a dialysis system that combines various technologies to allow dialysis to be performed at sites outside of dialysis units (intensive care unit [ICU] or home) with ease and safety. A sorbent column regenerates dialysate, removing toxins and providing ultrapure dialysate from only 6 liters of tap water. The use of the sorbent column eliminates the need for costly and complex water purification systems. The Pulsar Blood Movement System provides blood flow at constant negative or positive pressure through single-lumen or dual-lumen accesses, maximizing blood flow rate while eliminating bothersome pressure alarms. Ultrasonic flow monitors control the operation of the pump and ensure adequate blood flow during each dialysis treatment. A completely disposable blood tubing and dialysate circuit eliminates the need for sterilization of the machine. The Allient should make dialysis in the ICU or home setting much more practical, reducing training requirements and increasing safety.

  3. Spatial Analysis of Case-Mix and Dialysis Modality Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirtskhalaishvili, Tamar; Bayer, Florian; Edet, Stephane; Bongiovanni, Isabelle; Hogan, Julien; Couchoud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Health-care systems must attempt to provide appropriate, high-quality, and economically sustainable care that meets the needs and choices of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). France offers 9 different modalities of dialysis, each characterized by dialysis technique, the extent of professional assistance, and the treatment site. The aim of this study was 1) to describe the various dialysis modalities in France and the patient characteristics associated with each of them, and 2) to analyze their regional patterns to identify possible unexpected associations between case-mixes and dialysis modalities. ♦ The clinical characteristics of the 37,421 adult patients treated by dialysis were described according to their treatment modality. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis was used to aggregate the regions into clusters according to their use of these modalities and the characteristics of their patients. ♦ The gradient of patient characteristics was similar from home hemodialyis (HD) to in-center HD and from non-assisted automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) to assisted continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Analyzing their spatial distribution, we found differences in the patient case-mix on dialysis across regions but also differences in the health-care provided for them. The classification of the regions into 6 different clusters allowed us to detect some unexpected associations between case-mixes and treatment modalities. ♦ The 9 modalities of treatment available make it theoretically possible to adapt treatment to patients' clinical characteristics and abilities. However, although we found an overall appropriate association of dialysis modalities to the case-mix, major inter-region heterogeneity and the low rate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home HD suggest that factors besides patients' clinical conditions impact the choice of dialysis modality. The French organization should now be evaluated in terms of patients' quality of

  4. Drug management in acute kidney disease - Report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative XVI meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Marlies; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Forni, Lui G; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Kellum, John A; Koyner, Jay; Murray, Patrick T; Ronco, Claudio; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-02-01

    To summarize and extend the main conclusions and recommendations relevant to drug management during acute kidney disease (AKD) as agreed at the 16 th Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) consensus conference. Using a modified Delphi method to achieve consensus, experts attending the 16 th ADQI consensus conference reviewed and appraised the existing literature on drug management during AKD and identified recommendations for clinical practice and future research. The group focussed on drugs with one of the following characteristics: (i) predominant renal excretion; (ii) nephrotoxicity; (iii) potential to alter glomerular function; and (iv) presence of metabolites that are modified in AKD and may affect other organs. We recommend that medication reconciliation should occur at admission and discharge, at AKD diagnosis and change in AKD phase, and when the patient's condition changes. Strategies to avoid adverse drug reactions in AKD should seek to minimize adverse events from overdosing and nephrotoxicity and therapeutic failure from under-dosing or incorrect drug selection. Medication regimen assessment or introduction of medications during the AKD period should consider the nephrotoxic potential, altered renal and nonrenal elimination, the effects of toxic metabolites and drug interactions and altered pharmacodynamics in AKD. A dynamic monitoring plan including repeated serial assessment of clinical features, utilization of renal diagnostic tests and therapeutic drug monitoring should be used to guide medication regimen assessment. Drug management during different phases of AKD requires an individualized approach and frequent re-assessment. More research is needed to avoid drug associated harm and therapeutic failure. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Data quality in the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry: A Hematological Data Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgaard, L.S.G.; Nørgaard, J.M.; Severinsen, Marianne Tang

    2013-01-01

    The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) has documented coverage of above 98.5%. Less is known about the quality of the recorded data.......The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) has documented coverage of above 98.5%. Less is known about the quality of the recorded data....

  6. Recurrent acute otitis media detracts from health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, T; Alho, O-P; Kristo, A; Uhari, M; Renko, M; Pokka, T; Koivunen, P

    2017-02-01

    Acute otitis media causes discomfort to children and inconvenience to their parents. This study evaluated the quality of life in children with recurrent acute otitis media aged less than 24 months. Quality of life was evaluated in 149 children aged 10 to 24 months who were referred to the Oulu University Hospital on account of recurrent acute otitis media. The children were treated with or without surgery. Age-matched controls were selected randomly from the general child population. Parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire. The children with recurrent acute otitis media had a significantly poorer quality of life than control children. The control children with a history of a few acute otitis media episodes had a significantly poorer quality of life than those without any such history. The quality of life of the children with recurrent acute otitis media improved during the one-year follow up, regardless of the treatment, but did not reach the same level as healthy children. Acute otitis media detracted from quality of life when a generic measure was used. The mode of treatment used to prevent further recurrences of acute otitis media did not influence quality of life improvement.

  7. [Massive hydrothorax in a ease of hemolytic uremic syndrome: conservative treatment without interruption of peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Gustavo R

    2016-12-01

    The hydrothorax is a known but rare complication of acute and chronic peritoneal dialysis. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome seem to be more prone to this complication. Usually discontinuation of treatment is necessary due to the lack of resolution or recurrence of hydrothorax and transfer to hemodialysis, but some patients can continue dialysis with modification of technique and with resolution of hydrothorax. a child with hemolytic uremic syndrome presented a massive hydrothorax during acute peritoneal dialysis which resolved with dialysis schema modification without interruption of treatment. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  8. [Peritoneal dialysis and its modification in the treatment of chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednárová, V; Hrusková, Z; Motán, V; Neprasová, M

    2011-01-01

    Three methods can be used to treat chronic renal failure - haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation (from a living donor or transplantation of a cadaver kidney). In 2009, 5,763 patients were treated with haemodialysis in the Czech Republic, while peritoneal dialysis was used in just 8% (458) of patients. This low number of peritoneal dialyses may be due to the still high number of chronic renal failure patients who come to dialysis centres "offthe street". Following acute initiation of haemodialysis, these patients are usually retained on haemodialysis. Poor awareness of peritoneal dialysis among patients as well as health care professionals is another reason for the low number of peritoneal dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis is suitable for home treatment. Peritoneum serves as the dialysis membrane, peritoneal cavity is filled with dialysis solution and the metabolism waste products and water are excreted into this solution. A base to correct metabolic acidosis then passes from dialysis solution into the body. Permanent catheter is inserted into the abdominal cavity to enable infusion of the dialysis solution. The dialysis is continual and this ensures stability of the inner environment and thus most closely resembles own kidney function. The advantages of peritoneal dialysis include longer preservation of residual renal function, inner environment stability and no need for venous access. Peritoneal dialysis is associated with a lower risk of infections. Peritoneal dialysis is contraindicated in patients after an extensive intraabdominal surgery and in patients with a stoma. Peritoneal damage is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis; the risk increases with the treatment duration and thus peritoneal dialysis is not a long-term treatment choice. With the traditional CAPD (continual ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), the patient performs an exchange ofdialysis solution him/herself4 to 5 times a day. With APD (automated peritoneal

  9. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  10. Socioeconomic differences in the uptake of home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Blair S; Clayton, Philip A; Gray, Nicholas A; McDonald, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    Home dialysis creates fewer lifestyle disruptions while providing similar or better outcomes than in-center hemodialysis. Socioeconomically advantaged patients are more likely to commence home dialysis (peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis) in many developed countries. This study investigated associations between socioeconomic status and uptake of home dialysis in Australia, a country with universal access to health care and comparatively high rates of home dialysis. This study analyzed 23,281 non-Indigenous adult patients who commenced chronic RRT in Australia from 2000 to 2011 according to the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry in a retrospective cohort study. This study investigated the proportion of patients who were ever likely to use home dialysis using nonmixture cure models and followed patients until the end of 2011 (median follow-up time=3.0 years, interquartile range=1.3-5.5 years). The main predictor was area socioeconomic status from postcodes grouped into quartiles using standard indices. Patients from the most advantaged quartile of areas were less likely to commence peritoneal dialysis (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.69) and more likely to use in-center hemodialysis than patients from the most disadvantaged areas (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.30). Socioeconomic status was not associated with uptake of home hemodialysis. Rural areas were more disadvantaged and had higher rates of peritoneal dialysis, and privately funded hospitals rarely used home dialysis. Patients from the most advantaged quartile of areas were more likely to use private hospitals than patients from the most disadvantaged quartile (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.6 to 7.5). The lower incidence of peritoneal dialysis among patients from advantaged areas seems to be multifactorial. Identifying and addressing barriers to home dialysis in Australia could improve patient quality of life and reduce

  11. Peritoneal dialysis in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, M D; Spurgeon, P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C

    1983-01-01

    A commercially available closed dialysis system and a new peritoneal cannula with potential advantages for infants have been developed. The dialysis set includes three dialysate bags that may be connected to the filling burette; the warming coil of the set is placed in a thermostatically controlled water bath. The peritoneal catheter comprises a flexible tube with side holes and a sharp short bevelled needle with obturator. Advantages of the new equipment over previously available equipment a...

  12. Biocompatible dialysis fluids for peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Badve, Sunil V; Wiggins, Kathryn J

    2014-03-27

    The longevity of peritoneal dialysis (PD) is limited by high rates of technique failure, some of which stem from peritoneal membrane injury. 'Biocompatible' PD solutions have been developed to reduce damage to the peritoneal membrane. This review aimed to look at the benefits and harms of biocompatible PD solutions in comparison to standard PD solutions in patients receiving PD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register (28 February 2013), through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Studies contained in the Specialised Register are identified through search strategies specifically designed for CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE, and handsearching conference proceedings. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in adults and children comparing the effects of biocompatible PD solutions (neutral pH, lactate-buffered, low glucose degradation product (GDP); neutral pH, bicarbonate (± lactate)-buffered, low GDP; glucose polymer (icodextrin)) in PD were included. Studies of amino acid-based PD solutions were excluded. Two authors extracted data on study quality and outcomes (including adverse effects). The authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for categorical variables, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI for continuous variables. Thirty-six eligible studies (2719 patients) were identified: Neutral pH, lactate-buffered/bicarbonate (± lactate)-buffered, low GDP PD solution (24); icodextrin (12). Allocation methods and concealment were generally incompletely reported, and adequate in only ten studies (27.8%). Patients lost to follow-up ranged from 0% to 83.4%. Neutral pH, low GDP versus conventional glucose PD solutionBased on generally sub-optimal quality evidence, the use of

  13. Dialysis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, Sameh K.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  14. Dialysis and contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev (Denmark); Webb, Judith A.W. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  15. Performance measures for a dialysis setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    This study from Japan extracted performance measures for dialysis unit management and investigated their characteristics from professional views. Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which dialysis managers/staff were asked to rate the usefulness of 44 performance indicators. A total of 255 managers and 2,097 staff responded. Eight performance measures were elicited from dialysis manager and staff responses: these were safety, operational efficiency, quality of working life, financial effectiveness, employee development, mortality, patient/employee satisfaction and patient-centred health care. These performance measures were almost compatible with those extracted in overall healthcare settings in a previous study. Internal reliability, content and construct validity of the performance measures for the dialysis setting were ensured to some extent. As a general trend, both dialysis managers and staff perceived performance measures as highly useful, especially for safety, mortality, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction, but showed relatively low concerns for patient-centred health care and employee development. However, dialysis managers' usefulness perceptions were significantly higher than staff. Important guidelines for designing a holistic hospital/clinic management system were yielded. Performance measures must be balanced for outcomes and performance shaping factors (PSF); a common set of performance measures could be applied to all the healthcare settings, although performance indicators of each measure should be composed based on the application field and setting; in addition, sound causal relationships between PSF and outcome measures/indicators should be explored for further improvement. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis in Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ebadur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is the most appalling complication of acute or chronic liver disease with 90% mortality rate. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD can be considered as a noble liver support technique in HRS. Here, we present a case of a young healthy patient who developed hyperacute fulminant liver failure that progressed to HRS. The patient was offered SPAD as a bridge to liver transplantation, however, it resulted in an excellent recovery.

  17. Dialysis disequilibrium leading to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pratim; Biswas, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a neurological adverse effect of acute hemodialysis in advanced uremic patients. Dialysis disequilibrium has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations starting from subtle uneasiness, confusion, to florid and complex life threatening neurological deficit. In this case study, we present a patient who developed sudden cortical blindness following hemodialysis due to posterior reversible encephalopathy, which is a rare presentation of dialysis disequilibrium ...

  18. Associations among Spirituality, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Depression in Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: An Exploratory Analysis in Thai Buddhist Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Saisunantararom

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of quality of life (QOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients; however, there are a few studies of spirituality and its association with QOL. Previous studies were done focusing on Western cultures; thus, the study of CKD patients in Eastern cultures would reveal interesting insights. This study was conducted to explore the spirituality, QOL, and depression of Thai CKD patients, and the associations between spirituality, QOL, and depression. This cross-sectional descriptive study using structured questionnaires was approved by the Khon Kaen University Ethics Committee in Human Research, Thailand. A total of 63 pre-dialysis CKD stage V patients who visited the kidney diseases clinic as appointed at the outpatient department in a community hospital in northeastern Thailand were recruited. The patients were asked for consent and then interviewed. Spirituality was assessed by using the WHOQOL Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp. The 9-item Thai Health Status Assessment Instrument (9-THAI was used to assess QOL. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to evaluate the depression. The study patients had high WHOQOL-SRPB and FACIT-Sp spirituality scores (median = 18.0, and 44.0, respectively. The 9-THAI QOL scores were within the normal range of the Thai general, healthy population (physical health score [PHS]; median = 48.0, mental health score [MHS]; median = 32.0. Based on BDI-II scores, most patients were in the minimal depression group (63.5%. The Spearman rho correlation coefficients (rs of PHS and WHOQOL-SRPB and FACIT-Sp were moderate with 0.34 for both spirituality measures. Similarly, also the mental health scores (MHS correlated moderately with WHOQOL-SRPB (rs = 0.46 and FACIT-Sp (rs = 0.37. Depressive symptoms (BDI-II strongly negatively correlated with WHOQOL-SRPB (rs = −0.58 and

  19. Provision of Home Dialysis by Freestanding Renal Dialysis Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kendix, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This article explores home dialysis provision among freestanding renal facilities by examining whether they provide continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), and home hemodialysis. These modalities require fewer visits to a dialysis center, which may be beneficial for patients living long distances from facilities. A negative association was found between the number of facilities per square mile and the probability of provision of the hom...

  20. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  1. Osteoarthropathy in dialysis amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrati, L.; Feletti, C.; Capponcini, C.; Docci, D.; Rocchi, A.; Balbi, B.; Bonsanto, R.; Mughetti, M.; Pasini, A.

    1991-01-01

    Many long-term (>60 months) hemodialysis patients develop a severe osteoarticular disease, called 'dialysis arthropathy', which is characterized by the deposition in bone and synovia of a new type of amyloid made mainly of β 2 -microglobulin. In the present study, 31 patients (17 males, 14 females; age 54.1±13 years) undergoing chronic hemodialysis arthropathy by means of clinics and of radiological investigations (conventional radiography and computed tomography). Sixteen patients (51.6%) had radiographic evidence of dialysis arthropathy: geodes (shoulders, 12 cases; wrists, 11; hips, 2; knees, 2) and/or destructive arthropathies (cervical spine, 13 cases; dorsolumbar spine, 2; hands, 2; hips, 1). Within 24 months, these lesions were found to progress slowly in the majoriry of cases. In the diagnostic process, CT should be employed in the study of spine, shoulders and hips when the lesions have not been sufficiently demonstrated by conventional radiography in the presence of evident clinical signs. Patients with dialysis arthropathy had undergone dialysis for longer periods than those without it (p<0.005) and showed a significantly higher incidence of both carpal tunnel syndrome (p<0.0005) and shoulder pain (p<0.005). Our findings confirm the high incidence and clinical importance of dialysis arthropathy in long-term hemodialysis patients end the value of diagnostic imaging in screening such patients for those lesions

  2. British Thoracic Society Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael; Allen, Martin; Bentley, Andrew; Bourke, Stephen C; Creagh-Brown, Ben; D’Oliveiro, Rachel; Glossop, Alastair; Gray, Alasdair; Jacobs, Phillip; Mahadeva, Ravi; Moses, Rachael; Setchfield, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in adults together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 6 quality statements have been developed, each describing a standard of care for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Conclusion BTS Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline’s recommendations. PMID:29636979

  3. Filtering Dialysis Myths from Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to work. Fact: Many dialysis patients continue to work, go to school, or volunteer . Some take time off when they first start dialysis treatment and back to work or school after they have gotten used to ...

  4. Renal replacement therapy in elderly patients: peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, Luigi; Malacarne, Franco; Bortot, Alessia; Annaloro, Mariangela; Russo, Giorgia; Barillà, Antonio; Storari, Alda

    2010-01-01

    Management of chronic uremia in elderly patients presents several clinic and organizational difficulties. Hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) are both available for the elderly, and the choice depends on the individual, clinical and familial conditions. Several reports have compared the outcomes for older patients treated by HD or peritoneal dialysis, with those for younger or older patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. CPD is a successful dialysis option for elderly patients, in both patient and technique survival terms. All nutritional parameters are of pivotal importance. Several barriers, such as medical and social factors, physician bias, late referral and education irrespective of the needs of older patients, influence the choice of CPD. The development of assisted peritoneal dialysis, using community-based nurses or health care assistants, can overcome some of the barriers and enable frail older patients to have home-based dialysis treatment. Increasing age is associated with higher peritonitis rates among patients who started CPD in the 1990s, while age is not associated with peritonitis in more recent CPD cohorts, and no greater frequency of adverse outcomes of peritonitis has been seen among those who began CPD after the year 2000. In elderly dialysis patients, the management of quality of life (QOL) is important as well as adequacy of dialysis, nutritional status and survival rate. To obtain a good standard of QOL, it is essential to select carers who are properly educated and who can access an adequate support system, both physical and psychological, to help them cope with their burden.

  5. Relative survival of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James G; Wehberg, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies consistently show an initial survival advantage for PD patients compared to HD. It has recently been suggested that this is due to the fact that many HD patients are referred late, and start dialysis on an acute, in-patient basis. The present study was perfor......INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies consistently show an initial survival advantage for PD patients compared to HD. It has recently been suggested that this is due to the fact that many HD patients are referred late, and start dialysis on an acute, in-patient basis. The present study...... was performed to investigate (1) whether, and if so, how, PD and HD prognosis had changed in recent years, (2) whether a potential survival advantage of PD versus HD is constant over dialysis duration, and (3) whether differences in prognosis could be explained by patient age, renal diagnosis of diabetic...... nephropathy, or mode of dialysis initiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 12095 patients starting dialysis therapy between 1990 and 2010 in Denmark were studied. Prognosis was assessed according to initial dialysis modality on an intention-to-treat basis, censored for transplantation. Results were adjusted for age...

  6. Peritoneal dialysis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marina Souza Silva; Otoni, Alba; de Paula Sabino, Adriano; de Castro, Whocely Victor; Pinto, Sérgio Wyton Lima; Marinho, Maria Aparecida Silva; Rios, Danyelle Romana Alves

    2014-03-20

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a kidney replacement therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Despite being a lifesaving treatment, the rate of mortality in patients under PD is elevated, mainly due to the chronic peritoneal dysfunction which is characterized by inflammation, peritoneal fibrosis and neoangiogenesis. The inflammatory process is trigged and modulated by the type of the peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDSs) used during PD. Currently, different PDSs are commercially available: (i) the conventional solutions; (ii) solutions of neutral pH containing low concentration of glucose degradation products (GDPs); (iii) solutions with icodextrin; and (iv) solutions containing taurine. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the different types of peritoneal dialysis solutions used during PD and their relationship with systemic and intraperitoneal inflammation. Some studies suggested that solutions of neutral pH containing low concentration of GDPs, icodextrin and taurine have better biocompatibility and lower influence on the inflammatory process compared to the conventional one. On the other hand, the studies, in general, were performed with a small population and for a short period of time. Therefore, further well-designed and -controlled clinical trials with larger number of individuals are required in order to better understand the role of different peritoneal dialysis solution types in the development of inflammation in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis. Accordingly, studies that are more well-designed, well-controlled and with a larger number of patients are needed to explain and define the role of different types of PDS in the inflammation development in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adenosine and dialysis hypotension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CMF

    In this issue, Imai et al. report the results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effect of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, FK352, on the incidence of dialysis hypotension in hypotension-prone patients. This Commentary discusses the use of selective adenosine A1 receptor

  8. Is the management of diabetes different in dialysis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Silvia

    2018-04-16

    Diabetes is highly and increasingly prevalent in the dialysis population and negatively impacts both quality and quantity of life. Nevertheless, the best approach to these patients is still debatable. The question of whether the management of diabetes should be different in dialysis patients does not have a clear yes or no answer but is divided into too many sub-issues that should be carefully considered. In this review, lifestyle, cardiovascular risk, and hyperglycemia management are explored, emphasizing the possible pros and cons of a similar approach to diabetes in dialysis patients compared to the general population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Short report Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalcin (NGAL) as a biomarker of dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury following infrarenal aortic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helene Korvenius; Stæhr, Jannie Bisgaard; Gilsaa, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following abdominal aortic surgery. NGAL might be useful in the early diagnosis of AKI since it responds rapidly to ischaemic damage. Methods: Twenty patients undergoing elective infrarenal aortic surgery. U-NGAL was measured before surgery and 24, 48...... and 72 hours postoperatively. Results: No significant rise in U-NGAL was seen in patients without AKI at any time. All patients who developed dialysisdependent AKI had a significant increase in U-NGAL. Conclusion: U-NGAL did not increase solely in response to the surgical trauma. U-NGAL may be a useful...

  10. Comparison of cost-utility between automated peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Paredes-Ceseña, Carlos A; Herrera-Llamas, Rebeca M; Cruz-Bueno, Yolanda; Soto-Molina, Herman; Pazarín, Leonardo; Cortés, Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R

    2013-11-01

    The use of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is increasing compared to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Surprisingly, little data about health benefits and cost of APD exist, and virtually no information comparing the cost-utility between CAPD and APD is available. We undertook this study to evaluate and compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and cost-utility indexes in patients on CAPD vs. This was a prospective cohort of patients initiating dialysis (2008-2009). Two questionnaires were self-administered: European Research Questionnaire Quality of Life (EQ-5D) and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (short form, KDQOL-SF, Rand, Santa Monica, CA). Direct medical costs (DMC) were determined from the health provider perspective including the following medical resource utilization: outpatient clinic/emergency care, dialysis procedures, medications, laboratory tests, hospitalization, and surgery. Cost-utility indexes were calculated dividing total mean cost by indicators of the HRQOL. One hundred twenty-three patients were evaluated: 77 on CAPD and 46 on APD. Results of the EQ-5D and KDQOL-SF questionnaires were significantly better in APD compared to the CAPD group. Main costs in both APD and CAPD were attributed to hospitalization and dialysis procedures followed by medication and surgery. Outpatient clinic visits and laboratory tests were significantly more costly in CAPD than in APD, whereas dialysis procedures were more expensive in the latter. Cost-utility indexes were significantly better in APD compared to CAPD. A significant cost-utility advantage of APD vs. CAPD was observed. The annual DMC per-patient were not different between groups but the HRQOL was better in the APD compared to the CAPD group. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pre-dialysis renal clinic visits and patients' outcomes on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Hu, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Lei; Niu, Zhe-Li; Su, Chu-Yan; Han, Qing-Feng; Wang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of pre-dialysis renal care on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients' outcomes in China. In this retrospective cohort study, patients who started PD during January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, were included. Patients' medical charts were reviewed to extract the information. To explore the effect of pre-dialysis renal care on patients' outcomes, patient were divided into two groups according to whether or not they had frequent renal clinic visits: Group A (with frequent visits) and Group B (without frequent visits). A total of 668 patients were included. Patients who admitted to emergency room before PD initiations were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (42.7 vs. 33 %, p = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients requiring emergency hemodialysis prior to PD commencement (20.5 vs. 24.6 %, p = 0.21), acute heart failure (30.2 vs. 35.4 %, p = 0.16) and pulmonary infection (15.4 vs. 12.1 %, p = 0.23) between groups. Both the mortality and technical failure rate in Group A were significantly lower as compared to Group B (p = 0.003 and p dialysis renal clinic visits were associated with both lower mortality rate (HR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.46-0.85, p = 0.003) and technical failure on PD (HR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36-0.92, p = 0.022). Pre-dialysis frequent clinic visits were associated with better PD outcomes. Pre-dialysis renal clinic management was suboptimal in the present cohort. More organized system to ensure people with established chronic kidney disease are well managed is necessary in China.

  12. Effect of fluid supplementation and modality on peritoneal permeability characteristics in a rat peritoneal dialysis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, M. M.; Splint, L. J.; Krediet, R. T.; Struijk, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hemoconcentration may influence peritoneal permeability parameters in anesthetized animals without fluid supplementation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluid supplementation on peritoneal permeability in an acute peritoneal dialysis model in

  13. Characteristics, complications and outcome of patients treated with automated peritoneal dialysis at the Peritoneal Dialysis Unit, University Hospital of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, C O; Soyibo, A K; Frankson, A; Barton, E N

    2010-06-01

    .2%) such as pneumonia, peritonitis, catheter tunnel infection, exit site infection and cardiac related complications (37.4%) such as congestive cardiac failure, acute coronary syndrome, pericarditis/pericardial effusion were the most frequently encountered complications. Forty-one per cent of patients were transferred to haemodialysis mainly on account of inadequate dialysis clearance. Sepsis (42%) such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, peritonitis and cardiac related causes (31%) such as congestive cardiac failure and acute coronary syndrome were the two major causes of death. Of those who died of sepsis, 45.2% had pneumonia. Only 9.5% (4/42) of patients had confirmed peritonitis during their illness. Infection and cardiovascular disease were common complications observed in this study. Therefore intensive management of risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia) and prompt recognition of infection is hereby recommended. Early recognition and appropriate management of sepsis in peritoneal dialysis patients should be initially based on standard protocol. The use of erythropoietin in peritoneal dialysis patients will enhance better management of anaemia and improve quality of life.

  14. Brazilian Chronic Dialysis Census 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesso, Ricardo Cintra; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Martins, Carmen Tzanno

    2016-03-01

    National chronic dialysis data have had impact in the treatment planning. To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2014. A survey based on data of dialysis units from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis units. Three hundred twelve (44%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. In July 2014, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis was 112,004. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic maintenance dialysis were 552 (range: 364 in the North region and 672 in the Southeast) and 180 patients per million population (pmp), respectively. The annual incidence rate of patients with diabetic nephropathy was 77 pmp. The annual gross mortality rate was 19%. For prevalent patients, 91% were on hemodialysis and 9% on peritoneal dialysis, 32,499 (29%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant, 37% were overweight/obese, 29% were diabetics, 16% had PTH levels > 600 pg/ml and 26% hemoglobin < 10 g/dl. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 17% of the hemodialysis patients. During 2011-2014 the prevalence and incidence rates of patients on dialysis tended to increase, while the gross mortality rate remained stable. In 2014, diabetes was the primary renal disease in 42% of the new dialysis patients.

  15. Methods for biofilm analysis on silicone tubing of dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Ferey, K; Enkiri, F; Pasmore, M; Husson, G P; Vilagines, R

    2003-07-01

    We describe an analytical protocol to study biofilms that develop inside silicone tubing of dialysis machines. This protocol has been set up with the help of a dynamic testing device reproducing dialysis conditions. The methodology includes direct microscopic observation, biofilm removal with an original mechanical biofilm scraper, quantitative analysis with culturable and total bacteria counting, and endotoxin level measurement using the LAL chromogenic kinetic assay. The analytical protocol has been assessed on 13 different clinical tubing samples. Most samples were contaminated by adherent cells and the thickest biofilms were found at the connection between the dialysis water distribution loop and the dialysis machine. The less contaminated samples had been removed from dialysis machines that were decontaminated with citric acid and autoclaving, showing the importance of the decontamination procedure for the prevention of biofilm development. This article shows that easy, rapid, reproducible, and economical methods are applicable for a routine analysis of biofilms that develop on dialysis systems and should be included in the regular control of the microbiological quality of dialysis liquids.

  16. Peritoneal dialysis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2003-02-01

    While Mexico has the thirteenth largest economy, a large portion of the population is impoverished. About 90% of the population is Mestizo, the result of the admixture of Mexican Indians and Spaniards, with the Indigenous peoples concentrated in the southeastern region. Treatment for end-stage renal disease (estimated 268 patients per million population) is largely determined by the limited healthcare system and the individual's access to resources such as private insurance ( approximately 15%) and governmental sources ( approximately 85%). With only 5% of the gross national product spent on healthcare and most treatment providers being public health institutions that are often under severe economic restrictions, it is not surprising that many Mexican patients do not receive renal replacement therapy. Mexico uses proportionately more peritoneal dialysis than other countries; 1% of the patients are on automated peritoneal dialysis, 19% on hemodialysis and 80% on CAPD. Malnutrition and diabetes, important risk factors for poor outcome, are prevalent among the patients in CAPD programs.

  17. Low-Flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Using the Hemolung Respiratory Dialysis System® to Facilitate Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanti, Bindu; Rajagopal, Keshava; Patel, Kirti P; Aravind, Sangeeta; Nunez-Centanu, Emmanuel; Hussain, Rahat; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Banjac, Igor S; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D; Loyalka, Pranav

    2017-06-01

    Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) permits reductions in alveolar ventilation requirements that the lungs would otherwise have to provide. This concept was applied to a case of hypercapnia refractory to high-level invasive mechanical ventilator support. We present a case of an 18-year-old man who developed post-pneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection of a mediastinal germ cell tumor involving the left lung hilum. Hypercapnia and hypoxemia persisted despite ventilator support even at traumatic levels. ECCO 2 R using a miniaturized system was instituted and provided effective carbon dioxide elimination. This facilitated establishment of lung-protective ventilator settings and lung function recovery. Extracorporeal lung support increasingly is being applied to treat ARDS. However, conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) generally involves using large cannulae capable of carrying high flow rates. A subset of patients with ARDS has mixed hypercapnia and hypoxemia despite high-level ventilator support. In the absence of profound hypoxemia, ECCO 2 R may be used to reduce ventilator support requirements to lung-protective levels, while avoiding risks associated with conventional ECMO.

  18. Gastrointestinal Non-Infectious Complications in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostović Milica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal complications are common among patients on peritoneal dialysis. Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal complications in this patient population include: toxic effects of uremic toxins, frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, angiodysplasia, increased intra-abdominal pressure, use of bioincompatible solution for peritoneal dialysis, increased glucose in solutions for peritoneal dialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia, a disorder of lipid metabolism (hypertriglyceridemia, and the duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment. The most important non-infectious gastrointestinal complications in patients on peritoneal dialysis are: gastrointestinal bleeding, herniation and leaking of the dialysate from the abdomen (increased intra-abdominal pressure, impaired lung function (intra-abdominal hypertension, acute pancreatitis, and encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum. Intra-abdominal hypertension is defined as IAP ≥ 12 mmHg. Pouring the peritoneal dialysis solution leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure, which results in the development of hernias, pleuro-peritoneal dialysate leakage (hydrothorax, and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. Risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis in this patient population include: uraemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia, hypertriglyceridemia, features of the peritoneal dialysis solution (osmolarity, acidity, glucose, chemical irritation, and calcium in the solution for peritoneal dialysis lead to “local hypercalcemia”, toxic substances from the dialysate, the bags and tubing, and peritonitis and treatment of peritonitis with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum is rare and is the most serious complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by thickening of the peritoneum, including cancer, and signs and symptoms of obstructive ileus

  19. Brazilian Chronic Dialysis Survey 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesso, Ricardo Cintra; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Martins, Carmen Tzanno

    2017-01-01

    National chronic dialysis data are important for the treatment planning. To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2016. A survey based on data of dialysis centers from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis centers. 309 (41%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. In July 2016, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis was 122,825. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic maintenance dialysis were 596 (range: 344 in the North region and 700 in the Southeast) and 193 patients per million of population (pmp), respectively. The annual incidence rate of patients with diabetic nephropathy was 79 pmp. The annual gross mortality rate was 18.2%. For prevalent patients, 92% were on hemodialysis and 8% on peritoneal dialysis, and 29,268 (24%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 20.5% of the hemodialysis patients. The prevalence rates of positive serology for hepatitis B and C showed a tendency to reduce from 2013 (1.4% and 4.2%, respectively) to 2016 (0.7% and 3.7%, respectively). The absolute number and the prevalence and incidence rates of patients on dialysis continue to rise steadily; the gross mortality rate remained stable. Regional inequities are evident in these rates.

  20. Improving technique survival in peritoneal dialysis: what is modifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, F Fevzi

    2009-02-01

    The continuous quality improvement approach in peritoneal dialysis practice necessitates definition of the factors and the procedures that may possibly be contributing to the final success of peritoneal dialysis. The philosophy of continuous quality improvement uses the Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle. To improve the procedures used during peritoneal dialysis, the first step is to create a plan, then to carry out the plan, to check it, and after the collection of satisfactory information, to execute the chosen improvement action. Several studies have identified the most frequent causes of transfer from PD to HD as infection, catheter problems, inadequate dialysis, and psychosocial factors, among others. According to training guidelines from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis, seven points are of major importance to decrease infection risks: exit-site care, catheter placement, antibiotic prophylaxis for procedures, prevention of bowel-source peritonitis, prevention of fungal peritonitis, and connection methods. On the other hand, other factors such as hypoalbuminemia, depression, and obesity should also be taken into consideration for better technique survival in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  1. Dialysis in Children and Adolescents: The Pediatric Nephrology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Deepa H; Swartz, Sarah; Tuchman, Shamir; Valentini, Rudolph P; Somers, Michael J G

    2017-02-01

    The care of children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is highly specialized and often poorly understood by nonpediatric providers and facility/institution administrators. As such, this position paper has been created to offer provider, facility, and institutional guidance regarding the components of care necessary for children receiving dialysis. Key differences between adult and pediatric dialysis units are highlighted. Responsibilities and expectations of the members of the interdisciplinary dialysis team are outlined as they pertain specifically to the care of pediatric dialysis patients. Physical and staffing requirements of the dialysis facility are reviewed, again focusing on unique needs and challenges faced by the pediatric dialysis care team. Among these, vascular access options and proper planning of ESRD care are underscored. Pediatric quality-of-life metrics differ significantly from adult quality variables, and proper tools for assessment must be used. Endorsed by the Council of the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology (ASPN), this position paper serves as a reference tool for the provision of care to pediatric patients with ESRD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS): nutrition guidelines, indicators, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Christian; McCullough, Keith P; Asano, Yasushi; Ginsberg, Nancy; Maroni, Bradley J; Pifer, Trinh B

    2004-11-01

    Nutritional markers are important predictors of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure provides guidelines for assessing nutritional status that were evaluated using data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). The level of various nutritional markers (serum albumin, modified subjective global assessment, serum creatinine, normalized protein catabolic rate [nPCR], and body mass index) were described for representative samples of patients and facilities from 7 countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) participating in the DOPPS. A strong inverse association was observed between mortality and serum albumin, with a mortality risk 1.38 times higher for patients with serum albumin concentration less than 3.5 g/dL (35 g/L). There were significant differences by country in the proportion of moderately and severely malnourished patients as determined by the modified subjective global assessment score. In the US sample, severely and moderately malnourished patients had a higher mortality risk compared with those not malnourished, 33% and 5% higher, respectively. An inverse relationship exists between serum creatinine concentration and mortality, with a mortality risk 60% to 70% higher in the lowest quartile group compared with the highest quartile group in Europe and the United States. Levels of nPCR varied significantly between European countries, and there was no association between mortality and nPCR in US data. After adjustment for demographic and comorbidity factors, the mortality risk decreased as body mass index increased in both US and European samples. DOPPS data highlight the importance of routine assessment of nutritional status, using multiple parameters, in clinical practice to improve patient care.

  3. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  4. Dialysis (Part 1): Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (continuing education credit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J

    1997-02-19

    The first of two articles on dialysis outlines the experience of patients from chronic renal failure to end stage renal failure and offers a historical perspective of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). It relates to UKCC Professional Development categories: Care enhancement and Reducing risk.

  5. The dialysis catheter and infectious peritonitis in intermittent peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Hemmeløff Andersen, Karl Erik; Hansen, Lise

    1984-01-01

    118 episodes of infectious peritonitis registered among 156 patients treated with intermittent peritoneal dialysis over a 5-yr period were analysed with special reference to potential routes of infection associated with the dialysis catheter. Peritonitis was randomly distributed among the patients...

  6. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing a Treatment Treatment Options - Comparison Chart Hemodialysis Hemodialysis Dose & Adequacy Eating & Nutrition for Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis Peritoneal Dialysis: Dose & Adequacy ...

  7. Evaluación nutricional de niños con insuficiencia renal aguda que reciben diálisis Nutritional assessment of children presenting with acute renal insufficiency and underwent to dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva Ferrera

    2010-03-01

    admitted due to acute renal insufficiency in two children hospitals of Santiago de Cuba from December, 2006 to December, 2008. Authors analyzed the age, sex, etiology, renal replacement therapy, cause of parenteral feeding use, nutritional assessment according to Cuban percentile tables and anthropometry parameters (age, weight, height and parenteral nutrients support. RESULTS: Prerenal events were the cause of acute renal insufficiency in the 44,4% of cases and renal and postrenal ones in the 33,4% and 22,2%, respectively. As a renal depuration method we used the peritoneal dialysis in the 66,6% of cases and the hemodialysis in remainder. The main causes that justified the parenteral feeding were the surgical affections, hypercatabolic states, the digestive hemorrhage and the pancreatitis in a decreasing order. Four patients were assessed as of low weight. CONCLUSIONS: The average support of proteins and lipids was under the established nutritional supports and that of kilocalories was higher than recommended. It is essential to improve these parameters in the treatment of these patients.

  8. Health-related quality of life of survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetsch, J.; Wakefield, C. E.; Robertson, E. G.; Trahair, T. N.; Mateos, M. K.; Grootenhuis, M.; Marshall, G. M.; Cohn, R. J.; Fardell, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors are the largest group of childhood cancer survivors; however, their risk for late effects is high. Cancer-related late effects have the potential to compromise health-related quality of life (HRQL) long into survivorship. None of the reviews so far have

  9. Quality indicators for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Sheikh, Aadam; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quality of acute and long-term anaphylaxis management is variable and this contributes to the poor outcomes experienced by many patients. Clinical practice guidelines have the potential to improve outcomes, but implementing guideline recommendations in routine practice is challeng...

  10. Dual-source computed tomography in patients with acute chest pain: feasibility and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schertler, Thomas; Scheffel, Hans; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland); Flohr, Thomas G. [Computed Tomography CTE PA, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and image quality of dual-source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA) in patients with acute chest pain for the assessment of the lung, thoracic aorta, and for pulmonary and coronary arteries. Sixty consecutive patients (32 female, 28 male, mean age 58.1{+-}16.3 years) with acute chest pain underwent contrast-enhanced electrocardiography-gated DSCTA without prior beta-blocker administration. Vessel attenuation of different thoracic vascular territories was measured, and image quality was semi-quantitatively analyzed by two independent readers. Image quality of the thoracic aorta was diagnostic in all 60 patients, image quality of pulmonary arteries was diagnostic in 59, and image quality of coronary arteries was diagnostic in 58 patients. Pairwise intraindividual comparisons of attenuation values were small and ranged between 1{+-}6 HU comparing right and left coronary artery and 56{+-}9 HU comparing the pulmonary trunk and left ventricle. Mean attenuation was 291{+-}65 HU in the ascending aorta, 334{+-}93 HU in the pulmonary trunk, and 285{+-}66 HU and 268{+-}67 HU in the right and left coronary artery, respectively. DSCTA is feasible and provides diagnostic image quality of the thoracic aorta, pulmonary and coronary arteries in patients with acute chest pain. (orig.)

  11. Dual-source computed tomography in patients with acute chest pain: feasibility and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schertler, Thomas; Scheffel, Hans; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem; Seifert, Burkhardt; Flohr, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and image quality of dual-source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA) in patients with acute chest pain for the assessment of the lung, thoracic aorta, and for pulmonary and coronary arteries. Sixty consecutive patients (32 female, 28 male, mean age 58.1±16.3 years) with acute chest pain underwent contrast-enhanced electrocardiography-gated DSCTA without prior beta-blocker administration. Vessel attenuation of different thoracic vascular territories was measured, and image quality was semi-quantitatively analyzed by two independent readers. Image quality of the thoracic aorta was diagnostic in all 60 patients, image quality of pulmonary arteries was diagnostic in 59, and image quality of coronary arteries was diagnostic in 58 patients. Pairwise intraindividual comparisons of attenuation values were small and ranged between 1±6 HU comparing right and left coronary artery and 56±9 HU comparing the pulmonary trunk and left ventricle. Mean attenuation was 291±65 HU in the ascending aorta, 334±93 HU in the pulmonary trunk, and 285±66 HU and 268±67 HU in the right and left coronary artery, respectively. DSCTA is feasible and provides diagnostic image quality of the thoracic aorta, pulmonary and coronary arteries in patients with acute chest pain. (orig.)

  12. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done in the mid-afternoon to increase the amount of waste removed and to prevent excessive absorption of fluid. The dialysis solution used for the long daytime dwell may have a higher concentration ... amount, or dose, of dialysis. The peritoneal equilibration test— ...

  13. Peritoneal Dialysis in Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, Dirk G.

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and

  14. Rates of Intentional and Unintentional Nonadherence to Peritoneal Dialysis Regimes and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen Li; Lee, Vanessa Yin Woan; Kang, Augustine Wee Cheng; Chan, Sally; Foo, Marjorie; Chan, Choong Meng; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on expanding home-based dialysis, there is a need to understand adherence outcomes. This study set out to examine the prevalence and predictors of nonadherence among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. A cross sectional sample of 201 peritoneal dialysis patients recruited between 2010-2011 from Singapore General Hospital completed measures of quality of life, medication beliefs, self-efficacy and emotional distress. Nonadherence rates were high; 18% for dialysis, 46% for medication and 78% for diet. Intentional nonadherence was more common for dialysis (p = .03), whereas unintentional nonadherence was more common for medication (p = .002). Multivariate models indicated significant associations for higher education (intermediate vs low OR = 3.18, high vs low OR = 4.70), lower environment quality of life (OR = 0.79), dialysis self-efficacy (OR = 0.80) with dialysis nonadherence; higher education (OR = 2.22), self-care peritoneal dialysis (OR = 3.10), perceived necessity vs concerns over medication (OR = 0.90), self-efficacy (OR = 0.76) with nonadherence to medication. The odds for nonadherence to diet were higher among patients who were younger (OR = 0.96), of Chinese ethnicity (OR = 2.99) and those reporting better physical health (OR = 1.30) and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.49). Nonadherence is common in peritoneal dialysis. Self-efficacy and beliefs about medication are promising targets for interventions designed to improve adherence.

  15. Rates of Intentional and Unintentional Nonadherence to Peritoneal Dialysis Regimes and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li Yu

    Full Text Available With increasing emphasis on expanding home-based dialysis, there is a need to understand adherence outcomes. This study set out to examine the prevalence and predictors of nonadherence among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. A cross sectional sample of 201 peritoneal dialysis patients recruited between 2010-2011 from Singapore General Hospital completed measures of quality of life, medication beliefs, self-efficacy and emotional distress. Nonadherence rates were high; 18% for dialysis, 46% for medication and 78% for diet. Intentional nonadherence was more common for dialysis (p = .03, whereas unintentional nonadherence was more common for medication (p = .002. Multivariate models indicated significant associations for higher education (intermediate vs low OR = 3.18, high vs low OR = 4.70, lower environment quality of life (OR = 0.79, dialysis self-efficacy (OR = 0.80 with dialysis nonadherence; higher education (OR = 2.22, self-care peritoneal dialysis (OR = 3.10, perceived necessity vs concerns over medication (OR = 0.90, self-efficacy (OR = 0.76 with nonadherence to medication. The odds for nonadherence to diet were higher among patients who were younger (OR = 0.96, of Chinese ethnicity (OR = 2.99 and those reporting better physical health (OR = 1.30 and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.49. Nonadherence is common in peritoneal dialysis. Self-efficacy and beliefs about medication are promising targets for interventions designed to improve adherence.

  16. Quality of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke in the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Paiva, Dagmara; Azevedo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The quality of health information in the Internet may be low. This is a concerning issue in cardiovascular diseases which warrant patient self-management. We aimed to assess the quality of Portuguese websites as a source of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke. We used the search terms 'enfarte miocardio' and 'acidente vascular cerebral' (Portuguese terms for myocardial infarction and stroke) on Google(®), on April 5th and 7th 2011, respectively, using Internet Explorer(®). The first 200 URL retrieved in each search were independently visited and Portuguese websites in Portuguese language were selected. We analysed and classified 121 websites for structural characteristics, information coverage and accuracy of the web pages with items defined a priori, trustworthiness in general according to the Health on the Net Foundation and regarding treatments using the DISCERN instrument (48 websites). Websites were most frequently commercial (49.5%), not exclusively dedicated to acute myocardial infarction/ stroke (94.2%), and with information on medical facts (59.5%), using images, video or animation (60.3%). Websites' trustworthiness was low. None of the websites displayed the Health on the Net Foundation seal. Acute myocardial infarction/ stroke websites differed in information coverage but the accuracy of the information was acceptable, although often incomplete. The quality of information on acute myocardial infarction/ stroke in Portuguese websites was acceptable. Trustworthiness was low, impairing users' capability of identifying potentially more reliable content.

  17. The Natural Time Course of Membrane Alterations During Peritoneal Dialysis Is Partly Altered by Peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Sadie; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2016-01-01

    ♦ The quality of the peritoneal membrane can deteriorate over time. Exposure to glucose-based dialysis solutions is the most likely culprit. Because peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), distinguishing between the effect of glucose exposure and a possible additive effect

  18. Lower Extremity Permanent Dialysis Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vishal B; Niyyar, Vandana D; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2016-09-07

    Hemodialysis remains the most commonly used RRT option around the world. Technological advances, superior access to care, and better quality of care have led to overall improvement in survival of patients on long-term hemodialysis. Maintaining a functioning upper extremity vascular access for a prolonged duration continues to remain a challenge for dialysis providers. Frequently encountered difficulties in clinical practice include (1) a high incidence of central venous catheter-related central vein stenosis and (2) limited options for creating a functioning upper extremity permanent arteriovenous access. Lack of surgical skills, fear of complications, and limited involvement of the treating nephrologists in the decision-making process are some of the reasons why lower extremity permanent dialysis access remains an infrequently used option. Similar to upper extremity vascular access options, lower extremity arteriovenous fistula remains a preferred access over arteriovenous synthetic graft. The use of femoral tunneled catheter as a long-term access should be avoided as far as possible, especially with the availability of newer graft-catheter hybrid devices. Our review provides a summary of clinical evidence published in surgical, radiology, and nephrology literature highlighting the pros and cons of different types of lower extremity permanent dialysis access. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Nephrologists' professional ethics in dialysis practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozar, David T; Kristensen, Cynthia; Fadem, Stephen Z; Blaser, Robert; Singer, Dale; Moss, Alvin H

    2013-05-01

    Although the number of incidents is unknown, professional quality-oriented renal organizations have become aware of an increased number of complaints regarding nephrologists who approach patients with the purpose of influencing patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities (hereinafter referred to as patient solicitation). This development prompted the Forum of ESRD Networks and the Renal Physicians Association to publish a policy statement on professionalism and ethics in medical practice as these concepts relate to patient solicitation. Also common but not new is the practice of nephrologists trying to recruit their own patients to a new dialysis unit in which they have a financial interest. This paper presents two illustrative cases and provides an ethical framework for analyzing patient solicitation and physician conflict of interest. This work concludes that, in the absence of objective data that medical treatment is better elsewhere, nephrologists who attempt to influence patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities fall short of accepted ethical standards pertaining to professional conduct, particularly with regard to the physician-patient relationship, informed consent, continuity of care, and conflict of interest.

  20. [Peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, N; Hadaya, K

    2013-01-16

    Individualized prescription of bicarbonate solutions allows one to control metabolic acidosis. Low sodium solutions improve sodium removal and may become available in the future. Varying dwell time and fill volume when intermittent APD is prescribed improves the efficiency of dialysis. Continuous flow peritoneal dialysis can dramatically improves the efficiency of dialysis. Normalized haemoglobin values by epoietin-beta in renal transplant recipients are associated with a better graft survival at 2 years. Switch from calcineurins inhibitors to sirolimus after the first squamous-cell carcinoma lead to significantly longer survival free of cutaneous carcinoma at 2 years. Eculizumab allowed successful prevention and treatment of atypical haemolytic and uremic syndrome episodes.

  1. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sleep disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis: comparison between hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Ricardo L M; Minhoto, Gisele R; Riella, Miguel C

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders for patients on dialysis are significant causes of a poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. No study has evaluated patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) to assess their sleep disorders compared to hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A total of 166 clinically stable patients who had been on dialysis for at least 3 months were randomly selected for the study and divided into HD, CAPD or APD. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters and self-administered questionnaires were collected for the investigation of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), bruxism, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression and anxiety. Insomnia was detected in more than 80 % of patients on the three modalities. OSAS was lower for patients on HD (36 %) than on CAPD (65 %) (p dialysis modalities studied had a high prevalence of sleep disorders. Patients on HD had a lower proportion of OSAS than those on CAPD and APD, which is most likely attributed to their lower body mass indices. The possible causes of higher RLS rates in APD patients have not been established.

  3. Infants Requiring Maintenance Dialysis: Outcomes of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrico; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holmberg, Christer; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Trivelli, Antonella; Da Silva, José Eduardo Esteves; Herthelius, Maria; Adams, Brigitte; Bjerre, Anna; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Miteva, Polina; Emirova, Khadizha; Bayazit, Aysun K; Mache, Christoph J; Sánchez-Moreno, Ana; Harambat, Jérôme; Groothoff, Jaap W; Jager, Kitty J; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    The impact of different dialysis modalities on clinical outcomes has not been explored in young infants with chronic kidney failure. Cohort study. Data were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. This analysis included 1,063 infants 12 months or younger who initiated dialysis therapy in 1991 to 2013. Type of dialysis modality. Differences between infants treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) in patient survival, technique survival, and access to kidney transplantation were examined using Cox regression analysis while adjusting for age at dialysis therapy initiation, sex, underlying kidney disease, and country of residence. 917 infants initiated dialysis therapy on PD, and 146, on HD. Median age at dialysis therapy initiation was 4.5 (IQR, 0.7-7.9) months, and median body weight was 5.7 (IQR, 3.7-7.5) kg. Although the groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex, infants treated with PD more often had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 48% vs 27%), whereas those on HD therapy more frequently had metabolic disorders (12% vs 4%). Risk factors for death were younger age at dialysis therapy initiation (HR per each 1-month later initiation, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97) and non-CAKUT cause of chronic kidney failure (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04). Mortality risk and likelihood of transplantation were equal in PD and HD patients, whereas HD patients had a higher risk for changing dialysis treatment (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.17-2.31). Inability to control for unmeasured confounders not included in the Registry database and missing data (ie, comorbid conditions). Low statistical power because of relatively small number of participants. Despite a widespread preconception that HD should be reserved for cases in which PD is not feasible, in Europe, we found 1 in 8 infants in need of maintenance dialysis to be initiated on HD therapy. Patient characteristics at dialysis therapy initiation, prospective survival, and time to

  4. Water-Permeable Dialysis Membranes for Multi-Layered Micro Dialysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya eTo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of water-permeable dialysis membranes that are suitable for an implantable microdialysis system that does not use dialysis fluid. We developed a microdialysis system integrating microfluidic channels and nanoporous filtering membranes made of polyethersulfone (PES, aiming at a fully implantable system that drastically improves the quality of life of patients. Simplicity of the total system is crucial for the implantable dialysis system, where the pumps and storage tanks for the dialysis fluid pose problems. Hence, we focus on hemofiltration, which does not require the dialysis fluid but water-permeable membranes. We investigated the water-permeability of the PES membrane with respect to the concentrations of the PES, the additives, and the solvents in the casting solution. Sufficiently water-permeable membranes were found through in vitro experiments using whole bovine blood. The filtrate was verified to have the concentrations of low-molecular-weight molecules, such as sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine, while proteins, such as albumin, were successfully blocked by the membrane. We conducted in vivo experiments using rats, where the system was connected to the femoral artery and jugular vein. The filtrate was successfully collected without any leakage of blood inside the system and it did not contain albumin but low-molecular-weight molecules whose concentrations were identical to those of the blood. The rat model with renal failure showed 100% increase of creatinine in 5 h, while rats connected to the system showed only a 7.4% increase, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed microdialysis system.

  5. Quality of Life in a Randomized Trial of Nasogastric Tube Feeding in Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Plank, Lindsay D; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2016-07-01

    Recent clinical studies have shown that nasogastric tube feeding is safe in the majority of patients with acute pancreatitis. Patient-reported outcomes are important, but the impact of nasogastric tube feeding on the quality of life has not been investigated. This study aims to compare quality of life between nasogastric tube feeding and nil-by-mouth groups during and after hospitalization. Patient-reported outcomes were recorded daily in a patient diary during hospitalization. The Abdominal Surgery Impact Scale questionnaire was used to determine patients' quality of life. The patients were then followed up at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. While 17 patients were randomized to nasogastric tube feeding, 18 were put on nil-by-mouth. The overall quality of life and individual domains did not differ significantly between the groups during hospitalization (P = .500) or follow-up. For the entire cohort, individual quality-of-life domains during hospitalization improved significantly, including functional impairment (P nasogastric tube feeding, in comparison with nil-by-mouth, does not impair patients' quality of life. Given the clinical benefits of nasogastric tube feeding, nasogastric feeding should be considered the first-line approach in all acute pancreatitis patients requiring enteral nutrition. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-09-02

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid.

  7. Quality Assessment of Acute Inpatient Pain Management in an Academic Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard J; Reid, M Carrington; Chused, Amy E; Evans, Arthur T

    2016-02-01

    The quality of acute inpatient pain management remains suboptimal and poorly understood. In this retrospective study, we analyze acute pain management practice in a large academic health center using several quality indicators. Not surprisingly, despite high rate of pain assessment, many patients still have frequent, prolonged, and unrelieved severe pain episodes. Upon examination of naloxone administration, we identify potential inappropriate opioid prescription practices such as the use of wrong opioids in hepatic and renal failure and simultaneous use of multiple short-acting opioids. Most importantly, we find that chronic opioid users appear to suffer the most in terms of undertreatment of pain as well as opioid overdose, highlighting the urgent need to target this underserved population of patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Survival by Dialysis Modality-Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin B; Bargman, Joanne M

    2016-06-06

    In light of the recent emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and quality of life for patients with kidney disease, we contend that the nephrology community should no longer fund, perform, or publish studies that compare survival by dialysis modality. These studies have become redundant; they are methodologically limited, unhelpful in practice, and therefore a waste of resources. More than two decades of these publications show similar survival between patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and those receiving thrice-weekly conventional hemodialysis, with differences only for specific subgroups. In clinical practice, modality choice should be individualized with the aim of maximizing quality of life, patient-reported outcomes, and achieving patient-centered goals. Expected survival is often irrelevant to modality choice. Even for the younger and fitter home hemodialysis population, quality of life, not just duration of survival, is a major priority. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that patients with ESRD continue to experience poor quality of life because of high symptom burden, unsolved clinical problems, and unmet needs. Patients care more about how they will live instead of how long. It is our responsibility to align our research with their needs. Only by doing so can we meet the challenges of ESRD patient care in the coming decades. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Assessment of patient satisfaction with acute pain management service: Monitoring quality of care in clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Fizzah; Khan, Robyna; Ahmed, Aliya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Assessment of patient satisfaction is an important tool for monitoring the quality of care in hospitals. The aim of this survey was to develop a reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction with acute pain management service (APMS) and identify variables affecting this so that care can be improved. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and administered to  patients after being discharged from APMS care by an unbiased person. Data collected from record included patient de...

  10. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients’ likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. Results 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. Conclusions On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making. PMID:25628892

  11. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients' likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making.

  12. What's the Deal with Dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialysate cleanses the blood and rebalances the blood's chemistry. After about an hour, the machine drains the dialysate from the belly. Some kids can sleep through dialysis. Others might find it uncomfortable and ...

  13. Peritoneal Dialysis in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, Dirk G

    2015-12-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described. Then important insights into the physiology of peritoneal transport are discussed and linked to the changes in time observed in biopsies of the peritoneal membrane. Furthermore, the developments in peritoneal access, more biocompatible dialysate solutions, automated PD at home, the establishment of parameters for dialysis adequacy and strategies to prevent infectious complications are mentioned. Finally non-medical issues responsible for the declining penetration in the Western world are analyzed. Only after introduction of the concept of continuous ambulatory PD by Moncrief and Popovich has this treatment evolved in time to a renal replacement therapy. Of all structures present in the peritoneal membrane, the capillary endothelium offers the rate-limiting hindrance for solute and water transport for the diffusive and convective transport of solutes and osmosis. The functional and anatomical changes in the peritoneal membrane in time can be monitored by the peritoneal equilibrium test. Peritonitis incidence decreased by introduction of the Y-set and prophylaxis using mupirocin on the exit site. The decrease in the proportion of patients treated with PD in the Western world can be explained by non-medical issues such as inadequate predialysis patient education, physician experience and training, ease of HD initiation, overcapacity of in-center HD, lack of adequate infrastructure for PD treatment, costs and reimbursement issues of the treatment. (1) PD is cheaper than HD and provides a

  14. Estimating increases in outpatient dialysis costs resulting from scientific and technological advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozminkowski, R J; Hassol, A; Firkusny, I; Noether, M; Miles, M A; Newmann, J; Sharda, C; Guterman, S; Schmitz, R

    1995-04-01

    The Medicare program's base payment rate for outpatient dialysis services has never been adjusted for the effects of inflation, productivity changes, or scientific and technological advancement on the costs of treating patients with end-stage renal disease. In recognition of this, Congress asked the Prospective Payment Assessment Commission to annually recommend an adjustment to Medicare's base payment rate to dialysis facilities. One component of this adjustment addresses the cost-increasing effects of technological change--the scientific and technological advances (S&TA) component. The S&TA component is intended to encourage dialysis facilities to adopt technologies that, when applied appropriately, enhance the quality of patient care, even though they may also increase costs. We found the appropriate increase to the composite payment rate for Medicare outpatient dialysis services in fiscal year 1995 to vary from 0.18% to 2.18%. These estimates depend on whether one accounts for the lack of previous adjustments to the composite rate. Mathematically, the S&TA adjustment also depends on whether one considers the likelihood of missing some dialysis sessions because of illness or hospitalization. The S&TA estimates also allow for differences in the incremental costs of technological change that are based on the varying advice of experts in the dialysis industry. The major contributors to the cost of technological change in dialysis services are the use of twin-bag disconnect peritoneal dialysis systems, automated peritoneal dialysis cyclers, and the new generation of hemodialysis machines currently on the market. Factors beyond the control of dialysis facility personnel that influence the cost of patient care should be considered when payment rates are set, and those rates should be updated as market conditions change. The S&TA adjustment is one example of how the composite rate payment system for outpatient dialysis services can be modified to provide appropriate

  15. Dialysis membranes for blood purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    2000-01-01

    All of the artificial membranes in industrial use, such as a reverse-osmosis membrane, dialysis membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, microfiltration membrane and gas separation membrane, also have therapeutic applications. The most commonly used artificial organ is the artificial kidney, a machine that performs treatment known as hemodialysis. This process cleanses the body of a patient with renal failure by dialysis and filtration, simple physicochemical processes. Hemodialysis membranes are used to remove accumulated uremic toxins, excess ions and water from the patient via the dialysate, and to supply (deficit) insufficient ions from the dialysate. Dialysis membranes used clinically in the treatment of patients with renal failure account for by far the largest volume of membranes used worldwide; more than 70 million square meters are used a year. Almost all dialyzers now in use are of the hollow-fiber type. A hollow-fiber dialyzer contains a bundle of approximately 10000 hollow fibers, each with an inner diameter of about 200 microm when wet. The membrane thickness is about 20-45 microm, and the length is 160-250 mm. The walls of the hollow fibers function as the dialysis membrane. Various materials, including cellulose-based materials and synthetic polymers, are used for dialysis membranes. This paper reviews blood purification, hemodialysis and dialysis membranes.

  16. Knowledge and Practice of Hemodialysis Amongst Dialysis Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Dhiraj Narayan; Chhetri, Pramod Kumar; Poudel, Prakash; Baidya, Samir Keshari; Agrawaal, Krishna Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Dialysis nurses should have a good knowledge regarding hemodialysis treatment. The status of Nepalese dialysis nurses on this aspect is unknown. This study was done to assess the knowledge and practice on different aspects of the hemodialysis treatment. We distributed validated questionnaires to the participants in a biannual conference in Kathmandu on 24th September as most of the dialysis nurses attend the event. We calculated mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and frequencies and percentage for the responses and compared counseling with different parameters. Total 94 out of 116 participants who were giving care to dialysis patients were in the study. Total 39 (42%) received formal nursing training in hemodialysis and 71 (78%) respondents always counseled patients regarding fluid intake. A total of 37 (96%) trained nurses always counseled the importance of regular dialysis. Seventy-six (81.7%) respondents did counseling on vaccination against Hepatitis B. Counseling on vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus was 47 (50%). When comparing educational status, respondents below bachelor level did more frequent counseling than level above (P=0.03). All the respondents knew the importance of hand washing and BP monitoring during hemodialysis. Ninety-one (96.7%) respondents knew how to deal with BP changes during hemodialysis. Seventy-three (77.6%) respondents were very confident on managing complications. Only 31 (33%) respondents knew how to deal with patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis nurses have knowledge on basic procedures of hemodialysis but there is a space for improvement in dealing with complications to provide quality service to hemodialysis patients.

  17. Native Canadians relocating for renal dialysis. Psychosocial and cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R; Krefting, L; Sutcliffe, P; Van Bussel, L

    1994-11-01

    To examine the effects of relocation from remote Native communities for dialysis treatment and explore the receptiveness of patients, caregivers, and their communities to establishing a local satellite dialysis unit. Second, to examine the methodological issues inherent in a qualitative, cross-cultural study. Qualitative descriptive survey using semistructured interviews. The Moose Factory Zone (MFZ), situated along the west coast of James Bay in northern Ontario, is one of four geographically defined areas of responsibility within Ontario through which the federal government provides health care services to Native Canadians. Twenty-four Native residents of MFZ selected by volunteer and nominative sampling techniques. Patients with end-stage or prefailure renal disease, informal caregivers and supporters, professional caregivers, and community spokespersons were included in the study population. Identification of issues important in planning dialysis services for Native patients in remote communities in the MFZ. Informal caregivers and both categories of patients supported in principle a proposed satellite dialysis unit at Moose Factory General Hospital. Their criticisms of the present system necessitating relocation to urban centres included inadequate social support, inconvenience and expense, and family separation. Professional caregivers generally supported establishing a local dialysis unit but had concerns regarding staff training and continuity of care. Community spokespersons also supported the proposed unit but only if quality of care could be ensured. Relocation for dialysis treatment disrupts social support patterns and creates psychosocial problems. Although the psychosocial advantages of providing dialysis treatment services close to home are readily apparent, other considerations, such as cost, equipment, and expertise, and training of health care personnel, make the provision of tertiary level care more difficult in isolated areas. Additional study

  18. Psychometric properties of health related quality of life measures in acute coronary syndrome patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Virginia; Oliveira, Gabriela; Moraes, Katarinne Lima

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of patient-reported outcome measures that assess health-related quality of life in patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

  19. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  20. Changing Landscape for Peritoneal Dialysis: Optimizing Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Martin J

    2017-03-01

    The future growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) will be directly linked to the shift in US healthcare to a value-based payment model due to PD's lower yearly cost, early survival advantage over in-center hemodialysis, and improved quality of life for patients treating their kidney disease in the home. Under this model, nephrology practices will need an increased focus on managing the transition from chronic kidney disease to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), providing patient education with the aim of accomplishing modality selection and access placement ahead of dialysis initiation. Physicians must expand their knowledge base in home therapies and work toward increased technique survival through implementation of specific practice initiatives that highlight PD catheter placement success, preservation of residual renal function, consideration of incremental PD, and competence in urgent start PD. Avoidance of both early and late PD technique failures is also critical to PD program growth. Large dialysis organizations must continue to measure and improve quality metrics for PD, expand their focus beyond the sole provision of PD to holistic patient care, and initiate programs to reduce PD hospitalization rates and encourage physicians to consider the benefits of PD as an initial modality for appropriate patients. New and innovative strategies are needed to address the main reasons for PD technique failure, improve the connectivity of the patient in the home, leverage home biometric data to improve overall outcomes, and develop PD cycler devices that lower patient treatment burden and reduce both treatment fatigue and treatment-dependent complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Peritoneal dialysis update 1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolph K

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Each year there are over 400 papers published in the field of peritoneal dialysis. In this review I have touched on only a few highlights of some of the more active areas of investigation and development. The advances in controlling peritonitis rates with the Y-set have been dramatic and have resulted in peritonitis rates in many centers less than one episode per 24 patient months. Technique survivals have also improved with lower peritonitis rates. The enormous literature on new approaches to treatment and new understandings of host defenses are beyond the scope of this review. There are also many advances in peritoneal access. We now have many new types of catheters under investigation such as the Swan-Neck Missouri catheter and the Moncrief-Popovich catheter, with complete burial of the catheter until eventual externalization for CAPD training. There have been major advances in understanding the normal healing of exit sites and the early diagnosis and treatment of exit-site infections. All the extensive literature on catheter development in the management of exit sites will be reviewed elsewhere. I have focused primarily on an update of worldwide demographics, some of the new findings in peritoneal transport, the use of low-calcium solutions, experiences with EPO, new thinking about adequacy and nutrition, and finally, on recent comparisons of CAPD and hemodialysis.

  2. Sleep Disorders, Restless Legs Syndrome, and Uremic Pruritus: Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Symptoms in Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Jennifer S.; Combs, Sara A.; Brennan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance dialysis patients experience a high burden of physical and emotional symptoms that directly affect their quality of life and health care utilization. In this review, we specifically highlight common troublesome symptoms affecting dialysis patients: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and uremic pruritus. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and evidence-based current treatment are reviewed with the goal of providing a guide for diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we identify multiple additional areas of further study needed to improve symptom management in dialysis patients. PMID:27693261

  3. Effect of starting with hemodialysis compared with peritoneal dialysis in patients new on dialysis treatment: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, Johanna C.; Feith, G. W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Manen, Jeannette G.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up-until-now, the survival and health-related quality of life of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients has only been compared in observational studies. These studies have reported small and opposing differences between both modalities. The aim of this study was to compare the

  4. Evaluating the Quality of Patient Decision-Making Regarding Post-Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Robert E; Jones, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Emily; Ladebue, Amy; Ayele, Roman; Leonard, Chelsea; Lippmann, Brandi; Matlock, Daniel D; Allyn, Rebecca; Cumbler, Ethan

    2018-02-09

    Despite a national focus on post-acute care brought about by recent payment reforms, relatively little is known about how hospitalized older adults and their caregivers decide whether to go to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after hospitalization. We sought to understand to what extent hospitalized older adults and their caregivers are empowered to make a high-quality decision about utilizing an SNF for post-acute care and what contextual or process elements led to satisfaction with the outcome of their decision once in SNF. Qualitative inquiry using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF), a conceptual framework that describes key components of high-quality decision-making. Thirty-two previously community-dwelling older adults (≥ 65 years old) and 22 caregivers interviewed at three different hospitals and three skilled nursing facilities. We used key components of the ODSF to identify elements of context and process that affected decision-making and to what extent the outcome was characteristic of a high-quality decision: informed, values based, and not associated with regret or blame. The most important contextual themes were the presence of active medical conditions in the hospital that made decision-making difficult, prior experiences with hospital readmission or SNF, relative level of caregiver support, and pressure to make a decision quickly for which participants felt unprepared. Patients described playing a passive role in the decision-making process and largely relying on recommendations from the medical team. Patients commonly expressed resignation and a perceived lack of choice or autonomy, leading to dissatisfaction with the outcome. Understanding and intervening to improve the quality of decision-making regarding post-acute care supports is essential for improving outcomes of hospitalized older adults. Our results suggest that simply providing information is not sufficient; rather, incorporating key contextual factors and improving the

  5. The impact of Vascular Access on the Adequacy of Dialysis and the Outcome of the Dialysis Treatment: One Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutevelic, Alma; Spanja, Indira; Sultic-Lavic, Indira; Koric, Amila

    2015-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradually reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) caused by destruction of a large number of nephrons. Kidney failure is the final stage of CKD with GFR vascular access, which is also the "life line" and "Achilles heel" of hemodialysis treatment. The purpose of this research is to show the demographic structure of the hemodialysis center in Konjic, and also demonstrate the impact of vascular access to the adequacy and the outcome of dialysis treatment. This cross-sectional study included 36 patients on hemodialysis in Center in Konjic from September 2010 to December 2014. The method of collecting data is performed through medical records and the quality of dialysis is taken to be Kt/V> 1.2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and Student T-test. The mortality of patients treated by dialysis is 37.8%. The ratio of male and female patients is 55.6% vs. 44.5%, with an average age of 52.91±14.36 years and an average duration of hemodialysis of five years. The highest percentage of patients dialyzed through arterio-venous fistula (AVF) on the forearm (72.2%). In that patients the most common complication is thrombosis with 30.5%, which require recanalization in 11% and replacement in 19.5% of patients. Of the other dialysis patients, 16.7% of patients are dialyzed via a temporary and 11.1% via a permanent catheter (the most common complication in that patients is infection in 83.3% cases) in v.subclavia. Although the AVF is more frequently, experience shows frequent implantation of a permanent catheter in elderly patients due to the less quality of their blood vessels. Although the Kt/V by patients who are dialyzed through temporary catheter is less than 1.2 and by the other two access is greater than 1.2, our results confirm that vascular access does not have an influence on quality of dialysis. Average Kt/V shows that the adequate dialysis dose is delivered in this Center, which means that despite the impact

  6. The impact of acute high-risk abdominal surgery on quality of life in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, Line Toft; Foss, Nicolai Bang; Lauritsen, Morten Laksafoss

    2017-01-01

    surgery. METHODS: From 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015, consecutive patients (≥ 75 years) undergoing AHA surgery were included for follow-up after six months. The patients included answered a health-related quality-of-life questionnaire and a supplemental questionnaire regarding residential status...... and they were willing to undergo surgery again, if necessary. All study participants were admitted from their own home, and 95% had no change in residential status after six months. CONCLUSIONS: The self-reported quality of life in elderly survivors six months after AHA surgery was surprisingly good in a small......INTRODUCTION: Undergoing acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery is associated with reduced survival and a great risk of an adverse outcome, especially in the elderly. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the residential status and quality of life in elderly patients undergoing AHA...

  7. As we grow old: nutritional considerations for older patients on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lina; Fouque, Denis; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Chauveau, Philippe; Kolko, Anne; Molina, Pablo; Sezer, Siren; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Teta, Daniel; Carrero, Juan J

    2017-07-01

    The number of older people on dialysis is increasing, along with a need to develop specialized health care to manage their needs. Aging-related changes occur in physiological, psychosocial and medical aspects, all of which present nutritional risk factors ranging from a decline in metabolic rate to assistance with feeding-related activities. In dialysis, these are compounded by the metabolic derangements of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and of dialysis treatment per se, leading to possible aggravation of protein-energy wasting syndrome. This review discusses the nutritional derangements of the older patient on dialysis, debates the need for specific renal nutrition guidelines and summarizes potential interventions to meet their nutritional needs. Interdisciplinary collaborations between renal and geriatric clinicians should be encouraged to ensure better quality of life and outcomes for this growing segment of the dialysis population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. ESRD QIP - Dialysis Adequacy - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rate, dialysis adequacy topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the dialysis...

  9. Use of peritoneal dialysis in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Christine

    One sixth of patients receiving dialysis in the UK manage their underlying chronic kidney disease using peritoneal dialysis. Although it is generally undertaken at home, non-specialist renal nurses should understand how peritoneal dialysis works. This first in a two-part series describes chronic kidney disease and different treatment options, with a focus on peritoneal dialysis. Part 2 will guide non-renal nurses on how best to care for patients using this treatment option.

  10. Health-related quality of life and disability in patients with acute unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petri

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Health-related quality of life is used to denote that portion of the quality of life that is influenced by the person's health. Objectives: To compare the health-related quality of life of individuals with vestibular disorders of peripheral origin by analyzing functional, emotional and physical disabilities before and after vestibular treatment. Methods: A prospective, non randomized case-controlled study was conduced in the ENT Department, between January 2015 and December 2015. All patients were submitted to customize a 36 item of health survey on quality of life, short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36 and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory for assessing the disability. Individuals were diagnosed with acute unilateral vestibular peripheral disorders classified in 5 groups: vestibular neuritis, Ménière Disease, Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, cochlear-vestibular dysfunction (other than Ménière Disease, or other type of acute peripheral vertigo (as vestibular migraine. Results: There was a statistical significant difference for each parameter of Dizziness Handicap Inventory score (the emotional, functional and physical between the baseline and one month both in men and women, but with any statistical significant difference between 7 days and 14 days. It was found a statistical significant difference for all eight parameters of SF-36 score between the baseline and one month later both in men and women; the exception was the men mental health perception. The correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the SF-36 scores according to diagnostics type pointed out that the Spearman's correlation coefficient was moderate correlated with the total scores of these instruments. Conclusion: The Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the SF-36 are useful, proved practical and valid instruments for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular

  11. Protein source and quality in therapeutic foods affect the immune response and outcome in severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is a vital component of therapeutic foods designed to treat severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children; however there are still unknowns about the quality and quantity of the proteins to use in these foods. This review examines two recent studies investigating several different qualities an...

  12. Quality of Acute Care and Long-Term Quality of Life and Survival: The Australian Stroke Clinical Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Lannin, Natasha A; Middleton, Sandy; Levi, Christopher R; Dewey, Helen M; Grabsch, Brenda; Faux, Steve; Hill, Kelvin; Grimley, Rohan; Wong, Andrew; Sabet, Arman; Butler, Ernest; Bladin, Christopher F; Bates, Timothy R; Groot, Patrick; Castley, Helen; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Anderson, Craig S

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty exists over whether quality improvement strategies translate into better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and survival after acute stroke. We aimed to determine the association of best practice recommended interventions and outcomes after stroke. Data are from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry during 2010 to 2014. Multivariable regression was used to determine associations between 3 interventions: received acute stroke unit (ASU) care and in various combinations with prescribed antihypertensive medication at discharge, provision of a discharge care plan, and outcomes of survival and HRQoL (EuroQoL 5-dimensional questionnaire visual analogue scale) at 180 days, by stroke type. An assessment was also made of outcomes related to the number of processes patients received. There were 17 585 stroke admissions (median age 77 years, 47% female; 81% managed in ASUs; 80% ischemic stroke) from 42 hospitals (77% metropolitan) assessed. Cumulative benefits on outcomes related to the number of care processes received by patients. ASU care was associated with a reduced likelihood of death (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.56) and better HRQoL (coefficient, 21.34; 95% confidence interval, 15.50-27.18) within 180 days. For those discharged from hospital, receiving ASU+antihypertensive medication provided greater 180-day survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.52) compared with ASU care alone (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.76). HRQoL gains were greatest for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who received care bundles involving discharge processes (range of increase, 11%-19%). Patients with stroke who receive best practice recommended hospital care have improved long-term survival and HRQoL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Detection of microorganisms, endotoxins and aluminum in mobile dialysis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rodrigues de Jesus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis water and dialysates are fundamental in the treatment of kidney disease. During just one hemodialysis session, 120 liters of dialysate are consumed. Thus, it is essential that the parameters of chemical and microbiological quality of the fluids used in dialysis systems are carefully observed. In this study, water samples were collected at 12 hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were obtained at three points of fluid reservoirs: pre-, post-osmosis and dialysis solution. After collection, colony forming units (CFU, total coliforms and Escherichia coli 100 mL-1 were quantified. Later, isolated colonies and endotoxin content were identified by biochemical assays. Data about total aluminum levels per sample (mg L-1 were also obtained. Samples of all mobile dialysis services and points of collection were contaminated above the levels set out by national laws, in particular by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Endotoxin levels were also above the recommended by current legislation (> 0.25 EU mL-1. Only three samples contained detectable levels of aluminum, which were found to be above the recommended values for the corresponding resolution (0.01 mg L-1. Finally, there were no observable amounts of total coliforms and E. coli 100 mL-1 sample. The data from this study are an important step forward in the standardization and control of chemical/microbiological quality of mobile dialysis services.

  14. Impact of socio-economic factors on quality of life in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in an African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaka, E I; Davies, M; Ahmed, M; Naidoo, S; Naicker, S

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome following the treatment of disease. It is influenced by physical, psychological, social and economic factors. We proposed to determine the effect of some socioeconomic factors on QOL of patients on CAPD. A cross sectional study in which all patients on CAPD attending three clinics attached to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg were recruited excluding those with intercurrent illness. The WHO quality of life instrument, WHOQOL-Bref, was used to measure QOL. The patients were grouped according to marital status, highest level of education attained, income, employment, and QOL domain scores were compared using ANOVA and Student t test. A total of 140 patients comprising 80 males and 40 females were assessed. The mean age of patients was 41.9 ± 11.5 years, 95%of patients were black, 44.3% married, 69.3% had secondary education, 22% were employed and 51.4% had a monthly income of less than five thousand Rand (500 US dollars). Single patients scored better in the social relationships domain compared to separated patients (p=0.02, CI: 5.6-32.9). The group with secondary education scored low in the psychological domain compared with those with primary education (p=0.02, CI: 1.35-15.8) and those with tertiary education (p=0.02, CI: 1.72-18.07).The highest income group had best scores in all domains except the physical domain. Those in employment had better scores in the physical domain (p=0.04, CI: 0.356-12.549). Income had the most impact on QOL in study participants.

  15. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment Among Peritoneal Dialysis Patients, Impact on Peritonitis and Role of Assisted Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Yat Fung; Lam, Man Fai; Lee, Mi Suen Connie; Mok, Ming Yee Maggie; Lui, Sing-Leung; Yip, Terence P S; Lo, Wai Kei; Chu, Leung Wing; Chan, Tak-Mao

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Chronic renal failure and aging are suggested as risk factors for cognitive impairment (CI). We studied the prevalence of CI among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), its impact on PD-related peritonitis in the first year, and the potential role of assisted PD. ♦ One hundred fourteen patients were newly started on PD between February 2011 and July 2013. Montreal Cognitive Assessment was performed in the absence of acute illness. Data on patient characteristics including demographics, comorbidities, blood parameters, dialysis adequacy, presence of helpers, medications, and the number PD-related infections were collected. ♦ The age of studied patients was 59±15.0 years, and 47% were female. The prevalence of CI was 28.9%. Patients older than 65 years old (odds ratio [OR] 4.88, confidence interval [CI] 1.79 - 13.28 p = 0.002) and with an education of primary level or below (OR 4.08, CI 1.30 - 12.81, p = 0.016) were independent risk factors for CI in multivariate analysis. Patients with PD-related peritonitis were significantly older (p peritonitis among self-care PD patients (OR 2.20, CI 0.65 - 7.44, p = 0.20). When we compared patients with MoCA-defined CI receiving self-care and assisted PD, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of age, MoCA scores, or comorbidities. There were also no statistically significant differences in 1-year outcome of PD-related peritonitis rates or exit-site infections. ♦ Cognitive impairment is common among local PD patients. Even with CI, peritonitis rate in self-care PD with adequate training is similar to CI patients on assisted PD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  16. Peritoneal dialysis and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balafa, O.; Krediet, R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death is the most frequent cause of dying in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Risk factors include not only those that can be present in the general population, but also those related to the presence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and factors that are specific for PD

  17. Dialysis and Depression in the Light of Suicide Attempt with Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Feray

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a common morbidity seen in chronic renal failure patients but it is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Here we present a 36-year-old male dialysis patient who had undiagnosed severe depression and attempted to commit suicide with overconsumption of fruits. Fortunately, he was saved with emergent dialysis treatment and was referred to a psychiatry clinic for treatment and observation. In the light of this case we want to point out that diagnosing and treating psychiatric problems of dialysis patients is of vital importance to prevent suicides and also to improve quality of life.

  18. [Evaluation of healthcare quality for acute cerebrovascular disease in the context of the service level agreement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Eduardo; Olascoaga Arrate, Adela; Garai, Idoia

    2009-04-01

    The service level agreement establishes the quality requirements for those services contracted by the Basque Government Health Department from Osakidetza-Servicio Vasco de Salud. Acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) is one of the care processes with quality specifications. To outline the procedure adopted to evaluate ACVD care and the results obtained in four hospitals in Vizcaya between 2003 and 2007. In 2003, a work group consisting of clinicians, hospital and quality assurance managers, and experts from the Regional Health Board chose a series of indicators which would be measured by an external auditor. This group reviews the results annually and sets objectives for the following financial year. The improvement in almost all the indicators has been significant, and those with high ratings from the beginning have maintained their level. The percentage of patients who had a CAT scan in the first six hours after arriving at hospital increased from 57% to 85%, and the administration of anticoagulants within 12 hours increased from 70% of cases to 90%. The fibrinolysis rate was 3.8% in two hospitals. The percentage of patients who began rehabilitation whilst admitted was less than 3%. After operating for five years, the procedure adopted, which involves collaboration between clinical, management and planning staff, has been shown to be viable and effective in improving the quality of ACVD care.

  19. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Positive and Negative Impact of Spiritual Religious Coping on Quality of Life and Depression in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciano Magalhães; Soares, Renata de Castro E Santos; Santos, Ana Eliza Oliveira; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that spiritual/religious beliefs are associated with mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, few studies evaluated how spiritual/religious coping (SRC) could affect hemodialysis patients. The present study investigated the role of SRC behaviors on HRQoL and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients. This was cross-sectional study with 184 patients. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Brief SRC Scale, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and a Sociodemographic and Health Characterization Questionnaire. From 218 patients, 184 (84.4%) were included (53.8% male with a median age of 55.9 years). Negative SRC, but not positive SRC, was associated with depressive symptoms. Positive SRC presented significant effects in SF-36 pain and physical and social functioning. On the other hand, negative SRC exhibited significant effects in SF-36 role emotional, energy/fatigue, pain, and physical functioning. SRC influences the mental health and HRQoL in Brazilian hemodialysis patients in two distinct ways. If used positively, it may have positive outcomes. However, if used negatively, it may lead to dysfunctional consequences such as greater depressive symptomatology and affect HRQoL. Health professionals must be aware of these "two sides of the same coin."

  20. [Implementation of a web based software for documentation and control of quality of an acute pain service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Michael T; Abel, Reinhard; Abt, Gregor; Kieninger, Martin; Graf, Bernhard Martin; Taeger, Kai; Ittner, Karl Peter

    2009-07-01

    Providing an acute pain service means accumulation of a large amount of data. The alleviation of data collection, improvement of data quality and data analysis plays a pivotal role. The electronic medical record (EMR) is gaining more and more importance in this context and is continuously spreading in clinical practice. Up to now only a few commercial softwares are available that specifically fit to the needs of an acute pain service. Here we report the development and implementation of such a program (Schmerzvisite, Medlinq, Hamburg, Germany) in the acute pain service of a University Hospital.

  1. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  2. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  3. Quality of in-hospital care for adults with acute bacterial meningitis: a national retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjini, A B; Stuart, J M; Cartwright, K; Cohen, J; Jacobs, M; Nichols, T; Ninis, N; Prempeh, H; Whitehouse, A; Heyderman, R S

    2006-11-01

    Most adults with bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia present to junior doctors who have limited experience of these conditions. In contrast to paediatric practice, data from industrialized countries with regard to current hospital management practice are lacking. To examine whether current practice meets recommended standards in hospital management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia among adults. National audit of medical records. We conducted a survey of all patients with acute bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia admitted to 18 randomly selected acute hospitals in England and Wales between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2001. All stages of care, including pre-hospital management, initial hospital assessment, record keeping, and ongoing hospital and public health management, were assessed. We identified 212 cases of bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia; 190 cases remained in the final analysis. Clinical record keeping did not meet acceptable standards in 33% of cases. Parenteral antibiotics were given within 1 h of hospital arrival in 56% of cases, increasing to 79% among those with an initial differential diagnosis that included bacterial meningitis or meningococcal septicaemia. A full severity of illness assessment was made in 27%. The quality of clinical practice varied widely between hospitals. This was most pronounced in the timeliness of consultant review (p < 0.0005). The quality of adult clinical practice for bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia needs improvement. This study provides a tool for developing targeted interventions to improve quality of care and outcome among adults with life-threatening infections, both in the UK and in other countries.

  4. [Quality of life change and its influencing factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome after drug-eluting stent implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Hu, Da-yi; Sun, Yi-hong; Ding, Rong-jing; Wang, Wei-min; Liu, Wen-ling; Li, Cui-lan; Li, Lei; Chen, Yu

    2012-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate the change of quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents and explore the influencing factors of quality of life. There hundred and thirty four consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving drug-eluting stents implantation between September 2008 and December 2009 were enrolled. Of them, two hundred and ninety three patients completed 36-item short form health survey at baseline and 6 months after PCI procedure. Change of quality of life and influencing factors on quality of life were analyzed. Compared with baseline, quality of life improved significantly after PCI in terms of both physical component summary and mental component summary [ (51.07 ± 20.39) scores vs. (61.69 ± 19.73) scores and (63.27 ± 20.00) scores vs. (68.81 ± 18.71) scores, respectively; all P Quality of life of acute coronary syndrome patients is significantly improved at 6 months after drug-eluting stents implantation. The predictors of physical quality of life improvement are female, diabetes, and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Predictors of mental quality of life improvement are previous PCI and diabetes.

  5. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient...... technique survival and impact of switching from HD to PD was examined along with logistic regression to investigate factors predicting AV fistula formation. Results: 72 UPS patients started with PD catheter and 198 with CVC. PD patients were older and more comorbid but had a significantly lower number...... with lower requirement for access procedures. AVF formation in UPS patients starting on HD was associated with better 1-year survival. Modality switching in UPS patients requires careful clinical management, including clinical practice patterns promoting permanent HD access formation....

  6. A patient perspective on the barriers to home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    People with End Stage Renal Disease rarely choose home dialysis therapies even though they can offer a range of Quality-of-Life (QOL) benefits such as improved convenience, mental health well-being, employment, reduced mortality and cost effectiveness. Attempts to increase usage of such self-caring modalities, have met with limited success, in part due to a lack of understanding of patient decision making and patient perceived barriers to such therapies. To explore the patient perspective on the main barriers to a range of self-care or home dialysis therapies, including Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, Home Haemodialysis and Extended Home Haemodialysis. A longitudinal patient narrative approach is adopted. There are significant barriers to all aspects of informed decision making around home therapies, but many are based on perception. Creating decision aids and education programmes to tackle these perceived barriers, actively encouraging home therapy take up, focusing on QOL in clinical decision making, offering peer support and expanded in-centre self-care treatment options may increase awareness and uptake of self-care therapies. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. [Patients' opinions and expectations about the dialysis care process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M A; Escudero, M J; Suess, A; March, J C; Ruiz, A; Danet, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the experiences and needs of patients on dialysis, in order to identify critical points of the care process and develop proposals for improvement. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with 22 patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, from the Andalusian Health Service. Discourse analysis, using the SERVQUAL model. Triangulation of results. The diagnostic stage is described as the hardest moment as it requires acceptance of the disease. During hemodialysis, we see both positive adaptation and the perception of a diminished quality of life. The technique of peritoneal dialysis is evaluated positively, enabling greater independence, despite requiring more responsibility for self care. The contact with patients' organizations or the provision of a counseling service are valued as an aid in the process. With respect to different dimensions of the SERVQUAL model, human treatment and professional competence are valued. The critical points are lack of coordination, malfunctioning of transportation and lack of transparency in the management of waiting lists. Shortcomings in dealing with informal caregivers and the level of knowledge of professionals from areas other than Nephrology, also appear as deficiencies. The main proposals for improving the dialysis process are: attention to psychosocial aspects, the improvement of organizational aspects such as transport, and greater attention to informal caregivers.

  8. Quality of life after acute myocardial infarction: A comparison of diabetic versus non-diabetic acute myocardial infarction patients in Quebec acute care hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewurabena; Pilote, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies have evaluated the individual effects of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and diabetes mellitus on health-related quality of life outcomes (QOL). Due to the rising incidence of these comorbid conditions, it is important to examine the synergistic impact of diabetes mellitus and AMI on QOL. Methods In this study, we assessed using several previously validated questionnaires the QOL and functional status of 96 diabetic patients and 491 non-diabetic patients admitted to Quebec hospital sites with AMI between 1997 and 1998. We also conducted multivariate analyses to ascertain whether diabetes mellitus was an independent determinant of SF-36 physical functioning (PCS) and mental health (MCS) component score QOL outcomes after AMI. Results Both patient groups had similar baseline clinical characteristics, but diabetic patients had slightly higher rates of cardiac risk factors compared to non-diabetics. Overall, QOL measures were similar between both patient groups at baseline, but diabetic patients reported poorer functional status than non-diabetic patients. Over the study period, there were significant differences between the QOL and functional status of diabetic and non-diabetic populations. By one year, diabetic patients reported poorer QOL outcomes than non-diabetic patients. However, diabetic patients showed greater improvements in their functional status, but were less likely to return to work compared to non-diabetic patients. In contrast with these findings, our multivariate analyses showed that diabetes mellitus was not an independent determinant of QOL and functional status. Conclusion Our study findings suggest that diabetes mellitus is not an independent determinant of QOL after AMI. PMID:16329755

  9. Quality of life after acute myocardial infarction: A comparison of diabetic versus non-diabetic acute myocardial infarction patients in Quebec acute care hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilote Louise

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have evaluated the individual effects of acute myocardial infarction (AMI and diabetes mellitus on health-related quality of life outcomes (QOL. Due to the rising incidence of these comorbid conditions, it is important to examine the synergistic impact of diabetes mellitus and AMI on QOL. Methods In this study, we assessed using several previously validated questionnaires the QOL and functional status of 96 diabetic patients and 491 non-diabetic patients admitted to Quebec hospital sites with AMI between 1997 and 1998. We also conducted multivariate analyses to ascertain whether diabetes mellitus was an independent determinant of SF-36 physical functioning (PCS and mental health (MCS component score QOL outcomes after AMI. Results Both patient groups had similar baseline clinical characteristics, but diabetic patients had slightly higher rates of cardiac risk factors compared to non-diabetics. Overall, QOL measures were similar between both patient groups at baseline, but diabetic patients reported poorer functional status than non-diabetic patients. Over the study period, there were significant differences between the QOL and functional status of diabetic and non-diabetic populations. By one year, diabetic patients reported poorer QOL outcomes than non-diabetic patients. However, diabetic patients showed greater improvements in their functional status, but were less likely to return to work compared to non-diabetic patients. In contrast with these findings, our multivariate analyses showed that diabetes mellitus was not an independent determinant of QOL and functional status. Conclusion Our study findings suggest that diabetes mellitus is not an independent determinant of QOL after AMI.

  10. Selecting Peritoneal Dialysis in the Older Dialysis Population

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Quinn, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Selecting peritoneal dialysis (PD) in older individuals is a complex, multi-step process. At each step, older individuals may not have the opportunity to receive PD unless care is optimized. Older individuals are less likely to complete a PD assessment, because of unstable medical conditions, consideration of palliative care, or reluctance to approach frail patients once they are established on hemodialysis (HD). Older individuals are also more likely to have medical or social conditions that...

  11. Health-related quality of life assessment in Indonesian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL in children with cancer were conducted in developed countries. The aims of this study were to assess the HRQOL in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients in Indonesia and to assess the influence of demographic and medical characteristics on HRQOL. Methods After cultural linguistic validation, a cross-sectional study of HRQOL was conducted with childhood ALL patients and their guardians in various phases of treatment using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 3.0 Cancer Module. Results Ninety-eight guardians and 55 patients participated. The internal consistency of both scales ranged from 0.57 to 0.92. HRQOL of Indonesian patients was comparable with those in developed countries. There were moderate to good correlations between self-reports and proxy-reports, however guardians tended to report worse HRQOL than patients. Children of the 2–5 year-group significantly had more problems in procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety and communication subscales than in older groups (p Conclusion Younger children had more problems in procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety and communication subscales. Therefore, special care during intervention procedures is needed to promote their normal development. Psychosocial support should be provided to children and their parents to facilitate their coping with disease and its treatment.

  12. Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality following Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been widely studied and the effects of injury can be long term or even lifelong. This research aims to characterize the sleep problems of patients following acute mTBI. Methods. A total of 171 patients with mTBI within one month and 145 non-mTBI controls were recruited in this study. The questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, was used to evaluate seven aspects of sleep problems. A propensity score method was used to generate a quasirandomized design to account for the background information, including gender, age, Beck’s Anxiety Index, Beck’s Depression Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The effect was evaluated via cumulative logit regression including propensity scores as a covariate. Results. Before adjustment, about 60% mTBI patients and over three quarters of control subjects had mild sleep disturbance while one third mTBI patients had moderate sleep disturbance. After adjusting by the propensity scores, the scores of sleep quality and duration were significant between mTBI and control groups. Conclusion. Our study supports that sleep problem is common in mTBI group. After adjusting the confounders by propensity score, sleep duration and subjective sleep quality are the most frequently reported problems in mTBI patients within one month after the injury.

  13. Providing quality nutrition care in acute care hospitals: perspectives of nutrition care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H H; Vesnaver, E; Davidson, B; Allard, J; Laporte, M; Bernier, P; Payette, H; Jeejeebhoy, K; Duerksen, D; Gramlich, L

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals worldwide and nutritional status can deteriorate during hospitalisation. The aim of the present qualitative study was to identify enablers and challenges and, specifically, the activities, processes and resources, from the perspective of nutrition care personnel, required to provide quality nutrition care. Eight hospitals participating in the Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals study provided focus group data (n = 8 focus groups; 91 participants; dietitians, dietetic interns, diet technicians and menu clerks), which were analysed thematically. Five themes emerged from the data: (i) developing a nutrition culture, where nutrition practice is considered important to recovery of patients and teams work together to achieve nutrition goals; (ii) using effective tools, such as screening, evidence-based protocols, quality, timely and accurate patient information, and appropriate and quality food; (iii) creating effective systems to support delivery of care, such as communications, food production and delivery; (iv) being responsive to care needs, via flexible food systems, appropriate menus and meal supplements, up to date clinical care and including patient and family in the care processes; and (v) uniting the right person with the right task, by delineating roles, training staff, providing sufficient time to undertake these important tasks and holding staff accountable for their care. The findings of the present study are consistent with other work and provide guidance towards improving the nutrition culture in hospitals. Further empirical work on how to support successful implementation of nutrition care processes is needed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Supporting peritoneal dialysis in remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Dale; Warr, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is usually considered a first-choice treatment for end-stage renal disease for patients living in remote areas. The advantages of peritoneal dialysis over haemodialysis are that peritoneal dialysis preserves the residual renal function for longer, provides patients with more independence and gives patients a greater opportunity to return home quickly. In Australia, Aboriginal people suffer end-stage renal failure at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. Given that many Aboriginal people live in remote communities a task of peritoneal dialysis units is to ensure the successful setting up and maintenance of peritoneal dialysis programmes in the outback. This paper examines how peritoneal dialysis units located in the city are able to deliver peritoneal dialysis to patients located often hundreds of kilometres and at times thousands of kilometres away in very remote communities. In preparing this paper interviews were conducted with renal and remote community-based health professionals in Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and with peritoneal dialysis patients in Western Australia. The success of remote peritoneal dialysis programmes relies on many elements, most importantly an integrated approach to care by all members of the peritoneal dialysis team. The peritoneal dialysis team included not just health professionals but also patients, their families, their communities and other support people such as those involved in the transport of peritoneal dialysis supplies to the outback. Careful communication, a willingness to participate, friendliness and delivering care and supplies with a smile are essential ingredients to a winning program. Without all of these ingredients dialysis in the bush may fail.

  15. Improving influenza vaccination in dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Janet R; Frankovich, Edith; Tetrick, Claire A; Howard, Andrew D

    2010-01-01

    The End-Stage Renal Disease Network 5 sought to improve the influenza vaccination rate for the period September 1, 2008, to January 31, 2009, through an awareness campaign, coupled with primary data collection in the form of a tracking tool prepopulated with patient names. The latter served as a reminder to staff to determine the immunization status of patients and offer the influenza vaccination, as appropriate. Targets for the intervention were all facilities and their prevalent hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, with the exclusion of military treatment centers, Veterans Health Administration hospitals, and prisons. The majority of eligible network facilities (86.9%) participated in the project to achieve an overall adult influenza vaccination rate of 82.6% (95% confidence interval = 82.1%, 83.2%), greatly exceeding the project goal of 64.5% and representing substantial progress toward the 2010 goal of 90%. The initiative is reported here using the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE).

  16. Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50% were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV serology, 448(7% had positive hepatitis B (HBV antigenemia and six(0.1% had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients′ care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers.

  17. Nationwide claims data validated for quality assessments in acute myocardial infarction in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eindhoven, D C; van Staveren, L N; van Erkelens, J A; Ikkersheim, D E; Cannegieter, S C; Umans, V A W M; Mosterd, A; van Wijngaarden, J; Schalij, M J; Borleffs, C J W

    2018-01-01

    Since health insurance is compulsory in the Netherlands, the centrally registered medical claims data might pose a unique opportunity to evaluate quality of (cardiac) care on a national level without additional collection of data. However, validation of these claims data has not yet been assessed. Retrospective cohort study. National claims data ('national registry') were compared with data collected by patient records reviews in four representative hospitals ('validation registry'). In both registries, we extracted the national diagnosis codes for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction of 2012 and 2013. Additionally, data on medication use at one year after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was extracted from the Dutch pharmacy information systems and also validated by local patient records reviews. The data were compared at three stages: 1) validation of diagnosis and treatment coding; 2) validation of the hospital where follow-up has taken place; 3) validation of follow-up medical treatment after 365 days. In total, 3,980 patients ('national registry') and 4,014 patients ('validation registry') were compared at baseline. After one-year follow-up, 2,776 and 2,701 patients, respectively, were evaluated. Baseline characteristics, diagnosis and individual medication were comparable between the two registries. Of all 52,672 AMI patients in the Netherlands in 2012 and 2013, 81% used aspirin, 76% used P2Y12 inhibitors, 85% used statins, 82% used beta-blockers and 74% angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II antagonists. Optimal medical treatment was achieved in 49% of the patients with AMI. Nationwide routinely collected claims data in patients with an acute myocardial infarction are highly accurate. This offers an opportunity for use in quality assessments of cardiac care.

  18. Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Nutt, David J.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is a basic principle of the “psychedelic” treatment model that the quality of the acute experience mediates long-term improvements in mental health. In the present paper we sought to test this using data from a clinical trial assessing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In line with previous reports, we hypothesized that the occurrence and magnitude of Oceanic Boundlessness (OBN) (sharing features with mystical-type experience) and Dread of Ego Dissolution (DED) (similar to anxiety) would predict long-term positive outcomes, whereas sensory perceptual effects would have negligible predictive value. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with treatment resistant depression underwent treatment with psilocybin (two separate sessions: 10 and 25 mg psilocybin). The Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) questionnaire was used to assess the quality of experiences in the 25 mg psilocybin session. From the ASC, the dimensions OBN and DED were used to measure the mystical-type and challenging experiences, respectively. The Self-Reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS-SR) at 5 weeks served as the endpoint clinical outcome measure, as in later time points some of the subjects had gone on to receive new treatments, thus confounding inferences. In a repeated measure ANOVA, Time was the within-subject factor (independent variable), with QIDS-SR as the within-subject dependent variable in baseline, 1-day, 1-week, 5-weeks. OBN and DED were independent variables. OBN-by-Time and DED-by-Time interactions were the primary outcomes of interest. Results: For the interaction of OBN and DED with Time (QIDS-SR as dependent variable), the main effect and the effects at each time point compared to baseline were all significant (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively, for main effects), confirming our main hypothesis. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation of OBN with QIDS-SR (5 weeks) was specific compared to perceptual dimensions of the ASC (p

  19. Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Roseman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a basic principle of the “psychedelic” treatment model that the quality of the acute experience mediates long-term improvements in mental health. In the present paper we sought to test this using data from a clinical trial assessing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD. In line with previous reports, we hypothesized that the occurrence and magnitude of Oceanic Boundlessness (OBN (sharing features with mystical-type experience and Dread of Ego Dissolution (DED (similar to anxiety would predict long-term positive outcomes, whereas sensory perceptual effects would have negligible predictive value.Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with treatment resistant depression underwent treatment with psilocybin (two separate sessions: 10 and 25 mg psilocybin. The Altered States of Consciousness (ASC questionnaire was used to assess the quality of experiences in the 25 mg psilocybin session. From the ASC, the dimensions OBN and DED were used to measure the mystical-type and challenging experiences, respectively. The Self-Reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS-SR at 5 weeks served as the endpoint clinical outcome measure, as in later time points some of the subjects had gone on to receive new treatments, thus confounding inferences. In a repeated measure ANOVA, Time was the within-subject factor (independent variable, with QIDS-SR as the within-subject dependent variable in baseline, 1-day, 1-week, 5-weeks. OBN and DED were independent variables. OBN-by-Time and DED-by-Time interactions were the primary outcomes of interest.Results: For the interaction of OBN and DED with Time (QIDS-SR as dependent variable, the main effect and the effects at each time point compared to baseline were all significant (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively, for main effects, confirming our main hypothesis. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation of OBN with QIDS-SR (5 weeks was specific compared to perceptual dimensions of the

  20. Prophylactic dialysis in non-dialysis-dependent patients with renal failure after CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Borji

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: According the results of this study, prophylactic dialysis, before conduct-ing CABG, does not have any significant effect on mortality and other complications. The only exception is lung complications in non-dialysis-dependent patients with renal failure.

  1. The Effect of BCAA and ISO-WHEY Oral Nutritional Supplements on Dialysis Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaghi, Effat; Tayebi, Ali; Ebadi, Abbas; Sobhani, Vahid; Einollahi, Behzad; Tayebi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a common problem in hemodialysis patients and has different outcomes such as reduced quality of life, longer hospitalization time, lower dialysis adequacy, and higher mortality rate. Investigation of dialysis adequacy is an important method for assessing hemodialysis patients, and improving the dialysis adequacy is an important healthcare team goal. The present study aims to investigate and compare the effects of BCAA and ISO-WHEY oral nutritional supplements on dialysis adequacy. In a clinical trial study, 66 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (n = 22), Group B (n = 22), and Group C or the control group (n = 22). In Groups A and B, as prescribed and controlled by nutritionists and nephrologists, respectively, ISO-WHEY and BCAA protein powder were used for 2 months on a daily basis. For all groups, before intervention and 1 and 2 months after intervention, the dialysis adequacy was measured using URR and Kt/V. Finally, the data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Base 21.0 software. Out of 66 patients, 61 (19 in Group A, 20 in Group B, and 22 in Group C) completed the study period, and before intervention, all groups were equal in terms of quality and quantity variables (P > 0.05). After intervention, there was a significant difference between the three groups with regard to the variables of dialysis adequacy based on Kt/V and URR to independent-t test and repeated measures ANOVA (P oral nutritional supplements leads to an improvement in the dialysis adequacy of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of nutritional supplements along with patients' training and regular consultation will be helpful in improving the nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and eventually the quality of life.

  2. Assessment of patient satisfaction with acute pain management service: Monitoring quality of care in clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizzah Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Assessment of patient satisfaction is an important tool for monitoring the quality of care in hospitals. The aim of this survey was to develop a reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction with acute pain management service (APMS and identify variables affecting this so that care can be improved. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and administered to  patients after being discharged from APMS care by an unbiased person. Data collected from record included patient demographics, surgical procedure, analgesic modality, co-analgesics and dynamic and static pain scores. Questions included pain expected and pain experienced, APMS response time, quality of pain relief with treatment, professionalism of APMS team, overall experience of pain relief and choosing/suggesting same modality for themselves/family/friends again. Five-point Likert scale was used for most of the options. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19. Results: Frequency and percentages were computed for qualitative observation and presented on pie chart and histogram. Seventy-one per cent patients expected severe pain while 43% actually experienced it. About 79.4% would choose same analgesia modality in future for self/family/friends. Ninety-nine per cent found APMS staff courteous and professional. About 89% rated their experience of pain management as excellent to very good. Conclusion: The survey of patients′ satisfaction to monitor the quality of care provided by APMS provided positive inputs on its role. This also helps to identify areas requiring improvement in care and as a tool to gauge the quality of care.

  3. Assessment of patient satisfaction with acute pain management service: Monitoring quality of care in clinical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Fizzah; Khan, Robyna; Ahmed, Aliya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Assessment of patient satisfaction is an important tool for monitoring the quality of care in hospitals. The aim of this survey was to develop a reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction with acute pain management service (APMS) and identify variables affecting this so that care can be improved. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and administered to patients after being discharged from APMS care by an unbiased person. Data collected from record included patient demographics, surgical procedure, analgesic modality, co-analgesics and dynamic and static pain scores. Questions included pain expected and pain experienced, APMS response time, quality of pain relief with treatment, professionalism of APMS team, overall experience of pain relief and choosing/suggesting same modality for themselves/family/friends again. Five-point Likert scale was used for most of the options. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19. Results: Frequency and percentages were computed for qualitative observation and presented on pie chart and histogram. Seventy-one per cent patients expected severe pain while 43% actually experienced it. About 79.4% would choose same analgesia modality in future for self/family/friends. Ninety-nine per cent found APMS staff courteous and professional. About 89% rated their experience of pain management as excellent to very good. Conclusion: The survey of patients’ satisfaction to monitor the quality of care provided by APMS provided positive inputs on its role. This also helps to identify areas requiring improvement in care and as a tool to gauge the quality of care. PMID:27141107

  4. Depression in hemodialysis patients: the role of dialysis shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Teles

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is the most important neuropsychiatric complication in chronic kidney disease because it reduces quality of life and increases mortality. Evidence demonstrating the association between dialysis shift and depression is lacking; thus, obtaining such evidence was the main objective of this study. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included patients attending a hemodialysis program. Depression was diagnosed using Beck's Depression Inventory. Excessive daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were enrolled (55 males, age 48±14 years. Depression and excessive daytime sleepiness were observed in 42.7% and 49% of the patients, respectively. When comparing variables among the three dialysis shifts, there were no differences in age, dialysis vintage, employment status, excessive daytime sleepiness, hemoglobin, phosphorus levels, or albumin levels. Patients in the morning shift were more likely to live in rural areas (p<0.0001, although patients in rural areas did not have a higher prevalence of depression (p= 0.30. Patients with depression were more likely to be dialyzed during the morning shift (p= 0.008. Independent risk factors for depression were age (p<0.03, lower levels of hemoglobin (p<0.01 and phosphorus (p<0.01, and dialysis during the morning shift (p= 0.0009. The hospitalization risk of depressive patients was 4.5 times higher than that of nondepressive patients (p<0.008. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that depression is associated with dialysis shift, higher levels of phosphorus, and lower levels of hemoglobin. The results highlight the need for randomized trials to determine whether this association occurs by chance or whether circadian rhythm disorders may play a role.

  5. Rationale for a home dialysis virtual ward: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Michael E; Bargman, Joanne M; Copland, Michael; Hladunewich, Michelle; Tennankore, Karthik K; Levin, Adeera; Oliver, Matthew; Pauly, Robert P; Perl, Jeffrey; Zimmerman, Deborah; Chan, Christopher T

    2014-02-14

    Home-based renal replacement therapy (RRT) [peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD)] offers independent quality of life and clinical advantages compared to conventional in-center hemodialysis. However, follow-up may be less complete for home dialysis patients following a change in care settings such as post hospitalization. We aim to implement a Home Dialysis Virtual Ward (HDVW) strategy, which is targeted to minimize gaps of care. The HDVW Pilot Study will enroll consecutive PD and HHD patients who fulfilled any one of our inclusion criteria: 1. following discharge from hospital, 2. after interventional procedure(s), 3. prescription of anti-microbial agents, or 4. following completion of home dialysis training. Clinician-led telephone interviews are performed weekly for 2 weeks until VW discharge. Case-mix (modified Charlson Comorbidity Index), symptoms (the modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale) and patient satisfaction are assessed serially. The number of VW interventions relating to eight pre-specified domains will be measured. Adverse events such as re-hospitalization and health-services utilization will be ascertained through telephone follow-up after discharge from the VW at 2, 4, 12 weeks. The VW re-hospitalization rate will be compared with a contemporary cohort (matched for age, gender, renal replacement therapy and co-morbidities). Our protocol has been approved by research ethics board (UHN: 12-5397-AE). Written informed consent for participation in the study will be obtained from participants. This report serves as a blueprint for the design and implementation of a novel health service delivery model for home dialysis patients. The major goal of the HDVW initiative is to provide appropriate and effective supports to medically complex patients in a targeted window of vulnerability. (NCT01912001).

  6. Peritoneal dialysis for patients suffering from severe heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirakopoulos, N G; Kalogiannidou, I M; Tersi, M E; Mavromatidis, K S

    2011-08-01

    Over a period of 6.5 years, we treated 19 patients, all of whom suffered from severe heart failure and various stages of chronic kidney disease, excluding those with end-stage kidney failure. Before peritoneal catheter implantation, all patients had ascites, dyspnea, orthopnea, and an ejection fraction ranging from 20 to 45%. Seven of them (7/19) were able to take care of themselves, 9/19 needed assistance for their daily activities, and the remaining 3 were bedridden. All of them needed hospitalization 1 - 3 times/month during the year before the initiation of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). With peritoneal dialysis, daily ultrafiltrate volume ranged from 500 to 3,000 ml and, after an average of 2 months of peritoneal dialysis, body weight decreased significantly (74.7 ± 13 vs. 69.7 ± 10.2, p = 0.02). At the same time, diuresis improved significantly, and this allowed a reduction in the dose of diuretics. Dyspnea and orthopnea improved significantly in all patients. The patients' degree of self-care and ability to sleep lying flat improved significantly as the need for hospitalization declined. Before peritoneal dialysis, patients were hospitalized for 5 - 20 days/month for pulmonary edema or overhydration, whereas with peritoneal dialysis, nobody was hospitalized for these causes (chi2, p = 0.0001). Ejection fraction also improved in all of them (28.6 ± 8.6 vs. 36.8 ± 12.5%, p = 0.0001). Actual survival of our patients ranged from 6 to 86 months (mean ± SD = 24.6 ± 20.8). Actuarial survival was 68% at 1 year and 42% at 2 years. During peritoneal dialysis we observed only two episodes of peritonitis. Four patients developed a severe episode of hypotension during implantation of the catheters from the sudden removal of 4 - 6 l of ascitic fluid. We conclude that peritoneal dialysis is a good method for the treatment of congestive heart failure because it increases the quality of life and life expectancy in patients with poor prognosis.

  7. The need for dialysis in Haiti: dream or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exantus, Judith; Desrosiers, Florence; Ternier, Alexandra; Métayer, Audie; Abel, Gérard; Buteau, Jean-Hénold

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization reports, nowadays burden of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is well documented. The high prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, which are the main causes of CKD, is a big concern in the world health scenario. These NCD can progress slowly to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the low-middle income countries (LMIC) like Haiti are not left unscathed by this worldwide scourge. Several well-known public health issues prevalent in Haiti such as acute diarrheal infections, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), can also impair the function of the kidney. Dialysis, a form of renal replacement therapy (RRT), represents a life-saving therapy for all patients affected with impaired kidney. In Haiti, few patients have access to health insurance or disability financial support. Considering that seventy-two percent (72%) of Haitians live with less than USD 2 per day, survival with CKD can be quite stressful for them. Data on the weight of the dialysis and its management are scarce. Addressing the need for dialysis in Haiti is an important component in decision-making and planning processes in the health sector. This paper is intended to bring forth discussion on the use of this type of renal replacement therapy in Haiti: the past, the present, and the challenges it presents. We will also make some recommendations in order to manage this serious problem. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Protein binding studies with radiolabeled compounds containing radiochemical impurities. Equilibrium dialysis versus dialysis rate determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    1987-01-01

    The influence of radiochemical impurities in dialysis experiments with high-affinity ligands is investigated. Albumin binding of labeled decanoate (97% pure) is studied by two dialysis techniques. It is shown that equilibrium dialysis is very sensitive to the presence of impurities resulting...

  9. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Differences according to the dialysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarrán

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor—namely the dialysis technique—may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination.

  10. Using Clinical Vignettes to Assess Quality of Care for Acute Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Gidengil MD, MPH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overprescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs is common. Our objective was to develop and validate a vignette-based method to estimate clinician ARI antibiotic prescribing. We surveyed physicians (n = 78 and retail clinic clinicians (n = 109 between January and September 2013. We surveyed clinicians using a set of ARI vignettes and linked the responses to electronic health record data for all ARI visits managed by these clinicians during 2012. We then created a new measure of antibiotic prescribing, the comprehensive ARI management rate. This was defined as not prescribing antibiotics for antibiotic-inappropriate diagnoses and prescribing guideline-concordant antibiotics for antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (and also included appropriate use of streptococcal testing for the pharyngitis vignettes. We compared the vignette-based and chart-based comprehensive ARI management at the clinician level. We then identified the combination of vignettes that best predicted comprehensive ARI management rates, using a partitioning algorithm. Responses to 3 vignettes partitioned clinicians into 4 groups with chart-based comprehensive ARI management rates of 61% (n = 121, 50% (n = 47, 31% (n = 12, and 22% (n = 7. Responses to 3 clinical vignettes can identify clinicians with relatively poor quality ARI antibiotic prescribing. Vignettes may be a mechanism to target clinicians for quality improvement efforts.

  11. Evaluation and control of microbial and chemical contamination in dialysis water plants of Italian nephrology wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, M; Casini, B; Valentini, P; Miccoli, M; Giorgi, S; Porretta, A; Privitera, G; Lopalco, P L; Baggiani, A

    2017-10-01

    Patients receiving haemodialysis are exposed to a large volume of dialysis fluid. The Italian Society of Nephrology (ISN) has published guidelines and microbial quality standards on dialysis water (DW) and solutions to ensure patient safety. To identify microbial and chemical hazards, and evaluate the quality of disinfection treatment in DW plants. In 2015 and 2016, water networks and DW plants (closed loop and online monitors) of nine dialysis wards of Italian hospitals, hosting 162 dialysis beds overall, were sampled on a monthly basis to determine the parameters provided by ISN guidelines. Chlorinated drinking water was desalinated by reverse osmosis and distributed to the closed loop which feeds all online monitors. Disinfection with peracetic acid was performed in all DW plants on a monthly basis. Over the 24-month study period, seven out of nine DW plants (78%) recorded negative results for all investigated parameters. Closed loop contamination with Burkholderia cepacia was detected in a DW plant from January 2015 to March 2015. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from March 2016 to May 2016 in the closed loop of another DW plant. These microbial contaminations were eradicated by shock disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, followed by water flushing. These results highlight the importance of chemical and physical methods of DW disinfection. The maintenance of control measures in water plants hosted in dialysis wards ensures a microbial risk reduction for all dialysis patients. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dialysis services for tourists to the Veneto Region: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Mitrio, Silva; Zanon, Dario; Glonti, Ketevan; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Knai, Cécile

    2015-03-01

    The European Union has an established mechanism which enables patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) to receive dialysis abroad, allowing them to benefit from the legal right to freedom of movement. The number of patients seeking dialysis abroad has increased in recent years and the Veneto Region of Italy, a major tourist destination, has made significant investment in providing tourist haemodialysis services. To understand the issues involved in providing dialysis services for tourists moving within the European Union, such as the experience of patients using the service, the challenges faced by professionals and patients and continuity of care. Semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with patients, health professionals and key stakeholders in two dialysis centres set up for tourists in the Veneto Region's Local Health Authority 10. The study uncovered high levels of patient satisfaction and a positive impact on patients' quality of life. However, the service faces a number of challenges relating to accessibility, language barriers and continuity of care for the patient when leaving Veneto. The study also demonstrates the importance of coordinating care prior to the tourists' stay. Tourist dialysis centres are necessary to make the right to freedom of movement for patients with ESKD a reality. The findings suggest that communicating and coordinating high-quality care across borders in the EU may be facilitated by increased standardisation of norms and documents for continuity of care, such as care plans and discharge summaries. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  13. Improving Distress in Dialysis (iDiD): A tailored CBT self-management treatment for patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    There is significant psychological distress in adults with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, psychological treatments tailored to address the unique challenges of kidney failure are absent. We identified psychological correlates of distress in ESKD to develop a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) treatment protocol that integrates the mental health needs of patients alongside their illness self-management demands. Studies which examined relationships between distress and psychological factors that apply in the context of ESKD including: health threats, cognitive illness representations and illness management behaviours were narratively reviewed. Review findings were translated into a CBT formulation model to inform the content of a renal-specific seven session CBT treatment protocol, which was commented on and refined by patient representatives. Health threats related to distress were grouped into four themes including: acute ESKD events, loss of role, uncertainty and illness self-management. Having pessimistic illness and treatment perceptions were associated with elevated distress. Non-adherence and avoidance behaviours were related to feelings of distress, whereas cognitive reappraisal, acceptance, social support and assertiveness were associated with less distress. The dialysis-specific CBT formulation identifies the importance of targeting ESKD-specific correlates of distress to allow the delivery of integrated mental and physical health care. The 'Improving Distress in Dialysis (iDiD)' treatment protocol now requires further evaluation in terms of content, feasibility and potential efficacy. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  14. Physical Activity in Patients Treated With Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharshika Thangarasa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with chronic diseases are known to benefit from exercise. Despite a lack of compelling evidence, patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs that include resistance training due to concerns about the development of hernias and leaks. The actual effects of physical activity with or without structured exercise programs for these patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to more completely define the risks and benefits of physical activity in the end-stage kidney disease population treated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review examining the effects of physical activity on end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. For the purposes of this review, exercise will be considered a purposive subcategory of physical activity. The primary objective is to determine if physical activity in this patient population is associated with improvements in mental health, physical functioning, fatigue and quality of life and if there is an increase in adverse outcomes. With the help of a skilled librarian, we will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials and observational studies. We will include adult end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis that have participated in an exercise training program or had their level of physical activity assessed directly or by self-report. The study must include an assessment of the association between physical activity and one of our primary or secondary outcomes measures. We will report study quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Quality across studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE

  15. Outcome and quality of life of patients with acute kidney injury after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, F J; Botelho, M; Fernandes, V; Barros, H

    2009-01-01

    In postoperative critically-ill patients who develop Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) it is important to focus on survival and quality of life beyond hospital discharge. The aim of the study was to evaluate outcome and quality of life in patients that develop AKI after major surgery. This retrospective study was carried out in a Post-Anaesthesia Care Unit with five intensive care beds during 2 years. Patients were followed for the development of AKI. Preoperative characteristics, intra-operative management and outcome were evaluated. Six months after discharge, these patients were contacted to complete a Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) and to have their dependency in ADL evaluated. Chi-square or Fischer's exact test were used to compare proportions between groups. A "t test" and a paired "t test" for independent groups was used for comparisons. Of 1584 patients admitted to the PACU, 1200 patients met the inclusion criteria. One hundred-fourteen patients (9.6%) met AKI criteria. Patients with AKI were more severely ill, stayed longer at the PACU. Among 71 hospital survivors at 6 months follow-up, 50 completed the questionnaires. Fifty-two percent of patients reported that their general level of health was better on the day they answered the questionnaire than 12 months earlier. Patients that met AKI criteria after surgery had worse SF-36 scores for physical function, role physical and role emotional domains. Six months after PACU discharge, patients that met AKI criteria were more dependent in I-ADL but not in P-ADL. Patients that develop AKI improved self-perception of quality of life despite having high rate of dependency in ADL tasks. For physical function and role physical domains they had worse scores than PACU patients that did not develop AKI.

  16. [Patients' perception of quality of emergency department care for acute heart failure: the CALPERICA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Òscar; Escoda, Rosa; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Alquézar, Aitor; Aguirre, Alfons; Gil, Víctor; Andueza, Juan Antonio; Llorens, Pere

    2015-06-01

    To determine perception of quality of care for acute heart failure (AHF) of patients discharged from the emergency department in comparison with the perception of admitted patients; to explore the variables associated with perception of quality. Prospective, cross-sectional case-control study in 7 emergency departments. Consecutive patients diagnosed with AHF were recruited to answer a telephone survey assessing their view of quality of physician care, nurse care, overall treatment, and degree of resolution of their problem in the emergency department. Discharged patients were also asked to state their level of agreement with the decision to send them home from the emergency department. The answers of patients who were discharged home were compared with patients who were admitted to the ward. The results were analyzed according to whether or not adverse events occurred within 30 days. A total of 1147 patients were enrolled and 1003 (87.4%) were interviewed; 253 of the patients (25.2%) were discharged home. We found no significant differences in any of the assessments (on physician or nurse care, overall treatment, or degree of resolution) between patients who were discharged home and those who were admitted. The mean (SD) overall satisfaction assessments (on a scale of 0 to 10) were 7.34 (1.38) and 7.38 (1.52), respectively, in the 2 groups (P=.66). Over 90% of those discharged home agreed with or strongly agreed with the decision. Evaluations were unrelated to whether or not adverse events occurred in the next 30 dyas. Patients with AHF have high opinions of the different components of care received in the emergency department, and their evaluations are unrelated to whether they were admitted or discharged home. Those discharged home agree with the decision and their opinion remains firm regardless of whether adverse events occur later.

  17. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: baseline results from a national quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, A; Pulver, L K; Oliver, K; Thompson, A

    2012-05-01

    Evidence-practice gaps exist in the continuum of care for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), particularly at hospital discharge. We aimed to describe the methodology and baseline results of the Discharge Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes (DMACS) project, focusing on the prescription of guideline-recommended medications, referral to cardiac rehabilitation and communication between the hospital, patient and their primary healthcare professionals. DMACS employed Drug Use Evaluation methodology involving data collection, evaluation and feedback, and targeted educational interventions. Adult patients with ACS discharged during a 4-month period were eligible to participate. Data were collected (maximum 50 patients) at each site through an inpatient medical record review, a general practitioner (GP) postal/fax survey conducted 14 days post discharge and a patient telephone survey 3 months post discharge. Forty-nine hospitals participated in the audit recruiting 1545 patients. At discharge, 57% of patients were prescribed a combination of antiplatelet agent(s), beta-blocker, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin II-antagonist. At 3 months post discharge, 48% of patients reported using the same combination. Some 67% of patients recalled being referred to cardiac rehabilitation; of these, 33% had completed the programme. In total, 83% of patients had a documented ACS management plan at discharge. Of these, 90% included a medication list, 56% a chest pain action plan and 54% risk factor modification advice. Overall, 65% of GPs rated the quality of information received in the discharge summary as 'very good' to 'excellent'. The findings of our baseline audit showed that despite the robust evidence base and availability of national guidelines, the management of patients with ACS can be improved. These findings will inform a multifaceted intervention strategy to improve adherence to guidelines for the discharge management of

  18. Outcomes of acute kidney injury in children and adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowu, Wasiu A; Niang, Abdou; Osafo, Charlotte; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Arogundade, Fatiu A; Porter, John; Naicker, Saraladevi; Luyckx, Valerie A

    2016-04-01

    Access to diagnosis and dialysis for acute kidney injury can be life-saving, but can be prohibitively expensive in low-income settings. The burden of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa is presumably high but remains unknown. We did a systematic review to assess outcomes of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa and identify barriers to care. We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles published between Jan 1, 1990, and Nov 30, 2014. We scored studies, and all were of medium-to-low quality. We made a pragmatic decision to include all studies to best reflect reality, and did a descriptive analysis of extracted data. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42015015690. We identified 3881 records, of which 41 met inclusion criteria, including 1403 adult patients and 1937 paediatric patients. Acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa is severe, with 1042 (66%) of 1572 children and 178 (70%) 253 of adults needing dialysis in studies reporting dialysis need. Only 666 (64%) of 1042 children (across 11 studies) and 58 (33%) of 178 adults (across four studies) received dialysis when needed. Overall mortality was 34% in children and 32% in adults, but rose to 73% in children and 86% in adults when dialysis was needed but not received. Major barriers to access to care were out-of-pocket costs, erratic hospital resources, late presentation, and female sex. Patients in these studies are those with resources to access care. In view of overall study quality, data interpretation should be cautious, but high mortality and poor access to dialysis are concerning. The global scarcity of resources among patients and health centres highlights the need for a health-system-wide approach to prevention and management of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa. None. Copyright © 2016 Olowu et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. An assessment of the application factor used to derive the saltwater acute ambient water quality copper criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W Ray; Cotsifas, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    The basis for all US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acute ambient water quality criteria is the chemical specific final acute value (FAV; an estimate of the concentration of the chemical corresponding to a cumulative probability of 0.05 of acute toxicity values for all genera with which acceptable acute tests have been conducted). The acute criterion for all chemicals is equal to the chemical's FAV divided by an application factor of 2. The intention of dividing the FAV by a factor of 2 is to convert the acute toxicity value to an incipient acute toxicity value, resulting in an acute criterion concentration that will protect against toxic effects to aquatic organisms. In the case of copper (Cu) in saltwater, the FAV is reduced from the normal 0.05 probability to equal to the genus mean acute value (GMAV; the geometric mean of copper effect concentration 50% [EC50] values) of the economically important marine bivalves of the genus Mytilus. Analyses to determine an application factor specific to Mytilus and copper were performed to assess the adequacy of the application factor of 2. An estimate of a dissolved copper application factor that is specific to and protective of Mytilus was determined using the results of sixty-four 48-h embryo survival and shell development copper toxicity tests of natural water samples collected from sites around the United States. A variety of point-estimate effects concentrations (EC1, EC5, EC10, EC20, and chronic values [ChV]) and statistical toxic-effect endpoints (no observed effect concentration [NOEC] and lowest observed effect concentration [LOEC]) were derived from the test results and compared. The most similar toxic effect endpoint estimates were EC1 approximately equal to NOEC, EC10 approximately equal to ChV, and EC20 approximately equal to LOEC. Probabilistic methods were used to determine a specific application factor with a high probability of providing protection. This analysis suggests that an application factor

  20. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  1. Assessment of timeliness, representativeness and quality of data reported to Italy's national integrated surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, M E; Longhi, S; de Waure, C; Mele, A; Franco, E; Ricciardi, W; Filia, A

    2015-05-01

    Periodic assessment of surveillance systems is recommended to verify whether they are appropriately monitoring the public health problem under surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate timeliness, data quality and representativeness of data reported to the Italian Integrated Epidemiological System for Acute Viral Hepatitis (SEIEVA). Cross-sectional analysis of surveillance data. Quantitative indicators were used to evaluate representativeness of reported cases, data quality, and timeliness between surveillance steps, for reports of acute viral hepatitis cases with date of onset of symptoms from 2009 to 2012 (N = 4516). Representativeness was 75%. Over 95% of records reported information on age, sex, city of residence, risk factors for hepatitis A and vaccination status. Information on risk factors for hepatitis B and C were reported less consistently (83%), as was information on early outcome (60%). Wide delays were found between surveillance steps. The system collects high quality data on acute viral hepatitis cases in Italy. Timeliness was found to be the main limit and needs to be improved by optimizing web-based reporting procedures, increasing communication with participating centres, improving feedback and increasing dissemination of surveillance results. The study highlights the importance of reporting timeliness to detect outbreaks of acute viral hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Professional Medical Interpreters Influence the Quality of Acute Ischemic Stroke Care for Patients Who Speak Languages Other than English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Erfe, Betty M; Siddiqui, Khawja A; Schwamm, Lee H; Kirwan, Chris; Nunes, Anabela; Mejia, Nicte I

    2017-09-21

    The inability to communicate effectively in a common language can jeopardize clinicians' efforts to provide quality patient care. Professional medical interpreters (PMIs) can help provide linguistically appropriate health care, in particular for the >25 million Americans who identify speaking English less than very well. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between use of PMIs and quality of acute ischemic stroke care received by patients who preferred to have their medical care in languages other than English. We analyzed data from 259 non-English-preferring acute ischemic stroke patients who participated in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program at our hospital from January 1, 2003, to April 30, 2014. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to examine associations between involvement of PMIs and patients' receipt of defect-free stroke care. A total of 147 of 259 (57%) non-English-preferring patients received PMI services during their hospital stays. Multivariable analyses adjusting for other socioeconomic factors showed that acute ischemic stroke patients who did not receive PMIs had lower odds of receiving defect-free stroke care (odds ratio: 0.52; P =0.04). Our findings suggest that PMIs may influence the quality of acute ischemic stroke care. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. The Quality of Discharge Care Planning in Acute Stroke Care: Influencing Factors and Association with Postdischarge Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nadine E; Busingye, Doreen; Lannin, Natasha A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2018-03-01

    Comprehensive discharge planning is important for successful transitions from hospital to home after stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the quality of discharge planning received by patients discharged home from acute care, identify factors associated with a positive discharge experience, and assess the influence of discharge quality on outcomes. Patients discharged to the community and registered in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry in 2014 were invited to participate. Patient-perceived discharge quality was evaluated using the Prescriptions, Ready to re-enter community, Education, Placement, Assurance of safety, Realistic expectations, Empowerment, Directed to appropriate services questionnaire (recall at 3-9 months). Factors associated with higher discharge quality scores were identified and associations between quality scores of more than 80% and outcomes were investigated using multivariable, multilevel regression analyses. There were 200 of 434 eligible registrants who responded; responders and nonresponders were similar with respect to age, sex, and type of stroke. The average overall quality score was 73% (standard deviation: 21). However, only 18% received all aspects of discharge care planning. Quality scores of more than 80% were independently associated with receiving hospital specific information (odds ratio: 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7, 12.4), and referral to a local support group (odds ratio: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.9). Discharge quality scores of more than 80% were associated with higher European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions EQ-5D scores (coefficient: .1, 95% CI: .04, .2) and a reduction in the rate of unmet needs reported at 3-9 months postdischarge (incidence rate ratio: .5, 95% CI: .3, .7). We provide new information on the quality of discharge planning from acute care after stroke. Aspects of discharge planning that correlate with quality of care may reduce unmet needs and improve quality of life outcomes. Copyright

  4. [Just-in-time initiation of optimal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Tom; Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    The IDEAL trial shows that the decision to start renal replacement treatment should not depend on GFR alone, but should be taken on the basis of clinical parameters. Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires and bio-impedance analysis are potential tools for detecting subtle changes in the predialysis clinic. Too early an initiation of dialysis may be deleterious for the patient and the healthcare system. We are convinced that ESRD patients should be informed about intensive haemodialysis (HD), especially nocturnal (home) HD, as the best available dialysis modality. There is substantial evidence which shows that intensive HD improves clinical, biochemical and biological parameters, and may even prolong survival. We believe that 'just-in-time delivery of intensive haemodialysis' may result in optimised QoL and reduced economic burden.

  5. Selecting Peritoneal Dialysis in the Older Dialysis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J; Quinn, Robert R

    2015-11-01

    Selecting peritoneal dialysis (PD) in older individuals is a complex, multi-step process. At each step, older individuals may not have the opportunity to receive PD unless care is optimized. Older individuals are less likely to complete a PD assessment, because of unstable medical conditions, consideration of palliative care, or reluctance to approach frail patients once they are established on hemodialysis (HD). Older individuals are also more likely to have medical or social conditions that contraindicate PD or to have barriers to self-care PD that may not be overcome with support. Older individuals who are eligible for PD may be reluctant to choose it, leaving HD as the default modality. Finally, receipt of PD may be compromised by urgent HD or PD catheter-related complications at the time of insertion. Despite all these challenges, older patients can do very well on PD, so each step should be well understood and optimized in renal programs to maximize PD use in older patients. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  6. Dialysis headache in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojimirovic, Biljana; Milinkovic, Marija; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Trbojevic-Stankovic, Jasna; Maric, Ivko; Milic, Miodrag; Andric, Branislav; Nikic, Petar

    2015-03-01

    Headache is among most frequently encountered neurological symptom during hemodialysis (HD), but still under investigated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of dialysis headache (DH) in HD and PD patients. A total of 409 patients (91 on PD and 318 on HD) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, designed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Classification of Headache Disorders from 2004. Patients with DH underwent a thorough neurological examination. DH was reported by 21 (6.6%) HD patients and 0 PD patients. PD patients had significantly lower serum sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, urea and creatinine, calcium-phosphate product, and diastolic blood pressure than HD patients. HD patients had significantly lower hemoglobin compared to PD patients. Primary renal disease was mostly parenchymal in HD patients, and vascular in PD patients. DH appeared more frequently in men, mostly during the third hour of HD. It lasted less than four hours, was bilateral, non-pulsating and without associated symptoms. Biochemical alterations may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DH. Specific features of DH might contribute to better understanding of this secondary headache disorder.

  7. Dialysis: Reducing Infections and Changing Culture

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-19

    This podcast is an account from an infection preventionist about the challenges and successes with engaging dialysis care teams to focus on “Zero Preventable Infections” in outpatient dialysis facilities.  Created: 3/19/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/19/2018.

  8. [Home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis compared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Ferraresi, Martina; Caputo, Flavia; Quarello, Francesco; Viganò, Maria Rosa; Mascia, Franco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of home dialysis marked the main steps in the progress of renal replacement therapy. From the origins when home hemodialysis was often the only alternative to death, to the advent and widespread use of peritoneal dialysis, the dream of kidney transplant as a solution to all problems (at least in the young), and ultimately the profound social and organizational changes that have led to a drastic reduction of home hemodialysis, we arrive at the present with the rediscovery of the clinical, rehabilitative and economic advantages of home dialysis. Seven experts from five different centers with different expertise in home dialysis report their opinions on the future of home dialysis in a ''noncontroversial controversy''. Beyond the sterile competition between peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, the shared opinion is that the two methods may complement each other, allowing a tailored treatment for each patient and a tailored organization in each setting. The organizational solutions are many; the authors underline the importance of longer survival and better rehabilitation, and the ethical need of offering each patient a choice among all available treatments. Add to this the importance of dedicated educational programs targeted to physicians, nurses and patients alike and focused on self-care and patient empowerment. A new generation of dialysis machines, easier technical solutions, and financial incentives may strengthen motivations and simplify problems; all these elements may in the near future be combined in a joint effort to increase peritoneal dialysis and revive home hemodialysis in Italy.

  9. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Nia; Hussain, Farida K; Connell, Roy; Shenoy, Manoj U

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease in children is increasing. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the modality of choice in many European countries and is increasingly applied worldwide. PD enables children of all ages to be successfully treated while awaiting the ultimate goal of renal transplantation. The advantages of PD over other forms of renal replacement therapy are numerous, in particular the potential for the child to lead a relatively normal life. Indications for commencing PD, the rationale, preparation of family, technical aspects, and management of complications are discussed. PMID:26504404

  10. [Acid-base status in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinić, Lea; Blaslov, Kristina; Pasini, Eva; Kes, Petar; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina

    2014-04-01

    When compared to hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis is very simple yet low cost method of renal replacement therapy. Series of studies have shown its superiority in preserving residual renal function, postponing uremic complications, maintaining the acid-base balance and achieving better post-transplant outcome in patients treated with this method. Despite obvious advantages, its role in the treatment of chronic kidney disease is still not as important as it should be. Metabolic acidosis is an inevitable complication associated with progressive loss of kidney function. Its impact on mineral and muscle metabolism, residual renal function, allograft function and anemia is very complex but can be successfully managed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficiency in preserving the acid-base balance in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis at Zagreb University Hospital Center. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. The mean time spent on the treatment was 32.39 ± 43.43 months. Only lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids were used in the treatment. Acid-base balance was completely maintained in 73.07% of patients; 11.54% of patients were found in the state of mild metabolic acidosis, and the same percentage of patients were in the state of mild metabolic alkalosis. In one patient, mixed alkalosis with respiratory and metabolic component was present. The results of this study showed that acid-base balance could be maintained successfully in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, even only with lactate-buffered solutions included in the treatment, although they were continuously proclaimed as inferior in comparison with bicarbonate-buffered ones. In well educated and informed patients who carefully use this method, accompanied by the attentive and thorough care of their physicians, this method can provide quality continuous replacement of lost renal function as well as better quality of life.

  11. QUEST®: A Data-Driven Collaboration to Improve Quality, Efficiency, Safety, and Transparency in Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Mary M; Lowe, Timothy J; Barrington, Monica; Kaylor, Courtney; Phipps, Terri; Le-Roy, Charlene; Brooks, Tammy; Jones, Mashekia; Martin, John

    2016-06-01

    In 2008 Premier (Premier, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina) began its Quality, Efficiency, and Safety with Transparency (QUEST®) collaborative, which is an acute health care organization program focused on improving quality and reducing patient harm. Retrospective performance data for QUEST hospitals were used to establish trends from the third quarter (Q3; July–September) of 2006 through Q3 2015. The study population included past and present members of the QUEST collaborative (N = 356), with each participating hospital considered a member. The QUEST program engages with member hospitals through a routine-coaching structure, sprints, minicollaboratives, and face-to-face meetings. Cost and efficiency data showed reductions in adjusted cost per discharge for hospitals between Q3 2013 (mean, $8,296; median, $8,459) and Q3 2015 (mean, $8,217; median, $7,895). Evidence-based care (EBC) measures showed improvement from baseline (Q3 2006; mean, 77%; median, 79%) to Q3 2015 (mean, 95%; median, 96%). Observed-to-expected (O/E) mortality improved from 1% to 22% better-than-expected outcomes on average. The QUEST safety harm composite score showed moderate reduction from Q1 2009 to Q3 2015, as did the O/E readmission rates--from Q1 2010 to Q3 2015--with improvement from a 5% to an 8% better-than-expected score. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of QUEST collaborative hospitals indicated that for the 2006-2015 period, QUEST facilities reduced cost per discharge, improved adherence with evidence-based practice, reduced safety harm composite score, improved patient experience, and reduced unplanned readmissions.

  12. Neuropsychological functioning and health-related quality of life: pediatric acute liver failure study group results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lisa G; Neighbors, Katie; Zhang, Song; Limbers, Christine A; Varni, James W; Ng, Vicky L; Squires, Robert H; Alonso, Estella M

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is a rare but serious event, with poorly understood functional outcomes. The goal was to determine the prevalence of reduced neuropsychological functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following PALF. This multicenter study examined neuropsychological functioning and HRQOL 1 to 6 (median 3.8) years after PALF. Participants ages 6 to 16 (median 9.9) years were recruited from the PALF registry and administered measures of intelligence, visual spatial/visual motor coordination, attention, executive function, depression, and adaptive skills. HRQOL and fatigue were assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL 4.0) and PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. A total of 36 patients participated; 50% were boys and 67% were white. Median age at PALF was 5.6 years. A history of grade 3 or 4 hepatic encephalopathy was reported in 5/36 (14%) participants and 23/36 (64%) received a liver transplant. Visual spatial ability was significantly better than norms (P = 0.009), but motor coordination was worse (P = 0.04). Teachers (P = 0.04 to P < 0.0001) and parents (P = 0.005) reported more executive deficits versus norms, and participants had worse attention (P = 0.02). Participants did not differ significantly from norms on IQ, depression, or adaptive functioning. All of the child self-report PedsQL Generic Core and fatigue scales were significantly lower than a matched healthy sample (P = 0.001 to P < 0.0001) and parent proxy report was lower on the fatigue scales (P = 0.001 to P < 0.0001). Long-term PALF survivors demonstrate average IQ and visual spatial ability, but greater than expected impairments in motor skills, attention, executive function, HRQOL, and fatigue.

  13. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs.

  14. The new Medicare PPS and home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jim; Schatell, Dori

    2010-09-01

    Overall, we believe that bundling of payments to dialysis facilities is positive for home dialysis. The incentive for higher utilization of home therapies comes down to the fact that, with treatments for all modalities being paid at the same rate, providers will see that home modalities cost less than facility-based treatments. The adjustment for home training treatments is certainly helpful, but it is not incentive enough on its own. From our perspective, one of the biggest financial incentives for home dialysis and more frequent dialysis therapies is that these patients are statistically known to spend less time in the hospital, over time costing taxpayers and the ESRD Program less money. We will continue to encourage CMS to consider the overall cost implications of more frequent dialysis. We are hopeful that when hospitalization costs are accounted for, CMS will do even more to encourage the use of these modalities.

  15. Operational and quality outcomes of a mobile acute care for the elderly service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Jeffrey I; Korc-Grodzicki, Beartriz; Du, Qingling; Leipzig, Rosanne M; Siu, Albert L

    2011-01-01

    The traditional acute care for the elderly (ACE) unit has demonstrated improved functional outcomes without increased costs or changes in length of stay (LOS). It is, however, limited in scope to patients cared for on a fixed geographical unit. To compare operational and quality outcomes for patients cared for on a mobile ACE (MACE) service to those cared for on a unit-based ACE service and matched controls on other general medical services. Retrospective cohort study with propensity-score matching. An urban academic medical center. A total of 8094 hospitalized adults >64 years old admitted to an ACE, MACE, and general medical services from July 2006 to June 2009. An interdisciplinary MACE service com- posed of a geriatrician-hospitalist, fellow, nurse coordinator, and social worker. LOS, total cost, 7- and 30-day readmission rates, and in-hospital mortality. Mean LOS and total cost were significantly lower for patients in the MACE service compared with the ACE unit service (5.8 vs 7.9 days, P mobile ACE service may result in reduced LOS and lower costs with no change in in-hospital mortality or 7- or 30-day readmission rates when compared with standard medical service and a traditional unit-based ACE service. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Frailty and quality of life in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiak, Magdalena; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Wontor, Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Frail elderly people are at risk of developing adverse health outcomes such as disability, hospitalization, and mortality. In recent years, the literature has drawn attention to the role of frailty syndrome (FS) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). There are few studies regarding the relationship between two multidimensional variables such as FS and quality of life (QoL). The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between FS and early QoL of elderly patients with ACS (≥65 years old). The study was conducted among 91 patients aged 65 years and over with ACS. The MacNew questionnaire was used to evaluate QoL and the Tilburg frailty indicator to evaluate frailty. FS was present in 82.4% of patients. The average Tilburg frailty indicator score was 7.43±2.57. A negative correlation between the global values of FS and QoL was shown (r=-0.549, Pelderly patients with ACS, there is a need to identify frailty in order to implement additional therapeutic and nursing strategies in ACS.

  17. Effect of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and postmortem carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R H; Liang, R R; Lin, H; Zhu, L X; Zhang, Y M; Mao, Y W; Dong, P C; Niu, L B; Zhang, M H; Luo, X

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and carbohydrate metabolism. Broilers (200) were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving heat stress (HS; 36°C for one h), compared to a non-stressed control (C). At slaughter, each group was further divided into 2 groups for slaughter processing (L = laboratory; F = commercial factory). L group breasts were removed immediately after bleeding without carcass scalding or defeathering, and stored at 4°C. F group broilers were scalded (60°C, 45 s) after bleeding and defeathering. Then the breasts were removed and cooled in ice water until the core temperature was ≤4°C. Rates of Pectoralis core temperature and pH decline were changed by slaughter processing, but only HS affected ultimate pH in group L. HS muscles had higher L* values (P  0.05). Sarcoplasmic protein solubility was higher in F processed birds (P Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Experience of peritoneal dialysis in renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraz, A.; Farhan, M.A.; Shaikh, K.; Ali, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the course and efficacy of peritoneal dialysis in children presenting with renal failure. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Nephrology department of Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health Lahore from Feb 2007 to Feb 2008. Material and Methods: Forty children diagnosed with renal failure at the Nephrology department of Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore were evaluated for the efficacy of PD, duration of PD and the associated complications. Results: There were 55% cases of acute renal failure and 45% cases of chronic renal failure. The mean duration of PD was 3.8 days. About 75% of all the patients improved with PD. The mortality rate was 22.5%. Leading complications were Catheter-related (leakage/blockade) and peritonitis. Conclusion: We concluded that peritoneal dialysis is lifesaving procedure which improves the acute metabolic derangements of renal failure in children. It is associated with certain complications but the benefits outweigh the complications. (author)

  19. Intra-procedural continuous dialysis to facilitate interventional catheterization in pediatric patients with severe renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opina, Angeline D; Qureshi, Athar M; Brewer, Eileen; Elenberg, Ewa; Swartz, Sarah; Michael, Mini; Justino, Henri

    2017-11-01

    Interventional catheterization procedures may be needed for patients with severe renal failure who are dependent on dialysis. To avoid the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte derangement during complex procedures in this oliguric/anuric patient population, we performed intra-procedural dialysis, either continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or continous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of pediatric patients, ages 0-18 years, with dialysis-dependent renal failure who received CRRT or CCPD during catheterization procedures from January 2013 to March 2016. Eight patients underwent a total of nine interventional catheterization procedures while receiving intra-procedural dialysis. Median age was 4.5 years (range 8 months to 17 years) and weight, 11.6 kg (11.2-62.6 kg). Six patients had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and two patients had acute kidney injury (AKI), one due to hepatorenal syndrome and one due to multifactorial causes associated with congenital heart disease. The most common reason for catheterization was occlusive venous thrombosis requiring recanalization. CRRT was used during five cases and CCPD during four cases. Median procedure time was 337 min (95-651 min) and median contrast dose 4.2 mL kg -1 (1.2-8.2 mL kg -1 ). Euvolemia was maintained based on pre- and post-catheterizations weights, and no significant electrolyte abnormalities occurred based on lab monitoring during and post-procedure. Intra-procedural dialysis using CRRT or CCPD enables even small pediatric patients with severe renal failure to undergo long and complex interventional catheterizations by reducing the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte abnormalities. Collaboration between nephrology, cardiology, and dialysis teams is necessary for successful management of this challenging patient population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. What Is the Best Dialysis Therapy in Developed and Developing Countries? Peritoneal Dialysis and/or Hemodialysis: The Trend in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Lim

    2017-01-01

    In Korea, peritoneal dialysis (PD) penetration peaked around 2005 at 23%, after which it declined and has remained at 10.5%. Two factors possibly explain the decrease: more favorable physician incentives to perform hemodialysis (HD) and disincentives for private clinics to perform PD, even though they account for a large percentage of dialysis centers in Korea. Early referral to nephrologists has been shown to be associated with better survival and lower medical costs than late referral, highlighting a possible role for systemic intervention to encourage early referrals. This benefits patients by allowing adequate time for dialysis modality selection, relevant training, and preparation for dialysis. In cohorts enrolled from 2005 to 2008, HD showed better survival than PD in patients aged 55 and over. However, PD survival increased more sharply than HD survival over the past decade, a phenomenon particularly significant in diabetic patients and/or patients aged 65 and over. In a prospective study of a cohort enrolled since 2009, PD was associated with better survival than HD, particularly in the early period of dialysis. The survival advantage was shown to last about 3.5 years, with a particularly strong benefit in men or patients under 65. Given the average wait time of 5 years for deceased-donor kidney transplantation (KT) in Korea, PD might be preferably considered for young patients on the wait list. Two critical developments to monitor in PD patients are early death from pneumonia and high risk of acute myocardial infarction. Selection of a dialysis modality that delivers the greatest possible benefit to individual patients should consider age, diabetes status, and KT donor availability. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Diurnal Variation of Intravenous Thrombolysis Rates for Acute Ischemic Stroke and Associated Quality Performance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Reuter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionBased on data from the Baden-Wuerttemberg stroke registry, we aimed to explore the diurnal variation of acute ischemic stroke (IS care delivery.Materials and methods92,530 IS patients were included, of whom 37,471 (40% presented within an onset-to-door time ≤4.5 h. Daytime was stratified in 3-h time intervals and working vs. non-working hours. Stroke onset and hospital admission time, rate of door-to-neurological examination time ≤30 min, onset-/door-to-imaging time IV thrombolysis (IVT rates, and onset-/door-to-needle time were determined. Multivariable regression models were used stratified by stroke onset and hospital admission time to assess the relationship between IVT rates, quality performance parameters, and daytime. The time interval 0:00 h to 3:00 h and working hours, respectively, were taken as reference.ResultsThe IVT rate of the whole study population was strongly associated with the sleep–wake cycle. In patients presenting within the 4.5-h time window and potentially eligible for IVT stratification by hospital admission time identified two time intervals with lower IVT rates. First, between 3:01 h and 6:00 h (IVT rate 18% and likely attributed to in-hospital delays with the lowest diurnal rate of door-to-neurological examination time ≤30 min and the longest door-to-needle time Second, between 6:01 h and 15:00 h (IVT rate 23–25% compared to the late afternoon and evening hours (IVT rate 27–29% due to a longer onset-to-imaging time and door-to-imaging time. No evidence for a compromised stroke service during non-working hours was observed.ConclusionThe analysis provides evidence that acute IS care is subject to diurnal variation which may affect stroke outcome. An optimization of IS care aiming at constantly high IVT rates over the course of the day therefore appears desirable.

  2. Hospitalization Rates for Patients on Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with In-Center Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Dixon, Stephanie N; Perl, Jeffrey; Jain, Arsh K; Lavoie, Susan D; Nash, Danielle M; Paterson, J Michael; Lok, Charmaine E; Quinn, Robert R

    2016-09-07

    Assisted peritoneal dialysis is a treatment option for individuals with barriers to self-care who wish to receive home dialysis, but previous research suggests that this treatment modality is associated with a higher rate of hospitalization. The objective of our study was to determine whether assisted peritoneal dialysis has a different rate of hospital days compared to in-center hemodialysis. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study by linking a quality assurance dataset to administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were accrued between January 1, 2004 and July 9, 2013. Individuals were grouped into assisted peritoneal dialysis (family or home care assisted) or in-center hemodialysis on the basis of their first outpatient dialysis modality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score was used to create a sample in which the baseline covariates were well balanced. The study included 872 patients in the in-center hemodialysis group and 203 patients in the assisted peritoneal dialysis group. Using an intention to treat approach, patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis had a similar hospitalization rate of 11.1 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 9.4 to 13.0) compared with 12.9 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 10.3 to 16.1) in the hemodialysis group (P=0.19). Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis were more likely to be hospitalized for dialysis-related reasons (admitted for 2.4 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.2] compared with 1.6 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.3] in the hemodialysis group; P=0.04). This difference was partly explained by more hospital days because of peritonitis. Modality switching was associated with high rates of hospital days per year. Assisted peritoneal dialysis was associated with similar rates of all-cause hospitalization compared with in-center hemodialysis. Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis who experienced peritonitis and technique failure had high rates of

  3. Temporal Changes in Mortality Risk by Dialysis Modality in the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Kerr, Peter G; Agar, John W M; Hawley, Carmel M; McDonald, Stephen P

    2015-09-01

    In most studies, home dialysis associates with greater survival than facility hemodialysis (HD). However, the relationship between mortality risk and modality can vary by era. We describe and compare changes in survival with facility HD, peritoneal dialysis, and home HD over a 15-year period using data from The Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA). An observational inception cohort study, using Cox proportional hazards and competing-risks regression. All adult patients initiating renal replacement therapy in Australia and New Zealand since March 31, 1998, followed up to December 31, 2012. Era at dialysis inception (1998-2002, 2003-2007, and 2008-2012). We adjusted for time-varying dialysis modality and comorbid conditions, demographics, initial state/country of treatment, late referral for nephrology care, primary kidney disease, and kidney function at dialysis inception. Patient mortality. Survival on dialysis therapy has improved despite increasing patient comorbid conditions. Compared to 1998 to 2002, there has been a 21% reduction in mortality for those on facility HD therapy, a 27% reduction for those on peritoneal dialysis therapy, and a 49% reduction for those on home HD therapy. Potential for residual confounding from limited collection of comorbid conditions; analyses lack data for blood pressure, fluid volume status, socioeconomics, medication, and biochemical parameters. Our study indicates that outcomes on dialysis therapy are improving with time and that this improvement is most marked with home dialysis modalities, especially home HD. This might be the result of better dialysis care (eg, improving predialysis care and more appropriate selection of patients for home dialysis). Other contributing factors are possible, such as improvements in general care of patient comorbid conditions and improvements in dialysis technology, although further research is needed to clarify these issues. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney

  4. Insights into nephrologist training, clinical practice, and dialysis choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merighi, Joseph R; Schatell, Dorian R; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Witten, Beth; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2012-04-01

    There is variable emphasis on dialysis-specific training among US nephrology fellowship programs. Our study objective was to determine the association between nephrology training experience and subsequent clinical practice. We conducted a national survey of clinical nephrologists using a fax-back survey distributed between March 8, 2010 and April 30, 2010 (N = 629). The survey assessed the time distribution of clinical practice, self-assessment of preparedness to provide care for dialysis patients at the time of certification examination, distribution of dialysis modality among patients, and nephrologists' choice of dialysis modality for themselves if their kidneys failed. While respondents spent 28% of their time caring for dialysis patients, 38% recalled not feeling very well prepared to care for dialysis patients when taking the nephrology certification examination. Sixteen percent obtained additional dialysis training after fellowship completion. Only 8% of US dialysis patients use home dialysis; physicians very well prepared to care for dialysis patients at the time of certification or who obtained additional dialysis training were significantly more likely to provide care to home peritoneal dialysis patients. Even though 92% of US dialysis patients receive thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, only 6% of nephrologists selected this for themselves; selection of therapy for self was associated with dialysis modalities used by their patients. Nephrology training programs need to ensure that all trainees are very well prepared to care for dialysis patients, as this is central to nephrology practice. Utilization of dialysis therapies other than standard hemodialysis is dependent, in part, on training experience.

  5. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...

  6. Dialysis modality choice in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease: a narrative review of the available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Liviu; Nistor, Ionut; Van Biesen, Wim; Brown, Edwina A; Heaf, James G; Lindley, Elizabeth; Farrington, Ken; Covic, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The number of elderly patients on maintenance dialysis has rapidly increased in the past few decades, particularly in developed countries, imposing a growing burden on dialysis centres. Hence, many nephrologists and healthcare authorities feel that greater emphasis should be placed on the promotion of home dialysis therapies such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HD). There is currently no general consensus as to the best dialysis modality for elderly patients with end-stage renal disease. In-centre HD is predominant in most countries, although it is widely recognized that PD has several advantages over HD, including the lack of need for vascular access, continuous slow ultrafiltration, less interference with patients' lifestyle and lower costs. Comparisons of outcomes between elderly patients on PD and HD rely on observational studies, as randomized controlled trials are lacking. The results of these studies are variable. However, most of them suggest that survival rates are largely similar between the two modalities, except for elderly patients with diabetes and/or beyond 1-3 years from dialysis initiation, in which cases HD appears to be superior. An equally important aspect to consider when choosing dialysis modality, particularly in this age group, is the quality of life, and in this regard most studies found no significant differences between PD and HD. In these circumstances, we believe that dialysis modality selection should be guided by patient's preference, based on comprehensive and unbiased information. A multidisciplinary team should review elderly patients starting on dialysis, aiming to identify possible barriers to PD and home HD, including physical, visual, cognitive, psychological and social problems, and to overcome such barriers by adequate care, education, psychological counselling and dialysis assistance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Debate: Should dialysis at home be mandatory for all suitable ESRD patients?: home-based dialysis therapies are the second choice after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Michelle C; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Kerr, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Since their inception in the 1960s, home-based dialysis therapies have been viable alternatives to conventional thrice weekly in center hemodialysis. In spite of this, uptake of these therapies has been steadily declining over past decades with utilization varying globally; dependent on training support, funding models, and prevailing Nephrologist beliefs. In the Australian context, home dialysis (predominantly peritoneal dialysis and extended hours nocturnal hemodialysis) is now again increasing in popularity--with enthusiasm driven not only by evidence of an array of physiological and psychological patient benefit but also significant economic advantage: critical in the current climate where dialysis therapies in Australia take approximately $1 billion dollars per year from the healthcare budget. When assessing the significant advantages of home-based therapies, it is important to consider not only the increasing body of evidence around improved survival but also that for dramatically better health-related quality of life, decreased economic burden and the overall benefits of undertaking treatment in the home. With patient-centered care an increasingly important aspect of our decision making paradigm, home-based dialysis should be considered as the default option in all patients transitioning to renal replacement therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Residual renal function in children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Skrzypczyk, Piotr

    2013-11-24

    Residual renal function (RRF) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy is defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins. Preserved RRF improves survival and quality of life in adult ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. In children, RRF was shown not only to help preserve adequacy of renal replacement therapy but also to accelerate growth rate, improve nutrition and blood pressure control, reduce the risk of adverse myocardial changes, facilitate treatment of anemia and calcium-phosphorus balance abnormalities, and result in reduced serum and dialysate fluid levels of advanced glycation end-products. Factors contributing to RRF loss in children treated with peritoneal dialysis include the underlying renal disease such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hereditary nephropathy, small urine volume, severe proteinuria at the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and hypertension. Several approaches can be suggested to decrease the rate of RRF loss in pediatric patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis: potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides), episodes of hypotension, and uncontrolled hypertension should be avoided, urinary tract infections should be treated promptly, and loop diuretics may be used to increase salt and water excretion.

  9. Residual Renal Function in Children Treated with Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roszkowska-Blaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual renal function (RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD receiving renal replacement therapy is defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins. Preserved RRF improves survival and quality of life in adult ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. In children, RRF was shown not only to help preserve adequacy of renal replacement therapy but also to accelerate growth rate, improve nutrition and blood pressure control, reduce the risk of adverse myocardial changes, facilitate treatment of anemia and calcium-phosphorus balance abnormalities, and result in reduced serum and dialysate fluid levels of advanced glycation end-products. Factors contributing to RRF loss in children treated with peritoneal dialysis include the underlying renal disease such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hereditary nephropathy, small urine volume, severe proteinuria at the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and hypertension. Several approaches can be suggested to decrease the rate of RRF loss in pediatric patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis: potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, episodes of hypotension, and uncontrolled hypertension should be avoided, urinary tract infections should be treated promptly, and loop diuretics may be used to increase salt and water excretion.

  10. Effects of acute morning and evening exercise on subjective and objective sleep quality in older individuals with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of acute morning or evening exercise on nocturnal sleep in individuals with two subjective insomnia symptoms: difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), and early morning awakening (EMA), separately for the first vs the second halves of the night. Older individuals (55-65 years old) with DIS (N = 15) or EMA (N = 15) and age- and sex-matched controls (N = 13) participated in this non-randomized crossover study. Participants were assigned to two exercise conditions (morning exercise and evening exercise) in counterbalanced order following the baseline condition with a two-week interval between conditions. A single session of aerobic step exercise was performed during each exercise condition. Nocturnal polysomnography was carried out to evaluate objective sleep quality. Patient global impression of change scale scores for nocturnal sleep were obtained to subjectively evaluate the different groups. Acute physical exercise did not improve subjective sleep quality. Morning exercise decreased the number of stage shifts over the whole night. The arousal index and the number of stage shifts were decreased especially during the second half of the night in all groups. Furthermore, morning exercise decreased the number of wake stages during the second half of the night in the DIS group, but not in the EMA group. Acute morning exercise can improve nocturnal sleep quality in individuals with difficulty initiating sleep, especially during the later part of the night. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting self-management improves the health status of patients having peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Yan; Lu, Xin-Hong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to explore the effects of promoting self-management on the well-being of patients having peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is a home-based treatment for end-stage renal disease. Promoting self-management has been shown to improve the health status of people with diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases. However, little is known about the effects of self-management support for patients having peritoneal dialysis. Thirty patients who had received peritoneal dialysis for at least 6 months and were clinically stable were enrolled in the study in 2006. A multidisciplinary team was built to support the patients' self-management. Various forms of education such as group discussion and individual consultation were used to improve patients' self-efficacy and all were followed up for 6 months. We compared the volume status, adequacy of dialysis, nutritional status, quality of life, rehabilitation status, self-management capacity and self-efficacy levels at baseline, 3 and 6 months after enrolment. During follow-up, patients' urine volume and residual renal function decreased, while the adequacy of dialysis (Kt/v and Ccr) did not change. Volume status, quality of life and rehabilitation status all improved, whereas nutritional status did not deteriorate. Both self-management capacity and self-efficacy level increased statistically significantly. A team approach needs to be taken to achieve successful self-management in patients having peritoneal dialysis, as with other chronic disease treatments. Nurses should use multiple strategies based on self-efficacy theory to improve patients' self-efficacy levels and self-management capacities.

  12. Collagen markers in peritoneal dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Joffe, P; Fugleberg, S

    1995-01-01

    (PICP), aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP)] were studied in 19 nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients. The absence of correlation between the mass appearance rates of the markers and the duration of dialysis treatment...... as well as the number of peritonitis episodes supports the concept that peritoneal dialysis does not cause persistent changes in the deposition and degradation rates of collagen. A correlation between the D/Pcreatinine 4 hr and the PICP mass appearance rates was found. Since it is unlikely...

  13. A Rare Case of Pediatric Nosocomial Liver Abscess Developing During Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Liver abscess developing during hospital stay in pediatric patients on dialysis for acute kidney injury has been previously unreported. Impaired immunity, prolonged use of antibiotics, diabetes and malnutrition predispose to liver abscess in chronic hemodialysis patients. Case Presentation We reported a case of liver abscess developing in a 6-year-old boy admitted with sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome including acute kidney injury. He received peritoneal and subsequently hemodialysis, as he did not improve on peritoneal dialysis. He developed fever while on hemodialysis, which was due to a liver abscess developing during the course of hospital stay. The abscess was in the right lobe of the liver with a volume of 40 mL. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of pyogenic liver abscesses in children and infection acquired from hospital. The patient received vancomycin and responded well with complete resolution and did not require any drainage procedure. He may have acquired bacteremia during dialysis with subsequent hepatic seeding. Conclusions Though rare, liver abscess may develop even in patients undergoing short-term dialysis therapy. Liver abscess is a medical emergency and if not treated promptly may lead to significant mortality. Invasive therapeutic procedures, like drainage is associated with further risk of complications. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be kept when evaluating a patient who develops unexplained fever while being on hemodialysis. Early medical intervention through appropriate antibiotics can significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality. Strict infection control policies should be followed to prevent such nosocomial infections.

  14. Effectiveness of Home Visits to Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Eileen N.; Blaszak, Christine; Wright, Sherida; Van Lierop, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Home visits by trained personnel to patients undergoing home dialysis are required, but little is reported about the effectiveness of such home visits. We retrospectively reviewed home visits to 22 pediatric patients undergoing continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (PD) at home. A trained dialysis nurse completed each home visit. An average of 1.5 pertinent dialysis findings and 1 pertinent medication finding was noted for each home visit to these patients. The interdisciplinary dialysis tea...

  15. Educational Level, Anticoagulation Quality, and Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eveline; Faller, Nicolas; Limacher, Andreas; Méan, Marie; Tritschler, Tobias; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-01-01

    Whether the level of education is associated with anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We thus aimed to investigate the association between educational level and anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute VTE. We studied 817 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE from a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study (09/2009-12/2013). We defined three educational levels: 1) less than high school, 2) high school, and 3) post-secondary degree. The primary outcome was the anticoagulation quality, expressed as the percentage of time spent in the therapeutic INR range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were the time to a first recurrent VTE and major bleeding. We adjusted for potential confounders and periods of anticoagulation. Overall, 56% of patients had less than high school, 25% a high school degree, and 18% a post-secondary degree. The mean percentage of TTR was similar across educational levels (less than high school, 61%; high school, 64%; and post-secondary, 63%; P = 0.36). Within three years of follow-up, patients with less than high school, high school, and a post-secondary degree had a cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE of 14.2%, 12.9%, and 16.4%, and a cumulative incidence of major bleeding of 13.3%, 15.1%, and 15.4%, respectively. After adjustment, educational level was neither associated with anticoagulation quality nor with recurrent VTE or major bleeding. In elderly patients with VTE, we did not find an association between educational level and anticoagulation quality or clinical outcomes.

  16. Perceived quality of an alternative to acute hospitalization: an analytical study at a community hospital in Hallingdal, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappegard, Øystein; Hjortdahl, Per

    2014-10-01

    There is growing international interest in the geography of health care provision, with health care providers searching for alternatives to acute hospitalization. In Norway, the government has recently legislated for municipal authorities to develop local health services for a selected group of patients, with a quality equal to or better than that provided by hospitals for emergency admissions. General practitioners in Hallingdal, a rural district in southern Norway, have for several years referred acutely somatically ill patients to a community hospital, Hallingdal sjukestugu (HSS). This article analyzes patients' perceived quality of HSS to demonstrate factors applicable nationally and internationally to aid in the development of local alternatives to general hospitals. We used a mixed-methods approach with questionnaires, individual interviews and a focus group interview. Sixty patients who were taking part in a randomized, controlled study of acute admissions at HSS answered the questionnaire. Selected patients were interviewed about their experiences and a focus group interview was conducted with representatives of local authorities, administrative personnel and health professionals. Patients admitted to HSS reported statistically significant greater satisfaction with several care aspects than those admitted to the general hospital. Factors highlighted by the patients were the quiet and homelike atmosphere; a small facility which allowed them a good overall view of the unit; close ties to the local community and continuity in the patient-staff relationship. The focus group members identified some overarching factors: an interdisciplinary and holistic approach, local ownership, proximity to local general practices and close cooperation with the specialist health services at the hospital. Most of these factors can be viewed as general elements relevant to the development of local alternatives to acute hospitalization both nationally and internationally. This

  17. Pre-Dialysis Visits to a Nephrology Department and Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Chuang, Chi-Rou; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Pre-dialysis care by a nephrology out-patient department (OPD) may affect the outcomes of patients who ultimately undergo maintenance dialysis. This study examined the effect of pre-dialysis care by a nephrology OPD on the incidence of one-year major cardiovascular events after initiation of dialysis. The study consisted of Taiwanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who commenced dialysis from 2006 to 2008. The number of nephrology OPD visits during the critical care period (within 6 months of initiation of dialysis) and the early care period (6-36 months before initiation of dialysis) were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was one-year major cardiovascular events. A total of 1191 CKD patients who initiated dialysis from 2006 to 2008 were included. Binary logistic regression showed that patients with ≧3 visits during the critical care period and those with ≧11 visits during the early care period had fewer composite major cardiovascular events than those with 0 visits. Patients with early referral are less likely to experience composite major cardiovascular events than those with late referral, with aOR 0.574 (95% CI = 0.43-0.77, Pnephrology OPD visits, not just early referral, may had fewer one-year composite major cardiovascular events after initiation of dialysis. This information may be important to medical care providers and public health policy makers in their efforts to improve the well-being of CKD patients.

  18. The value of sequential dialysis, mannitol and midodrine in managing children prone to dialysis failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothi, Daljit K; Harvey, Elizabeth; Goia, Cristina M; Geary, Denis

    2009-08-01

    The uremic state impairs compensatory responses to ultrafiltration (UF). Intradialytic symptoms and hypotension can result and lead to premature discontinuation of treatment and sub-optimal dialysis. We report the benefits of mannitol, sequential dialysis and midodrine in reducing dialysis failures in those children prone to intradialytic hypotension. Prophylactic mannitol halved the odds of intradialytic symptoms and hypotension and increased UF volumes. Sequential dialysis halved the odds of symptoms but hypotension persisted. In one patient with refractory hypotension, only intradialytic midodrine consistently maintained acceptable intradialytic blood pressures, reduced intradialytic symptoms and increased the UF potential.

  19. A comparison of sleep disturbances and sleep apnea in patients on hemodialysis and chronic peritoneal dialysis

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    Hamdan Al-Jahdali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep disorders are common among dialysis patients; however, few studies have compared the prevalence of different sleep disorders in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. We used questionnaires to assess the prevalence of common sleep disorders in dialysis patients. We compared the prevalence of sleep apnea (SA risk, restless legs syndrome (RLS, insomnia, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, as well as sleep quality, in both groups. Of the 227 patients who were enrolled in the study, the total number of patients on HD was 188 (82%, while the total number of patients on PD was 39 (18%. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, neck size, or duration on dialysis (all P >0.05. The estimated overall prevalence of SA was significantly higher in PD patients in comparison with HD patients (92% and 67%, respectively; P <0.05. The prevalence of insomnia was similar in both groups. The prevalence of RLS was significantly greater in PD than in HD patients (69% and 46%, respectively; P <0.05. In addition, EDS was significantly higher in PD than in HD patients (77% and 37%, respectively; P <0.05. Our study shows that sleep disorders are common in dialysis patients; however, SA, EDS, and RLS were more common in PD patients than in HD pa-tients. Poor sleep quality and insomnia were comparable in both groups.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Diego; Rueda, Juan-David; Diaz, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35%) for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay) was three times gross domestic product (GDP) = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD) using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798). The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease

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    Diego Rosselli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35% for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay was three times gross domestic product (GDP = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798. The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  2. A comparison of quality of care indicators in urban acute care hospitals and rural critical access hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawal Lutfiyya, M; Bhat, Deepa K; Gandhi, Seema R; Nguyen, Catherine; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki L; Lipsky, Martin S

    2007-06-01

    Two recent Institute of Medicine reports highlight that the quality of healthcare in the US is less than what should be expected from the world's most extensive and expensive healthcare system. This may be especially true for critical access hospitals since these smaller rural-based hospitals often have fewer resources and less funding than larger urban hospitals. The purpose of this paper was to compare quality of hospital care provided in urban acute care hospitals to that provided in rural critical access hospitals. Cross-sectional study analyzing secondary Hospital Compare data. T-test statistics were computed on weighted data to ascertain if differences were statistically significant (P=0.01). Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hospitals. US Acute Care and Critical Access hospitals. Differences between urban acute care hospitals and rural critical access hospitals on quality care indicators related to acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and pneumonia. For 8 of the 12 hospital quality indicators the differences between urban acute care and rural critical access hospitals were statistically significant (P=0.01). In seven instances these differences favored urban hospitals. One indicator related to pneumonia favored rural hospitals Although this study focused on only three disease states, these are among the most common clinical conditions encountered in inpatient settings. The findings suggested that there may be differences in quality in rural critical access hospitals and urban acute care hospitals and support the need for future studies addressing disparities between urban acute care and rural critical access hospitals.

  3. Long-term risk of dementia following acute kidney injury: A population-based study

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    Chih-Chin Kao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adverse neurological effects may be common following acute kidney injury (AKI. The purpose of our study was to investigate the long-term risk of dementia following AKI and temporary dialysis during hospitalization. Materials and Methods: The study was based on data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Patients 18-year-old and older who were withdrawn from temporary dialysis because of AKI and survived for at least 90 days following discharge were included in our acute-dialysis-recovery group. Patients without AKI and dialysis were the control group. A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was applied to determine the risk of dementia. Results: Of 2905 acute-dialysis patients, 689 (23.7% survived for at least 90 days following recovery from acute dialysis. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model showed that the acute-dialysis-recovery group had an increased long-term risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; P = 0.01 compared with the control group. The conditional effects plot showed that the risk of dementia was amplified in patients who were older than 58 years. The development of dementia following recovery from acute dialysis was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality (HR, 2.38; P < 0.001. Conclusions: Patients with acute dialysis have a greater risk for the subsequent development of dementia after recovery than patients without AKI and dialysis, and patients who develop dementia after recovery from temporary dialysis are at increased risk for mortality.

  4. Sleep Disorders, Restless Legs Syndrome, and Uremic Pruritus: Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Symptoms in Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Jennifer S.; Combs, Sara A.; Brennan, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance dialysis patients experience a high burden of physical and emotional symptoms that directly affect their quality of life and health care utilization. In this review, we specifically highlight common troublesome symptoms affecting dialysis patients: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and uremic pruritus. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and evidence-based current treatment are reviewed with the goal of providing a guide for diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we identify multiple additi...

  5. Peritoneal dialysis education: Challenges and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2018-03-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is the most common modality for home dialysis and to ensure patients have access to dialysis at home, training programs have to ensure that the fellows attain clinical competency in the care of such patients. The limited data available however are sobering; about 10 years ago, 44% of nephrologists reported that they did not feel competent in the care of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. There are recognizable challenges in ensuring clinical competency of trainees that may need creative solutions. It is important for training program directors to evaluate the state of training at their institution, identify their unique barriers, and work to overcome them in the interest of ensuring that fellows are trained in all aspects of nephrology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of High-quality Nursing on Improvement of Anxiety and Depression of Patients with Acute Stroke in MRI Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Zhang, Li

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of high-quality nursing on improvement of anxiety and depression of patients with acute stroke in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. A total of 120 patients diagnosed as acute stroke for the first time were enrolled in Liaocheng People's Hospital from 2016-2017 and randomly divided into control group (n=60) and observation group (n=60). All patients received cerebral MRI examination at 6h and 24h after admission and before discharge. The control group was treated with routine nursing, while the observation group was treated with high-quality nursing, and the specific nursing measures included the establishment of high-quality nursing group, full evaluation of the severity of disease, timely solving of difficulties in MRI examination, understanding of the patient's anxiety and depression, establishment of personal information files before discharge, etc. The completion rate and average duration of examination, the improvement of anxiety and depression and the nursing satisfaction were compared between the two groups. In observation group, the completion rate of MRI examination was significantly increased ( P =0.035), the average duration was shortened ( P =0.011), the anxiety and depression scores (self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS)) were improved obviously ( P =0.006 and 0.009), and the nursing satisfaction score and rate was increased ( P =0.000 and 0.027); the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05). High-quality nursing can significantly improve the anxiety and depression of patients with acute stroke in MRI examination, which has a better application value in increasing the completion rate of examination, shortening the duration of examination and improving the nursing satisfaction.

  7. Intraperitoneal pressure in peritoneal dialysis

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    Vicente Pérez Díaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The measure of intraperitoneal pressure in peritoneal dialysis is easy and provides clear therapeutic benefits. However it is measured only rarely in adult peritoneal dialysis units. This review aims to disseminate the usefulness of measuring intraperitoneal pressure. This measurement is performed in supine before initiating the drain of a manual exchange with “Y” system, by raising the drain bag and measuring from the mid-axillary line the height of the liquid column that rises from the patient. With typical values of 10–16 cm H2O, intraperitoneal pressure should never exceed 18 cm H2O. With basal values that depend on body mass index, it increases 1–3 cm H2O/L of intraperitoneal volume, and varies with posture and physical activity. Its increase causes discomfort, sleep and breathing disturbances, and has been linked to the occurrence of leaks, hernias, hydrothorax, gastro-esophageal reflux and enteric peritonitis. Less known and valued is its ability to decrease the effectiveness of dialysis significantly counteracting ultrafiltration and decreasing solute clearance to a smaller degree. Because of its easy measurement and potential utility, should be monitored in case of ultrafiltration failure to rule out its eventual contribution in some patients. Although not yet mentioned in the clinical practice guidelines for PD, its clear benefits justify its inclusion among the periodic measurements to consider for prescribing and monitoring peritoneal dialysis. Resumen: La medida de la presión intraperitoneal en diálisis peritoneal es muy sencilla y aporta claros beneficios terapéuticos. Sin embargo, su monitorización todavía no se ha generalizado en las unidades de diálisis peritoneal de adultos. Esta revisión pretende divulgar su conocimiento y la utilidad de su medida. Se realiza en decúbito antes de iniciar el drenaje de un intercambio manual con bolsa en Y, elevando la bolsa de

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Aşut, Çiğdem; Çırpan Kantarcıoğlu, Arzu; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Güneş, Adalet Meral

    2016-12-01

    With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and follow-up programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL.

  9. Palliative care for patients with malignancy and end-stage renal failure on peritoneal dialysis

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    Lv Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients on peritoneal dialysis experience a poor quality of life because of a high burden of comorbid conditions. Dialysists must pay more attention to reducing a patient′s pain and suffering, both physical and psychological and improve the quality of life for the patients as much as possible. A consensus regarding eligibility for palliative care and the delivery of these inventions does not currently exist. Objective: The present study aimed to describe the implementation of palliative care for end-stage renal failure patients on peritoneal dialysis. Design: A report on three cases. Materials and Methods: This study included three outpatients on peritoneal dialysis who received palliative care and died between January 2008 and June 2010. Measurements: The patients′ comorbidities, nutritional status, and functional status were evaluated using the Charlson comorbidity score, subjective global assessment, and Karnofsky Performance Score index, respectively. The Hamilton depression and Hamilton anxiety scales were also employed. The patients′ clinical manifestations and treatments were reviewed. Results: Each patient displayed 11-16 symptoms. The Charlson comorbidity scores were from 11 to 13, the subjective global assessment indicated that two patients were class assigned to "C" and one to class "B", and the mean Karnofsky index was <40. Among these patients, all experienced depression and two experienced anxiety, Low doses of hypertonic glucose solutions, skin care, psychological services, and tranquillizers were intermittently used to alleviate symptoms, after making the decision to terminate dialysis. The patients died 5 days to 2 months after dialysis withdrawal. Conclusion: The considerable burden associated with comorbid conditions, malnutrition, poor functional status, and serious psychological problems are predictors of poor patient prognoses. Withdrawal of dialysis, palliative care, and psychological interventions

  10. Improving the management of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: systematic evaluation of a quality improvement programme European QUality Improvement Programme for Acute Coronary Syndrome: The EQUIP-ACS project protocol and design

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    Bardaji Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute coronary syndromes, including myocardial infarction and unstable angina, are important causes of premature mortality, morbidity and hospital admissions. Acute coronary syndromes consume large amounts of health care resources, and have a major negative economic and social impact through days lost at work, support for disability, and coping with the psychological consequences of illness. Several registries have shown that evidence based treatments are under-utilised in this patient population, particularly in high-risk patients. There is evidence that systematic educational programmes can lead to improvement in the management of these patients. Since application of the results of important clinical trials and expert clinical guidelines into clinical practice leads to improved patient care and outcomes, we propose to test a quality improvement programme in a general group of hospitals in Europe. Methods/Design This will be a multi-centre cluster-randomised study in 5 European countries: France, Spain, Poland, Italy and the UK. Thirty eight hospitals will be randomised to receive a quality improvement programme or no quality improvement programme. Centres will enter data for all eligible non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to their hospital for a period of approximately 10 months onto the study database and the sample size is estimated at 2,000-4,000 patients. The primary outcome is a composite of eight measures to assess aggregate potential for improvement in the management and treatment of this patient population (risk stratification, early coronary angiography, anticoagulation, beta-blockers, statins, ACE-inhibitors, clopidogrel as a loading dose and at discharge. After the quality improvement programme, each of the eight measures will be compared between the two groups, correcting for cluster effect. Discussion If we can demonstrate important improvements in the quality of patient care as

  11. Relationship between health-related quality of life, comorbidities and acute health care utilisation, in adults with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Anastasia F; Graco, Marnie; Rasekaba, Tshepo Mokuedi; Parikh, Sumit; Berlowitz, David John; Lim, Wen Kwang

    2015-05-29

    There is increased interest in developing multidisciplinary ambulatory care models of service delivery to manage patients with complex chronic diseases. These programs are expensive and given limited resources it is important that care is targeted effectively. One potential screening strategy is to identify individuals who report the greatest decrement in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and thus greater need. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between HRQoL, comorbid conditions and acute health care utilisation. A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to evaluate the impact of HRQoL on acute care utilisation rates over three-years of follow-up. Participants were enrolled in chronic disease management programs run by a metropolitan health service in Australia. Baseline data was collected from 2007-2009 and follow-up data until 2012. Administrative data was used to classify patients' primary reasons for enrolment, number of comorbidities (Charlson Score) and presentations to acute care. At enrolment, HRQoL was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument, for analysis AQoL scores were dichotomised at two standard deviations below the population norm. There were 1999 participants (54 % male) with a mean age of 63 years (range 18-101), enrolled in the study. Participants' primary health conditions at enrolment were: diabetes 915 (46 %), chronic respiratory disease 463 (23 %), cardiac disease 260 (13 %), peripheral vascular disease, and 181 (9 %) and aged care 180 (9 %). At 1-year multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that AQOL utility score was not predictive of acute care presentations after adjusting for comorbidities. Over 3-years an AQoL utility score in the lowest quartile was predictive of both ED presentation (OR 1.58, 95 % CI, 1.16-2.13, p = 0.003) and admissions (OR 1.67, 95 % CI.1.21 to 2.30, p = 0.002) after adjusting for differences in age and comorbidities. This study found

  12. Are current peritoneal dialysis solutions adequate for pediatric use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrina, Enrico Eugenio; Cannavò, Rossella; Schaefer, Betti; Schmitt, Claus Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the treatment modality of choice in pediatric CKD5D patients awaiting renal transplantation. Facing many decades of renal replacement therapy long term preservation of peritoneal membrane function is of particular importance in this patient group. Whereas conventional PD fluids induce severe morphological and functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane within a few years, reduction of glucose degradation product content by multichamber systems, replacement of glucose by icodextrin and amino acids, and of lactate by bicarbonate at a neutral to physiological pH are expected to preserve peritoneal membrane integrity. Based on numerous in vitro, experimental and clinical studies, the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group recommended the use of low glucose degradation product solutions whenever possible. Icodextrin is considered a useful option, in particular in children with sodium and water overload, even though infants may absorb higher amounts of icodextrin and achieve less ultrafiltration. The concept of amino acid-based PD fluids is intriguing, but pediatric benefits are insufficiently described and cannot replace tube feeding in malnourished children. Bicarbonate-based PD fluids better control metabolic acidosis and have been recommended in children with acute kidney injury and impaired lactate metabolism. This review discusses the scientific evidence and potential advantages of PD solutions with an improved biocompatibility profile, with a particular focus on pediatric studies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Hamdan H; AlQadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; AlHejaili, Fayez F; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A; AlGhamdi, Saeed M

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 + - 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 + - 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  14. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

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    Al-Jahdali Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH, Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG′s RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ. Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 ± 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM, coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively. Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis

  15. Innovation in hospital quality improvement activities--acute postoperative pain management (APOP) self-help toolkit audits as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Lisa K; Oliver, Kate; Tett, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    It is often difficult to maintain quality improvement change. Many behavioral strategies have been used to improve uptake of new practices and knowledge. One effective way of changing medication prescribing is audit and feedback with specific educational feedback. The challenge however is to maintain ongoing quality improvement activities. In Australia, unique downloadable "toolkits" are now available to assist hospitals to maintain prescribing quality improvement activities. The first designed to improve the management of acute postoperative pain (APOP toolkit) has been piloted. The toolkit includes data collection and educational tools, an automated feedback report on key indicators, with complete instructions for use. The APOP toolkit has been used in 73 hospitals, in two facilitated "snapshot" audits. There was continued improvement in performance, assessed by increases in the percentage of patients with measured pain and sedation scores and in those with documented pain management plans at discharge, compared with earlier APOP project audits. Using this example of the APOP toolkit and "snapshot" audits, we have now demonstrated that hospitals nationwide are able to undertake quality improvement activities voluntarily to maintain optimal performance. Encouragement, guidance, and availability of ready-made tools developed by a national team facilitate opportunities for ongoing quality improvements. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  16. Treatment and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in women: An analysis of a multicenter quality improvement Chinese study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Patel, Anushka; Li, Xian; Wu, Yangfeng; Turnbull, Fiona; Gao, Runlin

    2017-08-15

    Variations in care and outcomes by sex in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported worldwide. The aims of this study are to describe ACS management according to sex in China and the effects of a quality improvement program in Chinese male and female ACS patients. Clinical Pathways for Acute Coronary Syndromes - Phase 2 (CPACS-2) was a cluster randomized trial to test whether a clinical pathways-based intervention would improve ACS management in China. The study enrolled 15,141 hospitalized patients [4631 (30.6%) were women] from 75 hospitals throughout China between October 2007 and August 2010. The intervention included clinical pathway implementation and performance measurement using standardized indicators with 6 monthly audit-feedback cycles. Eight key performance indicators reflecting in hospital management of ACS were measured. After adjustment for differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities at presentation, women were significantly less likely to undergo coronary angiography when indicated (RR 0.88 [0.85 to 0.92], Pquality improvement initiative by sex. Sex disparities were apparent in some key quality of care indicators for patients with suspected with ACS presenting to hospitals in China. The beneficial effect of the quality improvement program was consistent in women and men. http://www.anzctr.org.au/default.aspx. Unique identifier: ACTRN12609000491268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of dialysis of dog semen on sperm characteristics and some biochemical components of seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzeżek, R; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Kiełczewski, K; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dog semen dialysis on sperm characteristics and some biochemical components of seminal plasma. Whole ejaculates were dialyzed against Tris-citrate-fructose extender for a 5 h period at room temperature (using semi-permeable cellulose tubing of 12-14 kDa molecular weight cut-off). It has been demonstrated that the long-term dialysis of dog semen causes a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters and disrupts the biochemical properties of seminal plasma. This procedure requires further improvement.

  18. Evaluation of biofouling in stainless microfluidic channels for implantable multilayered dialysis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takashi; To, Naoya; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    An implantable artificial kidney can markedly improve the quality of life of renal disease patients. Our group has developed an implantable multilayered dialysis system consisting of microfluidic channels and dialysis membranes. Long-term evaluation is necessary for implant devices where biofouling is a critical factor, culminating in the deterioration of dialysis performance. Our previous work revealed that surface conditions, which depend on the manufacturing process, determine the amount of biofouling, and that electrolytic etching is the most suitable technique for forming a channel wall free of biofouling. In this study, we investigated the electrolytic etching conditions in detail. We conducted in vitro experiments for 7 d and evaluated the adhesion of biomaterials by scanning electron microscopy. The experiments revealed that a surface mirror-finished by electrolytic etching effectively prevents biofouling.

  19. Sleep, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, M.S.; Litsenburg, R.R. van; Gemke, R.J.; Huisman, J.; Bierings, M.B.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the improved survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the effect of treatment on psychosocial well-being becomes increasingly relevant. Literature on sleep and fatigue during treatment is emerging. However, information on these subjects after treatment is sparse.

  20. Sleep, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, M.S.; van Litsenburg, R.R.L.; Gemke, R.J.; Huisman, J.; Bierings, M.B.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the improved survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the effect of treatment on psychosocial well-being becomes increasingly relevant. Literature on sleep and fatigue during treatment is emerging. However, information on these subjects after treatment is sparse.

  1. Quality of health in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Glosli, Heidi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi

    2011-01-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors, and approximately 50% are cured with chemotherapy only. Limited data exist about their long-term morbidity and social outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare the self-reported use of health care services...

  2. Outcome of acute perforated cholecystitis: a register study of over 5000 cases from a quality control database in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Stefan; Doerner, Johannes; Macher-Heidrich, Susanne; Zirngibl, Hubert; Ambe, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Acute perforated cholecystitis (APC) is probably the most severe complication of acute cholecystitis. However, data on the outcome of cholecystectomy for APC are limited to small series. This study investigated the outcomes of cholecystectomy for APC. Data from a prospectively maintained quality control database in Germany were analyzed. Cases with APC were compared to cases without gallbladder perforation with regard to demographic characteristics, clinical findings and surgical outcomes. A total of 5704 patients with APC were compared to 39,661 patients without perforation. Risk factors for APC included: the male gender, advanced age (>65 years), ASA score >2, elevated white blood count (WBC), positive findings on abdominal ultrasound sonography and fever. The APC group differed significantly from the control group with regard to fever (29.8 vs. 12.2 %), elevated WBC (83.8 vs. 65.4 %) and positive findings from ultrasound sonography (84.9 vs. 78.9 %), p cholecystitis is a severe complication of acute cholecystitis. Surgical dissection could be challenging with high risks of bile duct injury and conversion. The rates of morbidity and mortality are higher compared to those of patients without perforation.

  3. Remote Patient Management for Home Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote patient management (RPM offers renal health care providers and patients with end-stage kidney disease opportunities to embrace home dialysis therapies with greater confidence and the potential to obtain better clinical outcomes. Barriers and evidence required to increase adoption of RPM by the nephrology community need to be clearly defined. Ten health care providers from specialties including nephrology, cardiology, pediatrics, epidemiology, nursing, and health informatics with experience in home dialysis and the use of RPM systems gathered in Vienna, Austria to discuss opportunities for, barriers to, and system requirements of RPM as it applies to the home dialysis patient. Although improved outcomes and cost-effectiveness of RPM have been demonstrated in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart disease, only observational data on RPM have been gathered in patients on dialysis. The current review focused on RPM systems currently in use, on how RPM should be integrated into future care, and on the evidence needed for optimized implementation to improve clinical and economic outcomes. Randomized controlled trials and/or large observational studies could inform the most effective and economical use of RPM in home dialysis. These studies are needed to establish the value of existing and/or future RPM models among patients, policy makers, and health care providers.

  4. Telehealth in the Delivery of Home Dialysis Care: Catching up With Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Vinay N; Managadi, Kamesha; Smith, Michael; Wallace, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Geographic and socioeconomic barriers may pose a significant difficulty in delivering home dialysis care to remote underserved populations leading to low utilization rates and poor outcomes. Telehealth may serve as a solution to overcome geographic barriers in delivering home dialysis care. Although technologic advances in telehealth have progressed rapidly making it accessible and inexpensive, it has been underused by nephrologists. Components of a regular face-to-face visit that can be successfully accomplished remotely using telehealth techniques include physician-patient communication, physical examination, laboratory and treatment data monitoring, nursing and nutrition education. Regulatory and reimbursement-related policies continue to present barriers that need to be overcome in operationalizing telehealth and widespread adoption of telehealth solutions. Although more quality evidence is needed to study the impact of telehealth on home dialysis outcomes and uptake, telehealth holds the promise of increasing access to care, improving quality of life, and improving quality of care for current and would be home dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health related quality of life and impact of infectious comorbidity in outpatient management of patients with acute leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis; Appel, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    a longitudinal HRQOL evaluation (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer core 30-item questionnaire; EORTC-QLQ C-30) and the impact of infectious comorbidity among 60 patients with leukemia (median age 47) treated in an outpatient management program at Copenhagen University Hospital......Although survival has improved among patients with acute leukemia, there is still a considerable risk of severe complications throughout the course of treatment. This contrast increases the interest in monitoring health related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients. This study presents....... Significant improvement was seen on several HRQOL scores during follow-up. Explorative general linear models (GLMs) suggest that high cumulative severity of infectious comorbidity significantly reduces physical functioning and overall quality of life at treatment completion....

  6. Systematic differences among patients initiated on home haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: the fallacy of potential competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Bargman, Joanne M; Chan, Christopher T

    2010-07-01

    The adoption of home-based dialysis therapies is growing internationally. There is a possibility that competition for patients may exist between peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HHD) for their respective growth. Clinical demographics of patients initiating PD and HHD from 2004 to 2008 in our centre were abstracted using institutional electronic records. We compared clinical demographics, laboratory data and process of care to describe potential factors leading to patients choosing home-based dialysis therapies. Between 2004 and 2008, 236 patients initiated home dialysis therapy in our centre: 153 patients to PD and 83 patients to HHD. PD and HHD patients differed in age (PD 62 +/- 16 vs HHD 46 +/- 13 years; P care was higher among PD starters (PD 86 vs HHD 65%; P home-based renal replacement therapy after an acute hospitalization without prior modality education. There is a systematic difference between patients initiated on PD and HHD. Our data reaffirm that modality selection is a complex process. Patients on the two home therapies differ demographically and arrive through different routes. This finding suggests that the two home-based modalities are not in competition.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kerschbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.

  8. Effectiveness of Dietetic Intervention on Nutritional Status and Hydration Status in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. LAM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Hong Kong, more than 3,000 patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF on CAPD in 20091. Protein-energy malnutrition and volume overload are common problems in CAPD patients and associated with high morbidity and mortality2-6. Hyperphosphatemia is also a frequent complication in Chinese CAPD patients and is associated with development of renal bone disease or osteodystrophy7. The Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI guidelines suggested a combination of valid, complementary measures should be used to assess nutritional status in CAPD patients and anthropometric measurements are valid and clinically useful indicators of protein-energy nutritional status in maintenance dialysis patients8. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA, which is a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive method, provides another powerful tool for monitoring of nutrition and hydration in CAPD patients9—10. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of dietetic intervention in a local acute hospital on nutritional status and hydration status of patients on CAPD in outpatient setting. This is a retrospective study of 22 ESRF patients receiving dietetic intervention during CAPD training from February 2010 to January 2011. Patients with cognitive impairment or contraindicated with bioimepdence analysis (BIA were excluded. Baseline demographic and clinical data were retrieved from the dietetic consultation record and the electronic records in Clinical Management System (CMS. The parameters related to the nutrition and hydration status in the first and follow-up dietetic consultation were also collected from the record. They included the dietary protein and energy intakes estimated from the dietary history, anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, body mass index (BMI, skeletal muscle mass (SMM, body fat mass (BFM, body fat percentage (BF%, intracellular water (ICW, extracellular water (ECW measured by body composition analyzer (In

  9. Risk factors for peritoneal dialysis catheter failure in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage renal disease, pediatric patients, peritoneal dialysis, tenckhoff .... (not dialysis related). Salvage from failure was carried out for 10 PDCs. Five PDCs were salvaged from peri- tonitis failure by proper medical management: one in. NFG and ...

  10. End-of-Life Care and Quality of Dying in 23 Acute Geriatric Hospital Wards in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstede, Rebecca; Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Eecloo, Kim; Costantini, Massimo; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Deliens, Luc

    2017-04-01

    To describe the nursing and medical interventions performed in the last 48 hours of life and the quality of dying of patients dying in acute geriatric hospital wards. Cross-sectional descriptive study between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2013. Twenty-three acute geriatric wards in 13 hospitals in Flanders, Belgium. Patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours before dying in the participating wards. Structured after-death questionnaires, filled out by the nurse, the physician, and the family carer most involved in end-of-life care. Main outcome measures were several nursing and medical interventions reported to be performed in the last 48 hours of life and the quality of dying. Of 993 patients, we included 338 (mean age 85.7 years; 173 women). Almost 58% had dementia and nearly half were unable to communicate in the last 48 hours of their life. The most frequently continued or started nursing and medical interventions in the last 48 hours of life were measuring temperature (91.6%), repositioning (83.3%), washing (89.5%), oxygen therapy (49.7%), and intravenous fluids and nutrition (30%). Shortness of breath, lack of serenity, lack of peace, and lack of calm were symptoms reported most frequently by nurses and family carers. Many nursing and medical interventions are continued or started in the last hours of a patient's life, which may not always be in their best interests. Furthermore, patients dying in acute geriatric wards are often affected by several symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  12. Sodium Balance During Extra Corporeal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be obtained by using hypernatric dialysis or "sodium ramping" or convective techniques. While reducing the intradialytic side effects (hypotension, cramps, nausea, vomiting, these methods may increase the interdialytic side effects (thirst, weight gain, hypertension and pulmonary edema. Given the highly variable amounts of sodium introduced during the interdialytic periods, the use of sodium-conductivity kinetic models allows removing exactly the amount of sodium accumulated in the interdialytic period. This strategy may be advantageous towards cardiovascular stability in patients prone to dialysis hypotension.

  13. [Home dialysis techniques: from dream to reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, S; Guillaume, B

    2017-01-01

    The economic environment has pushed our political leaders to severely limit the health care spending. Belgian nephrologists have signed an agreement to attain more than 40 % of " alternative " dialysis techniques such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD). They will become unavoidable and major future therapy modalities. This article summarizes PD and HDD techniques in order to help health professionals and to inform them about innovative research in home dialysis techniques. It is a non exhaustive list of the many advantages, if not superiority, of the treatment of end stage renal disease (ESRD) at home instead of in-center HD. These therapies, which can be used before kidney transplantation, complete the panel of possible treatments of ESRD for health care providers.

  14. Promoting the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeds among junior doctors: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunsbury, Emma; Allison, Emma; Colleypriest, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Though they are knowledgeable, foundation year one (FY1) doctors can lack skills and confidence in acute situations due to inexperience. This was witnessed when a new FY1 on call attended an acute upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB), a common emergency with a 10% in hospital mortality rate. We aimed to improve FY1s' ability to manage these critical patients through simulation based teaching, before and after the introduction of an algorithm summarising current guidelines. After assessing the FY1s' perceived level of confidence in managing UGIBs, they individually attended a simulation session which evaluated specific aspects of their assessment and management plans. Immediate debriefing and subsequent teaching sessions reinforced learning points, with an algorithm instituted as an aide mémoire to improve efficiency. A repeat simulation session assessed improvements in both subjective confidence and objective management targets. All FY1s expressed improved confidence in managing patients with UGIBs. There were improvements across the board in their assessment and management, notably: verbalisation of concern for hypotension increased to 100% (from 60%), two points of intravenous access requested in 100% of cases (from 53%), and a 76 second reduction in time to call for senior support. Collectively, these individual aspects led to improved patient care. Effective management of acute patients is best learnt through exposure, and simulation based teaching provides a safe but powerful modality to aid transition from textbook theory to ward situations. Algorithms can streamline care and hasten the stabilisation of patients. This project reinforces generic competencies that FY1s can translate to their management of not only UGIBs, but many acute presentations, providing a convincing argument for broader simulation use in FY1 teaching.

  15. A quality improvement project sustainably decreased time to onset of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglas, Victor D; Parker, Ann M; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Zanni, Jennifer M; Turnbull, Alison E; Nelliot, Archana; Ciesla, Nancy; Needham, Dale M

    2014-10-01

    Rehabilitation started early during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay is associated with improved outcomes and is the basis for many quality improvement (QI) projects showing important changes in practice. However, little evidence exists regarding whether such changes are sustainable in real-world practice. To evaluate the sustained effect of a quality improvement project on the timing of initiation of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). This was a pre-post evaluation using prospectively collected data involving consecutive patients with ALI admitted pre-quality improvement (October 2004-April 2007, n = 120) versus post-quality improvement (July 2009-July 2012, n = 123) from a single medical ICU. The primary outcome was time to first active physical therapy intervention, defined as strengthening, mobility, or cycle ergometry exercises. Among ICU survivors, more patients in the post-quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group received physical therapy in the ICU (89% vs. 24%, P quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group, there was a shorter median (interquartile range) time to first physical therapy (4 [2, 6] vs. 11 d [6, 29], P quality improvement period was associated with shorter time to physical therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.38 [4.98, 14.11], P quality improvement period. The following variables were independently associated with a longer time to physical therapy: higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0.93 [0.89, 0.97]), higher FiO2 (0.86 [0.75, 0.99] for each 10% increase), use of an opioid infusion (0.47 [0.25, 0.89]), and deep sedation (0.24 [0.12, 0.46]). In this single-site, pre-post analysis of patients with ALI, an early rehabilitation quality improvement project was independently associated with a substantial decrease in the time to initiation of active physical therapy intervention that was sustained over 5 years. Over the entire pre

  16. Systematic barriers to the effective delivery of home dialysis in the United States: a report from the Public Policy/Advocacy Committee of the North American Chapter of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golper, Thomas A; Saxena, Anjali B; Piraino, Beth; Teitelbaum, Isaac; Burkart, John; Finkelstein, Fredric O; Abu-Alfa, Ali

    2011-12-01

    Home dialysis, currently underused in the United States compared with other industrialized countries, likely will benefit from the newly implemented US prospective payment system. Not only is home dialysis less expensive from the standpoint of pure dialysis costs, but overall health system costs may be decreased by more subtle benefits, such as reduced transportation. However, many systematic barriers exist to the successful delivery of home dialysis. We organized these barriers into the categories of educational barriers (patient and providers), governmental/regulatory barriers (state and federal), and barriers specifically related to the philosophies and business practices of dialysis providers (eg, staffing, pharmacies, supplies, space, continuous quality improvement practices, and independence). All stakeholders share the goal of delivering home dialysis therapies in the most cost- and clinically effective and least problematic manner. Identification and recognition of such barriers is the first step. In addition, we have suggested action plans to stimulate the kidney community to find even better solutions so that collectively we may overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Australian consumer perspectives on dialysis: first national census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Marie J; Lauder, Lydia A; Mathew, Timothy H; Hawley, Carmel M; Fortnum, Debbie

    2012-11-01

    The percentage of people in Australia who undertake home dialysis has steadily decreased over the past 40 years and varies within Australia. Consumer factors related to this decline have not previously been determined. A 78-question survey was developed and piloted in 2008 and 2009. Survey forms were distributed to all adult routine dialysis patients in all Australian states and territories (except Northern Territory) between 2009 and 2010. Of 9223 distributed surveys, 3250 were completed and returned. 49% of respondents indicated they had no choice in the type of dialysis and 48% had no choice in dialysis location. Respondents were twice as likely to receive information about haemodialysis (85%) than APD (39%) or CAPD (41%). The provision of education regarding home modalities differed significantly between states, and decreased with increasing patient age. Additional nursing support and reimbursement of expenses increased the proportion of those willing to commence dialysis at home, from 13% to 34%. State differences in the willingness to consider home dialysis, the degree of choice in dialysis location, the desire to change current dialysis type and/or location, and the provision of information about dialysis were identified. The delivery of pre-dialysis education is variable, and does not support all options of dialysis for all individuals. State variances indicate that local policy and health professional teams significantly influence the operation of dialysis programs. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetics: There Is Room for More

    OpenAIRE

    Cotovio, P.; Rocha, A.; Rodrigues, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract End stage renal disease diabetic patients suffer from worse clinical outcomes under dialysis-independently of modality. Peritoneal dialysis offers them the advantages of home therapy while sparing their frail vascular capital and preserving residual renal function. Other benefits and potential risks deserve discussion. Predialysis intervention with early nephrology referral, patient education, and multidisciplinary support are recommended. Skilled and updated peritoneal dialysis p...

  19. More Use of Peritoneal Dialysis Gives Significant Savings: A Systematic Review and Health Economic Decision Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Eva; Hamidi, Vida; Ringerike, Tove; Wisloff, Torbjorn; Klemp, Marianne

    2017-02-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are in need of renal replacement therapy as dialysis and/or transplantation. The prevalence of ESRD and, thus, the need for dialysis are constantly growing. The dialysis modalities are either peritoneal performed at home or hemodialysis (HD) performed in-center (hospital or satellite) or home. We examined effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HD performed at different locations (hospital, satellite, and home) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) at home in the Norwegian setting. We conducted a systematic review for patients above 18 years with end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis in several databases and performed several meta-analyses of existing literature. Mortality and major complications that required were our main clinical outcomes. The quality of the evidence for each outcome was evaluated using GRADE. Cost-effectiveness was assessed by developing a probabilistic Markov model. The analysis was carried out from a societal perspective, and effects were expressed in quality-adjusted life-years. Uncertainties in the base-case parameter values were explored with a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Scenario analyses were conducted by increasing the proportion of patients receiving PD with a corresponding reduction in HD patients in-center both for Norway and Europian Union. We assumed an annual growth rate of 4% in the number of dialysis patients, and a relative distribution between PD and HD in-center of 30% and 70%, respectively. From a societal perspective and over a 5-year time horizon, PD was the most cost-effective dialysis alternative. We found no significant difference in mortality between peritoneal and HD modalities. Our scenario analyses showed that a shift toward more patients on PD (as a first choice) with a corresponding reduction in HD in-center gave a saving over a 5-year period of 32 and 10,623 million EURO, respectively, for Norway and the European Union. PD was the most cost-effective dialysis

  20. Wearable impedance monitoring system for dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.

  1. Dialysis-related amyloidosis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpioni R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available R Scarpioni, M Ricardi, V Albertazzi, S De Amicis, F Rastelli, L Zerbini Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Local (AUSL Hospital “Guglielmo da Saliceto”, Piacenza, Italy Abstract: Amyloidosis refers to the extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low-molecular-weight subunits of a variety of proteins. These deposits may result in a wide range of clinical manifestations depending upon their type, location, and the amount of deposition. Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a serious complication of long-term dialysis therapy and is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils, principally composed of β2 microglobulins (β2M, in the osteoarticular structures and viscera. Most of the β2M is eliminated through glomerular filtration and subsequent reabsorption and catabolism by the proximal tubules. As a consequence, the serum levels of β2M are inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate; therefore, in end-stage renal disease patients, β2M levels increase up to 60-fold. Serum levels of β2M are also elevated in several pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, and above all, in renal dysfunction. Retention of amyloidogenic protein has been attributed to several factors including type of dialysis membrane, prolonged uremic state and/or decreased diuresis, advanced glycation end products, elevated levels of cytokines and dialysate. Dialysis treatment per se has been considered to be an inflammatory stimulus, inducing cytokine production (such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and complement activation. The released cytokines are thought to stimulate the synthesis and release of β2M by the macrophages and/or augment the expression of human leukocyte antigens (class I, increasing β2M expression. Residual renal function is probably the best determinant of β2M levels. Therefore, it has to be maintained as long as possible. In this article

  2. Cinacalcet treatment in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: effects and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüeke, Tilman B

    2008-10-01

    The recent introduction of calcimimetics, a novel class of therapeutic agents, has led to a change in the treatment strategy of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease. In initial acute studies in chronic hemodialysis patients, the calcimimetic cinacalcet was shown to reduce plasma intact parathyroid hormone within hours, followed by a rapid, profound decrease in plasma calcium and a minor decrease in plasma phosphorus. Subsequent reports showed that the long-term administration of cinacalcet to such patients proved to be superior to standard therapy in controlling secondary uremic hyperparathyroidism, in that it was able to induce a decrease in both plasma intact parathyroid hormone and the calcium x phosphorus product, in contrast to the effects of active vitamin D sterols. This allowed the achievement of the guideline treatment targets proposed by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative in a much larger proportion of dialysis patients than standard therapy did. Moreover, the effect of cinacalcet is long-lasting. An important question is that of cinacalcet's effects on patient outcomes, which is still lacking. A similar lack of information exists for most other treatment modalities given to correct the mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease. A post-hoc analysis of four clinical trials combined done in hemodialysis patients showed that randomization to cinacalcet led to significant reductions in the risk of parathyroidectomy, fracture, and cardiovascular hospitalization. To obtain a definitive answer to this question, including patient survival, we will have to wait for the results of prospective, randomized controlled trials. In pre-clinical studies performed in rats with chronic renal failure, the administration of the calcimimetic NPS R-568 at the time of uremia induction allowed the prevention of parathyroid hyperplasia, and the reversal of already established hyperplasia as well

  3. Outcomes in adults and children with end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuntantang, Gloria; Osafo, Charlotte; Olowu, Wasiu A; Arogundade, Fatiu; Niang, Abdou; Porter, John; Naicker, Saraladevi; Luyckx, Valerie A

    2017-04-01

    The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown but is probably high. Access to dialysis for ESKD is limited by insufficient infrastructure and catastrophic out-of-pocket costs. Most patients remain undiagnosed, untreated, and die. We did a systematic literature review to assess outcomes of patients who reach dialysis and the quality of dialysis received. We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles in English or French from sub-Saharan Africa reporting dialysis outcomes in patients with ESKD published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 22, 2015. No studies were excluded to best represent the current situation in sub-Saharan Africa. Outcomes of interest included access to dialysis, mortality, duration of dialysis, and markers of dialysis quality in patients with ESKD. Data were analysed descriptively and reported using narrative synthesis. Studies were all of medium to low quality. We identified 4339 studies, 68 of which met inclusion criteria, comprising 24 456 adults and 809 children. In the pooled analysis, 390 (96%) of 406 adults and 133 (95%) of 140 children who could not access dialysis died or were presumed to have died. Among those dialysed, 2747 (88%) of 3122 adults in incident ESKD cohorts, 496 (16%) of 3197 adults in prevalent ESKD cohorts, and 107 (36%) of 294 children with ESKD died or were presumed to have died. 2508 (84%) of 2990 adults in incident ESKD cohorts discontinued dialysis compared with 64 (5%) of 1364 adults in prevalent ESKD cohorts. 41 (1%) of 4483 adults in incident ESKD cohorts, 2280 (19%) of 12 125 adults in prevalent ESKD cohorts, and 71 (19%) of 381 children with ESKD received transplants. 16 studies reported on management of anaemia, 17 on dialysis frequency, eight on dialysis accuracy, and 22 on vascular access for dialysis INTERPRETATION: Most patients with ESKD starting dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa discontinue treatment and die. Further

  4. Anabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in patients receiving dialysis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, K L; Mulligan, K; Schambelan, M

    1999-04-14

    Patients receiving dialysis commonly experience malnutrition, reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia), and fatigue for which no effective treatment has been identified. Anabolic steroids are known to increase muscle mass and strength in healthy individuals, but their effect on the sarcopenia and fatigue associated with long-term dialysis has not been evaluated. To assess the effects of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, on lean body mass (LBM), functional status, and quality of life in dialysis patients. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between April 1996 and July 1997. Hospital-based outpatient dialysis unit. Twenty-nine patients undergoing dialysis for at least 3 months. Nandrolone decanoate, 100 mg (n = 14), or placebo (n = 15) by intramuscular injection once a week for 6 months. Weight, LBM, fatigue, grip strength, walking and stair-climbing times, and treadmill performance after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Lean body mass increased significantly in patients given nandrolone compared with patients given placebo (mean change [SD], +4.5 [2.3] kg; Pmuscle mass. Time to complete the walking and stair-climbing test decreased from 36.5 to 32.7 seconds in the nandrolone group, while those in the placebo group increased from 38.7 to 42.1 seconds (P = .05). Peak oxygen consumption increased in the individuals in the nandrolone group who performed treadmill tests, but not to a statistically significant degree. Grip strength did not change in either group. Treatment with nandrolone for 6 months resulted in a significant increase in LBM associated with functional improvement in patients undergoing dialysis.

  5. Peritoneal dialysis in the nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskapan, Hulya; Tam, Paul; Leblanc, Denise; Ting, Robert H; Nagai, Gordon R; Chow, Stephen S; Fung, Jason; Ng, Paul S; Sikaneta, Tabo; Roscoe, Janet; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2010-06-01

    The mean age of patients with end-stage renal disease increases steadily. The elderly on dialysis have significant comorbidity and require extra attention to meet their dialysis, dietary, and social needs, and some may need to be treated at a long-term care facility such as a nursing home (NH). Providing dialysis and caring for elderly patients in a nursing home (NH) presents a number of challenges. Few data are available in the literature about elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in an NH. This paper describes our experience of starting and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis program in three community-based nursing homes. During the period 2004-2008, after the nursing home personnel had received appropriate training, we established a PD program in three community-based nursing homes and admitted 38 patients on peritoneal dialysis. We educated 112 NH staff over the three-year period. Mean age of the patients at entry was 77.3 + or - 8.5(18.4%) were male. The main causes of end-stage renal disease were diabetes mellitus (DM) 21 (55.8%) and hypertension 13 (34.2%). Comorbid conditions included DM (27, 71.1%), hypertension (26, 68.4%), coronary artery disease (18.5%), chronic heart failure (11, 28.9%), cerebrovascular event (12, 31.6%), and cancer(3, 7.9%). The average total time on chronic peritoneal dialysis was 36.5 + or - 29.8 months, (median 31, range: 1-110 months) of which the average time in the NH program, as of the time of this report, was 18.4 + or - 13.1 months (median 15.5, range: 1-45 months). During the study period, 16 (42.1%) of the patients died, 2 (5.3%) transferred to HD, 2 (5.3%) stopped treatment, and 18 (47.4%) are still in the program. Actuarial patient survival from entry into the NH program was 89.5% at six months, 60.5% at 12 months, 39.5% at 24 months and 13.2% at 36 months. Patient survival from initiation of chronic dialysis was 89.5% at six months, 76.3% at 12 months, 63.1% at 24 months, and 39.5% at 36 months. We observed 28

  6. ICU Patients Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy Initiation: Fewer Survivors and More Dialysis Dependents From 80 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commereuc, Morgane; Guérot, Emmanuel; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Constan, Adrien; Katsahian, Sandrine; Schortgen, Frédérique

    2017-08-01

    To assess the role of advanced age on survival and dialysis dependency after initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury. Retrospective pooled analysis of prospectively collected data. ICUs of two teaching hospitals in Paris area, France. One thousand five hundred thirty adult patients who required renal replacement therapy initiation in the ICU. None. Survival and post acute kidney injury chronic dialysis dependency were assessed at hospital discharge according to the quintile (Q) of age. The oldest quintile included 289 patients 80 years old and over. Seventy-three percent of included patients had respiratory and hemodynamic supports at renal replacement therapy initiation, similarly distributed across quintiles. Mortality increased with age strata from 63% in Q1 (≤ 52 yr) to 76% in Q5 (≥ 80 yr) (p patients (≥ 80 yr) had a significant higher risk of dying (adjusted odds ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.66-4.03). Dialysis dependency was more frequent among survivors 80 years old or older (30% vs 14%; p = 0.001). Age 80 years old or older was an independent risk for dialysis dependency only for patients with prior advanced chronic kidney disease (p = 0.04). Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was the only one predictor of dialysis dependency identified. Patients with advanced age represent a substantial subgroup of patients requiring renal replacement therapy in the ICU. From 80 years, age should be considered as an additional risk of dying over the severity of organ failures. Patients 80 years old or older are likely to recover sufficient renal function allowing renal replacement therapy discontinuation when baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate is above 44 mL/min/1.73 m. At 3 months, only 6% were living at home, dialysis independent.

  7. Comparison of the Mortality Probability Admission Model III, National Quality Forum, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV hospital mortality models: implications for national benchmarking*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andrew A; Higgins, Thomas L; Zimmerman, Jack E

    2014-03-01

    To examine the accuracy of the original Mortality Probability Admission Model III, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum modification of Mortality Probability Admission Model III, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa models for comparing observed and risk-adjusted hospital mortality predictions. Retrospective paired analyses of day 1 hospital mortality predictions using three prognostic models. Fifty-five ICUs at 38 U.S. hospitals from January 2008 to December 2012. Among 174,001 intensive care admissions, 109,926 met model inclusion criteria and 55,304 had data for mortality prediction using all three models. None. We compared patient exclusions and the discrimination, calibration, and accuracy for each model. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa excluded 10.7% of all patients, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum 20.1%, and Mortality Probability Admission Model III 24.1%. Discrimination of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was superior with area under receiver operating curve (0.88) compared with Mortality Probability Admission Model III (0.81) and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum (0.80). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was better calibrated (lowest Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). The accuracy of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was superior (adjusted Brier score = 31.0%) to that for Mortality Probability Admission Model III (16.1%) and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum (17.8%). Compared with observed mortality, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa overpredicted mortality by 1.5% and Mortality Probability Admission Model III by 3.1%; ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum underpredicted mortality by 1.2%. Calibration curves showed that Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation performed well over the entire risk range, unlike the Mortality Probability Admission Model and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum models. Acute

  8. Health-related quality of life, sense of coherence and leisure-time physical activity in women after an acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvlien, Mona; Mundal, Liv; Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, health-related quality of life and sense of coherence in women after an acute myocardial infarction, and further to investigate whether these aspects were associated with age. Physical activity and health-related quality of life are vital aspects for patients after an acute myocardial infarction. Cross-sectional. All eligible women diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction received a postal questionnaire two to three months after hospital discharge, and 142 women were included. To measure health-related quality of life and sense of coherence, The MacNew Heart disease questionnaire and the Sense of coherence-13 scale was used. Respondents reporting at least one type of physical activity had significantly higher health-related quality of life as compared to respondents reporting no kind of physical activity. Respondents reporting physical activity for at least 30 minutes twice a week had significantly higher health-related quality of life scores than respondents being active less than twice a week. A weak association was found between physical activity level and sense of coherence. Reduction in physical activity after the acute myocardial infarction was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and sense of coherence. Sense of coherence was significantly associated with age, as respondents 75 years and older had significantly higher scores than respondents younger than 75 years. Physical activity, even at a low level, is significantly associated with increased health-related quality of life and to some extent to sense of coherence. Tailoring women after an acute myocardial infarction about lifestyle changes must include knowledge about the benefits of leisure-time physical activity, and that even a small amount of activity is associated with a better health-related quality of life. The utmost important assignment is to motivate the women for regular physical activity in their leisure

  9. Specific opsonic activity for staphylococci in peritoneal dialysis effluent during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Espersen, F; Kharazmi, A

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study of intraperitoneal opsonins in 30 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), the IgG concentration, the fibronectin concentration, the specific antistaphylococcal antibody level, and the opsonic activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis were...

  10. Chief complaint-based performance measures: a new focus for acute care quality measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Pines, Jesse M; Farley, Heather L; Phelan, Michael P; Beach, Christopher; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2015-04-01

    Performance measures are increasingly important to guide meaningful quality improvement efforts and value-based reimbursement. Populations included in most current hospital performance measures are defined by recorded diagnoses using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in administrative claims data. Although the diagnosis-centric approach allows the assessment of disease-specific quality, it fails to measure one of the primary functions of emergency department (ED) care, which involves diagnosing, risk stratifying, and treating patients' potentially life-threatening conditions according to symptoms (ie, chief complaints). In this article, we propose chief complaint-based quality measures as a means to enhance the evaluation of quality and value in emergency care. We discuss the potential benefits of chief complaint-based measures, describe opportunities to mitigate challenges, propose an example measure set, and present several recommendations to advance this paradigm in ED-based performance measurement. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 70227 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System and Quality Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... specified co-morbidities. A home or self-care dialysis training payment adjustment of $33.44 per treatment... (NHSN) Dialysis Event Reporting Measure viii. Patient Experience of Care Survey Usage Measure ix... Productivity NHSN National Healthcare Safety Network NQF National Quality Forum PD Peritoneal Dialysis PFS...

  12. Experiences of Living with Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis - A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Ingrid; Lennerling, Annette

    2017-01-01

    People's experiences of living with assisted peritoneal dialysis (aPD) have not been studied previously. Assisted PD is successfully used as renal replacement therapy for elderly and disabled patients with end-stage renal disease. To be treated with aPD implies being dependent on lifelong treatment at home. The aim of this study was to explore adults' experiences of living with aPD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants with aPD, median age 82.5 years. The text was analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. The participants experienced limitations and an uncertain future, but through different strategies and participation in healthcare, they could still enjoy what was important in life for them. The analysis of the text resulted in 4 main themes; 1) Facing new demands, 2) Managing daily life, 3) Partnership in care, and 4) Experiencing a meaningful life, leading to the comprehensive understanding: 'Striving for maintaining wellbeing'. The participants expressed that they experienced a good quality of life despite being physically frail, severely ill, and in need of home-based lifesaving treatment. The findings suggest that aPD should be available everywhere where PD is offered. Integrating the model of person-centered care may greatly improve the care for persons living with aPD. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  13. Nutritional status of maintenance dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette Juul; Kromann, Charles Boy; Juliussen, Sophie Ryberg

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Maintenance dialysis patients are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status due to numerous causative factors, both nutritional and non-nutritional. The present study assessed the current prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean bodymass index and obesity in maint......Background and Aims Maintenance dialysis patients are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status due to numerous causative factors, both nutritional and non-nutritional. The present study assessed the current prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean bodymass index and obesity...... in maintenance dialysis patients, and compared different methods of nutritional assessment. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, we performed anthropometry (body weight, skinfolds, mid-arm, waist, and hip circumferences), and determined plasma albumin and normalized...... protein catabolic rate in order to assess the prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean body mass index and obesity in these patients. Results Seventy-nine eligible maintenance dialysis patients participated. The prevalence of proteinenergy wasted patients was 4%(95%CI: 2-12) as assessed...

  14. Percutaneous Placement of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters using conscious sedation with ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance is underutilised and hasseveral advantages over the open surgical and laparoscopic placement methods, especially in the resource-limited developing world. Objectives: To ...

  15. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  16. Dialysis (Part 2): Haemodialysis ... (continuing education credit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, P

    1997-02-26

    This second article on dialysis aims to develop the nurse's knowledge of haemodialysis, a treatment option for patients with chronic renal failure, and develop and understanding of the pressures associated with long-term treatment. It relates to UKCC Professional Development categories Practice development and Reducing risk.

  17. The Manchester contribution to peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2011-01-01

    Two names emerge when considering the contribution of Manchester in the development of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The first is Ram Gokal; the second is icodextrin. As there will be a separate article on icodextrin, this one will focus more on other aspects of the activities performed by the Renal

  18. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y.; Rotmans, Joris I.; Lijfering, Willem M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Parlevliet, Karien J.; Krediet, Ray T.; Boeschoten, Els W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis

  19. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Jebali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis (TB is high in patients undergoing chronic dialysis than it is in the general population. The diagnosis of TB is often difficult and extrapulmonary involvement is predominant. This study investigates the spectrum of clinical presentations and outcome in dialysis patients during a nine-year period. TB was diagnosed in 41 patients. Anti-TB drugs, adverse effects of therapy, and outcome were noted. Thirty-eight patients (92.6% were on hemodialysis and three were on peritoneal dialysis (7.3%. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.8 years and the male/female ratio was 1.16. Four patients had a history of pulmonary TB. Extrapulmonary involvement was observed in 32 (78 % patients. The bacteriological confirmation was made in 41.46% and histological confirmation was made in 26.83%, and in the rest, the diagnosis was retained on the criterion presumption. Nineteen patients (46.34% developed adverse effects of antitubercular drugs. Eight patients (19.51% died during the study from TB or adverse effects of treatment. Low urea reduction ratio and female sex were associated with poor prognosis in our study. The clinical manifestations of TB in patients on dialysis are quite nonspecific, making timely diagnosis difficult, and delaying the initiation of curative treatment, which is a major determinant of the outcome.

  20. Cardiovascular risk in the peritoneal dialysis patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.; Balafa, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular death is the most frequent cause of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Risk factors for cardiovascular death in these patients include those that affect the general population as well as those related to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and those that are specific to peritoneal

  1. Experiences with Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Rong; Zhuo, Min; Yang, Zhikai; Dong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Objective: About half the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in China need to be assisted by family members or home assistants. We explored whether these patients have a higher risk for peritonitis and death compared with self-care PD patients.

  2. [Impact of quality-indicator-based measures to improve the treatment of acute poisoning in pediatric emergency patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Azkunaga Santibáñez, Beatriz; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; García González, Elsa; Luaces I Cubells, Carles

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the impact of quality-indicator-based measures for improving quality of care for acute poisoning in pediatric emergency departments. Recent assessments of quality indicators were compared with benchmark targets and with results from previous studies. The first study evaluated 6 basic indicators in the pediatric emergency departments of members of to the working group on poisoning of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (GTI-SEUP). The second study evaluated 20 indicators in a single emergency department of GTI-SEUP members. Based on the results of those studies, the departments implemented the following corrective measures: creation of a team for gastric lavage follow-up, preparation of a new GTI-SEUP manual on poisoning, implementation of a protocol for poisoning incidents, and creation of specific poisoning-related fields for computerized patient records. The benchmark targets were reached on 4 quality indicators in the first study. Improvements were seen in the availability of protocols, as indicators exceeded the target in all the pediatric emergency departments (vs 29.2% of the departments in an earlier study, P < .001). No other significant improvements were observed. In the second study the benchmarks were reached on 13 indicators. Improvements were seen in compliance with incident reporting to the police (recently, 44.4% vs 19.2% previously, P = .036), case registration in the minimum basic data set (51.0% vs 1.9%, P < .001), and a trend toward increased administration of activated carbon within 2 hours (93.1% vs 83.5%, P = .099). No other significant improvements were seen. The corrective measures led to improvements in some quality indicators. There is still room for improvement in these emergency departamens' care of pediatric poisoning.

  3. Nutritional management of dialysis patients: balancing among nutrient intake, dialysis dose, and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomonari; Kanazawa, Yoshie; Yoshino, Maki; Nagaoka, Yume; Takeguchi, Fumihiro

    2003-03-01

    Recommended protein intake for dialysis patients is much higher compared with allowance for normal adults. The authors tried to make a consideration on balancing among nutrient intake, dialysis dose, and nutritional status in maintenance dialysis patients. In 57 patients, 13 on hemodialysis (HD) and 44 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), albumin, weekly creatinine clearance of CAPD, and body protein mass by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis were measured. Energy intake was examined from the patients' food diary by a registered dietitian, and protein intake was estimated by both the patients' food diary and calculation of protein equivalent nitrogen appearance. In HD patients, predialysis SUN levels significantly correlated with the amounts of protein intake (r = 0.893; P patients, SUN levels significantly correlated with the amounts of protein intake (r = 0.645; P patients (r = 0.631; P = 0.006). Whereas higher intake of protein requires higher doses of dialysis, lower intake of protein with sufficient energy intake requires lower doses of dialysis, and both could give the same effects on nutritional status.

  4. Long-term quality of life after conservative treatment versus surgery for different stages of acute sigmoid diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlhuber, Martina; Genzinger, Christian; Brandlhuber, Bernhard; Sommer, Wieland H; Müller, Mario H; Kreis, Martin E

    2018-03-01

    It is controversial whether patients fare better with conservative or surgical treatment in certain stages of acute diverticulitis (AD), in particular when phlegmonous inflammation or covered micro- or macro-perforation are present. The aim of this study was to determine long-term quality of life (QoL) for AD patients who received either surgery or conservative treatment in different stages. We included patients treated for AD at the University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Patients were classified by the Hansen and Stock (HS) classification, the modified Hinchey classification, and the German classification of diverticular disease (CDD). Pre-therapeutic staging was based on multidetector computed tomography. Long-term QoL was assessed by the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire, the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Data are mean ± SEM. Patients with phlegmonous AD (HS type 2a, Hinchey Ia and CDD 1b, respectively) had a better long-term QoL on the GIQLI when they were operated (78.5 ± 2.5 vs. 70.7 ± 2.1; p life, patients fare better after elective sigmoid colectomy when abscess size exceeds 1 cm.

  5. [Evaluation of methods to calculate dialysis dose in daily hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, F; Gutiérrez, E; Navarro, V; Torregrosa, E; Martínez, A; Rius, A

    2003-01-01

    Daily dialysis has shown excellent clinical results because a higher frequency of dialysis is more physiological. Different methods have been described to calculate dialysis dose which take into consideration change in frequency. The aim of this study was to calculate all dialysis dose possibilities and evaluate the better and practical options. Eight patients, 6 males and 2 females, on standard 4 to 5 hours thrice weekly on-line hemodiafiltration (S-OL-HDF) were switched to daily on-line hemodiafiltration (D-OL-HDF) 2 to 2.5 hours six times per week. Dialysis parameters were identical during both periods and only frequency and dialysis time of each session were changed. Time average concentration (TAC), time average deviation (TAD), normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), Kt/V, equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V), equivalent renal urea clearance (EKR), standard Kt/V (stdKt/V), urea reduction ratio (URR), hemodialysis product and time off dialysis were measured. Daily on-line hemodiafiltration was well accepted and tolerated. Patients maintained the same TAC although TAD decreased from 9.7 +/- 2 in baseline to a 6.2 +/- 2 mg/dl after six months, p time off dialysis was reduced to half. Dialysis frequency is an important urea kinetic parameter which there are to take in consideration. It's necessary to use EKR, stdKt/V or weekly URR to calculate dialysis dose for an adequate comparison between different frequency dialysis schedules.

  6. Recovery of renal function after long-term dialysis in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Kathrin; Bianchetti, Mario G; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2004-02-01

    Long-lasting recovery of renal function of the native kidneys after prolonged renal replacement therapy is rare. An 8-year-old girl and a 3-year-old boy had suffered from acute atypical and diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), respectively, with subsequent apparent end-stage renal failure. Both recovered renal function after long-lasting anuria and dialysis of 8 and 16 months, respectively. After prolonged follow-up, i.e., 7 and 5 years after cessation of dialysis, they attained normal or slightly reduced renal function (plasma creatinine 84 and 90 micro mol/l, respectively). In addition, growth and cognitive development were normal. We conclude that caution is appropriate before offering early renal transplantation to pediatric patients with presumed end-stage kidney disease secondary to HUS.

  7. Comparison of the performance of IFA, CFA, and ELISA assays for the serodiagnosis of acute Q fever by quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Tineke; Hogema, Boris M; Nabuurs, Marrigje; Peeters, Marcel; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn; Schneeberger, Peter; Nijhuis, Carla; Notermans, Daan W; Galama, Joep; Horrevorts, Anton; van Loo, Inge H M; Vlaminckx, Bart; Zaaijer, Hans L; Koopmans, Marion P; Berkhout, Hanneke; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Stenos, John; Nicholson, William; Bijlmer, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered the reference method for diagnosing Q fever, but serology is also performed by complement fixation assay (CFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, comparability between these assays is not clear, and therefore a quality assessment was performed. A total of 25 serum samples from negative controls, Q fever patients, and a serial diluted high-positive sample were analyzed in 10 Dutch laboratories. Six laboratories performed CFA, 5 performed IFA, and 5 performed ELISAs. Three international reference laboratories from Australia, France, and the USA also participated in this study. Qualitative values between laboratories using the same methods were within close range, and all 3 methods correctly identified acute Q fever patients. The IFA, ELISA, and CFA are all suitable serodiagnostic assays to diagnose acute Q fever, but the IFA remains an important tool in the follow-up of patients and in identifying patients at risk for developing chronic Q fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival, quality of life and impact of right heart failure in patients with acute cardiogenic shock treated with ECMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenrath, Felix; Hoch, Dennis; Maisano, Francesco; Starck, Christoph T; Seifert, Burkhardt; Wenger, Urs; Ruschitzka, Frank; Wilhelm, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support is increasingly used in acute cardiogenic shock. To assess treatment strategies for cardiogenic shock. Data of 57 patients in acute intrinsic cardiogenic shock treated with ECMO were analyzed. Different subsequent strategies (weaning, VAD, transplantation) were followed.​ Overall 1, 2, and 4-year survival was 36.8 ± 6.4%, 32.2 ± 6.4%, 29.8 ± 6.3%. Elevated lactate and hemorrhagic complications (all p in patients with right heart failure prior to ECMO implantation, BVAD therapy showed a trend (p=0.058) towards superior survival compared with LVAD therapy. Seven of the BVAD patients received successful transplantation, with a 1-year survival of 71%. Among survivors Short Form 36 reported significantly lower combined physical scores (p=0.004). Right heart assessment prior to ECMO implantation may be beneficial to provide tailored therapy if ECMO weaning fails. Survival after cardiogenic shock requiring ECMO seems to be associated with impaired long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dialysis Modality and Readmission Following Hospital Discharge: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Jeffrey; McArthur, Eric; Bell, Chaim; Garg, Amit X; Bargman, Joanne M; Chan, Christopher T; Harel, Shai; Li, Lihua; Jain, Arsh K; Nash, Danielle M; Harel, Ziv

    2017-07-01

    Readmissions following hospital discharge among maintenance dialysis patients are common, potentially modifiable, and costly. Compared with patients receiving in-center hemodialysis (HD), patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) have fewer routine dialysis clinic encounters and as a result may be more susceptible to a hospital readmission following discharge. Population-based retrospective-cohort observational study. Patients treated with maintenance dialysis who were discharged following an acute-care hospitalization during January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, across 164 acute-care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. For those with multiple hospitalizations, we randomly selected a single hospitalization as the index hospitalization. Dialysis modality PD or in-center HD. Propensity scores were used to match each patient on PD therapy to 2 patients on in-center HD therapy to ensure that baseline indicators of health were similar between the 2 groups. All-cause 30-day readmission following the index hospital discharge. 28,026 dialysis patients were included in the study. 4,013 PD patients were matched to 8,026 in-center HD patients. Among the matched cohort, 30-day readmission rates were 7.1 (95% CI, 6.6-7.6) per 1,000 person-days for patients on PD therapy and 6.0 (95% CI, 5.7-6.3) per 1,000 person-days for patients on in-center HD therapy. The risk for a 30-day readmission among patients on PD therapy was higher compared with those on in-center HD therapy (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.31). The primary results were consistent across several key prespecified subgroups. Lack of information for the frequency of nephrology physician encounters following discharge from the hospital in both the PD and in-center HD cohorts. Limited validation of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes. The risk for 30-day readmission is higher for patients on home-based PD compared to in-center HD therapy. Interventions to improve transitions in care between the

  11. Variations in living donor graft rates by dialysis clinic: effect on outcome and cost of chronic renal failure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzan, M A; Ahmed, S; Baltzan, R B; Marshall, R P; Thoma, E L; Nicol, M F

    1997-06-01

    Examination of nephrology practice variations in living donor renal grafts to determine their influence on organ supply, quality, and cost of chronic renal failure therapy. Saskatchewan chronic dialysis, cadaveric, and living donor renal grafts in 1983-1994 inclusive. Saskatchewan has three dialysis (I, II, III) and one transplant clinic. In the period the renal graft incidences/million population by these dialysis clinics by organ source were; Cadaveric: 23.1, 23.2, 21.1 (p = ns). Living: 5.4, 21.7, 8.3 (I or III vs II p actuarial patient survival is 92% and B 44%. Series A ten-year actuarial graft survival (including regrafts) is 77% and B 39%. Rehabilitation rate in patients with functioning grafts is 88.5%. Province-wide extension of the Clinic II living-donor graft rate in 1983-1994 would have produced 160 more renal grafts or 59% of those receiving chronic dialysis in 1994. The annual maintenance for a graft with the initial grafting cost taken over five years was $10,825 and the dialysis cost $40,100. (1) nephrology practice variations caused a 2.5-4.0-fold difference in living donor renal graft rates, indicating patient education by the attending nephrologist influences the living donor transplantation rate, (2) with such education the combined living donor and the cadaveric organ supply virtually meets graft demand, (3) living donor renal grafts yield a better quantity and quality of life and better cost control than dialysis with their annual cost being one-quarter that for dialysis.

  12. Prospective Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Quality of Life After IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Anal Canal and Perianal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kathy; Cummings, Bernard J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Skliarenko, Julia; Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brierley, James; Wong, Rebecca; Dinniwell, Robert; Bayley, Andrew J.; Dawson, Laura A.; Ringash, Jolie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Krzyzanowska, Monika K.; Moore, Malcolm J.; Chen, Eric X. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Easson, Alexandra M. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra; Cho, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John, E-mail: John.Kim@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate toxicity, quality of life (QOL), and clinical outcomes in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for anal and perianal cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2008 to November 2010, patients with anal or perianal cancer treated with IMRT were eligible. Radiation dose was 27 Gy in 15 fractions to 36 Gy in 20 fractions for elective targets and 45 Gy in 25 fractions to 63 Gy in 35 fractions for gross targets using standardized, institutional guidelines, with no planned treatment breaks. The chemotherapy regimen was 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Toxicity was graded with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and CR29 questionnaires. Correlations between dosimetric parameters and both physician-graded toxicities and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated by polyserial correlation. Results: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 34 months; the median age was 56 years; 52% of patients were female; and 19% were human immunodeficiency virus—positive. Stage I, II, III, and IV disease was found in 9%, 57%, 26%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Twenty-six patients (45%) required a treatment break because of acute toxicity, mainly dermatitis (23/26). Acute grade 3 + toxicities included skin 46%, hematologic 38%, gastrointestinal 9%, and genitourinary 0. The 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), and cumulative locoregional failure (LRF) rates were 90%, 77%, 84%, and 16%, respectively. The global QOL/health status, skin, defecation, and pain scores were significantly worse at the end of treatment than at baseline, but they returned to baseline 3 months after treatment. Social functioning and appetite scores were

  13. Peritoneal dialysis as initial dialysis modality: a viable option for late-presenting end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Masoom; Khan, Behram Ali; Subramanian, Srinivas

    2018-04-03

    Late-presenting end-stage renal disease is a significant problem worldwide. Up to 70% of patients start dialysis in an unplanned manner without a definitive dialysis access in place. Haemodialysis via a central venous catheter is the default modality for the majority of such patients, and peritoneal dialysis is usually not considered as a feasible option. However, in the recent years, some reports on urgent-start peritoneal dialysis in the late-presenting end-stage renal disease have been published. The collective experience shows that PD can be a safe, efficient and cost-effective alternative to haemodialysis in late-presenting end-stage renal disease with comparable outcomes to the conventional peritoneal dialysis and urgent-start haemodialysis. More importantly, as compared to urgent-start haemodialysis via a central venous catheter, urgent-start peritoneal dialysis has significantly fewer incidences of catheter-related bloodstream infections, dialysis-related complications and need for dialysis catheter re-insertions during the initial phase of the therapy. This article examines the rationale and feasibility for starting peritoneal dialysis urgently in late-presenting end-stage renal disease patients and reviews the literature to compare the urgent-start peritoneal dialysis with conventional peritoneal dialysis and urgent-start haemodialysis.

  14. Progression of residual renal function with an increase in dialysis: haemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel-Briones, José L; Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Rivera-Gorrin, Maite; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Díaz-Domínguez, Marta; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Nuria; Quereda-Rodríguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to analyse the progression of residual renal function according to the dialysis technique (peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis) and the frequency of treatment (two or three sessions of haemodialysis per week). As secondary objectives, we studied the progression of the serum concentration levels of β2 microglobulin and the response of anaemia to erythropoietic agents. 193 non-anuric patients were included and began renal replacement therapy with dialysis in our hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011, with a follow-up period of over three months. 61 patients (32%) began treatment with two haemodialysis sessions per week, 49 patients (25%) with three haemodialysis sessions per week and 83 patients (43%) with peritoneal dialysis. The glomerular filtration rate was measured as the mean of the renal clearances of urea and creatinine. The rate of decrease in glomerular filtration was the same in patients who began treatment with two haemodialysis sessions per week and with peritoneal dialysis (median 0.18 ml/min/month) and it was higher in patients who began treatment with three sessions of haemodialysis per week (median 0.33 ml/min/month, Pperitoneal dialysis, and it was lower in the group that began treatment with three sessions of haemodialysis per week with statistical significance during the first 24 months of follow up. In the three patient groups, β2-microglobulin concentration increased as the glomerular filtration rate decreased and it was higher in the group on three weekly haemodialysis sessions for the first 12 months of follow up. In all the controls carried out, there was a negative correlation between the beta-2 microglobulin concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (Pperitoneal dialysis group was below that of the group of two weekly haemodialysis sessions despite maintaining a similar glomerular filtration rate. Patients who begin treatment with two sessions of haemodialysis per week experience

  15. The relationship of C-reactive protein levels and positive culture with quality of life in acute rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalek P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petr Schalek, Zuzana Hornáčková, Aleš Hahn Ear, Nose and Throat department, 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS has been shown to significantly reduce patient quality of life (QoL. While the QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade, studies measuring the impact of ARS on patient QoL have remained relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the QoL and parameters suggestive of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (C-reactive protein [CRP] levels and positive culture and to see if measurement of the QoL could be used as an indicator for antibiotic treatment in ARS.Methods: Eighty patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. A novel QoL instrument for patients with ARS, called Measurement of Acute Rhinosinusitis (MARS questionnaire, was given to patients at the time of diagnosis. We assessed patient QoL, obtained endoscopically guided cultures from the middle meatus, and measured levels of CRP. The relationship between QoL MARS scores (QoL-Mscores and CRP was determined using a correlation coefficient. To compare QoL-Mscores, relative to culture-positive and culture-negative patients, the Student’s t-test was used.Results: No correlation between the QoL, assessed using the MARS questionnaire, and positive middle meatus culture was demonstrated (P=0.332. A weak correlation was found between QoL-Mscores and CRP values, with a correlation coefficient of 0.221 and P=0.0498.Conclusion: No correlation between the QoL in ARS patients and positive culture was found in this study. The clinical significance of the correlation between QoL-Mscores and CRP values in the antibiotic decision making process needs further research. Keywords: endoscopy, quality of life, questionnaires, anti-bacterial agents

  16. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

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    Anne Margreet van Dishoeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time' (DNT. DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods: We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study. We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17% were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58 and sex distribution (p = 0.98 did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8. The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p Conclusion and Implications: The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific

  17. Eculizumab in the treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in an infant leads to cessation of peritoneal dialysis and improvement of severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Toshiyuki; Urayama, Kohtaro; Tada, Yoshihiro; Furue, Takeki; Imai, Sayaka; Matsubara, Keita; Ono, Hiroaki; Sakano, Takashi; Jinno, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Yoko; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Fujimura, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Severe hypertension (HTN) and acute kidney injury frequently associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) were refractory to various therapies in the pre-eculizumab era. Here we report the case of a 4-month-old boy who developed aHUS presenting with undetectable C3 protein, no predisposing mutations in complement factors, and no antibodies against factor H. Repeated plasma infusions and nine sessions of plasmapheresis were ineffective. The patient initially required continuous hemodiafiltration and thereafter peritoneal dialysis. Despite vigorous antihypertensive treatment and improved fluid overload with dialysis, HTN persisted. His low C3 level (dialysis. This infant with HTN and acute kidney injury associated with aHUS was treated successfully with eculizumab.

  18. Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Relation to Acute and Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study considered oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients experiencing oral disease conditions as physical and emotional functioning that could be associated with type of oral disease conditions. It was reasoned that the type of oral disease conditions that patients experiences could significantly ...

  19. Predialysis nephrology care and dialysis-related health outcomes among older adults initiating dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J; Stroupe, Kevin T; Kaufman, James S; O'Hare, Ann M; Browning, Margaret M; Sohn, Min-Woong; Huo, Zhiping; Hynes, Denise M

    2016-07-29

    Predialysis nephrology care is associated with lower mortality and rates of hospitalization following chronic dialysis initiation. Whether more frequent predialysis nephrology care is associated with other favorable outcomes for older adults is not known. Retrospective cohort study of patients ≥66 years who initiated chronic dialysis in 2000-2001 and were eligible for VA and/or Medicare-covered services. Nephrology visits in VA and/or Medicare during the 12-month predialysis period were identified and classified by low intensity (6 visits). Outcome measures included very low estimated glomerular filtration rate, severe anemia, use of peritoneal dialysis, and receipt of permanent vascular access at dialysis initiation and death and kidney transplantation within two years of initiation. Generalized linear models with propensity score weighting were used to examine the association between nephrology care and outcomes. Among 58,014 patients, 46 % had none, 22 % had low, 13 % had moderate, and 19 % had high intensity predialysis nephrology care. Patients with a greater intensity of predialysis nephrology care had more favorable outcomes (all p nephrology care were less likely to have severe anemia (RR = 0.70, 99 % CI: 0.65-0.74) and more likely to have permanent vascular access (RR = 3.60, 99 % CI: 3.42-3.79) at dialysis initiation, and less likely to die within two years of dialysis initiation (RR = 0.80, 99 % CI: 0.77-0.82). In a large cohort of older adults treated with chronic dialysis, greater intensity of predialysis nephrology care was associated with more favorable outcomes.

  20. [Muscle-wasting in end stage renal disease in dialysis treatment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Yuri; Galeano, Dario; Cojocaru, Elena; Fiorini, Fulvio; Forcellini, Silvia; Zanoli, Luca; Storari, Alda; Granata, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass (muscle wasting) is a frequent complication in dialysis patients. Common uremic signs and symptoms such as insulin-resistance, increase in glucocorticoid activity, metabolic acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation and dialysis per se contribute to muscle wasting by modulating proteolytic intracellular mechanisms (ubiquitin-proteasome system, activation of caspase-3 and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway). Since muscle wasting is associated with an increase in mortality, bone fractures and worsening in life quality, a prompt and personalised diagnostic and therapeutic approach seems to be essential in dialysis patients. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), computed tomography (CT), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), impedance analysis, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements are the main tools used to assess skeletal muscle mass. Aerobic and anaerobic training programmes and treatment of uremic complications reduce muscle wasting and increase muscle strength in uremic patients. The present review analyses the most recent data about the physiopathology, diagnosis, therapy and future perspectives of treatment of muscle wasting in dialysis patients.

  1. Handoff communication between hospital and outpatient dialysis units at patient discharge: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James B; Marcotte, Leah M; Berns, Jeffrey S; Shea, Judy A

    2013-02-01

    Hemodialysis patients are vulnerable to adverse events, including those surrounding hospital discharge. Little is known about how dialysis-specific information is shared with outpatient dialysis clinics for discharged patients, and the applicability of existing models of handoff transitions is unknown. Semistructured interviews were performed with 36 dialysis care physicians, nurses, and social workers in hospital and outpatient settings. Interviews were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed by trained coders. Intercoder reliability was measured by Cohen's kappa Quality of communication and the actual process were highly variable. Good communication was described as timely, with standardized content, and coordinated between disciplines. A lack of standards, time/workload imbalance, incompatible electronic records between facilities, and unawareness of pending discharge plans were noted barriers to good communication. Poor or absent communication contributes to adverse events, including omission of antibiotics, mismanagement of congestive heart failure, readmissions, and loss of patient trust. Creating explicit standards for communication, fostering accountability, documenting receipt in the outpatient clinic, and continual feedback from outpatient to inpatient settings are methods to facilitate improvement and reduce preventable adverse events. Standardizing the communication process between inpatient and outpatient dialysis units when patients are discharged from the hospital has potential to reduce adverse events related to poor communication and improve patient care during this transition. Interprofessional collaboration has potential to create robust solutions to this complex problem and foster a culture of multidisciplinary reflexivity.

  2. Growth in children with chronic kidney disease: role of nutrition, growth hormone, dialysis, and steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingulli, Elizabeth G; Mak, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have impaired growth that leads to short stature in adulthood. The problem persists even with successful transplantation and steroid withdrawal protocols. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the pressing issues related to growth failure in children with CKD both before and after transplantation. Although great strides have been made in dialysis and transplantation, the incidence of abnormal adult height in children growing up with CKD remains as high as 45-60%. The lack of catch-up growth and resultant short stature is a critical issue for self-esteem and quality of life in many children with CKD. Aggressive daily dialysis, improved nutrition, treatment of metabolic bone disease, and the use of recombinant human growth hormone provide some hope for catch-up growth in select patients. The causes of growth failure in the setting of CKD are multifactorial. Attention to all the details by optimizing nutritional, bone and mineral metabolism, correcting metabolic acidosis and anemia, achieving excellent blood pressure control, reversing cardiovascular complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy, and minimizing the use of corticosteroids is the current standard of care. Aggressive daily dialysis can reverse many of the uremic derangements. For patients not yet on dialysis or for those after renal transplant, early institution of recombinant human growth hormone can promote growth. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of hormone resistance may offer novel targets or measurements of treatment effectiveness.

  3. Peritoneal dialysis in China: meeting the challenge of chronic kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to limited medical and economic resources, particularly in the countryside and remote areas, the proportion of individuals with end-stage kidney disease who are treated with dialysis in China is only about 20%. For the rest, renal replacement therapy currently is not available. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been developed and used for more than 30 years in China to treat patients with end-stage kidney disease. Several national PD centers of first-rate scale and quality have sprung up, but the development of PD varies widely among geographic regions across China. The Chinese government has dedicated itself to continually increasing the coverage and level of medical service for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Under the guidance of the government and because of promotion by kidney care professionals, presently there are more than 40,000 prevalent PD patients in China, representing approximately 20% of the total dialysis population. Recently, a National Dialysis Unit Training Program for countywide hospitals has been initiated. Through the efforts of programs like this, we believe that awareness of PD and advances in the underlying technology will benefit more patients with end-stage kidney disease in China. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life at Admission Is Associated with Postdischarge Mortality, Functional Decline, and Institutionalization in Acutely Hospitalized Older Medical Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Juliette L.; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet; Buurman, Bianca M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Bosmans, Judith E.

    ObjectivesTo assess the independent association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at admission and mortality, functional decline, and institutionalization 3 and 12months after admission in acutely hospitalized older adults. DesignPost hoc analysis of data from prospective cohort study,

  5. Audit of health care quality for patients with essential hypertension, chronic coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, acute coronary syndrome: principles of organization, algorithm of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridnev V.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents principal stages of audit of healthcare quality delivered to patients with cardiovascular diseases. The schedule of measures related to every audit stage is presented. Usefulness of the registry of patients with arterial hypertension, chronic coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure and the registry of acute coronary syndrome for purposes of clinical audit in medical practice is considered.

  6. Air Quality and Acute Respiratory Illness in Biomass Fuel using homes in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didn’t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.

  7. Counseling, quality of life, and acute postoperative pain in elderly patients with hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambatesa M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Gambatesa,1 Alessandro D'Ambrosio,1 Davide D'Antini,1 Lucia Mirabella,1 Antonella De Capraris,1 Salvatore Iuso,2 Antonello Bellomo,2 Antonio Macchiarola,3 Michele Dambrosio,1 Gilda Cinnella1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, 2Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy; 3Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Riuniti Hospital, Foggia, Italy Introduction: Hip fractures represent one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. Anxiety and depression affect their quality of life and increase pain severity, and have adverse effects on functional recovery. Recent World Health Organization guidelines emphasize that therapeutic regimes need to be individualized and combined with psychological support. This study was launched with the primary endpoint of assessing if and to what extent client-centered therapy affects the perception of pain, reduces anxiety and depression, and increases the quality of life of elderly patients with hip fracture. Materials and methods: Forty patients were admitted to the Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery ward for hip fracture. Patients were randomly divided into two subgroups: (1 case (group C, had to receive patient-centered counseling throughout the hospitalization; and (2 control (group NC, receiving the analgesic treatment without receiving counseling. Short Form-36-item Health Survey Questionnaire, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores were recorded before any treatment, at discharge, and after 30 days. Pain levels were evaluated by means of Visual Analog Scale every 12 hours during the hospitalization from the day of surgery until day 5. Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis identified before any treatment were two clusters based on different physical functioning perceptions and role limitations, which were due to physical and emotional problems. Counseling did have a positive

  8. Objective and Subjective Sleep Disorders in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis

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    Maria-Eleni Roumelioti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD is one of the fastest growing dialysis modalities. It is unknown whether sleep and mood are disturbed while performing repeated overnight exchanges. Objectives: In this report, we aim to describe and compare the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB, periodic limb movements (PLMS, poor sleep quality (SQ, and depression among APD patients compared with stages 3b–5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤44 ml/min/1.73 m2 chronic kidney disease (CKD and hemodialysis (HD patients. Design: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting: Study participants were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics, local dialysis centers, and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute in Western Pennsylvania between April 2004 and July 2009. Patients: There were 186 participants in this study including 22 APD patients, 89 CKD patients, and 75 HD patients. Measurements: In-home polysomnography was performed and two questionnaires were completed, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Methods: SDB and PLMS were quantified by in-home unattended polysomnography; poor SQ was defined by a score >5 on the PSQI, and the presence of moderate to severe depression was defined by a score >5 on the PHQ-9. Results: The APD patients had a median age of 37.5 years, were predominantly female (72.7 %, and had a median body mass index (BMI of 23.8 kg/m2. In univariate analyses, APD patients had significantly lower apnea-hypopnea index compared to HD patients by 12.2 points (likelihood ratio test p = 0.008 and revealed the least percent of TST with nocturnal hypoxemia compared to CKD patients by 2.7 points, respectively (likelihood ratio test p = 0.01. The APD group had also significantly greater stages 3 to 4 sleep compared to the CKD patients by 8.6 points (likelihood ratio test p = 0.009. In multivariate analyses and after adjustment for age, gender, race, and BMI

  9. [Re-engineering of glucose exposure in peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mácsai, Emília; Kiss, István

    2017-10-01

    The significance of peritoneal dialysis in kidney replacement therapy is expected to increase, so it is important to reconsider glucose exposure to minimize the adverse effects. The first step was to develop biocompatible modern PD solutions to reduce the local and systemic adverse effects of current conventional glucose-based ones. According to the limited clinical experience, there are no clear data on better clinical outcome. Besides this there is a suspected theoretical correlation between development of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and chronic local irritation of peritoneal surface by glucose. The degree of actual systemic glycemic load can be evaluated by continuous tissue glucose monitoring, and cumulative damage can be measured by skin autofluorescence, however none of the methods have been extensively used in clinical practice. The early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases is therefore of also paramount importance. Selecting the therapeutic steps including diabetological aspects, we must constantly strive to improve the life quality. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(43): 1708-1714.

  10. A prime determinant in selecting dialysis modality: peritoneal dialysis patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwook Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD has rapidly increased, as has the cost of dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD is an established treatment for ESRD patients worldwide; it has a variety of advantages, including autonomy and flexibility, as well as economic benefits in many countries compared to hemodialysis (HD. However, the long-term survival rate of PD remains poor. Although direct comparison of survival rate between the dialysis modalities by randomized controlled trials is difficult due to the ethical issues, it has always been a crucial point when deciding which dialysis modality should be recommended to patients. Recently, in many countries, including the United States, Brazil, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand, the survival rate in PD patients has significantly improved. PD patient survival in Korea has also improved, but Korean PD patients are known to have higher risk of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular events than HD patients. Herein, we further evaluate why Korean PD patients had worse outcomes; we suggest that special attention should be paid to patients with diabetes, coronary artery disease, or congestive heart failure when they choose PD as the first dialysis modality in order to reduce mortality risk.

  11. Evaluation of a consultant audit and feedback programme to improve the quality of antimicrobial prescribing in acute medical admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elaine; Dawoud, Dalia M; Hughes, Dyfrig A; Cefai, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a pharmacist-led antimicrobial stewardship intervention, consisting of consultant performance audit and feedback, on antimicrobial prescribing quality. From October 2010 to September 2012, the prescribing performance of medical consultant teams rotating on the acute medical admissions unit was measured against four quality indicators. Measurements were taken at baseline then at quarterly intervals during which time consultants received feedback. Proportion of prescriptions adhering to each indicator was compared with baseline using paired sample z-test (significance level P < 0.01, Bonferroni corrected). Consultants' views were explored using anonymous questionnaires. Overall, 2609 antimicrobial prescriptions were reviewed. Improvement from baseline was statistically significant in all follow-up periods for two indicators: 'antimicrobials should have a documented indication in the medical notes' and 'antimicrobials should adhere to guideline choice or have a justification for deviation', reaching 6.0% (95% CI 2.5, 9.6) and 8.7% (95% CI 3.7, 13.7), respectively. Adherence to the indicator 'antimicrobials should have a documented stop/review prompt' improved significantly in all but the first follow-up period. For the indicator: 'antimicrobial assessed by antimicrobial specialists as unnecessary', improvement was statistically significant in the first (-4.7%, 95% CI -8.0, -1.4) and fourth (-4.2%, 95% CI -7.7%, -0.8%) periods. Service evaluation showed support for the pharmacist-led stewardship activities. There were significant and sustained improvements in prescribing quality as a result of the intervention. Consultants' engagement and acceptance of stewardship activities were demonstrated. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Guidelines on acute gastroenteritis in children: a critical appraisal of their quality and applicability in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg José

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for poor guideline adherence in acute gastroenteritis (AGE in children in high-income countries are unclear, but may be due to inconsistency between guideline recommendations, lack of evidence, and lack of generalizability of the recommendations to general practice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of international guidelines on AGE in children and investigate the generalizability of the recommendations to general practice. Methods Guidelines were retrieved from websites of professional medical organisations and websites of institutes involved in guideline development. In addition, a systematic search of the literature was performed. Articles were selected if they were a guideline, consensus statement or care protocol. Results Eight guidelines met the inclusion criteria, the quality of the guidelines varied. 242 recommendations on diagnosis and management were found, of which 138 (57% were based on evidence. There is a large variety in the classification of symptoms to different categories of dehydration. No signs are generalizable to general practice. It is consistently recommended to use hypo-osmolar ORS, however, the recommendations on ORS-dosage are not evidence based and are inconsistent. One of 14 evidence based recommendations on therapy of AGE is based on outpatient research and is therefore generalizable to general practice. Conclusions The present study shows considerable variation in the quality of guidelines on AGE in children, as well as inconsistencies between the recommendations. It remains unclear how to asses the extent of dehydration and determine the preferred treatment or referral of a young child with AGE presenting in general practice.

  13. Comparison of oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis patients with non-diabetic dialysis patients and healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Roozbeh-Shahroodi, Jamshid; Pooladi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Zamani, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with higher rates of caries, on the other hand some studies have shown that renal failure can be protective against dental caries. In this study we compared oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis and non-diabetic dialysis patients and the normal population. During November 2014 to January 2014, 85 people that referred to our medical care center entered the study. The sample included 30 diabetic dialysis, 28 non-diabetic dialysis patients and 27 healthy people. Oral saliva samples were obtained from their tongue and oral floor for microbiological examination. Patients' data were compared before and after dialysis. The amount of Lactobacillus and S. mutans did not show a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.092 and P=0.966 for S. mutans and lactobacillus, respectively). A positive and meaningful correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and the amount of S. mutans in the diabetic dialysis group (P=0.023; r=0.413). A meaningful and positive correlation was also seen between the amount of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after dialysis and the amount of oral S. mutans in the non-diabetic dialysis group (P=0.03; r=0.403). Despite the differences in the prevalence of caries that have been reported between renal failure patients and diabetic patients, we did not find any significant difference between diabetic dialysis, non-diabetic dialysis patients and the healthy population, regarding their amount of oral cariogenic bacteria.

  14. Dialysis Provision and Implications of Health Economics on Peritoneal Dialysis Utilization: A Review from a Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD is managed by either lifesaving hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD or a kidney transplant. In Malaysia, the prevalence of dialysis-treated ESRD patients has shown an exponential growth from 504 per million population (pmp in 2005 to 1155 pmp in 2014. There were 1046 pmp patients on HD and 109 pmp patients on PD in 2014. Kidney transplants are limited due to lack of donors. Malaysia adopts public-private financing model for dialysis. Majority of HD patients were treated in the private sector but almost all PD patients were treated in government facilities. Inequality in access to dialysis is visible within geographical regions where majority of HD centres are scattered around developed areas. The expenditure on dialysis has been escalating in recent years but economic evaluations of dialysis modalities are scarce. Evidence shows that health policies and reimbursement strategies influence dialysis provision. Increased uptake of PD can produce significant economic benefits and improve patients’ access to dialysis. As a result, some countries implemented a PD-First or Favored Policy to expand PD use. Thus, a current comparative costs analysis of dialysis is strongly recommended to assist decision-makers to establish a more equitable and economically sustainable dialysis provision in the future.

  15. Training and certification in dialysis access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Dolmatch, Bart; Gallichio, Michael; Gallieni, Maurizio; Slakey, Douglas; Vesely, Tom; Davidson, Ingemar

    2014-10-09

    Decreasing and eliminating the gaps in knowledge, skills, and effective communication are the mainstays for a successful dialysis access training program curriculum and at the core of the human factors training philosophy. Many of these skills can be learned in the simulation environment. Education and training will reduce gaps in knowledge and technical skills, before exposing patients to procedure-related risk. For dialysis access, a reliable workplace environment depends upon a culture where safety and accountability are balanced to recognize the human contribution to success or failure in the complex care of patients with end-stage renal disease. Rigorous testing and certification adds value to the participants and validates the training program.

  16. Patient's view of dialysis care: development of a taxonomy and rating of importance of different aspects of care. CHOICE study. Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H R; Jenckes, M; Fink, N E; Meyer, K; Wu, A W; Bass, E B; Levin, N; Powe, N R

    1997-12-01

    Quality assessment efforts to enhance public accountability in dialysis care and to support provider efforts to improve care have lacked patient input. To develop brief patient evaluation or satisfaction surveys suitable for busy clinical settings, knowing patients' priorities can be helpful in deciding which aspects of care should be tracked. We conducted a study to identify salient attributes of dialysis care and to rank the importance of these attributes from the perspective of dialysis patients. We analyzed the content of patient focus group transcripts to characterize dialysis care from the patients' perspective. We then surveyed 86 patients to determine how patients would rank the importance of each aspect to quality of dialysis care. The 18 broad aspects of care identified in the focus group included: (1) care provided by nephrologists, (2) care provided by other physicians (nonnephrologists), (3) care provided by dialysis center nurses, (4) care provided by social workers and psychologists, (5) care provided by dieticians, (6) clergy, (7) care provided by technicians and physician assistants/nurse practitioners, (8) care provided by dialysis center staff in general, (9) supplies, (10) treatment choice and effectiveness, (11) patient education and training, (12) self-care, (13) dialysis machines, (14) unit environment and policies, (15) cost containment, (16) billing, (17) cost of care, and (18) health outcomes. Items ranked in the top 10 by both groups of patients included issues related to nephrologists, other doctors, nurses, and patient education and training. Compared with hemodialysis patients, peritoneal dialysis patients gave higher ratings to hospital doctors' and nurses' attention to cleanliness when working with access sites, how correct the nephrologist's instructions to patients are, whether emergency room doctors check with nephrologists, the amount of information patients get about their diet, and how well nurses answer patients' questions

  17. During the pre-dialysis stage of chronic kidney disease, which treatment is associated with better survival in dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Alvarado, Raúl; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Luna, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Specialised care of patients in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with better survival in dialysis, but it is not known which treatments specifically favour this outcome. To analyse normal treatment in advanced stages of CKD and establish which treatments are associated with better survival in dialysis as well as their relationship with causes of death. Cohort, prospective observational study of 591 patients who started dialysis (491 haemodialysis and 100 peritoneal dialysis), who had previously been monitored in the CKD clinic. The treatments analysed were: antihypertensive treatments, statins, antiplatelet drugs, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, correction of metabolic acidosis, treatment with (calcium or non-calcium) phosphate binders, vitamin D (calcitriol or paricalcitol), erythropoietin and the availability of an internal arteriovenous fistula (IAVF). The independent association of each of these treatments with mortality in dialysis was analysed using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, pre-dialysis monitoring time, renal function at the start of dialysis, comorbidity, serum albumin and C-reactive protein, and with stratification of the type of dialysis. With a median follow-up period of 28 months, the total number of patients who died was 191 (32%). In the multivariate models, we observed that, in addition to age, the comorbidity index, serum albumin, pre-dialysis treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate and IAVF at the start of haemodialysis were significantly associated with better survival in dialysis. We did not observe differences in causes of death between the different treatments analysed. These results suggest a potential delayed benefit of some treatments in pre-dialysis stages on the outcome of dialysis. Furthermore, beginning dialysis without an IAVF, resulting in the need for intravenous catheters, worsens prognosis

  18. Safety and effectiveness evaluation of a domestic peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC bags: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhui; Cao, Xueying; Lin, Hongli; Ni, Zhaohui; He, Yani; Chen, Menghua; Zheng, Hongguang; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-12-29

    Peritoneal dialysis is an important type of renal replacement therapy for uremic patients. In peritoneal dialysis, fluids fill in and flow out of the abdominal cavity three to five times per day. Usually, the fluid is packed in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Safety concerns have arisen over di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is essential in the formation of PVC materials. In 2011, the National Development and Reform Commission of China released a catalog of industrial structural adjustments, mandating the elimination of PVC bags for intravenous infusion and food containers. Although bags for peritoneal dialysis fluid were not included in the elimination list, several manufacturers began to develop new materials for fluid bags. HUAREN peritoneal dialysis fluid consists of the same electrolytes and buffer agent as in Baxter fluid, but is packed in bags that do not contain PVC. This multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed to compare peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC-containing and PVC-containing bags. Further, the study sought to determine the proper dose of peritoneal dialysis fluid and the actual survival rates of Chinese patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The study participants are adults undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 30 days to 6 months. All eligible patients are randomized (1:1) to peritoneal dialysis with Baxter and HUAREN dialysis fluids (initial dose, 6 l/day), with dosages adjusted according to a unified protocol. The primary outcomes are the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall survival rates. Secondary outcome measures include technique survival rates, reductions in estimated glomerular filtration rate, nutritional status, quality of life, cardiovascular events, medical costs and drop-out rates. Safety outcome measures include adverse events, changes in vital signs and laboratory parameters, peritonitis, allergies, and quality of products. This study is the first to evaluate the long-term safety and

  19. The relationship between pain, fatigue, sleep disorders and quality of life in adult patients with acute leukaemia: During the first year after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinia, Mojtaba; Baraz, Shahram; Ramezani, Monir; Malehi, Amal Saki

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain, fatigue, sleep disorders and quality of life and assess the most powerful predictor of quality of life in patients with acute leukaemia. In this cross-sectional multicentre study, 406 patients were recruited. Data were collected using the Iranian Short-Form 36-item Health Survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain and Fatigue Intensity. It was found that pain and fatigue had direct relationship with sleep disorders. Statistically significant relationships were reported between pain, fatigue, sleep disorders and QoL. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between pain and QoL (p sleep disorders in total had the predictive power for quality of life (R 2  = 36%). The most powerful predictor of quality of life was pain. It is suggested that healthcare professionals note the importance of patients' symptoms in clinical investigations and take appropriate measures for their management. The assessment of pain as the most powerful predictor of quality of life can be considered a basis for the improvement of quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality in patients with acute leukaemia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  1. Preconcentration of heavy metals by Donnan dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas Tardà, Judit

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of Donnan dialysis for the preconcentration of iron from synthetic wastewaters. Moreover, the competition between magnesium and calcium on the preconcentration of iron as well as the effect of adding a complexing agent (EDTA) on the enrichment factor of iron were also studied. Heavy metals are of great concern because of their extreme toxicity, even at low traces. Even with the sensitivity and selectivity of existing analytical tec...

  2. Impact of dialysis technique on renal anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Vincenzo; Scatena, Alessia; Paoletti, Sabrina; Migliori, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a significant complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a major cause of death in dialysis patients. Clinical studies have shown that anemia is associated with reduced survival in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Furthermore, an association between anemia and adverse cardiovascular outcomes has also been observed in patients with earlier stages of CKD not yet requiring dialysis. Although this fact still remains controversial, high-efficiency on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF) has been shown to improve anemia and to reduce the need for erythropoietin-stimulating agents in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This positive effect has been attributed to the fact that the convective methods might remove some protein-bound erythropoietic inhibitor substances. Moreover, in HD patients, renal anemia is linked to the inflammatory state of uremic syndrome. It is also worth nothing that the improvement in anemia is associated with a reduced inflammatory state in patients undergoing on-line HDF. Here, we have reviewed the current knowledge of the effect of dialysis technique on renal anemia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Features of high quality discharge planning for patients following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Emily J; Curry, Leslie A; Thompson, Jennifer W; Greysen, S Ryan; Spatz, Erica; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-03-01

    Hospital discharge planning is required as a Medicare Condition of Participation (CoP), and is essential to the health and safety for all patients. However, there have been no studies examining specific hospital discharge processes, such as patient education and communication with primary care providers, in relation to hospital 30-day risk standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To identify hospital discharge processes that may be associated with better performance in hospital AMI care as measured by RSMR. We conducted a qualitative study of U.S. Hospitals, which were selected based on their RSMR reported by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website for the most recent data available (January 1, 2005 - December 31, 2007). We selected hospitals that ranked in the top 5 % and the bottom 5 % of RSMR for the two consecutive years. We focused on hospitals at the extreme ends of the range in RSMR, known as deviant case sampling. We excluded hospitals that did not have the ability to perform percutaneous coronary intervention in order to decrease the heterogeneity in our sample. Participants included key hospital clinical and administrative staff most involved in discharge planning for patients admitted with AMI. We conducted 14 site visits and 57 in-depth interviews using a standard discussion guide. We employed a grounded theory approach and used the constant comparative method to generate recurrent and unifying themes. We identified five broad discharge processes that distinguished higher and lower performing hospitals: 1) initiating discharge planning upon patient admission; 2) using multidisciplinary case management services; 3) ensuring that a follow-up plan is in place prior to discharge; 4) providing focused education sessions for both the patient and family; and 5) contacting the primary care physician regarding the patient's hospitalization and follow-up care plan

  4. Integrated dialysis and renal transplantation: small is beautiful.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, A J; Catto, G R; Edward, N; Engeset, J; Logie, J R; Macleod, M

    1980-01-01

    Many patients in Britain with chronic renal failure suitable for renal replacement treatment die because not enough treatment facilities are available. Moreover, the number of renal transplants performed is insufficient to meet even present needs, so the number of patients on dialysis is rising. The integrated dialysis and transplant unit in Aberdeen, which has a population base much smaller than the average British unit, meets community needs for dialysis and transplantation. The problem of ...

  5. Impaired sleep affects quality of life in children during maintenance treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspers Gertjan JL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase of pediatric cancer survival rates, late effects and quality of life (QoL have received more attention. Disturbed sleep in pediatric cancer is a common clinical observation, but research on this subject is sparse. In general, sleep problems can lead to significant morbidity and are associated with impaired QoL. Information on sleep is essential to develop interventions to improve QoL. Methods Children (2-18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL were eligible for this multi-center study. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ, Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0™ Acute Cancer Version (PedsQL were used to assess sleep and QoL halfway through maintenance therapy. Sleep and QoL were measured during and after dexamethasone treatment (on-dex and off-dex. Results Seventeen children participated (age 6.7 ± 3.3 years, 44% boys. Children with ALL had more sleep problems and a lower QoL compared to the norm. There were no differences on-dex and off-dex. Pain (r = -0.6; p = 0.029 and worry (r = -0.5; p = 0.034 showed a moderate negative association with sleep. Reduced overall QoL was moderately associated with impaired overall sleep (r = -0.6; p = 0.014 and more problems with sleep anxiety (r = -0.8; p = 0.003, sleep onset delay (r = -0.5; p = 0.037, daytime sleepiness (r = -0.5; p = 0.044 and night wakenings (r = -0.6; p = 0.017. Conclusion QoL is impaired in children during cancer treatment. The results of this study suggest that impaired sleep may be a contributing determinant. Consequently, enhanced counseling and treatment of sleep problems might improve QoL. It is important to conduct more extensive studies to confirm these findings and provide more detailed information on the relationship between sleep and QoL, and on factors affecting sleep in pediatric ALL and in children with cancer in general.

  6. Dehydration at admission increased the need for dialysis in hemolytic uremic syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestracci, Alejandro; Martin, Sandra Mariel; Toledo, Ismael; Alvarado, Caupolican; Wainsztein, Raquel Eva

    2012-08-01

    Oligoanuric forms of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) usually have more severe acute stage and higher risk of chronic sequelae than nonoligoanuric forms. During the diarrheal phase, gastrointestinal losses could lead to dehydration with pre-renal injury enhancing the risk of oligoanuric D+ HUS. Furthermore, it had been shown that intravenous volume expansion during the prodromal phase could decrease the frequency of oligoanuric renal failure. Thus, we performed this retrospective study to determine whether dehydration on admission is associated with increased need for dialysis in D+ HUS patients. Data from 137 children was reviewed, which were divided into two groups according to their hydration status at admission: normohydrated (n = 86) and dehydrated (n = 51). Laboratory parameters of the dehydrated patients reflected expected deteriorations (higher urea, higher hematocrit and lower sodium, bicarbonate, and pH) than normohydrated ones. Likewise, the dehydrated group had a higher rate of vomiting and need for dialysis (70.6 versus 40.7 %, p = 0.0007). Our data suggests that dehydration at hospital admission might represent a concomitant factor aggravating the intrinsic renal disease in D+ HUS patients increasing the need for dialysis. Therefore, the early recognition of patients at risk of D+ HUS is encouraged to guarantee a well-hydrated status.

  7. Cardiovascular Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients with Preoperative Non-dialysis Dependent Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Temur; Kaplan, Mehmet; Muruvvet, Yilmaz; Nehir, Selcuk Ummuhan; Tolga, Can; Adlan, Olsun; Hakkı, Aydogan

    2015-04-28

    Preoperative renal insufficiency is a predictor of acute renal injury in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. From January 2010 to September 2012, 121 patients undergoing coronary bypass, valve replacement, or both were included in our retrospective study, using cardiopulmonary bypass. We compared the changes in renal function and clinical outcomes of 66 patients with a baseline serum creatinine level more than 1.5 mg/dL with 55 patients with normal serum creatinine levels. We analyzed the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with non-dialysis dependent renal insufficiency. In the group of patients with preoperative renal injury, the need for dialysis was greater, time of mechanical ventilation longer, and daily diuresis lesser compared with the group of patients with normal serum creatinine levels. Other clinical outcomes such as postoperative hemodynamic problems and organ dysfunction were similar. Prolonged time of cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp affected postoperative renal injury. The study also showed intraoperative dopamine infusion at renal dose and ultrafiltration are not effective with protecting renal tubular function. Serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were found to be useful parameters for renal injury. These results demonstrate the safety and trustworthiness of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with non-dialysis dependent renal insufficiency.

  8. [The history of peritoneal dialysis at the Molinette Hospital in Turin, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitti, Alfonso; Maffei, S; Segoloni, G P

    2009-01-01

    In the Renal Unit of the Molinette Hospital of Turin, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was introduced in the mid 1960s to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure. The peritoneal catheter, which was then a stiff catheter, was inserted by a surgeon at each dialysis session. Between 1966 and 1970 there were a series of improvements, such as the first cycler for intermittent PD, fast-shift DP, and a homemade machine for automatic PD. During the early 1970s, a new type of stiff peritoneal catheter was introduced, which was used also for patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Towards the end of the 1970s the soft Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter started to be used, as well as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), which made it possible to treat a large number of patients at home. The 1980s brought a new surgical technique for the insertion of the catheter, and in the 1990s new peritoneal catheters were introduced which reduced the number of early and late complications. Around the turn of the century, the PD service was reorganized and improved, with dedicated personnel and facilities. Moreover, automated PD was introduced and the treatment of peritonitis was standardized according to international guidelines.

  9. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  10. Sharing innovations to enhance renal fellow education in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maursetter, Laura J; Prince, Lisa K; Yuan, Christina M; Simon, James F

    2018-03-01

    Dialysis care is an integral part of the practice of nephrology. Despite this, education of fellows in providing dialysis often remains rudimentary, relying on a combination of didactics and learning through experience. This runs the risk of training nephrologists who can provide dialysis care without truly being experts on the subject. In this article, a collection of novel or innovative teaching methods is presented that are meant to provide training programs with additional tools with which to improve the training of their fellows in dialysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Weekly variation in health-care quality by day and time of admission: a nationwide, registry-based, prospective cohort study of acute stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Benjamin D; Cloud, Geoffrey C; James, Martin A; Hemingway, Harry; Paley, Lizz; Stewart, Kevin; Tyrrell, Pippa J; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony G

    2016-07-09

    Studies in many health systems have shown evidence of poorer quality health care for patients admitted on weekends or overnight than for those admitted during the week (the so-called weekend effect). We postulated that variation in quality was dependent on not only day, but also time, of admission, and aimed to describe the pattern and magnitude of variation in the quality of acute stroke care across the entire week. We did this nationwide, registry-based, prospective cohort study using data from the Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme. We included all adult patients (aged >16 years) admitted to hospital with acute stroke (ischaemic or primary intracerebral haemorrhage) in England and Wales between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Our outcome measure was 30 day post-admission survival. We estimated adjusted odds ratios for 13 indicators of acute stroke-care quality by fitting multilevel multivariable regression models across 42 4-h time periods per week. The study cohort comprised 74,307 patients with acute stroke admitted to 199 hospitals. Care quality varied across the entire week, not only between weekends and weekdays, with different quality measures showing different patterns and magnitudes of temporal variation. We identified four patterns of variation: a diurnal pattern (thrombolysis, brain scan within 12 h, brain scan within 1 h, dysphagia screening), a day of the week pattern (stroke physician assessment, nurse assessment, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and assessment of communication and swallowing by a speech and language therapist), an off-hours pattern (door-to-needle time for thrombolysis), and a flow pattern whereby quality changed sequentially across days (stroke-unit admission within 4 h). The largest magnitude of variation was for door-to-needle time within 60 min (range in quality 35-66% [16/46-232/350]; coefficient of variation 18·2). There was no difference in 30 day survival between weekends and weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1

  12. An Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Screening Protocol for Acute Stroke: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Hage, Anna; Teleb, Mohamed; Smith, Evelyn

    2018-04-01

    Nurses play an integral role in triaging stroke patients. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to determine the efficacy of using an emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) screening protocol in the emergency department by nursing staff to improve identification of eligible patients as compared with current practice, improving time to endovascular treatment. Retrospective chart review was used to identify 76 patients admitted to a large urban stroke center. Of these, 36 presented during a 4-month period before the implementation of the Stroke Vision, Aphasia, Neglect (Stroke VAN) tool for assessing ELVO risk; 40 patients were admitted during the 4 months after implementation of Stroke VAN. The mean door-to-computed tomography angiography scan times were reduced from 119 to 49 minutes (P < .0001) for all patients and reduced from 77 to 27 minutes in a subset of VAN-positive patients. Implementation of the VAN screening tool to assess for ELVO was associated with decreased door-to-computed tomography angiography times and more rapid identification of endovascular eligible patients with ischemic stroke.

  13. Palliative peritoneal dialysis: Implementation of a home care programme for terminal patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Gorrin, Maite; Teruel-Briones, José Luis; Burguera Vion, Victor; Rexach, Lourdes; Quereda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Terminal-stage patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often transferred to haemodialysis as they are unable to perform the dialysis technique themselves since their functional capacities are reduced. We present our experience with five patients on PD with a short-term life-threatening condition, whose treatment was shared by primary care units and who were treated with a PD modality adapted to their circumstances, which we call Palliative Peritoneal Dialysis.

  14. Palliative peritoneal dialysis: Implementation of a home care programme for terminal patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Rivera Gorrin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal-stage patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD are often transferred to haemodialysis as they are unable to perform the dialysis technique themselves since their functional capacities are reduced. We present our experience with five patients on PD with a short-term life-threatening condition, whose treatment was shared by primary care units and who were treated with a PD modality adapted to their circumstances, which we call Palliative Peritoneal Dialysis.

  15. The effects of water quality and age on the acute toxicity of copper to the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogevich, E C; Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2008-05-01

    Copper (Cu)-containing compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides, herbicides, and soil amendments, resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa), a key species in south Florida, may be adversely affected by Cu. Water-quality parameters, such as hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and alkalinity, affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms; however, it is uncertain to what extent these factors affect Cu toxicity in the Florida apple snail. The research presented here characterized the acute (96-hour) toxicity of Cu in water to the Florida apple snail at various life stages and under different water-quality parameters. Cu was more toxic to juvenile than adult apple snails. There was no difference between the 96-hour LC(50) at pH 5.5 and 6.5; however, the 96-hour LC(50 )values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were greater than at lower pHs. The decrease in Cu(2+) above pH 7, as predicted by the MINTEQ model, accounted for the pH effect. Cu toxicity decreased as DOC increased from 0.2 to 30 mg/L. Unlike other aquatic organisms, hardness had no effect on Cu toxicity to the Florida apple snail, suggesting another mechanism of toxicity. Whole-body tissue analysis indicated that the lethal body burden of 120-day-old snails exposed to Cu for 4 days was 30 mg/kg Cu dry weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that Cu toxicity was a function of organism age, DOC, and pH.

  16. Views of Canadian Patients on or Nearing Dialysis and Their Caregivers: A Thematic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Barnieh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life of patients receiving dialysis has been rated as poor. Objective: To synthesize the views of Canadian patients on or nearing dialysis, and those who care for them. Design: Secondary analysis of a survey, distributed through dialysis centres, social media and the Kidney Foundation of Canada. Setting: Pan-Canadian convenience sample. Participants: Patients, their caregivers and health-care providers. Measurements: Text responses to open-ended questions on topics relevant to end-stage renal disease. Methods: Statements related to needs, beliefs or feelings were identified, and were analysed by thematic content analysis. Results: A total of 544 relevant statements from 189 respondents were included for the thematic content analysis. Four descriptive themes were identified through the content analysis: gaining knowledge, maintaining quality of life, sustaining psychosocial wellbeing and ensuring appropriate care. Respondents primarily identified a need for more information, better communication, increased psychosocial and financial support for patients and their families and a strong desire to maintain their previous lifestyle. Limitations: Convenience sample; questions were originally asked with a different intent (to identify patient-important research issues. Conclusions: Patients on or nearing dialysis and their caregivers identified four major themes, gaining knowledge, maintaining quality of life, sustaining psychosocial wellbeing and ensuring appropriate care, several of which could be addressed by the health care system without requiring significant resources. These include the development of patient materials and resources, or sharing of existing resources across Canadian renal programs, along with adopting better communication strategies. Other concerns, such as the need for increased psychosocial and financial support, require consideration by health care funders.

  17. Draft formal response to Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Technical Brief on neurothrombectomy devices in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalessi, Alexander A; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Binning, Mandy J; Siddiqui, Adnan S; Levy, Elad; Hopkins, L Nelson

    2010-06-01

    In the current environment of health policy reform, physicians must increasingly engage the federal system to inform the government regarding the state of the science and to advocate on behalf of their patients for the continued provision of necessary care. The Agency of Health Research and Quality (AHRQ), within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), provides scientific advice to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of existing therapeutic modalities. These Technical Briefs provide the scientific basis for Medicare reimbursement policies. Recently, the AHRQ produced a Draft Technical Brief on Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke. This document potentially endangers future reimbursement for endovascular stroke care. The link to the Technical Brief is: http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/research-available-forcomment/comment-draftreports/?pageactiondisplaydraftcommentform&topicid161&productid418&documenttypedraftReport. The endovascular neurosurgery group at the University of Buffalo produced a formal response. The following FORUM piece represents this response, and draws upon their substantial institutional experience. This piece will likely provide the foundation for a larger, multispecialty response, including American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons, SCAI, and possibly SNIS. Coordination of such an effort remains a work in progress. This piece offers the amalgam of policy and science central to WORLD NEUROSURGERY and provides a timely window to an evolving policy with dramatic implications for the neurosurgery community. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Health-related quality of life and utility scores in short-term survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Litsenburg, Raphaële R L; Huisman, Jaap; Raat, Hein; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2013-04-01

    Increase of survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has made outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) and economic burden more important. To make informed decisions on the use of healthcare resources, costs as well as utilities need to be taken into account. Among the preference-based HRQL instruments, the Health Utilities Index (HUI) is the most employed in pediatric cancer. Information on utility scores during ALL treatment and in long-term survivors is available, but utility scores in short-term survivors are lacking. This study assesses utility scores, health state, and HRQL in short-term (6 months to 4 years) ALL survivors. Cross-sectional single-center cohort study of short-term ALL survivors using HUI3 proxy assessments. Thirty-three survivors (median 1.5 years off treatment) reported 14 unique health states. The majority of survivors (61 %) enjoyed a perfect health, but 21 % had three affected attributes. Overall, HRQL was nonsignificantly lower compared to the norm, although the difference was large and may be clinically relevant. Cognition was significantly impaired (p = 0.03). Although 61 % of short-term survivors of ALL report no impairment, the health status of the other patients lead to a clinically important impaired HRQL compared to norms. Prospective studies assessing utility scores associated with pediatric ALL should be performed, enabling valid and reliable cost-utility analyses for policy makers to make informed decisions.

  19. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  20. Mixed-Methods Assessment of Trauma and Acute Care Surgical Quality Improvement Programs in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGrone, Lacey N; Fuhs, Amy K; Egoavil, Eduardo Huaman; Rodriguez Castro, Manuel J A; Valderrama, Roberto; Isquith-Dicker, Leah N; Herrera-Matta, Jaime; Mock, Charles N

    2017-04-01

    Evidence for the positive impact of quality improvement (QI) programs on morbidity, mortality, patient satisfaction, and cost is strong. Data regarding the status of QI programs in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in-depth examination of barriers and facilitators to their implementation, are limited. This cross-sectional, descriptive study employed a mixed-methods design, including distribution of an anonymous quantitative survey and individual interviews with healthcare providers who participate in the care of the injured at ten large hospitals in Lima, Peru. Key areas identified for improvement in morbidity and mortality (M&M) conferences were the standardization of case selection, incorporation of evidence from the medical literature into case presentation and discussion, case documentation, and the development of a clear plan for case follow-up. The key barriers to QI program implementation were a lack of prioritization of QI, lack of sufficient human and administrative resources, lack of political support, and lack of education on QI practices. A national program that makes QI a required part of all health providers' professional training and responsibilities would effectively address a majority of identified barriers to QI programs in Peru. Specifically, the presence of basic QI elements, such as M&M conferences, should be required at hospitals that train pre-graduate physicians. Alternatively, short of this national-level organization, efforts that capitalize on local examples through apprenticeships between institutions or integration of QI into continuing medical education would be expected to build on the facilitators for QI programs that exist in Peru.

  1. Health care quality from the perspective of health care providers and patients during and shortly after acute care restructuring in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Deborah; Way, Christine; Barrett, Brendan; Parfrey, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    To monitor changes in providers' perceptions of health care quality and the importance of health reform, and in patients' satisfaction with services during and two years after restructuring, comparing the region of the province that was restructured (St John's) with those regions in which hospitals were not aggregated. The Employee Attitude Survey questionnaire was sent to acute care providers (n = 5353) to assess personal characteristics and perceptions of the impact of reform on workplace conditions, work-related attitudes and turnover intentions. The response rate for 2000 and 2002 was 42% (n = 1222 and 1034, respectively). Only respondents in both surveys (n = 589) were used in the analysis because study results were the same for both the repeat sample and total samples. A Patient Satisfaction Survey questionnaire was administered to patients discharged from acute care facilities in 2000 (n = 1741) and 2002 (n = 704). Response rates were 82.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Most providers felt, at both time periods, that restructuring of the health care system was a positive step, but felt that health care quality was low. In the St John's region, perceptions of quality and standards of care improved over time. Patients were extremely satisfied with the admission process and hospital stay at both time periods in St John's. However, satisfaction declined in 2002 in regions outside St John's. Aggregation of acute care hospitals is possible without adverse effects on providers' perceptions of health care quality or on patient satisfaction.

  2. The bacterial biofilms in dialysis water systems and the effect of the sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Ethel; Varghese, Benji; Joseph, Neethu; Nisha, Kumari; Kotian, M Shashidhar

    2013-05-01

    The presence of bacteria in the form of biofilms poses a problem in the fluid pathways of haemodialysis plants and procedures which are aimed to detach and neutralize biofilms are necessary to improve the patient safety and the quality of the healthcare. The present study was therefore aimed at isolating the organisms which colonized dialysis water systems as biofilms, as well as to study the effect of the sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine on the biofilms which were produced by these isolates. Swabs were used to collect the biofilms which were produced on the internal surface of the dialysis tubing from the dialysis units. This study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. The cultures were performed on MacConkey's agar and blood agar. The organisms which were isolated were identified and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The biofilm production was done by the microtitre plate method of O'Toole and Kolter. The biofilm production was also studied in the presence of sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine. Acinetobacter spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the two predominant organisms which colonized the dialysis water systems as biofilms. The sub inhibitory concentrations of chlorine did not bring about any decrease in the biofilm production by the isolates. On the contrary, there was an increase in the biofilm production. Our study highlighted the importance of using appropriate methods to improve the quality of the water in dialysis units. This in turn, may help in reducing the biofilm formation in the water systems of dialysis units and thus, contribute to the prevention of hospital acquired infections in the patients who need haemodialysis.

  3. A Systematic Review of Psychometric Properties of Health-Related Quality-of-Life and Symptom Instruments in Adult Acute Leukemia Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Walton, AnnMarie; Shaw-Kokot, Julia; Mayer, Deborah K; Reeve, Bryce B

    2016-01-01

    Acute leukemia represents 4% of cancer cases in the United States annually. There are more than 302 000 people living with acute and chronic leukemia in the United States. Treatment has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aims of this study were to examine psychometric properties of symptom and HRQOL instruments and to provide implications for the assessment in adults with acute leukemia relevant to clinical practice and future research. Systematic literature search was conducted from 1990 to 2014 using electronic databases and manual searches. Psychometric studies were considered eligible for inclusion if (1) the psychometric paper was published using at least 1 HRQOL or symptom instrument, and (2) adults with acute leukemia were included in the sample. Studies were excluded if the age groups were not adults, or if the instrument was in a language other than English. Review identified a total of 7 instruments (1 cancer generic HRQOL, 2 symptom related, 3 HRQOL combined with symptom questions, and 1 disease specific). The most commonly used instrument was the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30, followed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue. An acute leukemia diagnosis can have a significant impact on HRQOL. Our recommendations include using both an HRQOL and symptom instrument to capture patient experiences during and after treatment. The availability of comprehensive, valid, and reliable HRQOL and symptom instruments to capture the experiences of adults with acute leukemia during and after treatment is limited.

  4. A Discrete Choice Study of Patient Preferences for Dialysis Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachael C; Morton, Rachael L; Palmer, Suetonia C; Marshall, Mark R; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten

    2018-01-06

    Improved knowledge about factors that influence patient choices when considering dialysis modality could facilitate health care interventions to increase rates of home dialysis. We aimed to quantify the attributes of dialysis care and the tradeoffs that patients consider when making decisions about dialysis modalities. We conducted a prospective, discrete choice experiment survey with random parameter logit analysis to quantify preferences and tradeoffs for attributes of dialysis treatment in 143 adult patients with CKD expected to require RRT within 12 months (predialysis). The attributes included schedule flexibility, patient out of pocket costs, subsidized transport services, level of nursing support, life expectancy, dialysis training time, wellbeing on dialysis, and dialysis schedule (frequency and duration). We reported outcomes using β -coefficients with corresponding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for choosing home-based dialysis (peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis) compared with facility hemodialysis. Home-based therapies were significantly preferred with the following attributes: longer survival (odds ratio per year, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.12), increased treatment flexibility (odds ratio, 9.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.71 to 31.3), improved wellbeing (odds ratio, 210; 95% confidence interval, 15 to 2489), and more nursing support (odds ratio, 87.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.8 to 2014). Respondents were willing to accept additional out of pocket costs of approximately New Zealand $400 (United States $271) per month (95% confidence interval, New Zealand $333 to $465) to receive increased nursing support. Patients were willing to accept out of pocket costs of New Zealand $223 (United States $151) per month (95% confidence interval, New Zealand $195 to $251) for more treatment flexibility. Patients preferred home dialysis over facility-based care when increased nursing support was available and when longer survival, wellbeing

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Guillermo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure was undertaken from the perspective of the Public Administration. The current Spanish situation, where all the patients undergoing graft function loss are referred back to dialysis in a late manner, was compared to an ideal scenario where all the patients are timely referred. Methods A Markov model was developed in which six health states were defined: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation, late referral hemodialysis, late referral peritoneal dialysis and death. The model carried out a simulation of the progression of renal disease for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients aged 40, who were observed in a lifetime temporal horizon of 45 years. In depth sensitivity analyses were performed in order to ensure the robustness of the results obtained. Results Considering a discount rate of 3 %, timely referral showed an incremental cost of 211 €, compared to late referral. This cost increase was however a consequence of the incremental survival observed. The incremental effectiveness was 0.0087 quality-adjusted life years (QALY. When comparing both scenarios, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 24,390 €/QALY was obtained, meaning that timely dialysis referral might be an efficient alternative if a willingness-to-pay threshold of 45,000 €/QALY is considered. This result proved to be independent of the proportion of late referral patients observed. The acceptance probability of timely referral was 61.90 %, while late referral was acceptable in 38.10 % of the simulations. If we however restrict the analysis to those situations not involving any loss of effectiveness, the acceptance probability of timely referral was 70.10 %, increasing twofold that of late referral (29.90 %. Conclusions Timely dialysis referral after graft function loss might be an efficient alternative in Spain, improving both

  6. Association between ambient carbon monoxide and secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondiabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng CH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hao Weng,1,2 Ching-Chih Hu,3 Tzung-Hai Yen,1,2 Wen-Hung Huang1,2 1Department of Nephrology, Division of Clinical Toxicology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Liver Research Unit, Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a major disorder in patients with chronic renal disease with or without dialysis. Air pollution has been confirmed as being associated with increased incidence of human morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, investigating air pollution as a dialysis-unrelated factor for SHPT in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. We developed this study to assess the effect of air pollution and other important risk factors on SHPT in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD. Materials and methods: We recruited a total of 141 patients who did not have diabetes mellitus, were nonsmokers, and were undergoing PD in this cross-sectional study. We analyzed the difference in air quality based on the patients’ living areas. We estimated demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutant, and dialysis-related data based on this cross-sectional study. Subgroup analysis of the relationship between air pollutants and the clinical variables and having or not having hyperparathyroidism (HPT (intact parathyroid hormone level ≥180 pg/dL was also performed. Results: A total of 141 patients undergoing PD (30 men and 111 women were enrolled in the study. Sixty-eight patients had SHPT. In a binary logistic regression, high environmental CO exposure (odds ratio [OR] 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–7.28; P=0.005, serum phosphate levels (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17–2.37; P=0.005, hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.29–10.94; P=0.015, and use of calcitriol (OR 8.25, 95% CI 3.43–19.85; P<0.001 were positively associated with SHPT. Conclusion: The findings of

  7. Surgical Management of Multiple Valve Endocarditis Associated with Dialysis Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zea-Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis associated with dialysis catheter is a disease that must be suspected in every patient with hemodialysis who develops fever. Multiple valve disease is a severe complication of endocarditis that needs to be managed in a different way. There is very limited data for treatment and every case must be considered individually. We present a patient with this complication and describe the medical treatment and surgical management. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient with acute renal failure that develops trivalvular endocarditis after the hemodialysis catheter was placed, with multiple positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus. Transesophageal echocardiography was done and aortic and tricuspid valvular vegetations and mitral insufficiency were reported. Patient was successfully treated by surgery on the three valves, including aortic valve replacement. There is limited data about the appropriate treatment for multiple valvular endocarditis; it is important to consider this complication in the setting of hemodialysis patients that develop endocarditis and, despite the appropriate treatment, have a torpid evolution. In countries where endovenous drug abuse is uncommon, right sided endocarditis is commonly associated with vascular catheters. Aggressive surgical management should be the treatment of choice in these kinds of patients.

  8. The implementation of neonatal peritoneal dialysis in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sevim; Bilgin, Leyla; Gunduz, Mehmet; Uncu, Nermin; Azili, Mujdem Nur; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2012-10-01

    To investigate etiology, outcome and complications related to neonatal peritoneal dialysis (PD). Neonates treated with PD in our neonatal intensive care unit during 2007-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 4036 hospitalized neonates; 20 neonates (0.5%) who underwent 21 cycles of PD [7 preterm, 13 term; 13 female, 7 male] were included. The mean birth weight was 2930.2 ± 720.6 g (1120-4570), mean gestational age was 37.5 ± 3.5 weeks (27-41). The etiologic disorders included inborn errors of metabolism (propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, citrullinemia, glutaric aciduria type 2, maple syrup urine disease, 10), or acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia (4), sepsis (2), prematurity (2), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (1), kernicterus (1). The complications included peritonitis (2), early leakage (4), hemorrhage (1), catheter removal (3) and occlusion (2). The mortality rate was 50%. The gestational ages and birth weights of surviving neonates were higher (p neonates, chronic renal failure (1), severe (4) and moderate neuromotor impairment (2) developed within 4-43 months. PD, although invasive, is an effective therapy in neonates. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure is probably responsible for high rate of complications and mortality. If appropriate catheter selection and technique in the placement should be done, PD might improve outcome.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Serum Levels of Aluminum and Lead in Dialysis Patients, Pre and post Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Makhlough

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Trace elements status in chronic kidney diseases patients is influenced by a renal function residual, size and dialyzer membrane surface. The water nature also is used for dialysis fluid preparation and composition. Trace elements in ESRD patients differed from healthy individuals. So this issue requires accurate studies on trace elements clinical aspects in ESRD patients.

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS ON DIALYSIS AND AFTER RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Efremov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of better life quality of patients with end stage renal disease and after renal transplantation and their sexual adaptation is considered to be more impotent. The clinical part of the investigation is the obser- vation of 205 patients – men with terminal stage renal disease. Erectile dysfunction is represented in 91,4% (64 of patients getting haemodialysis, 92,3% (24 of patients getting peritoneal dialysis, 61,5% (67 of patients after renal transplantation. According to International Index of Erectile Function the mean score of erectile function is 16,7 ± 5,2 in haemodialysis patients, 19,46 ± 3,6 in peritoneal dialysis patients, 21,9 ± 5,6 in patients after renal transplantation. The analysis revealed great prevalence of erectile dysfunction and interest in improvement among the patients with end stage renal disease and after renal transplantation. 

  11. In situ microfluidic dialysis for biological small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Magda; Skou, Soren; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented...... for simultaneous SAXS and ultraviolet absorption measurements during protein dialysis, integrated directly on a SAXS beamline. Microfluidic dialysis can be used for monitoring structural changes in response to buffer exchange or, as demonstrated, protein concentration. By collecting X-ray data during...... the concentration procedure, the risk of inducing protein aggregation due to excessive concentration and storage is eliminated, resulting in reduced sample consumption and improved data quality. The proof of concept demonstrates the effect of halted or continuous flow in the microfluidic device. No sample...

  12. Improvement of clinical quality indicators through reorganization of the acute care by establishing an emergency department-a register study based on data from national indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Maria Søe; Mattsson, N.; Jørsboe, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of acute care in a re-organized ED based on national indicator project data in a pre and post reorganizational setting. Methods: Quasi experimental design was used to examine the effect of the health care quality in relation to the reorganization...... of an ED. Patients admitted at Nykobing Falster Hospital in 2008 or 2012 were included in the study and data reports from the national databases (RKKP) regarding stroke, COPD, heart failure, bleeding and perforated ulcer or hip fracture were analysed. Holbk Hospital works as a control hospital. Chi......-intervention data were compared for both NFS and HOL (p = 0.024). Conclusions: During the organisation of the new EDs, several of the indicators improved and the overall 30 days mortality decreased in the five diseases. The development of a common set of indicators for monitoring acute treatment at EDs in Denmark...

  13. Fatal dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: A tale of two patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is a central nervous system disorder, which occurs during hemodialysis (HD or within 24 h following the first HD. DDS commonly occurs in patients suffering from end-stage renal failure undergoing HD for the first time. In a critically ill patient suffering from severe sepsis or septic shock, the combined effects of post-HD brain edema and changes in the brain due to septic encephalopathy, may become amplified leading to DDS. Here we report 2 cases with acute renal failure (ARF, undergoing HD for more than a week and being ventilated and who developed DDS. DDS might have contributed to the sudden deterioration and death in these septic patients. The first case was a 31-year-old male, involved in a motor vehicle accident and had a severe abdominal injury. Underwent laparotomy and hemostasis was achieved. On day 4, the patient developed hemorrhagic shock associated with ARF, which prompted daily HD. On day 8, he went into septic shock. On day 16, 1 h after his daily HD, he became unresponsive and his pupils became dilated and fixed and he expired 2 days later. The second case was a young male who suffered severe abdominal and chest injury after a fall from a height. He developed ARF on day 3 and required HD. On day 9, he had septic shock. Three days later, during his daily HD, he became unconscious and his pupils were not reacting to light and the patient died on day 12. Conclusion: In patients with severe sepsis/septic shock, DDS may occur even after repeated sessions of HD. The acute care physicians, intensivists, and nephrologists should be aware of the risks of DDS.

  14. Decreasing dialysis catheter rates by creating a multidisciplinary dialysis access program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Patricia M; Niederhaus, Silke V; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Leeser, David B

    2018-03-01

    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have determined that chronic dialysis units should have central venous catheters for hemodialysis treatments. On the Eastern Shore of Maryland, the central venous catheter rates in the dialysis units averaged >45%. A multidisciplinary program was established with goals of decreasing catheter rates in order to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections, decrease mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infection, decrease hospital days, and provide savings to the healthcare system. We collected the catheter rates within three dialysis centers served over a 5-year period. Using published data surrounding the incidence and related costs of central line-associated bloodstream infection and mortality per catheter day, the number of central line-associated bloodstream infection events, the costs, and the related mortality could be determined prior to and after the initiation of the dialysis access program. An organized dialysis access program resulted in a 82% decrease in the number of central venous catheter days which lead to a concurrent reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection and deaths. As a result of creating an access program, central venous catheter rates decreased from an average rate of 45% to 8%. The cost savings related to the program was calculated to be over US$5 million. The decrease in the number of mortalities is estimated to be between 13 and 27 patients. We conclude that a formalized access program decreases catheter rates, central line-associated bloodstream infection, and the resultant hospitalizations, mortality, and costs. Areas with high hemodialysis catheter rates should develop access programs to better serve their patient population.

  15. Can peritoneal dialysis be applied for unplanned initiation of chronic dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsen, Per; Povlsen, Johan V

    2014-12-01

    Late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and unforeseeable deterioration of residual renal function in known CKD patients remain a major problem leading to the need of unplanned start on chronic dialysis without a mature access for dialysis. In most centres worldwide, these patients are started on haemodialysis (HD) using a temporary tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC) for access. However, during the last decade, increasing clinical experience with unplanned start on peritoneal dialysis (PD) right after PD catheter implantation has been published. Key studies are reviewed in the present paper, and the results seem to indicate that compared with patients starting PD in a planned setting with peritoneal resting after PD catheter implantation, patients starting unplanned PD have an increased risk of mechanical complications but apparently no increased risk of infectious complications. In contrast, patients starting unplanned HD using a temporary CVC have an increased risk of both mechanical and infectious complications when compared with patients starting planned HD using an arterio-venous fistula or a permanent CVC. Regarding clinical outcome in terms of survival, unplanned PD seems to be at least as safe as unplanned HD. Combining the unplanned PD programme with a nurse-assisted PD programme is crucial in order to offer the patient a real opportunity to choose a home-based dialysis option. In conclusion, unplanned start on PD seems to be a feasible, safe and efficient alternative to unplanned start on HD for the late referred patient with end-stage renal disease and urgent need for dialysis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for peritoneal dialysis catheter failure in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) failure still remains a common clinical problem in pediatric patients despite advancements in catheter placement and dialysis techniques. Our aim was to determine the risk factors that may lead to PDC failure, especially those factors that could be potentially modified to ...

  17. An unusual case of intestinal perforation by peritoneal dialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peritoneal dialysis is a life saving intervention in children with impaired kidney function. Children on this intervention experience various complications, though bowel perforation is rare. We report case of a 15 year old paraplegic child that was on peritoneal dialysis on account of renal failure secondary to neurogenic ...

  18. Haemodialysis at home: review of current dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Sabrina; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-26

    Only a minority of patients with chronic kidney disease treated by hemodialysis are currently treated at home. Until relatively recently, the only type of hemodialysis machine available for these patients was a slightly smaller version of the standard machines used for in-center dialysis treatments. Areas covered: There are now an alternative generation of dialysis machines specifically designed for home hemodialysis. The home dialysis patient wants a smaller machine, which is intuitive to use, easy to trouble shoot, robust and reliable, quick to setup and put away, requiring minimal waste disposal. The machines designed for home dialysis have some similarities in terms of touch-screen patient interfaces, and using pre-prepared cartridges to speed up setting up the machine. On the other hand, they differ in terms of whether they use slower or standard dialysate flows, prepare batches of dialysis fluid, require separate water purification equipment, or whether this is integrated, or use pre-prepared sterile bags of dialysis fluid. Expert commentary: Dialysis machine complexity is one of the hurdles reducing the number of patients opting for home hemodialysis and the introduction of the newer generation of dialysis machines designed for ease of use will hopefully increase the number of patients opting for home hemodialysis.

  19. Exploring the Association between Macroeconomic Indicators and Dialysis Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda S.; Caskey, Fergus J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Elliott, Robert F.; Covic, Adrian; Geue, Claudia; Cusumano, Ana; Macleod, Alison M.; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Mortality on dialysis varies greatly worldwide, with patient-level factors explaining only a small part of this variation. The aim of this study was to examine the association of national-level macroeconomic indicators with the mortality of incident dialysis populations and

  20. Children's experiences of dialysis: a systematic review of qualitative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjaden, Lidwien; Tong, Allison; Henning, Paul; Groothoff, Jaap; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the experiences and perspectives of children and adolescents on dialysis. Design A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted that explored the experiences of children on dialysis. Electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to

  1. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  2. Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M.; Levey, Andrew S.; Inker, Lesley A.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our

  3. Peritoneal changes in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.; Struijk, Dirk G.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis can lead to morphological and functional changes in the peritoneum. Although the range of morphological alterations is known for the peritoneal dialysis population as a whole, these changes will not occur in every patient in the same sequence and to the same extent.

  4. The Sudan Peritoneal Dialysis Program: Three Years of Momentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is a significant social and economic burden on Africa. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was introduced as a national service in the Sudan three years ago. An overview of the Sudan Peritoneal Dialysis Program is presented. Review: As a national scheme, the ...

  5. The nutritional status of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-26

    Feb 26, 2011 ... Original Research: Nutritional status of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients at a Johannesburg hospital. 2011;24(3) ... Keywords: nutritional status, peritoneal dialysis patients, Johannesburg, Africa. The nutritional .... the portion sizes using visual food aids and a photo manual developed.

  6. Maintenance of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mari

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains the principal modality of home dialysis for the elderly although PD patients accounted for only 3.3% (n = 9,728) of the overall dialysis patient population. One of the preventing factors for introduction of PD in elderly patients is the Japanese public nursing care system. Besides, difficulties in the continuation of dialysis therapy will arise because of the progression of dementia as well as the decline in muscular strength, vigor, and physical strength of patients. In spite of these difficulties, some local dialysis centers tried to maintain and manage elderly dialysis patients at home by utilizing diverse social resources, in addition to obtaining the cooperation of care givers such as family members. In our hospital, approximately 40% of patients who started dialysis therapy have selected PD. To support patients on PD, several special forms of care are prepared: utilization of visiting nurse care or home-visit nursing care services, supply of information on renal failure and education to home-care support providers and welfare service facility staff members. In addition, modulation of PD therapy such as automated PD and hemodialysis and PD in combination is also properly prepared. Lastly, the organization of a team, including physicians, nurses, social workers and dietitians, and the construction of a centralized patient information management system are important for elderly patients who need dialysis therapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The changing landscape of home dialysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Matthew B; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2014-11-01

    To discuss the changing landscape of home dialysis in the United States over the past decade, including recent research on clinical outcomes in patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, and to describe the impact of recent payment reforms for patients with end-stage renal disease. Accumulating evidence supports the conclusion that clinical outcomes for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis are as good as or better than for patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. The recent implementation of the Medicare-expanded prospective payment system for the care of end-stage renal disease patients has resulted in substantial growth in the utilization of peritoneal dialysis in the United States. Utilization of home hemodialysis has also grown, but the contribution of the expanded prospective payment system to this growth is less certain. Home dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, represents an important alternative to in-center hemodialysis that is effective and patient-centered. Over the coming decade, the growth in the number of end-stage renal disease patient treated with home dialysis modalities should prompt further comparative and cost-effectiveness research, increased attention to racial and ethnic disparities, and investments in home dialysis education for both patients and providers. http://links.lww.com/CONH/A13.

  8. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  9. Neurological complications of renal dialysis and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Kushan; Taube, David; Khalil, Nofal; Perry, Richard; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2018-04-01

    Neurological complications from renal replacement therapy contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Such complications can affect either the central or peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological disturbances associated with the uraemic state do not respond fully to renal replacement therapy. There are also complications specifically associated with dialysis and transplantation. A multidis