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Sample records for acute coronary syndromes

  1. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart is accumulating irreversible damage. So time is myocardium – myocardium being the heart muscle itself,” Bolger said. At ... angina? This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  2. Acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. Try to limit foods high in cholesterol ... et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary ...

  3. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    .8 % developed a recurrent depression. Most patient characteristics (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, health-related behavioural factors, somatic comorbidities, and severity of acute coronary syndrome) were significantly associated with increased HRs for both early and later...... depressions. Prior depression modified most of these associations in such a way that the association was attenuated in patients with a prior depression. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that first time and recurrent depression following acute coronary syndrome have different risk profiles. This is important......PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...

  4. Hypereosinophilic syndrome mimicking acute coronary syndrome

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    Pulkit Chhabra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is a heterogeneous group of disorders with peripheral blood hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-mediated organ involvement. It may be primary, secondary, or idiopathic. In very rare cases, HES can be familial occurring as an autosomal dominant disorder. Cardiac involvement usually presents as heart failure, intracardiac thrombus, arrhythmias, and rarely as acute coronary syndrome (ACS and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a diagnostic modality in diagnosis of eosinophilic endomyocardial disease. We report a case of a young male with familial HES presenting as ACS and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic clinical management.

  5. Woven Coronary Artery Anomaly Associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Selim; Ozturk, Serkan; Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Ocak, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    The woven coronary artery anomaly is a rare congenital anomaly in which a coronary artery is divided into thin channels that merge again into the distal lumen. Only a few cases of woven coronary artery have been reported in the literature. This anomaly is accepted as a benign condition. We describe a case of acute coronary syndrome in a patient with woven coronary artery anomaly. PMID:24436585

  6. Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Valentina Loria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of patients who present to the hospital with acute undifferentiated chest pain or other symptoms and signs suggestive of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is often a clinical challenge.The initial assessment, requiring a focused history (including risk factors analysis, a physical examination, an electrocardiogram (EKG and serum cardiac marker determination, is time-consuming and troublesome. Recent investigations have indicated that increases in biomarkers of necrosis, inflammation, ischemia and myocardial stretch may provide earlier assessment of overall patient risk, help in identifying the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management for each patient and allow for prevention of substantial numbers of new events.Approach and Content: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the characteristics of several biomarkers that may have potential clinical utility to identify ACS patients. Patho-physiology, analytical and clinical characteristics have been evaluated for each marker, underlying the properties for potential routine clinical use.Summary: The biomarkers discussed in this review are promising and might lead to improved diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with ACS, however their clinical application requires further studies. It is important to define their clinical role as diagnostic markers, their predictive value and the specificity, standardization and detection limits of the assays.

  7. Acute pulmoner embolism mimicking acute coronary syndrome

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    Fulya Avcı Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and electocardiographic (ECG features in pulmonary embolism (PE lack of specificity and may mimic an acute coronary syndrom (ACS. We here report a case of a 56-year-old woman presenting with chest pain secondary to pulmonary artery embolism which was initially diagnosed as ACS due to electrocardiographic changes and raised troponin. PE presenting with negative T-wave inversion can mimic ACS and misdirect the diagnostic approach. Simultaneous T-wave inversions in anterior and inferior leads are important clues suggesting PE. Most common ECG findings in PE are anteroseptal T-wave inversion/ST-elevation or depression along with complete or incomplete right bundle branch block, sinus tachycardia, low QRS-complex voltage, an S1Q3T3 pattern, and right axis deviation. The reasons for the ECG changes that seem like ischemia are sudden RV strain, hypoxemia and the release of catecholamines. So we have to be aware that PE can present as acute coronary syndrome with ECG changes preoccupy ischemia

  8. central hospital with acute coronary syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge about coronary artery disease among patients admitted to Aseer central hospital with acute coronary syndrome. Abdullah S. Assiri. Department of Internal Medicine. College of Medicine & Medical Sciences. King Khalid University. Interventional Cardiology Consultant and Chief of Cardiology. Aseer Central ...

  9. [Coronary angiographic characteristics in septuagenarian patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Habib; Bouzouita, Khaled; Hamdi, Imen; Ben Hassan, Fadoua; Mokaddem, Aida; Ben Ameur, Youssef; Boujnah, Mohamed R

    2013-05-01

    Although the prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in elderly patients is bleak , elderly population is less well treated both in medical and interventional terms. aims: to analyse angiographic findings in septuagenarian patients admitted with ACS and its impact on the therapeutic strategy. We retrospectively analysed 250 patients 70 years or older hospitalised for ACS who underwent a coronary angiography between january 2006 to September 2010. This population was more likely to be male with mean age 74 years and 93 % of ACS were inaugural events (60% N STEM, 40% STEMI).Coronary angiograms showed complex, diffuse coronary lesions with a high incidence of multivessel coronary artery disease , bifurcation lesions , and calcified stenosis. Angiographic findings after ACS in elderly were characterised by multivessel disease and complex lesions .Surgical or percutaneous coronary revascularizaion was possible in the majority of these patients.

  10. Emerging therapies for acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Lilly

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of cases acute coronary syndromes (ACS are caused by activation and aggregation of platelets and subsequent thrombus formation leading to a decrease in coronary artery bloodflow. Recent focus on the treatment of ACS has centered on reducing the response of platelets to vascular injury as well as inhibiting fibrin deposition. Novel therapies include more effective P2Y12 receptor blockers thereby reducing inter-individual variability, targeting the platelet thrombin receptor (protease activated receptor 1 as well as directly inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin activity. In this review we discuss the clinical data evaluating the effectiveness of these various new ACS treatment options.

  11. Prophylactic antidepressant treatment following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole G; Madsen, Michael T; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is significantly increased in patients following acute coronary syndrome resulting in twofold increased mortality compared with patients without depression. The depression diagnosis is often missed leading to considerable undertreatment. This systematic review assesses...... the current evidence of primary prophylactic treatment of depression in patients after acute coronary syndrome. The study protocol was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number CRD42015025587). A systematic review were conducted and reported according to Preferred Reporting Items...... with an antidepressant intervention of any kind. A validated assessment tool should measure depression and depressive symptoms. Languages were limited to articles written in English. Six articles were included. Four studies utilized different components of case and disease management, health coaching, or relaxational...

  12. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mega, Jessica L; Braunwald, Eugene; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome....

  13. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Perez-Quilis, Carme; Leischik, Roman; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement.

  14. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zeinab H. El Sayed

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Acute coronary syndrome remains the principal cause of death, so the early diagnosis is of great ... copeptin and cardiac troponin I is being suggested for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Subject: It was done to .... used for solid phase immobilization (on the microtiter wells).

  15. Ticagrelor. Acute coronary syndromes: nothing new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Several revascularisation methods are effective in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Standard antithrombotic treatment combines heparin and aspirin during the acute phase, followed by long-term aspirin therapy. The only proven advantage of adding clopidogrel is for patients who undergo angioplasty with stenting. Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet drug belonging to a different chemical class than clopidogrel. Its chemical structure resembles that of adenosine. Ticagrelor has been authorised in the European Union for patients with acute coronary syndromes, in combination with aspirin. Clinical evaluation is mainly based on a double-blind randomised trial comparing ticagrelor + aspirin versus clopidogrel + aspirin in 18 624 patients who underwent angioplasty (64% of patients), coronary artery bypass grafting (10%), or who received medical treatment only. Half of the patients were treated for at least 9 months. After 12 months of treatment, compared to the clopidogrel group, overall mortality appeared to be significantly lower in the ticagrelor group (4.5% versus 5.9%), along with cardiovascular mortality (4.0% versus 5.1%). Symptomatic myocardial infarction was also less frequent (5.8% versus 6.9%), but not stroke (about 1.4% in both groups). Ticagrelor did not statistically significantly reduce overall mortality in patients who had angioplasty with stenting, but stent thrombosis was less frequent than with clopidogrel (2.9% versus 3.8%). In combination with aspirin, ticagrelor provoked more bleeding than clopidogrel, based on the definition used in the trial (16.1% versus 14.6%). In contrast, the rate of major bleeding was similar in the two groups (11.5%), including fatal bleeding (0.3%). The adverse effect profile of ticagrelor resembles that of adenosine in certain respects. For example, dyspnoea was more frequent with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (13.8% versus 7.8%), as were conduction disorders and ventricular pauses at the beginning of treatment (5

  16. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Coronary Artery Aneurysmal Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Wesam Ostwani MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 70-year-old male with no other atherogenic risk factors who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS of unstable angina subsequently complicated by a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI. The patient’s presentation posed 3 unique features: (1 cardiac catheterization demonstrated nonobstructive 3-vessel multi-aneurysmal coronary artery disease with sluggish antegrade coronary flow; (2 a nonobstructive aneurysmal dissection flap based on contrast staining of the mid left anterior descending artery, which may have led to in situ nonocclusive thrombosis and distal microvascular embolization; and (3 successful conservative medical therapy of coronary artery aneurysmal disease (CAAD complicated with ACS. CAAD has an incidence of 1.5% to 4.9% in adults. The most common etiology of CAAD is atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. There are no guidelines for the management of CAAD complicated by ACS, and controversies exist as to whether conservative, catheter-based, or surgical management should be pursued.

  18. Novel oral anticoagulants in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, Charis; Niespialowska-Steuden, Maria; Kukreja, Neville; Gorog, Diana A

    2013-09-10

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a prevalence that has now reached pandemic levels as a consequence of the rapid modernization of the developing world. Its presentation as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a frequent reason for hospital admission and of profound implications for personal, societal and global health. Despite improvements in the management of ACS with anti-platelet and anticoagulant therapy and revascularization techniques, many patients continue to suffer recurrent ischemic events. The need to reduce future cardiovascular events has led to the development of novel therapies to prevent coronary thrombosis, targeting thrombin-mediated pathways. These include direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban and darexaban), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and PAR 1 antagonists (vorapaxar and atopaxar). This article critically reviews the comparative mechanisms of action, the risks and benefits, together with the clinical evidence base for the use of these novel oral agents in the management of ACS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic kidney disease in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio

    2012-10-06

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high burden of coronary artery disease. In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), CKD is highly prevalent and associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Management of patients with CKD presenting with ACS is more complex than in the general population because of the lack of well-designed randomized trials assessing therapeutic strategies in such patients. The almost uniform exclusion of patients with CKD from randomized studies evaluating new targeted therapies for ACS, coupled with concerns about further deterioration of renal function and therapy-related toxic effects, may explain the less frequent use of proven medical therapies in this subgroup of high-risk patients. However, these patients potentially have much to gain from conventional revascularization strategies used in the general population. The objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the epidemiology and the clinical and prognostic relevance of CKD in ACS patients, in particular with respect to unresolved issues and uncertainties regarding recommended medical therapies and coronary revascularization strategies.

  20. [Inflammatory biomarkers in ischemic acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Abreu-González, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Diagnosing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department is often a complex process. Inflammatory markers might be useful for the rapid assessment of a patient's overall risk and might also help predict future episodes. The clinical use of these biomarkers could potentially lower the number of emergency visits and help in the prevention of future adverse events. The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical utility of markers of cardiovascular inflammation in emergency patients with ACS. Based on a critical analysis of a selection of the literature, we concluded that none of the biomarkers of cardiovascular inflammation would at present be useful for stratifying risk in emergency situations, aiding prognosis, or guiding therapy for patients with ACS.

  1. Nuclear Cardiology in Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging is very effective in the evaluation of patients with suspicious acute coronary syndrome (ACS), for adequate diagnosis and treatment. There have been many clinical evidences to support the efficacy and cost-effectiveness. In addition, many authoritative guidelines support the utility of myocardial perfusion imaging in ACS with an appropriate diagnostic protocol. However, with the development of other cardiac imaging modalities, the choice of modality for the diagnosis of suspicious ACS now depends on the availability of each modality in each institute. Newly developed imaging technologies, especially including molecular imaging, are expected to have great potential not only for diagnosis but also for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of ACS.

  2. Optimal timing of coronary invasive strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Gurbel, Paul A; Andreotti, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations....

  3. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab H. El Sayed

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: In suspected acute coronary syndrome, determination of copeptin and cardiac troponin I provides a remarkable negative predictive value, which aids in early and safe ruling out of myocardial infarction.

  4. Nuclear cardiology in acute coronary syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulow, H.; Schwaiger, M. [Nuclearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are a frequent manifestation of a coronary artery disease, usually being associated with chest pain and presenting as a medical emergency. Since a considerable number of patients with chest pain, however, have a non cardiac etiology of trier pain, properly triaging these patients represents a diagnostic challenge for physicians in the emergency department. As the available diagnostic procedures have limited accuracy, many different diagnostic strategies have been evaluated. Among these, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at rest or in combination with stress procedures has been investigated in many trails. MPI has been proven to be useful, especially in a patient population with a low to intermediate probability of an ischemic event. Perfusion scintigraphy has a high sensitivity in the detection of myocardial infarction and reveals an excellent negative predictive value, allowing a safe discharge strategy of patients with a negative scan result. Moreover, it enables risk stratification and provides incremental and independent prognostic information regarding short to long term future cardiac adverse events. Several cost effectiveness studies have shown that perfusion imaging leads to lower overall direct costs, mainly by a reduction of unnecessary hospital admissions and diagnostic angiograms, without worsening of the clinical outcome of these patients. As a possible study endpoint, myocardial perfusion imaging in the acute setting enables the quantification of salvaged myocardium and therefore the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Besides perfusion agents, several infarcts avid radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, which in part show promising results. However, larger randomized trials evaluating these tracers in clinical settings are needed to warrant routine clinical application.

  5. Related Knowledge of Nurses Acute Coronary Syndrome with Accuracy of Patiens Do Help According to SOP Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Wahyuni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute Coronary syndrome is one of the syndromes that often caused a sudden death, so it is an emergency problem that needs fast response. Knowledge is the result of knowing and it appears after someone observing to a certain object. The purpose of this research was to find out the correlation between nurse knowledge about Acute Coronary Syndrome with precise action to help according to Acute Coronary Syndrome SOP. The method that been used in this research was analytic correlation with cross sectional approach. The sample of this research was all 26th nurse at ICCU of Sidoarjo hospital. Data collection was questionnaire form to observe the nurse knowledge about Acute Coronary Syndrome and observation form to observe the precise action done by the nurse to help. The result of cross tabulation showing the knowledge of “good” categories was 12 people, 11 people was doing the right help and 1 people was wrong. The nurse knowledge on “enough” category was 13 people, 8 people doing the right help and 5 people was wrong. Knowledge on “poor” category ws 1 people and does not giving the right help. The result ws showing that there was correlation between the nurse knowledge about Acute Coronary Syndrome with the accuracy of giving help according to the SOP.  It was proven that knowledge can raise the precise action done by the nurse in helping patient according to Acute Coronary Syndrom SOP.

  6. ANALYSIS OF PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Reshetko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the pre-hospital treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in 2001 and 2006.Material and methods. Retrospective pre-hospital treatment survey was performed in 1114 patients with acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction (AMI or unstable angina (UA in 2001 and 2006.Results. For acute myocardial infarction use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin was 0%, 0%, 81,5% in 2001 and 23,9%, 8%, 13,4% in 2006, respectively. Use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin in unstable angina were 0%, 16,2%, 12,3% in 2001 and 3,4%, 1,6%, 0,5% in 2006, respectively. Fibrinolytic therapy was not provided. Polypragmasia reduced in 2006 in comparison with 2001.Conclusions. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing current practice and guidelines for acute coronary syndrome.

  7. ANALYSIS OF PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Reshetko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the pre-hospital treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in 2001 and 2006.Material and methods. Retrospective pre-hospital treatment survey was performed in 1114 patients with acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction (AMI or unstable angina (UA in 2001 and 2006.Results. For acute myocardial infarction use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin was 0%, 0%, 81,5% in 2001 and 23,9%, 8%, 13,4% in 2006, respectively. Use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin in unstable angina were 0%, 16,2%, 12,3% in 2001 and 3,4%, 1,6%, 0,5% in 2006, respectively. Fibrinolytic therapy was not provided. Polypragmasia reduced in 2006 in comparison with 2001.Conclusions. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing current practice and guidelines for acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Late Consequences of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasser, Sami M A; Huang, Wei; Gore, Joel M; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Eagle, Kim A; Anderson, Frederick A; Fox, Keith A A; Gurfinkel, Enrique; Brieger, David; Klein, Werner; van de Werf, Frans; Avezum, Álvaro; Montalescot, Gilles; Gulba, Dietrich C; Budaj, Andrzej; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Granger, Christopher B; Kennelly, Brian M; Goldberg, Robert J; Fleming, Emily; Goodman, Shaun G

    2015-07-01

    Short-term outcomes have been well characterized in acute coronary syndromes; however, longer-term follow-up for the entire spectrum of these patients, including ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina, is more limited. Therefore, we describe the longer-term outcomes, procedures, and medication use in Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) hospital survivors undergoing 6-month and 2-year follow-up, and the performance of the discharge GRACE risk score in predicting 2-year mortality. Between 1999 and 2007, 70,395 patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. In 2004, 2-year prospective follow-up was undertaken in those with a discharge acute coronary syndrome diagnosis in 57 sites. From 2004 to 2007, 19,122 (87.2%) patients underwent follow-up; by 2 years postdischarge, 14.3% underwent angiography, 8.7% percutaneous coronary intervention, 2.0% coronary bypass surgery, and 24.2% were re-hospitalized. In patients with 2-year follow-up, acetylsalicylic acid (88.7%), beta-blocker (80.4%), renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (69.8%), and statin (80.2%) therapy was used. Heart failure occurred in 6.3%, (re)infarction in 4.4%, and death in 7.1%. Discharge-to-6-month GRACE risk score was highly predictive of all-cause mortality at 2 years (c-statistic 0.80). In this large multinational cohort of acute coronary syndrome patients, there were important later adverse consequences, including frequent morbidity and mortality. These findings were seen in the context of additional coronary procedures and despite continued use of evidence-based therapies in a high proportion of patients. The discriminative accuracy of the GRACE risk score in hospital survivors for predicting longer-term mortality was maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Infective endocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report tow cases of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Case 1: A 60-year-old man with the diagnosis of mitral IE complicated by an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention with aspiration of the thrombus at the distal leftanterior ...

  10. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Boer, M.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M; Jepson, N; Lehm, Jp

    2005-04-18

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) includes acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina. ACS is common and may prove fatal. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) will improve oxygen supply to the threatened heart and may reduce the volume of heart muscle that will perish. The addition of HBOT to the standard treatment may reduce death rate and other major adverse outcomes. To assess the benefits and harms of adjunctive HBOT for treating ACS. We searched the following from inception to November 2004: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, DORCTHIM, and references from selected articles. Relevant journals were handsearched and researchers in the field contacted. Randomised studies comparing the effect on ACS of regimens that include HBOT with those that exclude HBOT. Three reviewers independently evaluated the quality of trials using the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook and extracted data from included trials. Four trials with 462 participants contributed to this review. There was a trend towards, but no significant decrease in, the risk of death with HBOT (relative risk (RR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.06, P=0.08). There was evidence from individual trials of reductions in the risk of major adverse coronary events [MACE] (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.85, P=0.03; NNT 4, 95% CI 3 to 10) and some dysrhythmias following HBOT (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.89, P=0.01; NNT 6, 95% CI 3 to 24), particularly complete heart block (RR 0.32, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.84, P=0.02), and that the time to relief of pain was reduced with HBOT (Weighted Mean Difference [WMD] 353 minutes shorter, 95% CI 219 to 488, P<0.0001). One trial suggested a significant incidence of claustrophobia in single occupancy chambers of 15% (RR of claustrophobia with HBOT 31.6, 95%CI 1.92 to 521, P=0.02). For people with ACS, individual small trials suggest the addition of HBOT reduced the risk of Major Adverse Cardiac Events, some dysrrhythmias, and reduced the time to relief from ischaemic pain, but did not reduce mortality. In

  12. Antiplatelet intervention in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rohit R; Rai, Fasi

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the usefulness of antiplatelet agents, percutaneous coronary intervention, and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) based on risk stratification. Studies like RITA 3 and FRISC II have shown that an early invasive strategy in high-risk patients was associated with lower mortality over the long term compared with conservative treatment. High-risk patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction derive particular benefit from GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and an early invasive strategy. The TIMI risk score for patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction provides an easily implemented tool for therapeutic decision-making. Simultaneous assessment of troponin, C-reactive protein, and brain natriuretic peptide at the time of presentation of ACS provides incremental prognostic information. Recent evidence supports the fact that thrombosis and inflammation are interrelated (platelets are involved in inflammation and, similarly, leukocytes are involved in hemostasis). The platelet, which was once viewed as a bystander in hemostasis, is now recognized as a key mediator of thrombosis as well as inflammation. Antithrombotic drugs block platelet aggregation and activation at various points in the thrombotic cascade and include aspirin, the thienopyridine clopidogrel, and its predecessor ticlopidine, intravenous GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, which block the final common pathway of platelet activation and aggregation, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, notably enoxaparin, and direct thrombin inhibitors (eg, bivalirudin). Bivalirudin has proven noninferior to heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Enoxaparin is emerging as a safer and better alternative to unfractionated heparin in invasively managed patients. Declining renal function is a major cause of excess dosing of antithrombotic agents and frequently increases the

  13. Female Psychological Adjustment Following an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Prata

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Type-D personality, high anxiety, hypertension and dyslipidemia seem to cluster among female acute coronary syndrome patients. Nevertheless, type-D personality itself was not associated with higher anxiety and depressive scores during the post-acute period.

  14. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute coronary syndrome remains the principal cause of death, so the early diagnosis is of great importance. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac chest pain immediately increased copeptin secretion. The combination of copeptin and cardiac troponin I is being ...

  15. Acute coronary syndrome of paradoxical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Freitas, António; Magno, Pedro; Soares, Ana Oliveira; Farto e Abreu, Pedro; Neves, José Pedro; Gil, Victor M

    2013-10-01

    We describe a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to paradoxical embolism complicating acute pulmonary embolism. A 44-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain. The physical examination was unremarkable except for oxygen saturation of 75%, and the electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Urgent coronary angiography showed a distal occlusion of the right coronary artery and multiple thrombi were aspirated. Despite relief of chest pain and electrocardiogram normalization, her oxygen saturation remained low (90%) with high-flow oxygen by mask. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a mass in the left atrium and dilatation of the right chambers, while the transesophageal echocardiogram showed a thrombus attached to the interatrial septum in the region of the foramen ovale. Color flow imaging was consistent with a patent foramen ovale. Thoracic computed tomography angiography documented thrombi in both branches of the pulmonary trunk. After five days on anticoagulation, the patient underwent surgical foramen ovale closure.

  16. [Troponin elevation in the absence of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallet, O; Gouffran, G; Lavie Badie, Y

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac troponins are the most sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. Cardiac troponin elevation are common in many diseases and do not necessarily indicate the presence of a thrombotic acute coronary syndrome. In clinical practice, interpretation of dynamic changes of troponin may be challenging. Troponin evaluation should be performed only if clinically indicated and must be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation, ECG changes, troponin level and kinetic. In the absence of thrombotic acute coronary syndrom, troponin retains a prognostic value. Its practical interest as a risk criteria is limited to a few situations like pulmonary embolism, pericarditis an myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias and acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bradyarrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is 0.3% to 18%. It is caused by sinus node dysfunction (SND, high-degree atrioventricular (AV block, or bundle branch blocks. SND presents as sinus bradycardia or sinus arrest. First-degree AV block occurs in 4% to 13% of patients with ACS and is caused by rhythm disturbances in the atrium, AV node, bundle of His, or the Tawara system. First- or second-degree AV block is seen very frequently within 24 h of the beginning of ACS; these arrhythmias are frequently transient and usually disappear after 72 h. Third-degree AV blocks are also frequently transient in patients with infero-posterior myocardial infarction (MI and permanent in anterior MI patients. Left anterior fascicular block occurs in 5% of ACS; left posterior fascicular block is observed less frequently (incidence < 0.5%. Complete bundle branch block is present in 10% to 15% of ACS patients; right bundle branch block is more common (2/3 than left bundle branch block (1/3. In patients with bradyarrhythmia, intravenous (IV atropine (1-3 mg is helpful in 70% to 80% of ACS patients and will lead to an increased heart rate. The need for pacemaker stimulation (PS is different in patients with inferior MI (IMI and anterior MI (AMI. Whereas bradyarrhythmias are frequently transient in patients with IMI and therefore do not need permanent PS, there is usually a need for permanent PS in patients with AMI. In these patients bradyarrhythmias are mainly caused by septal necrosis. In patients with ACS and ventricular arrhythmias (VTA amiodarone is the drug of choice; this drug is highly effective even in patients with defibrillation-resistant out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There is general agreement that defibrillation and advanced life support is essential and is the treatment of choice for patients with ventricular flutter/fibrillation. If defibrillation is not available in patients with cardiac arrest due to VTA

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a high-resolution imaging technique that offers microscopic visualization of coronary plaques. The clear and detailed images of OCT generate an intense interest in adopting this technique for both clinical and research purposes. Recent studies have shown that OCT is useful for the assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaques, in particular the assessment of plaque rupture, erosion, and intracoronary thrombus in patients with acute coronary syndrome. In addition, OCT may enable identifying thin-cap fibroatheroma, the proliferation of vasa vasorum, and the distribution of macrophages surrounding vulnerable plaques. With its ability to view atherosclerotic lesions in vivo with such high resolution, OCT provides cardiologists with the tool they need to better understand the thrombosis-prone vulnerable plaques and acute coronary syndromes. This paper reviews the possibility of OCT for identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo.

  19. Apixaban with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; James, S.; Kilaru, R.; He, Y.; Mohan, P.; Bhatt, D.L.; Goodman, S.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Flather, M.; Huber, K.; Liaw, D.; Husted, S.E.; Lopez-Sendon, J.; Caterina, R. de; Jansky, P.; Darius, H.; Vinereanu, D.; Cornel, J.H.; Cools, F.; Atar, D.; Leiva-Pons, J.L.; Keltai, M.; Ogawa, H.; Pais, P.; Parkhomenko, A.; Ruzyllo, W.; Diaz, R.; White, H.; Ruda, M.; Geraldes, M.; Lawrence, J.; Harrington, R.A.; Wallentin, L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg

  20. Platelets and white blood cells in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap Jan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the role of leukocytes and platelets as methods to measure platelets aggregation, in the clinical management of presenting with acute coronary syndromes. We have tried to incidence and to identify predictors of adverse cardiac events with function tests or

  1. Early invasive versus selectively invasive management for acute coronary syndromes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, R.J. de; Windhausen, F.; Cornel, J.H.; Dunselman, P.; Janus, C.L.; Bendermacher, P.E.; Michels, H.R.; Sanders, G.T.B.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for patients who have acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and with an elevated cardiac troponin T level. However, randomized trials have not shown an overall reduction in mortality, and the reduction in the rate of

  2. Nicorandil in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Partovi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous coronary intervention is an option for the treatment of coronary artery disease such as acute coronary syndrome and stable angina.Acute coronary syndrome has two groups including acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina.Periprocedural myocardial infarction is a frequent and prognostically important complication of percutaneous coronary intervention and can be easily monitored by measuring myocardial enzymes. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is associated with poor prognosis. Even after recanalization, reperfusion injury often occurs including no-reflow or slow-flow in which sufficient myocardial blood flow cannot be obtained and results in a poor outcome of cardiac function in the long term.Nicorandil is the opener of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel and is known to have an antiarrhythmic effect and myocardial protective functions such as reduction of the coronary microvascular resistance by relaxing the smooth muscles of blood vessesl and preconditioning.In this literature review, we evaluate articles about acute coronary syndrome and stable angina undergoing PCI. 

  3. Pregnancy risks in women with pre-existing coronary artery disease, or following acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchill, Luke J.; Lameijer, Heleen; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Grewal, Jasmine; Ruys, Titia P. E.; Kulikowski, Julia D.; Burchill, Laura A.; Oudijk, M. A.; Wald, Rachel M.; Colman, Jack M.; Siu, Samuel C.; Pieper, Petronella G.; Silversides, Candice K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine outcomes in pregnant women with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) or following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including myocardial infarction (MI). Background The physiological changes of pregnancy can contribute to myocardial

  4. Impact of timing to coronary angiography in acute coronary syndrome on contemporary clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Angela S.; Chia, Stanley; JKB, TAN; Zaini, Siti M; KWQ, Guo; KK, Yeo; Chua TSJ; Koh, Tian Hai; Tan, Jack W C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies appear to suggest a correlation between timing to coronary angiography and clinical outcome among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aim to study 12-month outcomes of ACS patients who are stratified according to early (≤24 hours), intermediate (>24 to 24 to

  5. Acute kidney injury in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cosentino, Nicola; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2015-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly being seen in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). This condition has a complex pathogenesis, an incidence that can reach 30% and it is associated with higher short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, AKI is still characterised by lack of a single accepted definition, unclear pathophysiology understanding and insensitive diagnostic tools that make its detection difficult, particularly in the setting of ACS. Recent data suggested that patients with AKI during ACS, even those in whom renal function seems to fully recover, face an increased, persisting risk of future AKI and may develop chronic kidney disease. Thus, in these patients, nephrology follow-up, after hospital discharge, and secondary preventive measures should possibly be implemented. In this review, we aim at providing a framework of knowledge to increase cardiologists' awareness of AKI, with the goal of improving the outcome of patients with ACS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Acute coronary syndromes amongst type 2 diabetics with ischaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapy in use was OHA 43%, insulin 42%, insulin and OHA 1%; prophylactic aspirin 14.7% and statins 8.4%. Thirty four (35.8%) were classified as acute coronary syndrome (ACS); 29 ( 30.5%) acute myocardial infarction (ACS-AMI) and five (5.2%) unstable angina (ACS-UA). Majority (79.4%) of the ACS presented more ...

  7. [Acute coronary syndrome after hornet bite, type II Kounis syndrome - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihodzić, Hajriz; Ilić, Boris; Mladina, Nada; Mrsić, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is an accidental occurrence of acute coronary syndrome associated with anaphylaxis, where acute inflammatory mediators cause the spasm of coronary arteries with the erosion and rupture of atheromatous plaque. We present a 53-year-old male who during the treatment of anaphylaxis after a hornet bite developed acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. The diagnosis of type II Kounis syndrome was proven by electrocardiographic abnormalities and biochemical markers with clinical manifestation of acute coronary syndrome, and was associated with anaphylaxis which demanded prehospital treatment of the patient after the hornet bite. Anaphylaxis after a hornet bite requires consideration of acute coronary syndrome if patients have chest pain and hemodynamic impairment, as these conditions occur infrequently but demand additional diagnostics and adequate treatment.

  8. Impact of timing to coronary angiography in acute coronary syndrome on contemporary clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Angela S; Chia, Stanley; Jkb, Tan; Zaini, Siti M; Kwq, Guo; Kk, Yeo; Tsj, Chua; Koh, Tian Hai; Tan, Jack W C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies appear to suggest a correlation between timing to coronary angiography and clinical outcome among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aim to study 12-month outcomes of ACS patients who are stratified according to early (≤24 hours), intermediate (>24 to 24 to strategy to coronary angiography was associated with improved survival at one year while an early to intermediate strategy benefitted the subgroup of high-risk patients with significant reductions in cardiovascular events at six months.

  9. Prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a BleeMACS substudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannaccone, Mario; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Vadalà, Paolo; Wilton, Stephen B.; Noussan, Patrizia; Colombo, Francesco; Raposeiras Roubín, Sergio; Abu Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Henriques, Jose Paulo Simao; Saucedo, Jorge; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Garbo, Roberto; Huczek, Zenon; Nie, Shao-Ping; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; García Acuña, José María; Southern, Danielle; Alfonso, Emilio; Terol, Belén; Garay, Alberto; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Yalei; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Osman, Neriman; Möllmann, Helge; Shiomi, Hiroki; Giordana, Francesca; Kowara, Michal; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Wang, Xiao; Yan, Yan; Fan, Jing-Yao; Ikari, Yuji; Nakahashi, Takuya; Sakata, Kenji; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kalpak, Oliver; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer that experience acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have to be determined. The BleeMACS project is a multicentre observational registry enrolling patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention worldwide in 15

  10. Risk factors for rehospitalization for acute coronary syndromes and unplanned revascularization following acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Smolderen, Kim G.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Li, Yan; Shore, Supriya; Stolker, Joshua M.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Jones, Philip G.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Spertus, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rehospitalizations for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and coronary revascularization after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not only common and costly but can also impact patients’ quality of life. In contrast to mortality and all‐cause readmissions, little insight is available

  11. A Case with Repeated Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome due to Pseudoephedrine Use: Kounis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çeliker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic reaction-associated acute coronary syndrome picture is defined as Kounis syndrome. Although drug use is the most common cause of allergic reaction, foods and environmental factors may also play a role in the etiology. Herein, a case with acute coronary syndrome that developed two times at 8-month interval due to pseudoephedrine use for upper respiratory tract infection is presented.

  12. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery in acute coronary syndrome: incidence, cost impact, and acute clopidogrel interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Bell, Kelly; Gdovin, Joette; Jing, Yonghua; Graham, John

    2012-02-01

    Guidelines stipulate that clopidogrel should be interrupted ≥ 5 days prior to elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery to reduce the risk of bleeding unless the need for revascularization and/or the net benefit of the clopidogrel outweighs the potential risks of bleeding. This study describes real-world patterns of acute clopidogrel use, CABG surgery, and inpatient costs among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The study used the MarketScan® Commercial, Medicare Supplemental, and Hospital Drug databases, comprising health care data for > 63 million individuals in the United States. Acute coronary syndrome episodes, defined as hospitalizations for ACS (primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 410.xx, 411.1x) occurring between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2009, were identified from patients aged ≥ 18 years. Outcomes included cost of and length of stay (LOS) for ACS episodes and, among patients experiencing ACS episodes treated with acute clopidogrel administration followed by CABG surgery, the duration of clopidogrel interruption prior to CABG surgery. Analyses were descriptive. A total of 160 168 ACS episodes were identified, and the mean patient age was 63.5 years. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery episodes comprised 9.3% (14 896 of 160 168) of all ACS episodes. The mean LOS was 9.8 (standard deviation [SD], 6.8) days per CABG surgery episode, and mean inpatient costs were $71 140 (SD, $68 012) per CABG surgery episode. Among patients experiencing ACS episodes with inpatient drug data and to whom acute clopidogrel was administered followed by CABG surgery (n = 8101), the mean duration of clopidogrel interruption was 3.3 (SD, 2.6) days, and the majority (62.1%) of these patients underwent surgery within 1 to 3 days after their last acute clopidogrel dose. The mean incremental increase in inpatient costs associated with 1 extra LOS day was $1991. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is

  13. [Prevalence and determinants of atypical presentation of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, David; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of patients with atypical presentation of acute coronary syndromes may contribute to increased sensitivity in diagnosis in a given population. The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence of atypical presentation, to identify its determinants, and to describe the presenting symptoms in cases of acute coronary syndrome at the emergency department of Hospital São João, Porto. Systematic sample of 288 emergency admissions with a confirmed diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in 2007. Atypical presentation was defined as absence of chest pain and/or syncope. The prevalence of atypical presentation was 20.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.0 to 25.5], with no important variation by gender. It increased with age and was more frequent in cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In multivariate analysis, atypical presentation was associated with age [>70 versus ≤ 50 years, odds ratio (OR)=3.45; 95%CI: 1.03-11.61] and it was about four times less likely in the presence of history of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. A history of heart failure was independently associated with a higher likelihood of acute coronary syndrome with atypical presentation (OR = 4.15, 95%CI 1.50-11.46). Among the 223 cases who had chest pain or discomfort, a growing, oppressive, prolonged (longer than 30 minutes), recurrent and episodic pain prevailed. Among other symptoms, dyspnea was the most frequently reported, either as the main symptom in cases of atypical presentation or concurrently with typical symptoms. Factors associated with atypical presentation are consistent with those described in other populations. Using routine clinical data allowed access to a large data base on a representative sample of patients admitted to the emergency department of a third-level hospital that serves a large part of the local urban population. In medical records, data are unstandardized and heterogeneous in validity

  14. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Mimics Acute Coronary Syndrome in Older Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a fatal disease and an often missed diagnosis. There are no specific symptoms or signs. Accurate diagnosis followed by effective therapy can reduce mortality. We report on a 67-year-old man who underwent lumbar laminectomy and developed an acute anterior compressive-like chest pain and jaw numbness rather than dyspnea on the fifth postoperative day. Owing to refractory chest pain with suspicious posterior myocardial infarction or unstable angina on surface electrocardiogram, the patient received emergency coronary catheterization, which demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Further investigation provided a final diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary embolism with simultaneous recent neuro-surgery was a therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of postoperative hemorrhage threatening neurologic function. After treatment with enoxaparin and close monitoring of his neurologic condition, his symptoms were eliminated. Clinicians must keep in mind a differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a postoperative high-risk patient.

  15. Acute coronary syndrome after levamisole-adultered cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Grabherr, Silke; Shiferaw, Kebede; Doenz, Franceso; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a well known trigger of acute coronary syndromes. Over the last 10 years levamisole, a veterinary anthelminthic drug has been increasingly used as an adulterant of cocaine. Levamisole was used to treat pediatric nephritic syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis before being withdrawn from the market due to its significant toxicity, i.e. hematological complications and vasculitis. The major complications of levamisole-adultered cocaine reported up to now are hematological and dermatological. The case reported here is of a 25 year old man with a history of cocaine abuse who died at home after complaining of retrosternal pain. Postmortem CT-angiography, autopsy, and chemical and toxicological analyses were performed. An eroded coronary artery plaque was found at the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Two myocardial infarct scars were present in the left ventricle. Microscopic examination of the coronary artery revealed infiltration of eosinophils into the adventitia and intima. Toxicological examination confirmed the presence of cocaine and its metabolites in the peripheral blood, and of levamisole in the urine and pericardial fluid. Eosinophilic inflammatory coronary artery pathologies have been clinically linked to coronary dissection, hypersensitivity coronary syndrome and vasospastic allergic angina. The coronary pathology in the presented case could be a complication of levamisole-adultered cocaine use, in which an allergic or immune-mediated mechanism might play a role. The rise in cocaine addiction worldwide and the increase of levamisole adulterated cocaine highlights the importance of updating our knowledge of the effects of adultered cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute coronary syndrome: analysis of two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mascellanti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The patients presenting acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation can have a short and long-term risk of death or recurrent ischemic events. Therefore, the evaluation of risk is an essential step in the management of such patients. We report two cases – a 86-year-old male, and a 46-year-old one – with acute coronary syndrome with non-ST-segment elevation, showing the importance of risk assessment to determine management strategy. Two risk profile scores were used: TIMI score and GRACE score. Routine use of validated risk score may facilitate more appropriate tailoring of intensive therapies, but the clinical reasoning of the physician is essential to take right decisions.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Widiyanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety occur at high prevalence in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Studies have shown that depression is also a significant risk factor for new cases of heart disease and can increase the morbidity and mortality of heart disease. Despite the high prevalence and have serious effects, the symptoms of depression and anxiety are often unrecognized and untreared in mostly patients with acute coronary syndrome and some of the symptoms during months. The standard therapy for this disorder is safe, well tolerated and can be effective for this population; in fact, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can improve the outcome of the disorder of the heart. The purpose of this paper would adding a better sense about the effect of the combination of depression and anxiety, as well as with prospective research about the influence of therapy on the results of the heart disorder.

  18. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN PATIENT WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Dwi Krisnayanti

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are two conditions that common happened in patient with acute coronary syndrome which can cause negative cardiovascular outcomes. Although the prevalencies of these two conditions are slightly high, most of them had not been treated well. The mechanisms that underly the association between depression and anxiety with the negative cardiovascular outcome are possibly correlates with their effect on inflammatory process, cathecolamine release, heart rate variability, endo...

  19. Role of biomarkers in risk stratification of acute coronary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh, C. M.; Roy, Ambuj

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a wide spectrum of myocardial ischaemia varying from assuredly benign to potentially fatal. Cardiac biomarkers have had a major impact on the management of this disease and are now the cornerstone in its diagnosis and prognosis. In this review we discuss both the established and the newer emerging biomarkers in ACS and their role in highlighting not only myocardial necrosis but also different facets of the pathophysiology of ACS. The futu...

  20. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects o...

  1. Antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes: focus on ticagrelor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Kade Birkeland1,2, David Parra1,2, Robert Rosenstein21Departments of Medicine and Pharmacy, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Palm Beach, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antiplatelet agents, specifically the thienopyridines, has become a standard of care in the approach to the patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome. These drugs irreversibly inhibit the platelet by permanently binding to the surface...

  2. Non-Acute Coronary Syndrome Anginal Chest Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Megha; Mehta, Puja K.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2010-01-01

    Anginal chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the outpatient setting. While much of the focus has been on identifying obstructive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) as the cause of anginal chest pain, it is clear that microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) can also cause anginal chest pain as a manifestation of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and carries an increased cardiovascular risk. Epicardial coronary vasospasm, aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital coronary anomalies, mitral valve prolapse and abnormal cardiac nociception can also present as angina of cardiac origin. For non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) stable chest pain, exercise treadmill testing (ETT) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of ischemia and cardiac risk stratification; however, in certain subsets of patients, such as women, ETT has a lower sensitivity and specificity for identifying obstructive CAD. When combined with an imaging modality, such as nuclear perfusion or echocardiography testing, the sensitivity and specificity of stress testing for detection of obstructive CAD improves significantly. Advancements in stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables detection of perfusion abnormalities in a specific coronary artery territory, as well as subendocardial ischemia associated with MCD. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) enables visual assessment of obstructive CAD, albeit with a higher radiation dose. Invasive coronary angiography (CA) remains the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive lesions that cause medically refractory stable angina. Furthermore, in patients with normal coronary angiograms, the addition of coronary reactivity testing (CRT) can help diagnose endothelial dependent and independent microvascular dysfunction. Life-style modification and pharmacologic intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with stable angina. This review focuses on

  3. Using machine learning techniques to differentiate acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougand Setareh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is an unstable and dynamic process that includes unstable angina, ST elevation myocardial infarction, and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Despite recent technological advances in early diognosis of ACS, differentiating between different types of coronary diseases in the early hours of admission is controversial. The present study was aimed to accurately differentiate between various coronary events, using machine learning techniques. Such methods, as a subset of artificial intelligence, include algorithms that allow computers to learn and play a major role in treatment decisions. Methods: 1902 patients diagnosed with ACS and admitted to hospital were selected according to Euro Heart Survey on ACS. Patients were classified based on decision tree J48. Bagging aggregation algorithms was implemented to increase the efficiency of algorithm. Results: The performance of classifiers was estimated and compared based on their accuracy computed from confusion matrix. The accuracy rates of decision tree and bagging algorithm were calculated to be 91.74% and 92.53%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed methods used in this study proved to have the ability to identify various ACS. In addition, using matrix of confusion, an acceptable number of subjects with acute coronary syndrome were identified in each class.

  4. Emotional predictors and behavioral triggers of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W

    2008-03-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that depression, anxiety, and hostility/anger may each be an independent risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurrence. Data specific to the role of these negative emotional states in predisposing to imminent ACS risk are limited, however. Additionally, a number of studies have indicated that certain situational triggers (such as intense physical exertion) and behavioral triggers (such as acute anxiety or anger) are predictive of imminent occurrence of an ACS. Despite these findings, the use of emotional or behavioral information to identify persons at high risk for imminent ACS to facilitate such patient identification.

  5. Zotarolimus-eluting vs. sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, Troels; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne Kjer

    2012-01-01

    To compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in the SORT OUT III trial.......To compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in the SORT OUT III trial....

  6. Novel risk factors for acute coronary syndromes and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, David C; Wilson, Andrew M; Layland, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Acute coronary syndromes represent not merely disrupted atherosclerotic plaques or luminal stenoses but rather a complex clinical syndrome. The traditional conception of pathogenesis and management of ACS has been challenged by numerous recent landmark ACS trials. Current prognostication models lack clinical precision and can be challenging to the clinicians in tailoring management strategies for individual patients. In this review we summarise the emerging evidence of novel risk factors (plaque phenotype, coronary blood flow, endothelial dysfunction, microvascular dysfunction, and inflammation) in predicting future events and outcomes in ACS population. As the search for miracle cure for ischaemic heart disease continues, one is hopeful that emerging therapeutic approaches targeting these novel risk factors will improve long-term outcomes of ACS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Prediction of acute coronary syndromes by urinary proteome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay M Htun

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals who are at risk of suffering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS may allow to introduce preventative measures. We aimed to identify ACS-related urinary peptides, that combined as a pattern can be used as prognostic biomarker. Proteomic data of 252 individuals enrolled in four prospective studies from Australia, Europe and North America were analyzed. 126 of these had suffered from ACS within a period of up to 5 years post urine sampling (cases. Proteomic analysis of 84 cases and 84 matched controls resulted in the discovery of 75 ACS-related urinary peptides. Combining these to a peptide pattern, we established a prognostic biomarker named Acute Coronary Syndrome Predictor 75 (ACSP75. ACSP75 demonstrated reasonable prognostic discrimination (c-statistic = 0.664, which was similar to Framingham risk scoring (c-statistics = 0.644 in a validation cohort of 42 cases and 42 controls. However, generating by a composite algorithm named Acute Coronary Syndrome Composite Predictor (ACSCP, combining the biomarker pattern ACSP75 with the previously established urinary proteomic biomarker CAD238 characterizing coronary artery disease as the underlying aetiology, and age as a risk factor, further improved discrimination (c-statistic = 0.751 resulting in an added prognostic value over Framingham risk scoring expressed by an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.273 ± 0.048 (P < 0.0001 and net reclassification improvement of 0.405 ± 0.113 (P = 0.0007. In conclusion, we demonstrate that urinary peptide biomarkers have the potential to predict future ACS events in asymptomatic patients. Further large scale studies are warranted to determine the role of urinary biomarkers in clinical practice.

  8. The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Markku S; Buerke, M.; Cohen-Solal, A.

    2016-01-01

    defined as exclusion criteria in trials and registries. As a consequence, guideline recommendations are mostly driven by observational studies, even though these patients have a particularly poor prognosis compared to heart failure patients without signs of coronary artery disease. In acute heart failure......Acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock are frequently triggered by ischemic coronary events. Yet, there is a paucity of randomized data on the management of patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome, as acute coronary syndrome and cardiogenic shock have frequently been...... are generally less common than with other inotropic and vasoactive therapies, with the notable exception of hypotension. The decision to use levosimendan, in terms of timing and dosing, is influenced by the presence of pulmonary congestion, and blood pressure measurements. Levosimendan should be preferred over...

  9. Underuse of an invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ida; Hvelplund, Anders; Hansen, Kim Wadt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We investigated if patients with diabetes with ACS are offered coronary angiography (CAG) and revascularisation to the same extent as patients without diabetes. METHODS...

  10. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  11. Acute respiratory tract infections: a potential trigger for the acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; van Ginkel, Margreet W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) may be a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ARTI is associated with an increased risk for ACS up to 2 weeks prior to a cardiac event. The mechanism that may underlie this association is unclear. Infections are

  12. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia,Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira,Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically act...

  13. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia Giaxa Prosdócimo; Luciane Boreki Lucina; Olandoski Marcia; Priscila Megda João Jobs; Nicolle Amboni Schio; Fernanda Fachin Baldanzi; Costantino Ortiz Costantini; Ana Maria Teresa Benevides-Pereira; Luiz Cesar Guarita-Souza; José Rocha Faria-Neto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically act...

  14. Chest wall myositis in a patient with acute coronary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Laila; Al-Rawi, Harith

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with severe left-sided chest pain and chest tenderness of 1-day duration. The pain was episodic and was aggravated by any chest wall movement. His initial blood tests and ECG were suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, his pattern of pain, lack of response to opiates, raised creatine kinase and signs of pleurisy on chest radiograph raised a suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The patient showed...

  15. Multiple Chronic Conditions in Older Adults with Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Joakim; Alexander, Karen P

    2016-05-01

    Older adults presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) often have multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). In addition to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (ie, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes), common CV comorbidities include heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation, whereas prevalent non-CV comorbidities include chronic kidney disease, anemia, depression, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The presence of MCCs affects the presentation (eg, increased frequency of type 2 myocardial infarctions [MIs]), clinical course, and prognosis of ACS in older adults. In general, higher comorbidity burden increases mortality following MI, reduces utilization of ACS treatments, and increases the importance of developing individualized treatment plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infections as a stimulus for coronary occlusion, obstruction, or acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Erkki; El-Segaier, Milad; Persson, Kenneth; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Sarna, Seppo; Ohlin, Hans; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2009-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease. Infections are a significant cause of inflammation. Acute infections might precipitate acute coronary syndromes (ACS) whereas chronic infections might be stimuli for the development of atherosclerosis. Coronary angiograms were done on 211 of 335 patients with ACS and the percentage of coronary obstruction was determined. Serum antibody levels to Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae heat shock protein 60 (CpnHSP60), human heat shock protein 60 (hHSP60), enterovirus (EV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and two major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were measured in healthy controls (n = 355) and all patients. Serum antibody levels to periodontal pathogens did not correlate with ACS. However, IgA-class antibody levels to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.021), CpnHSP60 (p = 0.048) an hHSP60 (p = 0.038) were higher in patients with coronary occlusion or obstruction compared to those without any obstruction. Odds ratios for coronary changes in the highest quartile as compared to the lower quartiles were for A. actinomycetemcomitans IgA 7.84 (95% CI 1.02-60.39, p = 0.048), for CpnHSP60 IgA 8.61 (1.12-65.89, p = 0.038), and for human HSP60 IgA 3.51 (0.79-15.69, p = 0.100). We have previously reported that EV and HSV titres correlated significantly to acute coronary events. They do not correlate to the degree of coronary obstruction as shown here. However, infection by A. actinomycetemcomitans or C. pneumoniae or host response against them associated with coronary obstruction. Clinical coronary events may arise by the effect of acute infections and obstructing lesions by a chronic inflammatory stimulus.

  17. Nationwide trends in use and timeliness of diagnostic coronary angiography in acute coronary syndromes from 2005 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim W; Sørensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine trends in the use of diagnostic coronary angiography according to distance from home to the nearest invasive heart centre following implementation of fast-track protocols and extensive pre-hospital triaging of acute coronary syndrome patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed...... a register-based cohort study of all patients admitted to Danish hospitals with incident acute coronary syndrome in 2005-2011. Diagnostic coronary angiography within 60 days of admission was investigated according to distance tertiles (DTs) calculated as range from each patient's home to the nearest invasive.......94 (0.90-0.98) for 2010-2011. Length of hospital stay, time to coronary angiography, and 60-day mortality decreased in all DT. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study found significant increases in diagnostic coronary angiography use over time in incident acute coronary syndrome patients with a relatively...

  18. Ezetimibe Added to Statin Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Giugliano, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but whether the addition of ezetimibe, a nonstatin drug that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, can reduce the rate of cardiovascular events further is not known....... METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving 18,144 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome within the preceding 10 days and had LDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 100 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 2.6 mmol per liter) if they were receiving lipid-lowering therapy...... was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, coronary revascularization (≥30 days after randomization), or nonfatal stroke. The median follow-up was 6 years. RESULTS: The median time-weighted average LDL cholesterol level during the study...

  19. Use of novel antiplatelet agents in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Michael; Holper, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) encompass a broad spectrum of clinical presentations based on underlying pathology that results in myocardial ischemia and/or infarction. Despite advancements in invasive management and secondary preventive therapies, recurrent atherothrombotic coronary events remain a prevalent cause of death and recurrent cardiac events after ACS and, in those who survive, the root of long-standing cardiac comorbidities. Antiplatelet drug therapy has proven beneficial in the reduction of these events, and novel antiplatelet agents have resulted in significant improvement in clinical outcomes over the last decade. However, the balance of optimal platelet inhibition with minimal bleeding complications remains a clinical challenge. This review focuses on more recent advances in antiplatelet therapies used in the treatment of ACS.

  20. Steroid Exposure, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Insights into the Inflammatory Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaño, Roderick C.; Basnet, Sandeep; Onandia, Zurine Galvan; Gandhi, Sachin; Tawakol, Ahmed; Min, James K.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroids are anti-inflammatory agents commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. We examined the relationship between steroid use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. Methods In 177 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (mean age 67, 75% male, 44% Crohn's disease, 56% ulcerative colitis), we performed a 1:2 case-control study matched for age, sex and inflammatory bowel disease type and compared 59 patients with inflammatory bowel disease with acute coronary syndrome to 118 patients with inflammatory bowel disease without acute coronary syndrome. Steroid use was defined as current or prior exposure. Acute coronary syndrome was defined as myocardial infarction or unstable angina, confirmed by cardiac biomarkers and coronary angiography. Results In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 34% with acute coronary syndrome had exposure to steroids versus 58% without acute coronary syndrome (pinflammatory bowel disease, 77% in Crohn's disease (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.92; adjusted OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.98), and 78% in ulcerative colitis (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.04; adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.90). There was no association between other inflammatory bowel disease medications and acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, steroid use significantly reduces the odds of acute coronary syndrome. These findings provide further mechanistic insight into the inflammatory processes involved in inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25446295

  1. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  2. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  3. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: An exceptional cause of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Djessan, J J; Zoumenou, A; Angoran, I; N'Guetta, R

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or sudden death, which typically affects young women. We reported two cases of black Africans patients, aged 56 and 52 years old, who presented to Abidjan Heart Institute for ACS. Coronary angiography showed spontaneous dissection of the right coronary artery in the first case, and dissection of the distal left anterior descending artery in the second. A conservative approach was preferred. Both patients received antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and statins, with a favorable in-hospital course. These cases highlight SCAD as a possible cause of ACS. Implementation of interventional cardiology in Sub-Saharan Africa will help identify this uncommon cause of ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    La prévalence des maladies cardiovasculaires connaît une croissance rapide dans les pays en développement, entraînant une incidence croissante du syndrome coronarien aigu (SCA. Les modalités de diagnostic et de traitement de cette maladie continuent d’évoluer, et il convient de tenir compte des ressources locales lors de la réalisation d’un diagnostic et la détermination des options thérapeutiques. Cet article constitue un guide à la prise en charge du SCA fondé sur l’expérience, et fournit des recommandations spécifiques destinées aux médecins hospitaliers travaillant dans les pays à bas et moyen revenu. Le diagnostic du SCA, y compris les SCA sans élévation du ST et avec élévation du ST, se concentre sur la stratification du risque, la vigilance relative aux manifestations subtiles ou atypiques, et la prise en considération d’autres causes des douleurs poitrinaires. Le processus de diagnostic implique l’évaluation des facteurs de risque, la connaissance des antécédents médicaux défavorables et les conclusions de l’examen physique (des variantes étant susceptibles d’exister dans les différentes populations, ainsi que l’utilisation de tests de diagnostic appropriés. Il est recommandé d’utiliser de l’aspirine à titre de traitement initial, parallèlement à un antiagrégant plaquettaire supplémentaire. Le prasugrel est préféré au clopidogrel si le patient présente un SCA avec élévation du ST et qu’une intervention coronaire percutanée (ICP est prévue. La bivalidurine devrait être le premier choix pour éviter la coagulation dans les SCA avec élévation du ST, suivie de l’enoxaparine (qui ne nécessite pas de perfusion, puis d’héparine non fractionnée. Pour les patients présentant un SCA sans élévation du ST et en cas de risque de saignement accru, le fondaparinux devrait être envisagé à la place de l’énoxaparine. Les patients souffrant de dyspnée, présentant des signes d

  5. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Robert P; White, Jennifer A; Bode, Christoph; Armstrong, Paul W; Montalescot, Gilles; Lewis, Basil S; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Berdan, Lisa G; Lee, Kerry L; Strony, John T; Hildemann, Steven; Veltri, Enrico; Van de Werf, Frans; Braunwald, Eugene; Harrington, Robert A; Califf, Robert M; Newby, L Kristin

    2009-05-21

    Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are indicated in patients with acute coronary syndromes who are undergoing an invasive procedure. The optimal timing of the initiation of such therapy is unknown. We compared a strategy of early, routine administration of eptifibatide with delayed, provisional administration in 9492 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and who were assigned to an invasive strategy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either early eptifibatide (two boluses, each containing 180 microg per kilogram of body weight, administered 10 minutes apart, and a standard infusion > or = 12 hours before angiography) or a matching placebo infusion with provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography (delayed eptifibatide). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization, or the occurrence of a thrombotic complication during percutaneous coronary intervention that required bolus therapy opposite to the initial study-group assignment ("thrombotic bailout") at 96 hours. The key secondary end point was a composite of death or myocardial infarction within the first 30 days. Key safety end points were bleeding and the need for transfusion within the first 120 hours after randomization. The primary end point occurred in 9.3% of patients in the early-eptifibatide group and in 10.0% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P=0.23). At 30 days, the rate of death or myocardial infarction was 11.2% in the early-eptifibatide group, as compared with 12.3% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.01; P=0.08). Patients in the early-eptifibatide group had significantly higher rates of bleeding and red-cell transfusion. There was no significant difference between the two groups in rates of severe bleeding or nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events. In patients who had acute

  6. [Benefits of coronary revascularization in septuagenarian patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Habib; Hamdi, Imen; Elkateb, Taoufik; Ben Hassan, Fadoua; Mokaddem, Aida; Ben Ameur, Youssef; Boujnah, Mohamed R

    2013-01-01

    Prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in elderly patients is bleak. Also older people tend to receive less invasive treatment than younger patients. To analyze the impact of coronary revascularization on the mid-term outcome of septuagenarian patients admitted with ACS. We retrospectively studied 250 patients 70 years or older hospitalised for ACS between january 2006 to september 2010. This population was more likely to be male with mean age 74 years and 93 % of ACS were inaugural events (60% NSTEMI, 40% STEMI). Coronary angiograms showed complex coronary lesions with a high incidence of multivessel disease, bifurcation lesions, and calcified stenosis. Seventy-six patients were treated medically and 174 underwent percutaneous or surgical revascularization. At six-month clinical follow-up, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly higher in medically treated than revascularized patients (62% Vs 31.7%, P <0.001). Patients with invasive strategy have significantly higher event free survival rate comparing to those assigned to medical management (64% Vs 49.7%, p: 0.01). Our study confirmed the superiority of invasive strategy compared to medical treatment in septuagenarian patients with acute coronary syndromes. Advanced age should not exclude patients from invasive strategy with complete revascularization.

  7. Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Risk to Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Beatrice; Cenko, Edina; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Stankovic, Goran; Kedev, Sasko; Kalpak, Oliver; Vavlukis, Marija; Zdravkovic, Marija; Hinic, Sasa; Milicic, Davor; Manfrini, Olivia; Badimon, Lina; Bugiardini, Raffaele

    2017-12-22

    Although acute coronary syndrome (ACS) mainly occurs in patients >50 years, younger patients can be affected as well. We used an age cutoff of 45 years to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of "young" patients with ACS. Between October 2010 and April 2016, 14 931 patients with ACS were enrolled in the ISACS-TC (International Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Transitional Countries) registry. Of these patients, 1182 (8%) were aged ≤45 years (mean age, 40.3 years; 15.8% were women). The primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Percentage diameter stenosis of ≤50% was defined as insignificant coronary disease. ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was the most common clinical manifestation of ACS in the young cases (68% versus 59.6%). Young patients had a higher incidence of insignificant coronary artery disease (11.4% versus 10.1%) and lesser extent of significant disease (single vessel, 62.7% versus 46.6%). The incidence of 30-day death was 1.3% versus 6.9% for the young and older patients, respectively. After correction for baseline and clinical differences, age ≤45 years was a predictor of survival in men (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.58), but not in women (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-3.62). This pattern of reversed risk among sexes held true after multivariable correction for in-hospital medications and reperfusion therapy. Moreover, younger women had worse outcomes than men of a similar age (odds ratio, 6.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-17.53). ACS at a young age is characterized by less severe coronary disease and high prevalence of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Women have higher mortality than men. Young age is an independent predictor of lower 30-day mortality in men, but not in women. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01218776. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Meta-analysis of time-related benefits of statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarese, E.P.; Kowalewski, M.; Andreotti, F.; Wely, M. van; Camaro, C.; Kolodziejczak, M.; Gorny, B.; Wirianta, J.; Kubica, J.; Kelm, M.; Boer, M.J. de; Suryapranata, H.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) still experience high rates of recurrent coronary events, particularly, early in their presentation. Statins yield substantial cardiovascular benefits, but the optimal timing of their administration, before or after percutaneous coronary intervention

  9. Outcome of contemporary acute coronary syndrome complicated by ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvin, Katia; Eisen, Alon; Goldenberg, Ilan; Gottlieb, Shmuel; Kornowski, Ran; Matetzky, Shlomi; Golovchiner, Gregory; Kuznietz, Jairo; Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Segev, Amit; Strasberg, Boris; Haim, Moti

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence and prognostic implications of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated 7669 MI patients [ST elevation (n = 3573) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 4096)] from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey for the incidence of VTA. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia occurred in 3.8% of patients [2.1% early (≤ 48 h) and 1.7% late (>48 h) VTA]. In-hospital mortality rates were higher for patients with VTA when compared with patients with no VTA (P < 0.001). Consistent with these findings, multivariable analysis demonstrated that early and late VTAs were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77-6.78, P < 0.001, and HR = 8.23; 95% CI 4.84-13.98, P < 0.001, respectively]. In contrast, post-discharge outcomes demonstrated that only late VTA was independently associated with a significant increased risk of 30-day mortality (HR = 5.17; 95% CI 1.54-17.27, P = 0.007) with a trend towards an increased 1-year mortality risk (HR = 1.69; 95% CI 0.79-3.62, P = 0.17). The long-term risk associated with in-hospital VTA was driven by sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (HR = 3.28; 95% CI 1.92-5.60, P < 0.001) but not ventricular fibrillation (HR = 1.27; 95% CI 0.65-2.49, P = 0.47). Our findings suggest that in patients with ACS, both early and late VTAs are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. However, only late VTA, mostly sustained VT, is associated with long-term adverse outcome. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in acute ischemic syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Suryapranata (Haryanto)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAcute myocardial ischemic syndromes are apparently related to the underlying pathophysiology leading to the clinical instability. Depending on the completeness and the duration of blood deprivation, different clinical syndromes result, such as sudden death, acute transmural

  11. [Oral antiplatelet therapy in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Ridvan

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, there have been rapid developments in cardiology, particularly regarding the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In this article, we reviewed the position of oral antiplatelet therapy in current guidelines. Since plaque rupture in ACS leads to a contact between atheroma content and platelets, resulting in rapid platelet aggregation and formation of thrombus plug, the ACS treatment must provide an effective inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y(12) inhibitor is the cornerstone of ACS treatment. The fact that the genetic and pharmacokinetic properties of clopidogrel, a P2Y(12) inhibitor, cause insufficient antiplatelet efficacy and inadequate offset of action has led to the introduction of new P2Y(12) inhibitors such as prasugrel, ticagrelor and cangrelor, which offer an improved antiplatelet efficacy with a bleeding risk within acceptable limits. Prasugrel, which is currently approved in Turkey, is used in ACS only for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the patients with a known coronary anatomy and without an intended bypass surgery. It has been found prasugrel is found to be efficient in the diabetic patients and for the prevention of subacute thrombus. However, it has limitations such as being contraindicated in the patients with a TIA history, and recommended not to be used (or used with dose reduction) in the patients above the age of 75 years and those with a body weight less than 60 kg. The other approved agent in Turkey is ticagrelor. It allows starting treatment without coronary angiography and can be used in a wide spectrum including PCI and medical treatment, and decreases mortality, all of which are advantages; however, it causes dyspnea in some patients and is dosed twice daily, which are considered as limitations. The widespread use of new P2Y(12) inhibitors in daily practice will demonstrate the antithrombotic efficacy, bleeding risk, effect on

  12. Acute Coronary Syndromes: From The Laboratory Markers To The Coronary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazzuoli Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of "interesting" risk markers have been proposed as providing prognostic information in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Elevation in plasma inflammatory and necrosis biomarkers have been related to future cardiovascular events in individuals with or without prior myocardial infarction. Recently BNP and pro-BNP are entered in clinical practice to recognize patients at major risk, providing incremental information respect to the traditional markers. Together with these laboratory indexes, a few of promising laboratory markers once easily available, could become useful in identification of patients at high risk. Several studies evaluated many markers of platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction and vascular thrombosis, but it is not yet clear whether each of the proposed markers may provide incremental predictive information. We describe, following the most studies reported in literature, the laboratory markers with potential clinical and prognostic power that could early help physicians in the identifi cation of patients with impaired coronary disease and more narrowed coronary arteries.

  13. Prevention of cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Lars

    2005-08-01

    Given the pivotal role of thrombin in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and its persistent activation at the site of arterial lesions, antithrombin agents are essential for the prevention of coronary events. Antiplatelet agents are used routinely in the prevention of ACS, but their inability to prevent thrombin generation might contribute to the remaining high rates of recurrent ischemic events after intense antithrombotic treatment in the acute phase. Combination treatment with antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) and vitamin K antagonists, provides improved efficacy in the secondary prevention of ACS but these agents have limitations that prevent widespread adoption of their use for long-term treatment. Ximelagatran is the first oral agent in the new class of direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and has considerable therapeutic potential in ACS. The DTIs are able to inhibit free and fibrin-bound thrombin by directly binding to the thrombin catalytic site. Furthermore, the oral administration and predictable pharmacokinetics of ximelagatran mean that it can be used at a fixed dose without coagulation monitoring and is convenient for long-term therapy. The efficacy of ximelagatran in the prevention of coronary events has been investigated in patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI) in the phase II Efficacy and Safety of the Oral Direct Thrombin inhibitor Ximelagatran in Patients with Recent Myocardial Damage (ESTEEM) trial. Ximelagatran (24 to 60 mg twice daily) added to aspirin (160 mg once daily) reduced the risk of the composite end point of death, MI, and severe recurrent ischemia by 24% versus aspirin alone, with no significant increase in major bleeding. Elevated serum transaminase enzymes developed during the first 1 to 6 months of treatment in a proportion of patients given ximelagatran. These elevations usually abated without clinical sequelae whether or not treatment was continued. The

  14. Prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a BleeMACS substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Mario; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Vadalà, Paolo; Wilton, Stephen B; Noussan, Patrizia; Colombo, Francesco; Raposeiras Roubín, Sergio; Abu Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Simao Henriques, Jose Paulo; Saucedo, Jorge; Kikkert, Wouter J; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Garbo, Roberto; Huczek, Zenon; Nie, Shao-Ping; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; García Acuña, José María; Southern, Danielle; Alfonso, Emilio; Terol, Belén; Garay, Alberto; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Yalei; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Osman, Neriman; Möllmann, Helge; Shiomi, Hiroki; Giordana, Francesca; Kowara, Michal; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Wang, Xiao; Yan, Yan; Fan, Jing-Yao; Ikari, Yuji; Nakahashi, Takuya; Sakata, Kenji; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kalpak, Oliver; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer that experience acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have to be determined. The BleeMACS project is a multicentre observational registry enrolling patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention worldwide in 15 hospitals. The primary endpoint was a composite event of death and re-infarction after one year of follow-up. Bleedings were the secondary endpoint. 15,401 patients were enrolled, 926 (6.4%) in the cancer group and 14,475 (93.6%) in the group of patients without cancer. Patients with cancer were older (70.8±10.3 vs. 62.8±12.1 years, Pprevalence in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, with a major risk of cardiovascular events and bleedings. Moreover, these patients are often undertreated from clinical despite medical therapy seems to be protective. Registration:The BleeMACS project (NCT02466854).

  15. Role of biomarkers in risk stratification of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesh, C M; Roy, Ambuj

    2010-11-01

    Diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a wide spectrum of myocardial ischaemia varying from assuredly benign to potentially fatal. Cardiac biomarkers have had a major impact on the management of this disease and are now the cornerstone in its diagnosis and prognosis. In this review we discuss both the established and the newer emerging biomarkers in ACS and their role in highlighting not only myocardial necrosis but also different facets of the pathophysiology of ACS. The future of cardiac biomarker testing may be in multimarker testing to better characterize each patient of ACS and thus tailor both short-term and long-term therapy accordingly. This novel concept, however, needs to be tested in clinical trials for its incremental value and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Chest wall myositis in a patient with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Laila; Al-Rawi, Harith

    2014-10-13

    We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with severe left-sided chest pain and chest tenderness of 1-day duration. The pain was episodic and was aggravated by any chest wall movement. His initial blood tests and ECG were suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, his pattern of pain, lack of response to opiates, raised creatine kinase and signs of pleurisy on chest radiograph raised a suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The patient showed a dramatic response in pain relief to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. He was suspected to have chest wall myositis with pleural involvement in the form of pleurodynia. His serology test was positive for coxsackie virus antibodies. We will discuss in this case report the pathognomonic features, diagnosis and treatment of a rare infectious condition known as Bornholm disease. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge. PMID:25267878

  18. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  19. The Impact of Hypertension on Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Picariello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial chronic hypertension (HTN is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In order to explain the relation between HTN and acute coronary syndromes the following factors should be considered: (1 risk factors are shared by the diseases, such as genetic risk, insulin resistance, sympathetic hyperactivity, and vasoactive substances (i.e., angiotensin II; (2 hypertension is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (which in turn contributes to progression of myocardial infarction. From all the registries and the data available up to now, hypertensive patients with ACS are more likely to be older, female, of nonwhite ethnicity, and having a higher prevalence of comorbidities. Data on the prognostic role of a preexisting hypertensive state in ACS patients are so far contrasting. The aim of the present paper is to focus on hypertensive patients with ACS, in order to better elucidate whether these patients are at higher risk and deserve a tailored approach for management and followup.

  20. Alternatives to clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: Prasugrel or ticagrelor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Lotrionte, Marzia; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2010-06-26

    Clopidogrel is a mainstay in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes or those receiving endovascular prostheses. However, its efficacy has been challenged in the recent past by studies suggesting variable individual responsiveness and by new, more potent competitors, such as prasugrel and ticagrelor. But what is the actual body of evidence in support of clopidogrel? Is there any dark side of the moon? What is the role of prasugrel, which has already been approved in Europe and in the United States? And what will be the future role of ticagrelor, when approved for routine clinical practice? We hereby concisely summarize the scope of this clinical choice, providing arguments in favor and against each of the three antiplatelet agents: clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Tang, Weifeng; Storey, Robert F; Husted, Steen; Teng, Renli

    2016-09-01

    Ticagrelor is an orally administered antiplatelet agent used to reduce thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Data from two studies in patients with acute coronary syndromes with large amounts of pharmacokinetic (PK) data (phase IIb DISPERSE-2 study (n = 609)); phase III PLATO PK substudy (n = 6,381)), along with non-linear mixed effects modeling software, were used to develop population PK models for ticagrelor and its metabolite, AR-C124910XX, and to evaluate the impact of demographic and clinical factors on the PK of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. 32 covariates relating to disease history, biomarkers, clinical chemistry, and concomitant medications were assessed. A one-compartment model with population mean PK parameters of firstorder absorption rate constant (0.67/h), apparent systemic clearance (14 L/h), and apparent volume of distribution (221 L) was shown to best describe the PK profile of ticagrelor. Patients co-administered moderate CYP3A inducers or inhibitors increased (by 110%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 52 - 192%) or decreased (by 64%, 95% CI, 39 - 73%) apparent ticagrelor clearance, respectively, while habitual smoking decreased apparent ticagrelor clearance by 22% (95% CI, 19 - 25%). Ticagrelor bioavailability was 21% (95% CI, 19 - 22%) lower at treatment initiation (visit 1) versus subsequent visits. Compared with Caucasian patients, ticagrelor bioavailability was 39% (95% CI, 33 - 46%) higher in Asian patients and 18% (95% CI, 6 - 28%) lower in Black patients. In the current analyses, the population PK models developed for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX described the data obtained in the DISPERSE-2 and PLATO studies well, and were consistent with previous phase I PK studies.

  2. Influence of gender on prognosis of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo-García, José Luis; Pérez-Calvo, Juan I; Zalba-Etayo, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease presents different features in men and women. We analyzed the relation between gender and prognosis in patients who had suffered a high-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This was a prospective analytical cohort study performed at Lozano Blesa University Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain, of 559 patients diagnosed with high-risk ACS with and without ST-segment elevation according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The sample was divided into two groups by gender and differences in epidemiologic, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic variables and treatment were recorded. A Cox's proportional hazard model was applied and 6-month mortality was analyzed as the main variable. The median age was 65.2±12.7 years, and 21.8% were women. Baseline characteristics in women were more unfavorable, with higher GRACE scores, older age, higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and heart failure, lower ejection fraction and more renal dysfunction at admission. Women suffered more adverse cardiovascular events (27.9% vs. 15.8%, p=0.002). Sixty-four patients died, 18.9% of the women vs. 9.4% of the men (p=0.004). After multivariate analysis, female gender did not present an independent relation with mortality. Hemoglobin level, renal function, ejection fraction and Killip class >1 presented significant differences. Acute syndrome coronary in women has a worse prognosis than in men. Their adverse course is due to their baseline characteristics and not to their gender. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Agranulocytosis and acute coronary syndrom in apathetic hyperthyreoidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivović Miomira

    2003-01-01

    disorder in hyperthyroidism but paroxysmal tachycardia and atrial fibrillation are not rare. This can be explained by increased heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume, coronary artery flow and peripheral oxygen consumption in thyreotoxicosis [9]. Patients with coronary arteriosclerosis can develop angina pectoris during thyreotoxic stage, which can be explained by imbalance between cardiac demand and supply. Myocardial damage is often in thyrotoxic patients with chronic hart failure, together with myocardial infarction in patients without coronary disease [2,6]. Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation are relatively resistant to digitalis treatment because of high metabolic turn over of medication and excessive myocardial irritability in hyperthyro-idism [6]. Cardiovascular and myopathic manifestations predominate in older hyperthyroid patients (over 60 years and some of them can have only few symptoms of hyperthyroidism [1-3]. Thyrotoxic state characterized by fatigue, apathy, extreme weakness, low-grade fever and sometimes congestive heart failure are designated as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Such patients have small goiters, mild tachycardia and often cool and dry skin with few eye signs [6]. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism are at increased risk for atrial fibrillation [9]. Unstable angina and non-Q myocardial infarction (non ST elevation are acute manifestation of coronary artery disease. The acute coronary syndrome of unstable angina, non-Q myocardial infarction and Q-wave myocardial infarction have atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries as a common pathogenic substrate. Errosions or ruptures of unstable atherosclerotic plaque triggered pathophysiologic processes, resulted in thrombus formation at the site of arterial injury. This leads to abrupt reduction or cessation through the affected vessel. Clinical manifestations of unstable angina and non-Q myocardial infarction are similar and diagnosis of non-Q myocardial infarction is made on

  4. Antithrombotic strategies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son V Pham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Son V Pham1, Phuong-Chi T Pham2, Phuong-Mai T Pham3, Jeffrey M Miller4, Phuong-Thu T Pham5, Phuong-Anh T Pham61Bay Pines VA Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Bay Pines, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Greater Los Angeles VA Medical Center, 4Department of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology Division, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, 5Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 6Mercy General Hospital, Heart and Vascular Institute, Department of Cardiology, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, both periprocedural acute myocardial infarction and bleeding complications have been shown to be associated with early and late mortality. Current standard antithrombotic therapy after coronary stent implantation consists of lifelong aspirin and clopidogrel for a variable period depending in part on the stent type. Despite its well-established efficacy in reducing cardiac-related death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is not without shortcomings. While clopidogrel may be of little beneficial effect if administered immediately prior to PCI and may even increase major bleeding risk if coronary artery bypass grafting is anticipated, early discontinuation of the drug may result in insufficient antiplatelet coverage with thrombotic complications. Optimal and rapid inhibition of platelet activity to suppress ischemic and thrombotic events while minimizing bleeding complications is an important therapeutic goal in the management of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. In this article we present an overview of the literature on clinical trials evaluating the different aspects of antithrombotic therapy in patients

  5. Prevalence and Significance of Unrecognized Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Zach; Leader, Avi; Neuman, Yoram; Shlezinger, Meital; Goldenberg, Ilan; Mosseri, Morris; Pereg, David

    2016-02-01

    Unrecognized renal insufficiency, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of unrecognized renal insufficiency in a large unselected population of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study population consisted of patients with acute coronary syndrome included in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli biennial Surveys during 2000-2013. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: 1) normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rates ≥60 mL/min/1/73 m(2)); 2) unrecognized renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates acute coronary syndrome patients. Unrecognized renal insufficiency was present in 2536 (19.8%). Patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency were older and more frequently females. All-cause mortality rates at 1 year were highest among patients with recognized renal insufficiency, followed by patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency, with the lowest mortality rates observed in patients with normal renal function (19.4%, 9.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, P coronary angiography and were less commonly treated with guideline-based cardiovascular medications. Acute coronary syndrome patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency should be considered as a high-risk population. The question of whether this group would benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach should still be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prasugrel hydrochloride for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermusier, Thibault; Waksman, Ron

    2015-03-01

    P2Y12 receptor antagonists, by inhibiting platelet activation and subsequent aggregation, are critical to prevent ischemic event recurrence after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine whose metabolites target the P2Y12 receptor. Compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel has a more potent, faster in onset, and more consistent P2Y12 receptor inhibition. This review describes prasugrel chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical studies. In a Phase III randomized clopidogrel-controlled trial, prasugrel improved cardiovascular outcome (risk reduction of cardiovascular death, non-fatal heart attack and non-fatal stroke) at the cost of increased major and fatal bleeding complications. Prasugrel, in combination with aspirin, has been approved by European and American regulatory agencies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with ACS who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prasugrel is effective for managing ACS patients with planned PCI and it offers an alternative with potential benefits over clopidogrel. Prasugrel is currently challenged by ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist with different pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties. The superiority of one drug to the other cannot be reliably estimated from the current trials. Ongoing randomized and observational studies may help to provide valuable information on the safety and efficacy of these two drugs and their respective places with ACS patients.

  7. Antiplatelet options for secondary prevention in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvain, Johanne; Cayla, Guillaume; O'Connor, Stephen A; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Montalescot, Gilles

    2011-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend dual antiplatelet therapy, a combination of aspirin and a P2Y(12) inhibitor, for 6?12 months after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent implantation in all patients and for 1 year in all patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), irrespective of revascularization strategy. Clopidogrel has a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile that results in a delayed and/or subtherapeutic antiplatelet effect, and wide variability in antiplatelet response. New P2Y(12) inhibitors, such as prasugrel and ticagrelor, have favorable pharmacodynamics and clinical efficacy over clopidogrel and offer an alternative antiplatelet treatment strategy in specific patients. Prasugrel has more potent, rapid, and consistent effects on inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation than clopidogrel. Ticagrelor also appears to have more rapid and consistent antiplatelet effects than clopidogrel. The higher levels of antiplatelet inhibition provided by prasugrel and ticagrelor compared with standard-dose clopidogrel result in improved ischemic outcomes in patients with ACS. Despite an increase in bleeding risk, prasugrel and ticagrelor appear to have a better net clinical benefit, especially in higher-risk patients with ACS.

  8. Major Depression and Acute Coronary Syndrome-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jose Henrique Cunha; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza E; Pereira, Basilio de Bragança; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2017-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses in psychiatry, being considered a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). To assess the prevalence of MDD in ACS patients, as well as to analyze associated factors through the interdependence of sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, case-series study conducted on patients hospitalized consecutively at the coronary units of three public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro over a 24-month period. All participants answered a standardized questionnaire requesting sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical data, as well as a structured diagnostic interview for the DSM-IV regarding ongoing major depressive episodes. A general log-linear model of multivariate analysis was employed to assess association and interdependence with a significance level of 5%. Analysis of 356 patients (229 men), with an average and median age of 60 years (SD ± 11.42, 27-89). We found an MDD point prevalence of 23%, and a significant association between MDD and gender, marital status, sedentary lifestyle, Killip classification, and MDD history. Controlling for gender, we found a statistically significant association between MDD and gender, age ≤ 60 years, sedentary lifestyle and MDD history. The log-linear model identified the variables MDD history, gender, sedentary lifestyle, and age ≤ 60 years as having the greatest association with MDD. Distinct approaches are required to diagnose and treat MDD in young women with ACS, history of MDD, sedentary lifestyle, and who are not in stable relationships.

  9. ST–Segment elevation: Not always an acute coronary syndrome

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    Érico Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors can be primary or metastatic, the latter being more frequent and usually of pulmonary or hematologic origin. These patients’ clinical signs are non-specific and the electrocardiogram (ECG can assume many patterns, among which, ST-segment elevation. Nevertheless, associated occlusion of the coronary arteries is rare in these situations.We present a 79-year-old woman with a history of pulmonary neoplasia who was admitted to the emergency department due to atypical chest pain, cough and worsening dyspnea in the previous 3 days. The ECG revealed an ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral and inferolateral leads, despite normal blood work, namely normal troponin. Due to the disparity between the patient’s symptoms and the ECG findings, a decision was made not to proceed to primary angioplasty, but to further investigate with echocardiography, which revealed a mass localized in the anterolateral and inferolateral left ventricle walls, confirmed by computed tomography. The patient was admitted in the medical ward for symptomatic management. Her clinical condition gradually deteriorated due to the disease’s natural evolution and she died two weeks later.This case highlights the importance to keep in mind differential diagnoses to acute coronary syndromes, when a ST-segment elevation is encountered on an ECG.

  10. Rapid Aspirin Challenge in Patients with Aspirin Allergy and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin A; White, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin allergy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome represents one of the more urgent challenges an allergist may face. Adverse reactions to aspirin are reported in 1.5% of patients with coronary artery disease. A history of adverse reaction to aspirin often leads to unnecessary withholding of this medication or use of alternative antiplatelet therapy which may be inferior or more costly. Aspirin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Rapid aspirin challenge/desensitization in the aspirin allergic patient has been consistently shown to be both safe and successful in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  11. Rethinking cocaine-associated chest pain and acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Jonathan B; Marhefka, Gregary D

    2011-12-01

    Every year more than 500,000 patients present to the emergency department with cocaine-associated complications, most commonly chest pain. Many of these patients undergo extensive work-up and treatment. Much of the evidence regarding cocaine's cardiovascular effects, as well as the current management of cocaine-associated chest pain and acute coronary syndromes, is anecdotally derived and based on studies written more than 2 decades ago that involved only a few patients. Newer studies have brought into question many of the commonly held theories and practices regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this common clinical scenario. However, there continues to be a paucity of prospective, randomized trials addressing this topic as it relates to clinical outcomes. We searched PubMed for English-language articles from 1960 to 2011 using the keywords cocaine, chest pain, coronary arteries, myocardial infarction, emergency department, cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiogram, coronary computed tomography, observation unit, β-blockers, benzodiazepines, nitroglycerin, calcium channel blockers, phentolamine, and cardiomyopathy; including various combinations of these terms. We reviewed the abstracts to confirm relevance, and then full articles were extracted. References from extracted articles were also reviewed for relevant articles. In this review, we critically evaluate the limited historical evidence underlying the current teachings on cocaine's cardiovascular effects and management of cocaine-associated chest pain. We aim to update the reader on more recent, albeit small, studies on the emergency department evaluation and clinical and pharmacologic management of cocaine-associated chest pain. Finally, we summarize recent guidelines and review an algorithm based on the current best evidence.

  12. The Epidemiology of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Panduranga, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology and coronary risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Oman. Methods: Data were collected through a prospective, multinational, multicentre survey of consecutive patients, hospitalised over a 5-month period in 2007 with a diagnosis of ACS, in Yemen and five Arabian Gulf countries (Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates). Here we present data of Omani patients aged ≥20 years who received a provisional diagnosis of ACS and were consequently admitted to 14 different hospitals. Results: There where 1,340 confirmed ACS episodes in 748 men and 592 women (median age 61 years). The overall crude incidence rate of ACS was 338.9 per 100,000 person-years (P-Y). The age-standardised rate (ASR) of ACS was 779 and 674 per 100,000 P-Y for men and women, respectively. The ASR male-to-female rate ratio was highest in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) group (2.26, 95% confidence interval ([CI], 1.63 to 3.15) followed by the non-STEMI (NSTEMI) group (1.68, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.21) and unstable angina (0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99). Unstable angina accounted for 55%, STEMI for 26% and NSTEMI for 19% of ACS cases. Among the coronary risk factors, there was a high prevalence of hypertension (68%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (36%), hyperlipidaemia (63%), and overweight/obesity (65%), with a relatively low rate of current tobacco use (11%). Conclusion: Our study confirms a high incidence of ACS in Omanis and supports the notion that the cardiovascular disease epidemic is also sweeping developing countries. PMID:23573381

  13. Coronary artery aneurysms in acute coronary syndrome: case series, review, and proposed management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nathan; Gupta, Rajesh; Schevchuck, Alex; Hindnavis, Vindhya; Maliske, Seth; Sheldon, Mark; Drachman, Douglas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

    2014-06-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon clinical finding, with an incidence varying from 1.5%-4.9% in adults, and is usually considered a variant of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAA identified in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a unique management challenge, particularly if the morphology of the CAA is suspected to have provoked the acute clinical syndrome. CAA is associated with thrombus formation due to abnormal laminar flow, as well as abnormal platelet and endothelial-derived pathophysiologic factors within the CAA. Once formed, mural thrombus may potentiate the deposition of additional thrombus within aneurysmal segments. Percutaneous revascularization of CAA has been associated with complications including distal embolization of thrombus, no-reflow phenomenon, stent malapposition, dissection, and rupture. Presently, there are no formal guidelines to direct the management of CAA in patients presenting with ACS; controversies exist whether conservative, surgical, or catheter-based management should be pursued. In this manuscript, we present an extensive review of the existing literature and associated clinical guidelines, and propose a management algorithm for patients with this complex clinical scenario. Armed with this perspective, therapeutic decisions may be tailored to synthesize patient factors and preferences, individualized clinical assessment, and existing American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of ACS.

  14. Long-term results of young patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Long-term follow-up studies on young patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary stent implantation are relatively scarce. This study was applied to review the long-term results of young ACS patients who had undergone coronary stenting in our hospital. One hundred and two young patients with ACS underwent coronary stent implantation in our hospital. In this study, inpatient records and long-term data of the 102 patients were comprehensively collected for analysis. Major gender of the young patients was men. Most of the patients had smoking, and each patient had at least one risk factor. During hospitalization, no patient died. At last follow-up, all patients were alive and the occurrence rate of major adverse cardio/cerebrovascular accidents was 4.9%. In summary, long-term follow-ups revealed extremely satisfactory outcomes in young ACS patients after coronary stent implantation. Smoking and traditional ACS risk factors are the leading causes of ACS in young population.

  15. The relationship between mean platelet volume and coronary collateral vessels in patients with acute coronary syndromes

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    Gaurav Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated mean platelet volume (MPV has been proposed as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and is associated with poor clinical outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS. However, some studies have contradictory findings. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association of MPV with the presence of coronary collateral vessel (CCV in patients with ACS. Objective: To find MPV value in ACS patients and to find the predictive value of MPV in the spectrum of CAD and to examine whether levels of MPV predict the presence of CCVs. Methods: A total of 180 patients with first ACS were included in the study. MPV was measured. All patients underwent coronary angiography to know disease severity and CCVs. The CCVs are graded according to the Rentrop scoring system and according to coronary angiography results; patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 (poor CCV and Group 2 (good CCV. Results: The MPV was 10.74 ± 2 fl in poor collateral group patients and 11.01 ± 1.7 fl in good collateral group (P = 0.421. The presence of CCV was not significantly associated with high levels of MPV. MPV value did not show any prediction of the spectrum of CAD. Conclusion: MPV on admission was not associated with the development of CCV positively in patients with ACS. Furthermore, it is not associated with a number of vessel involvements.

  16. Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Alcohol Abuse: Prospective Evaluation in the ERICO Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morilha, Abner; Karagulian, Samuel; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S; Benseñor, Isabela M; Goulart, Alessandra C

    2015-01-01

    ...) alcohol abuse in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO Study). 146 participants from the ERICO Study answered structured questionnaires and underwent laboratory evaluations at baseline, 30 days and 180 days after ACS...

  17. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain?Barre Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan?Barre Syndrome, hence reported.

  18. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan-Barre Syndrome, hence reported.

  19. Antiphospholipid antibodies in black south africans with hiv and acute coronary syndromes: prevalence and clinical correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Anthony C; Libhaber, Elena; Sliwa, Karen; Singh, Sham; Stewart, Simon; Tikly, Mohammed; Essop, Mohammed R

    2011-01-01

    ...) naïve HIV positive and negative patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS). Between March 2004 and February 2008, 30 consecutive black South African HIV patients with ACS were compared to 30 black HIV negative patients with ACS...

  20. No long-lasting or intermittent mast cell activation in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haelst, PL; Timmer, [No Value; Crijns, HJGM; Kauffman, HF; Gans, ROB; van Doormaal, JJ

    Background: Unstable coronary syndromes, such as acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris are mostly due to rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. Recently mast cells were found to participate actively in the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis by excreting proteolytic and

  1. Acute coronary syndromes: considerations for improved acceptance and implementation of management guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, F. van de; Ardissino, D.; Bueno, H.; Collet, J.P.; Gershlick, A.; Kolh, P.; Kristensen, S.D.; Silber, S.; Verheugt, F.W.; Wojakowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    The management of acute coronary syndrome in Europe is covered by various European Society of Cardiology guidelines, which although valuable, are complex and may not always provide clear guidance in everyday clinical practice. Consequently, implementation of the guideline recommendations is

  2. Identifying acute coronary syndrome patients approaching end-of-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Stephen; Woolcock, Rebecca; Haga, Kristin; Iqbal, Javaid; Fox, Keith A; Murray, Scott A; Denvir, Martin A

    2012-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is common in patients approaching the end-of-life (EoL), but these patients rarely receive palliative care. We compared the utility of a palliative care prognostic tool (Gold Standards Framework (GSF)) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, to help identify patients approaching EoL. 172 unselected consecutive patients with confirmed ACS admitted over an eight-week period were assessed using prognostic tools and followed up for 12 months. GSF criteria identified 40 (23%) patients suitable for EoL care while GRACE identified 32 (19%) patients with ≥ 10% risk of death within 6 months. Patients meeting GSF criteria were older (p = 0.006), had more comorbidities (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 1.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.007), more frequent hospitalisations before (p = 0.001) and after (0.0001) their index admission, and were more likely to die during follow-up (GSF+ 20% vs GSF- 7%, p = 0.03). GRACE score was predictive of 12-month mortality (C-statistic 0.75) and this was improved by the addition of previous hospital admissions and previous history of stroke (C-statistic 0.88). This study has highlighted a potentially large number of ACS patients eligible for EoL care. GSF or GRACE could be used in the hospital setting to help identify these patients. GSF identifies ACS patients with more comorbidity and at increased risk of hospital readmission.

  3. Identifying acute coronary syndrome patients approaching end-of-life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fenning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is common in patients approaching the end-of-life (EoL, but these patients rarely receive palliative care. We compared the utility of a palliative care prognostic tool (Gold Standards Framework (GSF and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE score, to help identify patients approaching EoL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 172 unselected consecutive patients with confirmed ACS admitted over an eight-week period were assessed using prognostic tools and followed up for 12 months. GSF criteria identified 40 (23% patients suitable for EoL care while GRACE identified 32 (19% patients with ≥ 10% risk of death within 6 months. Patients meeting GSF criteria were older (p = 0.006, had more comorbidities (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 1.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.007, more frequent hospitalisations before (p = 0.001 and after (0.0001 their index admission, and were more likely to die during follow-up (GSF+ 20% vs GSF- 7%, p = 0.03. GRACE score was predictive of 12-month mortality (C-statistic 0.75 and this was improved by the addition of previous hospital admissions and previous history of stroke (C-statistic 0.88. CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted a potentially large number of ACS patients eligible for EoL care. GSF or GRACE could be used in the hospital setting to help identify these patients. GSF identifies ACS patients with more comorbidity and at increased risk of hospital readmission.

  4. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder O Mirghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P 0.05. Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications.

  5. Acute coronary syndrome in a 100-year-old woman treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęćkowski, Maciej; Szwed, Hanna; Ciszewski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 100-year-old woman living alone with ST-elevation myocardial infarction acute coronary syndrome of the infero-lateral wall treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary angiography revealed critical 99% stenosis in the marginal branch of the circumflex artery and insignificant lesions in other arteries. Two bare metal stents were implanted successfully in the same session. The patient was discharged home in good general condition, able to live and function independently. PMID:24570714

  6. Defining a role for novel biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaca, Marc P; Morrow, David A

    2008-09-01

    Biomarkers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. Active investigation has brought forward an increasingly large number of novel candidate markers; however, few of these markers have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical use. This review discusses biomarkers currently used in the setting of acute coronary syndromes. In this context, we assess the contemporary unmet needs for novel biomarkers in acute ischemic heart disease and the related challenges faced in developing new biomarkers to the point of integration into clinical practice. In particular, we address the impact of the availability of increasingly sensitive biomarkers of myocardial necrosis on the potential roles for novel biomarkers of inflammation, thrombosis, and ischemia. Although active investigation has produced a growing list of candidate novel biomarkers for the care of patients with cardiovascular disease, it has become increasingly challenging to find appreciable incremental clinical benefit for their addition to existing markers, in particular newer, more analytically sensitive cardiac troponin assays. A major challenge for researchers and clinicians will be to demonstrate whether candidate novel markers are useful in improving diagnosis and guiding clinical treatment.

  7. Diagnostic Utility of Neuregulin for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Yaa A. B. Yiadom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of serum neuregulin-1β (NRG-1β for the detection of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We recruited emergency department patients presenting with signs and symptoms prompting an evaluation for ACS. Serum troponin and neuregulin-1β levels were compared between those who had a final discharge diagnosis of myocardial infarction (STEMI and NSTEMI and those who did not, as well as those who more broadly had a final discharge diagnosis of ACS (STEMI, NSTEMI, and unstable angina. Of 319 study participants, 11% had evidence of myocardial infarction, and 19.7% had a final diagnosis of ACS. Patients with MI had median neuregulin levels of 0.16 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–24.54]. Compared to the median of those without MI, 1.46 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–15.02], there was no significant difference in the distribution of results (P=0.63. Median neuregulin levels for patients with ACS were 0.65 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–24.54]. There was no statistical significance compared to those without ACS who had a median of 1.40 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–14.19] (P=0.95. Neuregulin did not perform successfully as a biomarker for acute MI or ACS in the emergency department.

  8. REPERFUSION THERAPY IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH ST SEGMENT ELEVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Alyavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effect of percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PCA and a systemic thrombolysis (STL on the central and intracardiac hemodynamics in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS with ST segment elevation.Material and methods. 80 patients with ACS with ST segment elevation were included in the study. Patients were split into 2 groups depending on reperfusion strategy. PCA was performed in 55 patients (first group. 25 patients of the second group had STL with Streptokinase, i/v, 1 500 000 units per hour. Echocardiography was performed in all patients at admission and after 3 and 7 days of treatment to evaluate intracardiac hemodynamics.Results. Both reperfusion methods significantly increase of ejection fraction (EF and maximal output speed of left ventricle (LV. Increase of LV EF in patients after PCA was higher than this in patients after STL. PCA improved LV diastolic function; STL did not change this characteristic. After PCA working diagnosis of ACS was transformed to the following final diagnosis: acute myocardial infarction (AMI with Q, AMI without Q and unstable angina in 37,5, 30,4 and 32,1% of patients, respectively. After STL diagnosis of AMI with Q was defined in all patients.Conclusion. PCA in patients with ACS with ST segment elevation results in fast improvement of global systolic and diastolic LV function. Besides, PCA prevents AMI with Q in a half of these patients.

  9. Diagnostic Utility of Neuregulin for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeremy; Smith, Holly M.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Liu, Dandan; Carlise, Jahred; Tortora, Laura; Storrow, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of serum neuregulin-1β (NRG-1β) for the detection of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We recruited emergency department patients presenting with signs and symptoms prompting an evaluation for ACS. Serum troponin and neuregulin-1β levels were compared between those who had a final discharge diagnosis of myocardial infarction (STEMI and NSTEMI) and those who did not, as well as those who more broadly had a final discharge diagnosis of ACS (STEMI, NSTEMI, and unstable angina). Of 319 study participants, 11% had evidence of myocardial infarction, and 19.7% had a final diagnosis of ACS. Patients with MI had median neuregulin levels of 0.16 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–24.54]). Compared to the median of those without MI, 1.46 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–15.02]), there was no significant difference in the distribution of results (P = 0.63). Median neuregulin levels for patients with ACS were 0.65 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–24.54]). There was no statistical significance compared to those without ACS who had a median of 1.40 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–14.19]) (P = 0.95). Neuregulin did not perform successfully as a biomarker for acute MI or ACS in the emergency department. PMID:27110055

  10. Effect of darapladib on major coronary events after an acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Braunwald, Eugene; White, Harvey D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been hypothesized to be involved in atherogenesis through pathways related to inflammation. Darapladib is an oral, selective inhibitor of the Lp-PLA2 enzyme. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of darapladib in patients...... after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: SOLID-TIMI 52 was a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomized 13,026 participants within 30 days of hospitalization with an ACS (non-ST-elevation or ST-elevation myocardial infarction [MI...

  11. Evaluation of intermediate coronary stenoses in acute coronary syndromes using pressure guidewire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Indolfi, Ciro; Davies, Justin E

    2017-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is increasingly used to guide myocardial revascularisation. However, supporting evidence regarding its use originates from studies that have enrolled mainly patients with stable angina, while patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have not been included. Notably, multifactorial microvascular dysfunction and an increased sympathetic tone in patients with ACS may lead to blunted response to adenosine and false-negative results of FFR due to submaximal hyperaemia. This may raise the possibility of deferring treatment of stenosis that instead would have needed dilatation, thus leaving a residual risk of preventable cardiac events. In this literature review, we aim at summarising laboratory and clinical investigations concerning the use of FFR in culprit and non-culprit lesions in ACS. Furthermore, we will report recent data on instantaneous wave-free ratio, an adenosine-free index of functional stenosis severity, in stable coronary artery disease and in patients with ACS. PMID:28761673

  12. Study of the Association between H. pylori Infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fouladi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection.   Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software.   Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3% in control group and 122 patients (40.6% in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group.   Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

  13. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yüksel

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. Methods: The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1 and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2. Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  14. The cost of inpatient death associated with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page II RL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Page II,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,2 Jill Van Den Bos,3 Travis J Gray,3 Greta L Hoetzer,4 Durgesh Bhandary,4 Kavita V Nair1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3Milliman, Inc, Denver, CO, 4AstraZeneca, US Medical Affairs, Wilmington, DE, USA Background: No studies have addressed the cost of inpatient mortality during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS admission. Objective: Compare ACS-related length of stay (LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by day of discharge/death for patients who died during an inpatient admission with a matched cohort discharged alive following an ACS-related inpatient stay. Methods: Medical and pharmacy claims (2009–2012 were used to identify admissions with a primary diagnosis of ACS from patients with at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to an ACS admission. Patients who died during their ACS admission (deceased cohort were matched (one-to-one to those who survived (survived cohort on age, sex, year of admission, Chronic Condition Index score, and prior revascularization. Mean LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by the day of discharge/death for the deceased cohort were compared with the survived cohort. A generalized linear model with log transformation was used to estimate the differences in the total expected incremental cost of an ACS admission and by the day of discharge/death between cohorts. A negative binomial model was used to estimate differences in the LOS between the two cohorts. Costs were inflated to 2013 dollars. Results: A total of 1,320 ACS claims from patients who died (n=1,320 were identified and matched to 1,319 claims from the survived patients (n=1,319. The majority were men (68% and mean age was 56.7±6.4 years. The LOS per claim for the deceased cohort was

  15. IMPACT OF HAEMOGLOBIN LEVELS ON OUTCOMES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrirang Kishor Bhurchandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is observed that anaemia is a common problem in patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes. There have been reports in worldwide studies of an association between anaemia and poor prognosis in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS All consecutive patients having ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina who were admitted in medicine ward, Medicine Intensive Care Unit (MICU, Cardiology Department (CRD, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (CVTS Department and incidentally found in other departments of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital admitted from 1st November 2014 to 31st December 2015 at AVBRH. Total 200 patients were included in the study. RESULTS Our study showed an association between haemoglobin levels and mean age (p=0.0001, gender (p=0.0001, risk factors like smoking (p=0.035, tobacco (p=0.001 and Killip’s class I (p=0.0001, III (p=0.0001 and IV (p=0.0001. On distribution of the MACE’s during hospital stay stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. On distribution of the MACE’s during follow up on 30th day and on 180th day stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION To conclude our study results, it was found during the study that anaemia as an important risk factor was strongly associated with major adverse outcomes in patients with ACS. Our study suggested that there was a statistically significant correlation between the low Hb levels and MACE’s (post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart

  16. Blood Transfusion and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrowni, Wassef; Vora, Amit Navin; Dai, David; Wojdyla, Daniel; Dakik, Habib; Rao, Sunil V

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. To date, no studies have evaluated the association of blood transfusion with AKI in patients undergoing PCI. We used a retrospective cohort study of all patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI from CathPCI Registry (n=1 756 864). The primary outcome was AKI defined as the rise in serum creatinine post procedure ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% above baseline values. AKI developed in 9.0% of study sample. Patients with AKI were older, more often women, and had high prevalence of comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and advanced stages of chronic kidney disease at baseline. Blood transfusion was utilized in 2.2% of patients. In the overall sample, AKI developed in 35.1% of patients who received transfusion versus 8.4% of patients without transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 4.87 [4.71-5.04]). In the subgroup of patients who sustained bleeding event and received transfusion, the rate of AKI was significantly increased across all preprocedure hemoglobin levels versus no blood transfusion. Similar findings were seen in the subgroup of patients with no bleeding event. Blood transfusion is strongly associated with AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI. Further investigation is needed to determine whether a restrictive blood transfusion strategy might improve PCI outcomes by reducing the risk of AKI. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The risk of acute coronary syndrome in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriha Belguith, Asma; Baccouche, Houda; Grissa, Mohamed Habib; Boubaker, Hamdi; Bouida, Wahid; Beltaief, Kaouthar; Sekma, Adel; Fredj, Nizar; Bzeouiche, Nasri; Zina, Zied; Boukef, Riadh; Soltani, Mohamed; Nouira, Semir

    2016-10-01

    Data on the effect of fasting on coronary disease are rare and controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Ramadan on the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome among chest pain patients in the emergency department of Monastir. It was a prospective study, performed in the emergency department of Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital of Monastir, during the 3 months before, during and after Ramadan from 2012 to 2014. We included all patients with non-traumatic chest pain during the study period. Data were collected using a standardized form. The uniformity chi 2 test, ANOVA test, Kruskal-Wallis test were performed at the 5% level. Binary logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The SCA prevalence was 17% a month before Ramadan, 22% during Ramadan and 28% one month after Ramadan (p = 0.007). According to the results of the multivariate analysis, the period of Ramadan is not associated with increase of risk of SCA whereas the risk doubles after Ramadan in all group (p = 0.001). In subgroups analysis, the period of R was associated with an amplification of risk in men aged more than 55 years and women older than 65 years (OR: 2.1; p = 0.020) and among subjects with hypertension (OR: 2.4, p = 0.007). Ramadan and Shawwal were not associated with an increase of risk among subjects without CVX risk factor. We have demonstrated that the risk of SCA has increased in Ramadan only among the elderly and patient with hypertension. The increased risk in Shawwal can be explained by the lifting of dietary restriction.

  18. Major Depression and Acute Coronary Syndrome-Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Henrique Cunha Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is one of the most common mental illnesses in psychiatry, being considered a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS. Objective: To assess the prevalence of MDD in ACS patients, as well as to analyze associated factors through the interdependence of sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, case-series study conducted on patients hospitalized consecutively at the coronary units of three public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro over a 24-month period. All participants answered a standardized questionnaire requesting sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical data, as well as a structured diagnostic interview for the DSM-IV regarding ongoing major depressive episodes. A general log-linear model of multivariate analysis was employed to assess association and interdependence with a significance level of 5%. Results: Analysis of 356 patients (229 men, with an average and median age of 60 years (SD ± 11.42, 27-89. We found an MDD point prevalence of 23%, and a significant association between MDD and gender, marital status, sedentary lifestyle, Killip classification, and MDD history. Controlling for gender, we found a statistically significant association between MDD and gender, age ≤ 60 years, sedentary lifestyle and MDD history. The log-linear model identified the variables MDD history, gender, sedentary lifestyle, and age ≤ 60 years as having the greatest association with MDD. Conclusion: Distinct approaches are required to diagnose and treat MDD in young women with ACS, history of MDD, sedentary lifestyle, and who are not in stable relationships.

  19. Development and Validation of a Stent Thrombosis Risk Score in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangas, George D.; Claessen, Bimmer E.; Mehran, Roxana; Xu, Ke; Fahy, Martin; Parise, Helen; Henriques, José P. S.; Ohman, E. Magnus; White, Harvey D.; Stone, Gregg W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to develop a practical risk score to predict the risk of stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Background ST is a rare, yet feared complication after PCI with stent implantation. A risk score for ST after

  20. ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Siha, Hany; Fu, Yuling

    2012-01-01

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO...

  1. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Hout, B.A. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg

  2. Outcome of coronary lesions with deferred revascularization due to negative fractional flow reserve in subjects with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Andrea; Leone, Antonio Maria; Zilio, Filippo; Cerrato, Enrico; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Fineschi, Massimo; Rigattieri, Stefano; Ferlini, Marco; Cameli, Matteo; Calabria, Paolo; Cresti, Alberto; Limbruno, Ugo

    2017-03-01

    Revascularization of functionally non-significant stenoses in patients with stable coronary artery disease can safely be deferred as rate of adverse cardiovascular events is low. It is not clear whether fractional flow reserve (FFR) is just as accurate in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of coronary lesions whose revascularization was deferred based on negative FFR values in subjects with ACS. Patients with acute coronary syndrome and showing at least one coronary stenosis whose revascularization was deferred based on FFR value >0.80 were included in the study. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction and any coronary revascularization) related to the initially deferred stenosis at three-year follow-up. A total of 319 patients (237 male), mean age 68 [59-74] years and 355 coronary lesions with deferred revascularization based on negative FFR values (0.88±0.05) were selected. The rate of TLF was 6% at 1-year, 9% at 2-year and 12% at 3-year follow-up. TLF was driven by a new acute coronary syndrome in 75% of cases. The median time interval from FFR assessment to TLF was 457 [138-868] days. In patients with acute coronary syndrome, the rate of TLF of the initially deferred coronary stenoses is 12% at 3-year follow-up and TLF occurred because of a new ACS in three quarters of cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes: focus on ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Kade; Parra, David; Rosenstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of antiplatelet agents, specifically the thienopyridines, has become a standard of care in the approach to the patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome. These drugs irreversibly inhibit the platelet by permanently binding to the surface P2Y12 receptor and blocking the downstream fibrinogen cross-linking between platelets, which leads to aggregation and thrombus. However, currently available therapeutic choices are limited by potential interaction with other medications, slow hepatic conversion to active metabolite, genetic resistance, and narrow therapeutic safety margin. In order to overcome these disadvantages, there has been an interest in developing alternatives to thienopyridines. Recent investigations have included ticagrelor, a reversible inhibitor of the P2Y12 platelet receptor, which appears to have overcome several drawbacks of the current thienopyridines. Its unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles result in an inhibition of platelet aggregation that is rapid, high, consistent, and less susceptible to interpatient variability than currently available P2Y12 inhibitors. In addition, ticagrelor offers a potential mortality advantage not apparent with current agents. Although questions regarding the nature, magnitude, and clinical significance of several observed adverse effects (dyspnea and ventricular pauses) remain unanswered, it appears that ticagrelor may represent a significant advancement over currently available oral antiplatelet agents.

  4. Review of ticagrelor in the management of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sonya; Mallard, Trevor A; Juergens, Craig P

    2012-10-01

    Ticagrelor, an oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist used as part of dual antiplatelet therapy in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), has many favorable characteristics when compared with the more frequently used P2Y(12) receptor antagonist clopidogrel. Ticagrelor binds reversibly, with a rapid onset and offset of action, and produces high levels of platelet inhibition without variation secondary to genetic polymorphism. Ticagrelor produces increased platelet inhibition and an overall reduction in adverse cardiac events compared with clopidogrel. Clinically relevant side effects include an increase in non-CABG-related bleeding events as well as off-target adverse effects including ventricular pauses and dyspnea. This article details ticagrelor's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, development and chemical properties. The authors review relevant clinical trials looking at the efficiency and safety of ticagrelor focusing predominantly on the management of patients with ACS. Finally, the review article concludes with discussion of ticagrelor's current role and future integration into clinical practice. Ticagrelor is a promising P2Y(12) receptor antagonist with characteristics that offer advantages for patients beyond those currently demonstrated by other P2Y(12) receptor antagonists. The challenge for prescribers is to identify those most likely to benefit from ticagrelor treatment while minimizing unnecessary bleeding events for 'real-world' ACS patients.

  5. Third national registry of acute coronary syndromes (RENASICA III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Martinez-Sanchez, Carlos; Borrayo-Sanchez, Gabriela; Carrillo-Calvillo, Jorge; Juarez-Herrera, Ursulo; Quintanilla-Gutierrez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    RENASICA III is a prospective, multicenter registry on acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The main objective will be to identify the outcome in tertiary and community hospitals and perform strategies to improve quality of care in Mexico. RENASICA III will enroll 8000 patients in public health and private hospitals. The registry began in November 2012 with a planned recruitment during 12 months and a 1-year follow-up. The study population will comprise a consecutive, prospective cohort of patients >18 years with ACS final diagnosis and evidence of ischemic heart disease. The structure, data collection and data analysis will be based on quality current recommendations for registries. The protocol has been approved by institutional ethics committees in all participant centers. All patients will sign an informed consent form. Currently in Mexico, there is a need of observational registries that include patients with treatment in the everyday clinical practice so the data could be validated and additional information could be obtained versus the one from the clinical trials. In this way, RENASICA III emerges as a link among randomized clinical trials developed by experts and previous Mexican experience. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Return to work after an acute coronary syndrome: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebus, Frans G; Jorstad, Harald T; Peters, Ron Jg; Kuijer, P Paul Fm; Willems, J Han Hbm; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw

    2012-06-01

    To describe the time perspective of return to work and the factors that facilitate and hinder return to work in a group of survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Retrospective semi-structured telephone survey 2 to 3 years after hospitalization with 84 employed Dutch ACS-patients from one academic medical hospital. Fifty-eight percent of patients returned to work within 3 months, whereas at least 88% returned to work once within 2 years. Two years after hospitalization, 12% of ACS patients had not returned to work at all, and 24% were working, but not at pre-ACS levels. For all ACS-patients, the most mentioned categories of facilitating factors to return to work were having no complaints and not having signs or symptoms of heart disease. Physical incapacity, co-morbidity, and mental incapacity were the top 3 categories of hindering factors against returning to work. Within 2 years, 36% of the patients had not returned to work at their pre-ACS levels. Disease factors, functional capacity, environmental factors, and personal factors were listed as affecting subjects' work ability level.

  7. Depression After First Hospital Admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Mårtensson, Solvej; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim

    2016-01-01

    We examined incidence of depression after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and whether the timing of depression onset influenced survival. All first-time hospitalizations for ACS (n = 97,793) identified in the Danish Patient Registry during 2001-2009 and a reference population were followed....... In total, 19,520 (20.0%) ACS patients experienced depression within 2 years after the event. The adjusted rate ratio for depression in ACS patients compared with the reference population was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.30). During 12 years of follow-up, 39,523 (40.4%) ACS patients and 27......,931 (28.6%) of the reference population died. ACS patients with recurrent (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.57, 1.67) or new-onset (HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.60, 1.72) depression had higher mortality rates than patients with no depression. In the reference population, the corresponding relative estimates...

  8. Impact of abciximab in elderly patients with high-risk acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an observational registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan Z; Galatius, Soeren; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are classified as elderly (aged =70 years). The glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab is known to reduce adverse outcomes in patients aged

  9. Patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST elevation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention benefit most from early intervention with protection by a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ronner (Eelko); H. Boersma (Eric); K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn); R.A. Harrington (Robert Alex); A.M. Lincoff (Michael); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); K. Karsch (Karl); N.S. Kleiman (Neal); A. Vahanian (Alec); E.J. Topol (Eric); R.M. Califf (Robert); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Many patients with acute coronary syndromes are offered percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the appropriate indications for, and optimal timing of, such procedures are uncertain. We analysed timing of intervention and associated events (death and myocardial

  10. Delay of neutrophil apoptosis in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlichs, C D; Eskafi, S; Cicha, I; Schmeisser, A; Walzog, B; Raaz, D; Stumpf, C; Yilmaz, A; Bremer, J; Ludwig, J; Daniel, W G

    2004-05-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is currently discussed as a key event in the control of inflammation. This study determined PMN apoptosis and its underlying mechanisms in controls (C), patients with stable (SAP) or unstable angina (UAP), and with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Blood was drawn from 15 subjects of each C, SAP, UAP, and AMI. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry in isolated PMN (propidium iodide staining) and PMN from whole blood (CD16, FcgammaRIII). Serum cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis of isolated PMN was delayed significantly in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) as compared with SAP or C (C, 51.2+/-12.6%; SAP, 44.9+/-13.6%; UAP, 28.4+/-10.1%; AMI, 20.3+/-8.5%; AMI or UAP vs. SAP or C, P<0.001). These results were confirmed by measurement of PMN apoptosis in cultured whole blood from patients and controls. Moreover, serum of patients with ACS markedly reduced apoptosis of PMN from healthy donors. Analysis of patients' sera revealed significantly elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin (IL)-1beta in ACS (vs. C and SAP). IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL-1beta significantly delayed PMN apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, coincubation of PMN with adenosine 5'-diphosphate-activated platelets significantly inhibited PMN apoptosis as compared with coculture with unstimulated platelets. This study demonstrates a pronounced delay of PMN apoptosis in UAP and AMI, which may result from increased serum levels of IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL-1beta and from enhanced platelet activation. Therapeutical modulation of these determinants of PMN lifespan may provide a new concept for the control of inflammation in ACS.

  11. Impact of coronary dominance on in-hospital outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kuno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the manner in which coronary dominance affects in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that left dominant coronary anatomies are associated with worse prognoses in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4873 ACS patients undergoing PCI between September 2008 and April 2013 at 14 hospitals participating in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database Registry. The patients were grouped based on diagnostic coronary angiograms performed prior to PCI; those with right- or co-dominant anatomy (RD group and those with left-dominant anatomy (LD group. RESULTS: The average patient age was 67.6±11.8 years and both patient groups had similar ages, coronary risk factors, comorbidities, and prior histories. The numbers of patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiopulmonary arrest were significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group (heart failure: 650 RD patients [14.7%] vs. 87 LD patients [18.8%], P = 0.025; cardiogenic shock: 322 RD patients [7.3%] vs. 48 LD patients [10.3%], P = 0.021; and cardiopulmonary arrest: 197 RD patients [4.5%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.003. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among LD patients than among RD patients (182 RD patients [4.1%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that LD anatomy was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.030. CONCLUSION: Among ACS patients who underwent PCI, LD patients had significantly worse in-hospital outcomes compared with RD patients, and LD anatomy was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.

  12. Acute Coronary Syndrome In Zanzibar, Tanzania | Budha | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was carried out to determine patients characteristics, prevalence of risk factors, presenting symptom, provisional diagnosis, final diagnosis and outcome of acute coronary ... Smoking and family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) were found in nine (69.2%) and five (38.5%) patients respectively.

  13. Acute Phase Hyperglycemia among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Laftah Wanoose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Regardless of diabetes status, hyperglycemia on arrival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, has been associated with adverse outcomes including death. The aim of this study is to look at the frequency and prognostic significance of acute phase hyperglycemia among patients attending the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome over the in-hospital admission days.Methods: The study included 287 consecutive patients in the Al- Faiha Hospital in Basrah (Southern Iraq during a one year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to admission plasma glucose level regardless of their diabetes status (those with admission plasma glucose of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L and those equal to or more than that. Acute phase hyperglycemia was defined as a non-fasting glucose level equal to or above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L regardless of past history of diabetes.Results: Sixty one point seven percent (177 of patients were admitted with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences were found between both groups regarding the mean age, qualification, and smoking status, but males were predominant in both groups. A family history of diabetes, and hypertension, were more frequent in patients with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences between the two groups regarding past history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, lipid profile, troponin-I levels or type of acute coronary syndrome. Again heart failure was more common in the admission acute phase hyperglycemia group, but there was no difference regarding arrhythmia, stroke, or death. Using logistic regression with heart failure as the dependent variable we found that only the admission acute phase hyperglycemia (OR=2.1344, 95�0CI=1.0282-4.4307; p=0.0419 was independently associated with heart failure. While male gender, family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and

  14. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, William B; Cannon, Christopher P; Heller, Simon R

    2013-01-01

    with alogliptin, a new inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and either an acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring...... of hypoglycemia, cancer, pancreatitis, and initiation of dialysis were similar with alogliptin and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary syndrome, the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events were not increased with the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin...

  15. Prevalence and prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention-associated nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Lorenzo; Canovas, Ester; Freites, Alfonso; de la Rosa, Adriana; Alonso, Javier; del Castillo, Roberto; Salinas, Pablo; Montalvo, Gema Beatriz; Huelmos, Ana Isabel; Botas, Javier

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence, risk factors, and short- and long-term prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal renal function who developed percutaneous coronary intervention-associated nephropathy. This was an observational, retrospective, single-center study with a prospective follow-up of 470 consecutive patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (not in cardiogenic shock) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, with no preexisting renal failure (admission creatinine ≤ 1.3mg/dL). Percutaneous coronary intervention-associated was defined as an increase in baseline creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or ≥ 25% baseline. The mean follow-up was 26.7 (14) months. Of the 470 patients, 30 (6.4%) developed percutaneous coronary intervention-associated nepfhropathy. The independent predictors for acute renal failure were admission hemoglobin level (odds ratio = 0.71) and maximum troponin I level prior to the procedure (odds ratio = 1.02). During the long-term follow-up, the patients whose renal function deteriorated had a higher incidence of total mortality (5 [16.7%] vs 27 [6.1%]; P = .027). In the Cox regression analysis, percutaneous coronary intervention-associated nepfhropathy was not an independent predictor for total mortality, but could be a predictor for cardiac mortality (hazard ratio=5.4; 95% confidence interval 1.35-21.3; P = .017). Percutaneous coronary intervention-associated nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal preexisting renal function is not uncommon and influences long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute coronary syndrome in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nazimah Idris1, Sharifah Sulaiha Aznal1, Sze-Piaw Chin1, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad2, Azhari Rosman3, Sinnadurai Jeyaindran4, Omar Ismail5, Robaayah Zambahari3, Kui Huan Sim6 1International Medical University, Seremban; 2University Malaya Medical Centre, PJ; 3Institut Jantung Negara, KL; 4Hospital Kuala Lumpur, KL; 5Hospital Pulau Pinang; 6Hospital Umum Sarawak, Malaysia Background: There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known. Objective: To analyze factors associated with ACS in women of reproductive age in comparison with older women and men of a similar age group. Methodology: A total of 9702 cases of acute coronary syndrome over a 3-year period (2006–2008 from the National Cardiovascular Disease database were analyzed, with focus on women of reproductive age (20–<40 years, looking into association with ethnicity, comorbid illness, and the ACS stratum. Comparison with older women (40–<60 years; Control 1 and men of similar age group (Control 2 was made and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test when necessary. Results: From a total of 9702 cases, 2344 (24.2% were women. Of these, 45 (1.9% were women between 20 and <40 years, which is significantly lower than the two controls (older women 30.8%, and men of same age 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001. The distribution of ethnicity shows a similar pattern between the study group and the controls, but patients of Indian ethnicity were over-represented when compared with the Malaysian demographics of general population (31.3% versus 7.1%; P < 0.0001. ACS in women of reproductive age was associated with diabetes mellitus in 37.8%, hypertension in 40.0%, and dyslipidemia in 24.4% of cases, similar to men of the same age but significantly lower than the older women (P < 0.0001. Smoking

  17. Potential role of rivaroxaban in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitchett DH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available David H FitchettDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS continue to be at risk for recurrent ischemic events, despite an early invasive strategy and the use of dual antiplatelet therapy. The anticoagulant pathway remains activated for a prolonged period after ACS and, consequently, has been a target for treatment. Early studies with warfarin indicated its benefit, but the risk of bleeding and the complexities of warfarin anticoagulation resulted in little use of this strategy. Rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran are new specific inhibitors of anticoagulant factors (Xa or IIa currently available for the prevention of thrombosis and/or thromboembolism. Thus far, studies with dabigatran and apixaban in ACS have shown no clinical benefit and bleeding has been increased. The ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial observed the impact of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily in patients with recent ACS receiving current management (both early invasive strategy and dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel over a follow-up period of over 1 year. Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke by 16%, and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by approximately 20%. Although major bleeding increased from 0.6% to 2.1% and intracranial hemorrhage from 0.2% to 0.6%, there was no increase in fatal bleeding. The role of rivaroxaban in the management of ACS is discussed in this review. The reduction in mortality is the main finding that could lead to the use of rivaroxaban in the management of ACS in high-risk individuals with a low bleeding risk.Keywords: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, anticoagulation, bleeding risk

  18. Differences in mortality in acute coronary syndrome symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Barbara; Hanlon, Alexandra L; McKinley, Sharon; Moser, Debra K; Meischke, Hendrika; Doering, Lynn V; Davidson, Patricia; Pelter, Michele M; Dracup, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    The timely and accurate identification of symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a challenge for patients and clinicians. It is unknown whether response times and clinical outcomes differ with specific symptoms. We sought to identify which ACS symptoms are related-symptom clusters-and to determine if sample characteristics, response times, and outcomes differ among symptom cluster groups. In a multisite randomized clinical trial, 3522 patients with known cardiovascular disease were followed up for 2 years. During follow-up, 331 (11%) had a confirmed ACS event. In this group, 8 presenting symptoms were analyzed using cluster analysis. Differences in symptom cluster group characteristics, delay times, and outcomes were examined. The sample was predominantly male (67%), older (mean 67.8, S.D. 11.6 years), and white (90%). Four symptom clusters were identified: Classic ACS characterized by chest pain; Pain Symptoms (neck, throat, jaw, back, shoulder, arm pain); Stress Symptoms (shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, indigestion, dread, anxiety); and Diffuse Symptoms, with a low frequency of most symptoms. Those in the Diffuse Symptoms cluster tended to be older (P = .08) and the Pain Symptoms group was most likely to have a history of angina (P = .01). After adjusting for differences, the Diffuse Symptoms cluster demonstrated higher mortality at 2 years (17%) than the other 3 clusters (2%-5%, P symptoms occur in groups or clusters. Uncharacteristic symptom patterns may delay diagnosis and treatment by clinicians even when patients seek care rapidly. Knowledge of common symptom patterns may facilitate rapid identification of ACS.

  19. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN PATIENT WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Krisnayanti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Depression and anxiety are two conditions that common happened in patient with acute coronary syndrome which can cause negative cardiovascular outcomes. Although the prevalencies of these two conditions are slightly high, most of them had not been treated well. The mechanisms that underly the association between depression and anxiety with the negative cardiovascular outcome are possibly correlates with their effect on inflammatory process, cathecolamine release, heart rate variability, endothelial function and also their effect on health promoting behavior. Fortunately, the standard therapies that available for these conditions are safe, effective, and can be tolerated well in most patients. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. Prevalence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Ozaki, Yuichi; Taruya, Akira; Fukuda, Shota; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Iwaguro, Tetsuya; Ueno, Satoshi; Okumoto, Yasushi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) found typically in young females without classical coronary risk factors is thought to be a very rare cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The prevalence of SCAD in ACS subjects has been unclear, probably due to the nature of coronary angiography. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the prevalence of SCAD in ACS. This study consisted of 326 patients with ACS (with or without ST-segment elevation) who underwent OCT to explore the entire culprit artery. According to OCT findings, patients were divided into a SCAD, a plaque rupture (PR), and a non-SCAD/non-PR group. OCT revealed 13 (4.0%) SCADs and 160 (49.1%) plaque ruptures in ACS subjects. The percentage of females versus males was greater in the SCAD group (SCAD: 53.8% vs. PR: 20.0% vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 23.5%, p=0.02) while no difference was observed in age (SCAD: 67.3±13.3 vs. PR: 66.5±11.1 vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 67.0±10.5, p=0.90). The prevalence of dyslipidemia (SCAD: 30.8% vs. PR: 63.8% vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 67.5%, p=0.03) and current smoking (SCAD: 7.7% vs. PR: 57.9% vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 59.7%, pcoronary risk factors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  1. Clinical implications of elevated serum soluble CD137 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchuan Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Research has focused on identifying specific serum biomarkers to detect vulnerable plaques. These markers serve as diagnostic tools for acute coronary syndrome and assist in identifying high-risk patients. However, the existing data are limited and conflicting. This study tested the hypothesis that CD137 levels identify patients with acute coronary syndrome who are at a heightened risk for recurrent cardiac events. METHODS: The levels of soluble CD137 (sCD137 were measured using ELISA in 180 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 120 patients with acute chest pain. Platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic characteristics of sCD137. RESULTS: The levels of sCD137 were elevated in 75 patients with acute coronary syndromes and 20 patients with acute chest pain (>35.0 ng/ml. In patients with acute coronary syndrome, elevated sCD137 levels (>35.0 ng/ml indicated an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (OR =1.93, 95% CI: 1.39-2.54. Elevated serum levels of sCD137 and cTnT were correlated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in both groups after 30 days, six months and nine months of follow-up. The increased sCD137 levels were significantly correlated with the levels of troponin I (r = 0.4799, p<0.001. Importantly, 26 patients with normal cTnI levels had acute coronary syndrome. However, elevated sCD137 levels identified these patients as a being high-risk subgroup (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.25-4.13. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated sCD137 levels indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Soluble CD137 may be a useful prognostic marker or indicator for adverse events in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  2. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia, Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira, Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI), which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), emotional distancing (EmD), dehumanization (De) and professional fulfillment (PF). The Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI) was applied to evaluate global stress. Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital.

  3. Prehospital delay in acute coronary syndrome--an analysis of the components of delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prompt hospital admission is essential when treating acute coronary syndrome. Delay prior to admission is unnecessarily long. Therefore, a thorough scrutiny of the influence of characteristics, circumstantial and subjective variables on elements of prehospital delay among patients...... admitted with acute coronary syndrome is warranted. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted on 250 consecutive patients admitted alive with acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: Median prehospital, decision, physician and transportation delays were 107, 74, 25 and 22 min, respectively. Women (n=77) had...... more frequently atypical symptoms and increased prehospital delay caused by prolonged physician and transportation delay. Physician delay among women and men were 69 and 16 min, respectively. Patients with prior myocardial infarction had reduced prehospital delay, which was caused by shorter decision...

  4. Early percutaneous coronary intervention, platelet inhibition with eptifibatide, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. PURSUIT Investigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Kleiman (Neal); D.V. Cokkinos (Dennis); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); R.A. Harrington (Robert Alex); R.M. Califf (Robert); E.J. Topol (Eric); A.M. Lincoff (Michael); G.C. Flaker; K.S. Pieper (Karen); R.G. Wilcox (Robert); L.G. Berdan (Lisa); T.J. Lorenz; H. Boersma (Eric)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists prevent the composite end point of death or myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with acute coronary syndromes. There is uncertainty about whether this effect is confined to patients who have percutaneous

  5. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...

  6. [EXPERIENCE WITH THE USE OF EPTIFIBATIDE IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME DURING CORONARY INTERVENTION IN PATIENTS OLDER AGE GROUP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyakov, D V; Nazarov, E M; Tkhagapsov, A Z; Volkov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is the leading cause of death in patients older age group. Primary PCI is nearly uncontested revascularization method because of its efficacy in reperfusion achievement and less hemorrhagic complications compared to systemic thrombolytic therapy. Nevertheless, the age of the patients is a significant bleeding risk factor, sophisticating the choice and dosing antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy during coronary angioplasty and stenting. Blocker 2b/3a receptor eptifibatide are used to avoids the development of ischemic complications and improves myocardial perfusion, but accompanied with bleeding risk during common infusion (12-18 hours). Combined intracoronary and intravenous infusion eptifibatide during only coronary intervention enhance procedure safety.

  7. Optimizing antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxon, David P

    2012-02-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is the standard of care for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is well established that inhibition of platelet aggregation reduces the risk of recurrent thrombotic events and stent thrombosis. However, some patients show a reduced antiplatelet response to standard clopidogrel loading (300 mg) and maintenance (75 mg day(-1)) doses, which has been associated with poorer patient outcomes. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies show that higher-than-standard clopidogrel dosing strategies facilitate more rapid platelet inhibition of a greater intensity as a result of greater plasma concentrations of the clopidogrel active metabolite. Recently completed studies suggest that in patients with ACS undergoing PCI, higher-than-standard clopidogrel dosing regimens provide greater inhibition of platelet function and improved clinical outcomes with a small but significant increase in major bleeding. Newer, more potent antiplatelet agents such as prasugrel and ticagrelor are other alternative strategies that result in more rapid, greater inhibition of platelet function and better outcomes than standard-dose clopidogrel. Whether platelet reactivity-guided therapy or genotyping for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms is useful in managing patients needs to be further defined. Most importantly, early and effective antiplatelet therapy results in the best short- and long-term outcomes for patients with ACS or those undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and procalcitonin as markers of myocardial injury in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Ayşegül; Kara, Hasan; Kiyici, Aysel; Özturk, Bahadır; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Akyürek, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), procalcitonin, and troponin I levels as diagnostic markers of acute coronary syndrome in patients admitted to the emergency department. The serum PAPP-A, IMA, procalcitonin, and troponin I levels were measured in 100 patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted to the emergency department and 100 healthy control subjects. Patients with acute coronary syndrome had significantly greater mean serum PAPP-A (patients, 10 ± 10 mIU/L; control subjects, 6 ± 10 mIU/L; P PAPP-A levels and IMA, procalcitonin, or troponin I levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The PAPP-A, procalcitonin, and troponin I levels were increased in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, elevated PAPP-A and procalcitonin levels, in addition to troponin I levels, may be useful markers of myocardial injury on admission to the emergency department.

  9. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase...... for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited....

  10. Predictive Factors of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Denise Meira; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-12-01

    To identify the predictive factors of anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted with 120 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. Factors interfering with anxiety and depression were assessed. Anxiety was related to sex, stress, years of education, and depression, while depression was related to sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, years of education, and trait-anxiety. Obesity and anxiety were considered predictive factors for depression, while depression and fewer years of education were considered predictive factors for anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of escitalopram in prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (DECARD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba Hedegaard; Hanash, Jamal Abed; Rasmussen, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major problem in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with negative impact on survival and quality of life. No studies have examined prevention of post-ACS depression. We examined whether treatment with escitalopram can prevent post-ACS depression.......Depression is a major problem in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with negative impact on survival and quality of life. No studies have examined prevention of post-ACS depression. We examined whether treatment with escitalopram can prevent post-ACS depression....

  12. Surgical Versus Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Krishnan; Abel, James G; Park, Julie E; Fung, Anthony; Mathew, Verghese; Taylor, Carolyn M; Mancini, G B John; Gao, Min; Ding, Lillian; Verma, Subodh; Humphries, Karin H; Farkouh, Michael E

    2017-12-19

    Randomized trial data support the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery over percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in diabetic patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MV-CAD). However, whether this benefit is seen in a real-world population among subjects with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is unknown. The main objective of this study was to assess the generalizability of the FREEDOM (Future REvascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multi-vessel Disease) trial in real-world practice among patients with diabetes mellitus and MV-CAD in residents of British Columbia, Canada. Additionally, the study evaluated the impact of mode of revascularization (CABG vs. PCI with drug-eluting stents) in diabetic patients with ACS and MV-CAD. In a large population-based database from British Columbia, this study evaluated major cardiovascular outcomes in all diabetic patients who underwent coronary revascularization between 2007 and 2014 (n = 4,661, 2,947 patients with ACS). The primary endpoint (major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events [MACCE]) was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. The risk of MACCE with CABG or PCI was compared using multivariable adjustment and a propensity score model. At 30-days post-revascularization, for ACS patients the odds ratio for MACCE favored CABG 0.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34 to 0.71), whereas among SIHD patients MACCE was not affected by revascularization strategy (odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.71 to 3.01; pinteraction <0.01). With a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the late (31-day to 5-year) benefit of CABG over PCI no longer varied by acuity of presentation, with a hazard ratio for MACCE in ACS patients of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.81) and the hazard ratio for SIHD patients of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.74; pinteraction = 0.28). In diabetic patients with MV

  13. [Prevalence and characteristics of acute coronary syndromes in a sub-Saharan Africa population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guetta, R; Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Cho-Mottoh, M P; Angoran, I; Tano, M; Konin, C; Coulibaly, I; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Seka, R; Adoh, A M

    2016-04-01

    To assess prevalence, characteristics and management of acute coronary syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa population. Prospective survey from January, 2010 to December, 2013, carried out among patients aged 18 years old, admitted to intensive care unit of Abidjan Heart Institute for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Four hundred and twenty-five (425) patients were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of ACS was 13.5%. Mean age was 55.4±11 years. Clinical presentation was predominantly ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 71.5% of subjects, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) accounted for 28.5%. Two hundred and eighty patients (65.9%) were transferred by unsafe transportation. Among the 89 patients admitted within 12hours of the onset of symptoms, primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 20 patients (22.5%), or 6.6% of STEMI as a whole. Twenty-five patients (8.2%) received fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase. In-hospital death rate was 10%. The prevalence of acute coronary syndromes is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Excessive delays of admission and limited technical facilities are the major difficulties of their management in our regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetically Confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-Salamanca, Almudena; Castillo, Sergio; Gonzalez-Vioque, Emiliano; Dominguez, Fernando; Quintana, Lucía; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Escudier, Juan Manuel; Ortega, Javier; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2017-10-03

    Genetic screening programs in unselected individuals with increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have shown modest results in identifying individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). This study assessed the prevalence of genetically confirmed FH in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compared the diagnostic performance of FH clinical criteria versus FH genetic testing. Genetic study of 7 genes (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, APOE, STAP1, LDLRAP1, and LIPA) associated with FH and 12 common alleles associated with polygenic hypercholesterolemia was performed in 103 patients with ACS, age ≤65 years, and LDL-C levels ≥160 mg/dl. Dutch Lipid Clinic (DLC) and Simon Broome (SB) FH clinical criteria were also applied. The prevalence of genetically confirmed FH was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3% to 16.4%; n = 9); 29% (95% CI: 18.5% to 42.1%; n = 18) of patients without FH variants had a score highly suggestive of polygenic hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of probable to definite FH according to DLC criteria was 27.2% (95% CI: 19.1% to 37.0%; n = 28), whereas SB criteria identified 27.2% of patients (95% CI: 19.1% to 37.0%; n = 28) with possible to definite FH. DLC and SB algorithms failed to diagnose 4 (44%) and 3 (33%) patients with genetically confirmed FH, respectively. Cascade genetic testing in first-degree relatives identified 6 additional individuals with FH. The prevalence of genetically confirmed FH in patients with ACS age ≤65 years and with LDL-C levels ≥160 mg/dl is high (approximately 9%). FH clinical algorithms do not accurately classify patients with FH. Genetic testing should be advocated in young patients with ACS and high LDL-C levels to allow prompt identification of patients with FH and relatives at risk. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TREATMENT COMPLIANCE, IN PATIENS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROM BEFORE HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lukina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to study adherence prior hospitalization, and the most important factors of adherence in hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Materials and methods. This study included all patients admitted to the Cardiology Department of the Clinical Hospital № 2 Lyubertsy with a diagnosis of ACS. All the patients were asked to complete a questionnaire on assessing adherence during their stay in hospital. Results. Under obtain preliminary results (six months from the start of the study the study included 130 patients with ACS: 79 men and 51 women. Half of the patients (n = 61 are constantly observed by a doctor, and the other half almost did not seek for medical help. According to the Moriscos–Green test 71 persons (54.6 % were adherented to medical treatment, 55 patients were found to have low adherence to therapy. Only 42 patients, one-third of the survey participants took all drugs recommended by the doctor . Less than 9 % of patients hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS took statins, one third of patients were recommended to take aspirin. Primary cause of recommendations for medical therapy is forgetfulness (18.5 %, about 10 % of patients are afraid of the side effects of drugs. The main way to improve patient adherence to therapy was mentioned like information from the doctor about the possibility of improving the life and disease prognosis (62.3 %, quality of life, improving well-being(25.8 %, only 4 patients (3 % were totally unwilling to comply with medical recommendations. Conclusion. Specially designed questionnaire gave possibility to assess a number of facts (very low prescription of some of the main groups of cardiac drugs, high mortality identified in the study of the, and their possible causes. In addition to the personal factors of patients (forgetfulness, the main causes of poor adherence to treatment is the lack of awareness of patients about their illness, the possibilities of modern therapy

  16. Prevalence of Tako-Tsubo Syndrome among patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome referred to our centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Vigna, Carlo; Amico, Cesare; Lanna, Pompeo; Troiano, Giovanni; Stanislao, Mario; Valle, Guido; Santoro, Tiberio; Fanelli, Raffaele

    2009-05-15

    The Tako-Tsubo Syndrome is a clinical entity characterized by acute but rapidly reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction and triggered by emotional or psychological stress. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of this syndrome among the patients presenting to our Centre with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. Over a 12-month period (May 2006 to April 2007), among 82 patients referred to our catheterization laboratory with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome, 4 confirmed Tako-Tsubo Syndrome (prevalence 4.87%). The patients referred to our Centre came from Foggia's province above all. The mean age of the population was 65.5 +/- 18.48 years (range 49 to 82), with a ratio of men to women of 1:3. The syndrome characterized by acute chest pain with ST-segment elevation, absence of significant lesions in each of the 3 epicardial coronary arteries by angiography, systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 35 +/- 9.12%) with abnormal wall motion of the mid and distal LV and hyperkinesia of the basal LV, and emotional or psychological stress immediately preceding the cardiac events. Among markers of cardiac necrosis, only serum Troponin-I increased in each patients without significant elevation of CPK and with mild elevation of CK-mb and LDH. 2 patients developed hemodynamic instability. Each patient survived with normalized ejection fraction (54.25 +/- 5.05%) and rapid restoration to previous functional cardiovascular status within 4 weeks. A reversible cardiomyopathy triggered by emotional or psychological stress occurs in elderly women above all and mimic acute coronary syndrome. The diagnosis of Tako-Tsubo Syndrome is based mainly on coronary and left ventricular angiography, which excludes the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and recognizes the pattern of wall-motion abnormalities. The different epidemiology of this Syndrome reported in literature demonstrates which this cardiomyopathy is underdiagnosed.

  17. DATA MINING APPROACH FOR IN-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladojević, Miroslava; Čanković, Milenko; Čemerlić, Snežana; Mihajlović, Bojan; Ađić, Filip; Jaraković, Milana

    2015-01-01

    Risk stratification is nowadays crucial when estimating the patient's prognosis in terms of treatment outcome and it also helps in clinical decision making. Several risk assessment models have been developed to predict short-term outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study was aimed at developing an outcome prediction model for patients with acute coronary syndrome submitted to percutaneus coronary intervention using data mining approach. A total of 2030 patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention from December 2008 to December 2011 were assigned to a derivation cohort. Demographic and anamnestic data, clinical characteristics on admission, biochemical analysis of blood parameters on admission, and left ventricular ejection fraction formed the basis ofthe study. A number of machine learning algorithms available within Waikato Environment for Knowledge Discovery had been evaluated and the most successful was chosen. The predictive model was subsequently validated in a different population of 931 patients (validation cohort), hospitalized during 2012. The best prediction results were achieved using Alternating Decision Tree classifier, which was able to predict in-hospital mortality with 89% accuracy, and preserved good performance on validation cohort with 87% accuracy. Alternating Decision Tree classifier identified a subset of 6 attributes most relevant to mortality prediction: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, age, and troponin value. Data mining approach enabled the authors to develop a model capable of predicting the in-hospital outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention. The model showed excellent sensitivity and specificity during internal validation.

  18. Characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Abdulla; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Almahmeed, Wael; Bustani, Nazar; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas; Yusufali, Afzal; Wassef, Adel; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Brek, Azan Bin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics, management and in-hospital outcomes of coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with HF in the United Arab Emirates. Findings The study was selected from the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE), a prospective multi-national, multicenter regi...

  19. Accuracy of the GRACE and TIMI scores in predicting the angiographic severity of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Esteves; Viana, Mateus; Brito, Mariana; Sabino, Michael; Garcia, Guilherme; Maraux, Mayara; Souza, Alexandre Costa; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia; Esteves, J Péricles; Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of the GRACE and TIMI scores in predicting coronary disease extension in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has not been established. To assess the hypothesis that the GRACE and TIMI risk scores satisfactorily predict coronary disease extension in patients withnon-ST-elevation ACS undergoing coronary angiography. Individuals meeting the objective criteria for ACS and undergoing coronary angiography during hospitalization were consecutively assessed. Angiographic coronary disease was described as follows: quantification of coronary disease extension by using Gensini score; presence of any coronary artery obstruction (> 70% or > 50% when affecting left main coronary artery); and presence of severe disease (three-vessel disease or affecting the left main coronary artery). Of 112 patients assessed, a positive correlation of the Gensini score was observed with the GRACE (p = 0.017) and TIMI (p = 0.02) scores, but that association was weak (r = 0.23 and r = 0.27; respectively). The GRACE score could predict neither obstructive coronary disease (area under the ROC curve = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.46 - 0.69), nor severe coronary disease (ROC = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.48 - 0.70). The TIMI score proved to be a modest predictor of coronary disease (ROC = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.55 - 0.76) and of severe coronary disease (ROC = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.56 - 0.76). (1) There is a positive association between the values of the TIMI or GRACE scores and the extension of coronary artery disease in patients with ACS; (2) however, the degree of that association is not sufficient to make those scores accurate predictors of coronary angiography results.

  20. HELICOBACTER PYLORI-ASSOCIATED INFLAMMATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Pavlov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – assessment of the prevalence of seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori infection and laboratory comparative study of the peripheralblood in patients depending on the course of coronary heart disease (CHD.Materials and methods. Observation of 100 patients with coronary artery disease and 40 control patients is presented. Investigation indicatorsof clinical blood tests, biochemical blood analysis and determination of immunoglobulin antibody titer against Helicobacter pylori.Results. In patients with coronary artery disease signs of systemic inflammation associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome are marked with increased antibody titers to infection Helicobacter pylori.Conclusion. A history of coronary artery disease in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal pathology should be considered as a factor that increases the likelihood of unstable coronary desease course. Detected in patients with coronary artery disease signs of systemic inflammation with an increase in titer of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori infection associated with development of acute coronary syndrome.

  1. Aromatherapy massage versus reflexology on female elderly with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Tahereh; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Tadrisi, Seyed Davood; Sieloff, Christina L

    2017-06-02

    Fatigue and abnormalities in cardiovascular parameters are recognized as major problems for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Non-pharmacological nursing interventions are useful for controlling this fatigue and reducing patients' suffering during hospitalization. The present study compared the effects of aromatherapy massage and reflexology on fatigue and cardiovascular parameters in older female patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted with 135 older female patients with acute coronary syndrome who were hospitalized in a cardiac care unit in 2014. They were invited to participate in the study and then were randomly divided into three groups: 'aromatherapy massage', 'reflexology' and 'control'. The fatigue severity and cardiovascular parameters were assessed using the Rhoten fatigue scale and a checklist. Measurements in the groups were performed before and immediately after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics via the SPSS software. Aromatherapy massage significantly decreased fatigue, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and O2 saturation more than the reflexology intervention. However, reflexology reduced patients' heart rates more than an aromatherapy massage (P aromatherapy massage and reflexology has positive effects on the fatigue and cardiovascular parameters of patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, aromatherapy massage can be more beneficial to use as a supportive approach in coronary diseases. The need for reducing fatigue in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in a cardiac care unit is evident. The implementation of aromatherapy massage and reflexology had positive effects on patients' fatigue as related to both physical and mental health. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  2. Eptifibatide: The evidence for its role in the management of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ibrahim; Khan, Shakeel O; Malhotra, Surender; Fischell, Tim

    2010-06-15

    Acute coronary syndromes and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction are often initiated by platelet activation. Eptifibatide is a cyclic heptapeptide and is the third inhibitor of glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa that has found broad acceptance after the specific antibody abciximab and the nonpeptide tirofiban entered the global market. Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors act by inhibiting the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, and play an important role in the management of acute coronary syndromes. This review assesses the evidence for therapeutic value of eptifibatide as a Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Several large, randomized controlled trials show that eptifibatide as adjunctive therapy to standard care in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of death or myocardial infarction. Data are limited regarding the use of eptifibatide in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that eptifibatide is associated with a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio relative to standard care. According to US cost-effectiveness analysis about 70% of the acquisition costs of eptifibatide are offset by the reduced medical resource consumption during the first year. Eptifibatide was well tolerated in most of the trials. Bleeding is the most commonly reported adverse event, with most major bleeding episodes occurring at the vascular access site. Major intracranial bleeds, stroke, or profound thrombocytopenia rarely occurred during eptifibatide treatment. Eptifibatide has gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to standard anticoagulation therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and may be particularly useful in the management of patients with elevated troponin or undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.

  3. In-hospital and 12-month outcomes after acute coronary syndrome treatment in patients aged<40 years of age (from the Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Przemysław; Gierlotka, Marek; Gąsior, Mariusz; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Hawranek, Michał; Lekston, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian; Poloński, Lech

    2014-07-15

    We aimed to compare the characteristics and in-hospital and 12-month outcomes in patients aged>40 and <40 years with acute coronary syndrome. The analysis involved 789 patients aged<40 years and 63,057 patients aged≥40 years enrolled in the ongoing Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes from October 2003 to December 2009. Patients aged<40 years with acute coronary syndrome differed from older patients in their clinical characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcome. The older patients more frequently had pulmonary edema (2.9% vs 0.4%, p<0.0001) and cardiogenic shock (4.7% vs 2.8%, p=0.011) on admission. For the younger patients, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention were performed more often (71.5% vs 60.5%, p<0.0001 and 51.5% vs 47.7%, p=0.04, respectively). The younger patients had a lower mortality rate than the older patients during hospitalization (1.5% vs 5.2%, p<0.0001) and during 12-month follow-up period (4.1% vs 13.4%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age<40 years was one of the strongest factors associated with lower mortality during the 12 months after discharge (hazard ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.62, p<0.0001). In conclusion, younger patients had more favorable in-hospital and 1-year outcomes than older patients, and the age<40 years was revealed to be one of the strongest factors associated with lower mortality during the 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. No prognostic significance of chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in acute coronary syndromes: insights from the Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries IV Acute Coronary Syndromes trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhout, Cynthia M; Gnarpe, Judy; Chang, Wei-Ching

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although relationships between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and the risk of coronary events in stable coronary artery disease patients have been reported, a similar link in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has not been consistently observed. METHODS: In a nested...

  5. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute coronary syndrome in six middle eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Zubaid, Mohammad; El-Menyar, Ayman A; Singh, Rajvir; Rashed, Wafa; Ridha, Mustafa; Shehab, Abdulla; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Amin, Haitham; Al-Mottareb, Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and effect of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) on patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in six Middle Eastern countries using the new definition of MetS. Analysis of the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE), which included 8716 consecutive patients hospitalized with ACS, was conducted and patients were divided into two groups: patients with and patients without the MetS. Overall, 46% of patients had MetS. Patients with MetS were more likely to be female and less likely to be smokers. In-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were comparable between the two groups, although MetS patients were more likely to have congestive heart failure and recurrent ischemia. In ST-elevation myocardial infarction, MetS was also associated with increased risk of recurrent myocardial infarction and stroke. Using the recent MetS definition, MetS is highly prevalent among Middle Eastern patients presenting with ACS. MetS is associated with higher-risk profile characteristics and increased risk for development of heart failure and recurrent myocardial ischemia without an increase in hospital mortality. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Samara region experience in organization of emergency care system for patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplyakov D.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general features of healthcare program for patients with acute coronary syndrome which started in Samara region in 2007. Some results and perspectives of future development of Samara “myocardial infarction network” are elucidated.

  7. Early statin initiation and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newby, L.K.; Kristinsson, A.; Weaver, W.D.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Aylward, P.; Dimas, A.P.; Moliterno, D.J.; McGuire, D.K.; Bhapkar, M.V.; Klein, W.W.; Califf, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: The secondary prevention benefit of therapy with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) has been clearly demonstrated; however, the role of early initiation of statins after acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of

  8. Determinants of exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecini, Redi; Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms behind exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease have been described earlier. We describe the determinants of exercise-induced changes in MR in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTACS)....

  9. Associated Factors of Anxiety among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Kelantan and Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adnan Wan-Nor-Asyikeen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that anxiety had myriad effects on cardiovascular physiology, which plays an important role in the increased incidence of ischemic events in patients. A screening tool should be created to refine and identify the psychological status of acute coronary syndrome patients, so that early treatment could be given.

  10. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain–Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan–Barre Syndrome, hence reported. PMID:28706599

  11. Elevated troponin levels and typical chest pain: Is always acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Osken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a fatal disease that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain. If the diagnosis cannot be made in early period, mortality is very high. Here, we present a case of aortic dissection, clinically mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome : studies in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins Slot, M.H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the potential value of early cardiac biomarkers in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the primary care setting, with special attention for point-of-care tests. The design and results of a large diagnostic study on the value of a bedside

  13. The role of alexithymia in predicting incident depression in patients at first acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ossola, Paolo; Scagnelli, Francesca; Mellini, Lorenzo; Tonna, Matteo; Ardissino, Diego; De Panfilis, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Alexithymia has been considered both to predispose to depression and to worsen cardiac prognosis after an acute coronary syndrome. Nonetheless, no studies have evaluated its role as a risk factor for incident depression, in patients with acute coronary syndrome. In 251 consecutive patients, the presence of a first-ever depressive episode was evaluated with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months after their first acute coronary syndrome. At baseline, patients completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Out of 251 subjects (80.9% males), a first-ever depressive episode was diagnosed in 66 patients. Depressed and never-depressed patients differed in female gender, living status, alexithymic scores at TAS-20 and depressive symptoms. Nonetheless, nor the TAS-20 factors nor its total score were predictive of developing a depressive episode in a Cox regression. Moreover, baseline differences in TAS-20 scores between the two groups, disappeared after controlling for anhedonic symptoms. Our results do not support the hypothesis that alexithymia at TAS-20 is a risk factor for incident depression after acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-dose anticoagulation for secondary prevention in acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    After acute coronary syndrome (ACS), long-term dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and a P2Y(12) platelet receptor antagonist is the standard of care for secondary prevention. Despite the introduction of more potent P2Y(12) receptor antagonists, the risk of a recurrent vascular event

  15. Cardiovascular Safety of One-Year Escitalopram Therapy in Clinically Nondepressed Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanash, Jamal A; Hansen, Baiba H; Hansen, Jørgen F

    2012-01-01

    : Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used for treatment of depression in patients with cardiac diseases. However, evidence of cardiovascular (CV) safety from randomized trials is based on studies of no longer than 6-month duration. We examined the CV safety of 1-year treatment w...... with Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram compared with placebo in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS)....

  16. Patients and acute coronary syndrome - Prehospital delay and mental and emotional delaying responses - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    . A phenomenological design inspired by Steinar Kvale provided the methodological foundation. 15 women and 15 men with a first-time diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome were interviewed 48-72 hours after admission. On symptom debut, the participants’ strategies were to «wait and see» and «let me be». Chest pains were...

  17. Acute coronary syndrome in octogenarians: association between percutaneous coronary intervention and long-term mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barywani SB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salim Bary Barywani,1 Shijun Li,1,2 Maria Lindh,1 Josefin Ekelund,1 Max Petzold,3 Per Albertsson,4 Lars H Lund,5,6 Michael LX Fu1 1Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Geriatrical Cardiology, PLA General Hospitals, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Centre for Applied Biostatistics, University of Gothenurg, Gothenburg, 4Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 6Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Aim: Evidence of improved survival after use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is limited. We assessed the association between PCI and long-term mortality in octogenarians with ACS. Methods and results: We followed 353 consecutive patients aged ≥80 years hospitalized with ACS during 2006–2007. Among them, 182 were treated with PCI, whereas 171 were not. PCI-treated patients were younger and more often male, and had less stroke and dependency in activities of daily living, but there were no significant differences in occurrence of diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and uncured malignancies between the two groups. The association between PCI and all-cause mortality was assessed in the overall cohort and a 1:1 matched cohort based on propensity score (PS. In overall cohort, 5-year all-cause mortality was 46.2% and 89.5% in the PCI and non-PCI groups, respectively. Cox regression analysis in overall cohort by adjustment for ten baseline variables showed statistically significant association between PCI and reduced long-term mortality (P<0.001, hazard ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2–0.5. In propensity-matched cohort, 5-year all-cause mortality was 54.9% and 83.1% in the PCI and non

  18. Partner’s Smoking Status and Acute Coronary Syndrome: Population-based Case-control Study in Tirana, Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Gerhard; Burazeri, Genc; Dehghan, Abbas; Kark, Jeremy D.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the association between partners’ smoking status and acute coronary syndrome in never smokers in Albania. Methods This population-based case-control study was conducted in Tirana in the period 2003-2006. It involved 467 consecutive patients with non-fatal acute coronary syndrome and 737 controls. Only married never-smokers (169 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 323 controls) were included in the analysis. Information on socioeconomic status, coronary risk factors, and partners’ current smoking status was obtained by a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between partner’s smoking status and acute coronary syndrome. Results Among patients with acute coronary syndrome, 49% of women and 25% of men had a partner who was a current smoker, as opposed to 44% of women and 16% of men in the control group. In age-adjusted models, non-smoking men with smoking partners had a greater acute coronary syndrome risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-3.18), while no association was found in women with smoking partners (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.48-2.30). After adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics, coronary risk factors, and psychosocial factors, the acute coronary syndrome risk in men was somewhat lower (1.68; 95% CI, 0.81-3.47), while for women it was somewhat greater but still non-significant (1.19; 95% CI, 0.25-5.64). Sex-pooled estimate of the risk was OR 1.64 (95% CI, 0.96-2.83). Conclusion Partner’s current smoking status was positively associated with a greater acute coronary syndrome risk in men but not in women, both before and after adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics and coronary risk factors. Programs aimed at reducing the exposure to passive smoking are need in countries with high prevalence of active smoking. PMID:19090599

  19. Prevalence, characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes of metabolic syndrome among acute coronary syndrome patients from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2011-07-01

    We evaluated in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Oman. We analyzed the records of 1392 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS as part of the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events. The prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS was 66%, with female preponderance (80% vs 57%; P II (13% vs 8%; P = .004), and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (78% vs 68%; P Prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS in Oman is high. MetS was associated with higher in-hospital heart failure and mortality.

  20. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Giaxa Prosdócimo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged <65 years, hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS. The Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI, which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE, emotional distancing (EmD, dehumanization (De and professional fulfillment (PF. The Lipp’s Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI was applied to evaluate global stress. Results: Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. Conclusion: We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital.

  1. Longer distance from home to invasive centre is associated with lower rate of coronary angiographies following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    Purpose: We studied the unselected population of all acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients of an entire nation in order to evaluate differences in coronary angiography (CAG) rate. Denmark (population 5.5 million) has a universal health insurance coverage system and uniform national guidelines...... for the treatment of ACS. There are 5 tertiary invasive centres performing CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 8 hospitals with diagnostic units performing CAG only, and a further 36 hospitals without these facilities receiving patients with ACS. We investigated...... if there was a difference in the rate of CAG after admission with ACS depending on distance between place of residence and invasive centre. Methods: All patients, hospitalised with a first ACS from January 2005 to December 2007, were included from the National Patient Register. Age, gender and information on co...

  2. Excess psychosocial burden in women with diabetes and premature acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T M; Pelletier, R; Behlouli, H; Rossi, A M; Pilote, L

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes is a stronger risk factor for acute coronary syndrome for women than men. We investigate whether behavioural and psychosocial factors contribute to the disparity in acute coronary syndrome risk and outcomes among women with diabetes relative to women without diabetes and men. Among 939 participants in the GENESIS-PRAXY cohort study of premature acute coronary syndrome (age ≤ 55 years), we compared the prevalence of traditional and non-traditional factors by sex and Type 2 diabetes status. In a case-only analysis, we used generalized logit models to investigate the influence of traditional and non-traditional factors on the interaction of sex and diabetes. In 287 women (14.3% with diabetes) and 652 men (10.4% with diabetes), women and men with diabetes showed a heavier burden of traditional cardiac risk factors compared with individuals without diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely to be the primary earner and have more anxiety relative to women without diabetes, and reported worse perceived health compared with women without diabetes and men with diabetes. The interaction term for sex and diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 0.83-2.36) was diminished after additional adjustment for non-traditional factors (OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.54-2.32), but not traditional factors alone (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.84-2.36). We observed trends toward a more adverse psychosocial profile among women with diabetes and incident acute coronary syndrome compared with women without diabetes and men with diabetes, which may explain the increased risk of acute coronary syndrome in women with diabetes and may also contribute to worse outcomes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  3. Antipsychotic Medications and Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Liu

    Full Text Available This study assessed the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization in association with the use of certain antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia patients.A nationwide cohort of 31,177 inpatients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years whose records were enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008 and were studied after encrypting the identifications. Cases (n = 147 were patients with subsequent acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization after their first psychiatric admission. Based on a nested case-control design, each case was matched with 20 controls for age, sex and the year of first psychiatric admission using risk-set sampling. The effects of antipsychotic agents on the development of acute coronary syndrome were assessed using multiple conditional logistic regression and sensitivity analyses to confirm any association.We found that current use of aripiprazole (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.27-10.64, p<0.05 and chlorpromazine (adjusted RR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.40-6.24, p<0.001 were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome. Although haloperidol was associated with an increased risk (adjusted RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20-3.44, p<0.01, there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. These three antipsychotic agents were also associated with an increased risk in the first 30 days of use, and the risk decreased as the duration of therapy increased. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score-adjusted modeling showed that the results were similar to those of multiple regression analysis.Patients with schizophrenia who received aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, or haloperidol could have a potentially elevated risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, particularly at the start of therapy.

  4. Prehospital identification of acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction in relation to ST elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Leif; Axelsson, Christer; Nordlander, Rolf; Herlitz, Johan

    2005-02-15

    To evaluate factors that identify patients with an acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction prior to hospital admission among patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome who were transported by ambulance with and without ST elevation on the ambulance electrocardiogram (ECG). This was a prospective observational study in the part of Stockholm that is served by South Hospital ambulance organisation and the Municipality of Goteborg. All the patients who called for an ambulance due to acute chest pain or other symptoms raising the suspicion of an acute coronary syndrome took part. Immediately after the arrival of the ambulance, a blood sample was drawn for the analysis of serum myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK) MB and troponin I. A 12-lead ECG was simultaneously recorded. Further factors that were taken into consideration were age, gender, history of cardiovascular disease, symptoms and clinical findings. In patients with ST elevation in prehospital ECG, the likelihood of an acute myocardial infarction increased if there were simultaneous ST depression in other leads (OR 3.94, 95% CL 1.26-12.38). For patients without an ST elevation, the likelihood of an acute myocardial infarction increased if there were: elevation of any biochemical marker OR 2.96, 95% CL 1.32-6.64; ST depression (OR 2.54, 95% CL 1.43-4.51), T-inversion (OR 2.22, 95% CL 1.10-4.48), male gender (OR 2.21, 95% CL 1.24-3.93) and increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CL 1.01-1.06). Among patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome, factors that increased the likelihood for an ongoing acute myocardial infarction could already be defined prior to hospital admission. For those with an ST elevation, factors were found in ECG pattern. For those without an ST elevation, such factors were found in elevation of biochemical markers, admission ECG, male gender and increasing age.

  5. A Case of Critical Aortic Stenosis Masquerading as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth A. Wayangankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum cardiac troponins I and T are reliable and highly specific markers of myocardial injury. Studies have shown that at least 20% of patients with severe aortic stenosis have detectable serum troponins. This case report describes a patient who presented as suspected acute coronary syndrome with markedly elevated troponin levels, who was later found to have normal coronaries and critical aortic stenosis. This case highlights the need for comprehensive and accurate physical examination in patients who present with angina. Critical aortic stenosis may cause such severe subendocardial ischemia as to cause marked elevation in cardiac markers and mimic an acute coronary syndrome. Careful physical examination will lead to an earlier use of non invasive techniques, such as echocardiography to confirm the correct diagnosis and the avoidance of inappropriate treatments such as intravenous nitroglycerin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  6. Early Invasive Versus Selective Strategy for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: The ICTUS Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaker, N.P.G.; Damman, P.; Woudstra, P.; Hirsch, A.; Windhausen, F.; Tijssen, J.G.; Winter, R.J. de; Verheugt, F.W.A.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes) trial compared early invasive strategy with a selective invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an elevated cardiac troponin T. No long-term

  7. Early Invasive Versus Selective Strategy for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: The ICTUS Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaker, Niels P. G.; Damman, Peter; Woudstra, Pier; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Peters, R. J. G.; Dunselman, P. H. J. M.; Verheugt, F. W. A.; Janus, C. L.; Umans, V.; Bendermacher, P. E. F.; Michels, H. R.; Sadé e, A.; Hertzberger, D.; de Miliano, P. A. R. M.; Liem, A. H.; Tjon Joe Gin, R.; van der Linde, M.; Lok, D.; Hoedemaker, G.; Pieterse, M.; van den Merkhof, L.; Danië ls, M.; van Hessen, M.; Hermans, W.; Schotborgh, C. E.; de Zwaan, C.; Bredero, A.; de Jaegere, P.; Janssen, M.; Louwerenburg, J.; Veerhoek, M.; Schalij, M.; de Porto, A.; Zijlstra, F.; Winter, J.; de Feyter, P.; Robles de Medina, R.; Withagen, P.; Sedney, M.; Thijssen, H.; van Rees, C.; van den Bergh, P.; de Cock, C.; van 't Hof, A.; Suttorp, M. J.; Windhausen, F.; Cornel, J. H.; de Feyter, P. J.; Dü ren, D.; Liem, K.; Sanders, G. T. B.; Fischer, J.; van Straalen, J.

    2017-01-01

    The ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes) trial compared early invasive strategy with a selective invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an elevated cardiac troponin T. No long-term benefit of an

  8. B-type natriuretic peptide and risk of acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltrasio, Marco; Cabiati, Angelo; Milazzo, Valentina; Rubino, Mara; De Metrio, Monica; Discacciati, Andrea; Rumi, Paola; Marana, Ivana; Marenzi, Giancarlo

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether admission B-type natriuretic peptide levels predict the development of acute kidney injury in acute coronary syndromes. Prospective study. Single-center study, 13-bed intensive cardiac care unit at a University Cardiological Center. Six-hundred thirty-nine acute coronary syndromes patients undergoing emergency and urgent percutaneous coronary intervention. None. We measured B-type natriuretic peptide at hospital admission in acute coronary syndromes patients (55% ST-elevation myocardial infarction and 45% non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction). Acute kidney injury was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria: stage 1 was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dL from baseline; stage 2 as a serum creatinine increase greater than two- to three-fold from baseline; stage 3 as a serum creatinine increase greater than three-fold from baseline, or greater than or equal to 4.0 mg/dL with an acute increase greater than 0.5 mg/dL, or need for renal replacement therapy. Acute kidney injury was developed in 85 patients (13%) and had a higher in-hospital mortality than patients without acute kidney injury (14% vs 1%; p < 0.001). B-type natriuretic peptide levels were higher in acute kidney injury patients than in those without acute kidney injury (264 [112-957] vs 98 [44-271] pg/mL; p < 0.001) and showed a significant gradient according to acute kidney injury severity (224 [96-660] pg/mL in stage 1 and 939 [124-1,650] pg/mL in stage 2-3 acute kidney injury; p < 0.001). The risk of developing acute kidney injury increased in parallel with B-type natriuretic peptide quartiles (5%, 9%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; p < 0.001). When B-type natriuretic peptide was evaluated, in terms of capacity to predict acute kidney injury, the area under the curve was 0.702 (95% CI, 0.642-0.762). In patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes, B-type natriuretic peptide levels measured at admission are

  9. Incidence, Mortality and Positive Predictive Value of Type 1 Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta González, Raquel; Couto Comba, Patricia; Rodríguez Esteban, Marcos; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Hernández Afonso, Julio; Rodríguez Pérez, María Del Cristo; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Elosua, Roberto; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with cardiorenal syndrome subtype 1 (CRS1) in patients who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was greater than the expected risk based on the sum of its components, to estimate the predictive value of CRS1, and to determine whether the severity of CRS1 worsens the prognosis. Follow-up study of 1912 incident cases of ACS for 1 year after discharge. Cox regression models were estimated with time to event (in-hospital death, and readmission or death during the first year after discharge) as the dependent variable. The incidence of CRS1 was 9.2/1000 person-days of hospitalization (95% CI = 8.1-10.5), but these patients accounted for 56.6% (95% CI = 47.4-65.) of all mortality. The positive predictive value of CRS1 was 29.6% (95% CI = 23.9-36.0) for in-hospital death, and 51.4% (95% CI = 44.8-58.0) for readmission or death after discharge. The risk of in-hospital death from CRS1 (RR = 18.3; 95% CI = 6.3-53.2) was greater than the sum of risks associated with either acute heart failure (RR = 7.6; 95% CI = 1.8-31.8) or acute kidney injury (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 0.9-8.8). The risk of events associated with CRS1 also increased with syndrome severity, reaching a RR of 10.6 (95% CI = 6.2-18.1) for in-hospital death at the highest severity level. The effect of CRS1 on in-hospital mortality is greater than the sum of the effects associated with each of its components, and it increases with the severity of the syndrome. CRS1 accounted for more than half of all mortality, and its positive predictive value approached 30% in-hospital and 50% after discharge.

  10. Rho-Associated Kinase Activity Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masato; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Akimichi; Oda, Nozomu; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Aibara, Yoshiki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Sasaki, Shota; Kato, Masaya; Dote, Keigo; Goto, Chikara; Liao, James K.; Higashi, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Although Rho-associated kinase activity has been shown to be an independent predictor for future cardiovascular events in a general population, there is no information on Rho-associated kinase activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We evaluated leukocyte Rho-associated kinase activity by Western blot analysis in 73 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 73 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Rho-associated kinase activity within 2 hours of acute coronary syndrome onset was higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in the control subjects (0.95±0.55 versus 0.69±0.31; P<0.001). Rho-associated kinase activity promptly increased from 0.95±0.55 to 1.11±0.81 after 3 hours and reached a peak of 1.21±0.76 after 1 day (P=0.03 and P=0.03, respectively) and then gradually decreased to 0.83±0.52 after 7 days, 0.78±0.42 after 14 days, and 0.72±0.30 after 6 months (P=0.22, P=0.29, and P=0.12, respectively). During a median follow-up period of 50.8 months, 31 first major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and coronary revascularization) occurred. After adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and concomitant treatment with statins, increased Rho-associated kinase activity was associated with increasing risk of first major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.98–11.34; P<0.001). These findings suggest that Rho-associated kinase activity is dramatically changed after acute coronary syndrome and that Rho-associated kinase activity could be a useful biomarker to predict cardiovascular events in Japanese patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26283039

  11. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in acute coronary syndromes: Different equations, different mortality risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Inês; Caetano, Francisca; Barra, Sérgio; Madeira, Marta; Mota, Paula; Leitão-Marques, António

    2016-06-01

    Renal dysfunction is a powerful predictor of adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome. Three new glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations recently emerged, based on serum creatinine (CKD-EPIcreat), serum cystatin C (CKD-EPIcyst) or a combination of both (CKD-EPIcreat/cyst), and they are currently recommended to confirm the presence of renal dysfunction. Our aim was to analyse the predictive value of these new estimated GFR (eGFR) equations regarding mid-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and compare them with the traditional Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-4) formula. 801 patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (age 67.3±13.3 years, 68.5% male) and followed for 23.6±9.8 months were included. For each equation, patient risk stratification was performed based on eGFR values: high-risk group (eGFRformula, the CKD-EPIcyst equation accurately reclassified a significant percentage of patients into more appropriate risk categories (net reclassification improvement index of 11.9% (p=0.003)). The CKD-EPIcyst equation added prognostic power to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score in the prediction of mid-term mortality. The CKD-EPIcyst equation provides a novel and improved method for assessing the mid-term mortality risk in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome, outperforming the most widely used formula (MDRD-4), and improving the predictive value of the GRACE score. These results reinforce the added value of cystatin C as a risk marker in these patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  12. Clinical implementation of an emergency department coronary computed tomographic angiography protocol for triage of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Vadvala, Harshna; Kim, Phillip; Meyersohn, Nandini M.; Janjua, Sumbal A.; Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Takx, Richard A.P. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Neilan, Tomas G.; Francis, Sanjeev [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Bittner, Daniel [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Medicine 2 - Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Mayrhofer, Thomas [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stralsund University of Applied Sciences, School of Business Studies, Stralsund (Germany); Greenwald, Jeffrey L. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Truong, Quyhn A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Weill Cornell College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Abbara, Suhny [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department Cardiothoracic Imaging, Dallas, TX (United States); Brown, David F.M.; Nagurney, John T. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Januzzi, James L. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Collaboration: MGH Emergency Cardiac CTA Program Contributors

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of emergency department (ED) coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) during a 3-year clinical experience. Single-center registry of coronary CTA in consecutive ED patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The primary outcome was efficiency of coronary CTA defined as the length of hospitalization. Secondary endpoints of safety were defined as the rate of downstream testing, normalcy rates of invasive coronary angiography (ICA), absence of missed ACS, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during follow-up, and index radiation exposure. One thousand twenty two consecutive patients were referred for clinical coronary CTA with suspicion of ACS. Overall, median time to discharge home was 10.5 (5.7-24.1) hours. Patient disposition was 42.7 % direct discharge from the ED, 43.2 % discharge from emergency unit, and 14.1 % hospital admission. ACS rate during index hospitalization was 9.1 %. One hundred ninety two patients underwent additional diagnostic imaging and 77 underwent ICA. The positive predictive value of CTA compared to ICA was 78.9 % (95 %-CI 68.1-87.5 %). Median CT radiation exposure was 4.0 (2.5-5.8) mSv. No ACS was missed; MACE at follow-up after negative CTA was 0.2 %. Coronary CTA in an experienced tertiary care setting allows for efficient and safe management of patients with suspicion for ACS. (orig.)

  13. 'Chest pain typicality' in suspected acute coronary syndromes and the impact of clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Edward W; Than, Martin; Cullen, Louise; Khattab, Ahmed; Greaves, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Physicians rely upon chest pain history to make management decisions in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, particularly where the diagnosis is not immediately apparent through electrocardiography and troponin testing. The objective of this study was to establish the discriminatory value of "typicality of chest pain" and the effect of clinician experience, for the prediction of acute myocardial infarction and presence of significant coronary artery disease. This prospective single-center observational study was undertaken in a UK General Hospital emergency department. We recruited consecutive adults with chest pain and a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram, for whom the treating physician determined that delayed troponin testing was necessary. Using their own clinical judgment, physicians recorded whether the chest pain described was typical or atypical for acute coronary syndrome. Physicians were defined as "experienced" or "novice" according to postgraduate experience. Acute myocardial infarction was adjudicated using a high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) assay, whereas coronary artery disease was adjudicated angiographically. Overall, 912 patients had typicality of chest pain assessed, of whom 114/912 (12.5%) had an acute myocardial infarction and 157/912 (17.2%) underwent angiography. In patients undergoing angiography, 90/157 (57.3%) had hs-cTn elevation, of whom 60 (66.7%) had significant coronary artery disease. Sixty-seven of 157 (42.7%) patients had angiography without hs-cTn elevation; of these, 31 (46.2%) had significant coronary artery disease. For the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, chest pain typicality had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.60). For the prediction of significant coronary artery disease with hs-cTn elevation AUC: 0.54 (95% CI, 0.40-0.67), and without hs-cTn elevation AUC: 0.45 (95% CI, 0.31-0.59). When assessed by experienced physicians, specificity for the diagnosis of acute

  14. Home medicines reviews following acute coronary syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Bernal Daniel DL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continual improvements in the management of acute coronary syndromes, adherence to guideline-based medications remains suboptimal. We aim to improve adherence with guideline-based therapy following acute coronary syndrome using an existing service that is provided by specifically trained pharmacists, called a Home Medicines Review. We have made two minor adjustments to target the focus of the existing service including an acute coronary syndrome specific referral letter and a training package for the pharmacists providing the service. Methods/Design We will be conducting a randomized controlled trial to compare the directed home medicines review service to usual care following acute coronary syndromes. All patients aged 18 to 80 years and with a working diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, who are admitted to two public, acute care hospitals, will be screened for enrolment into the trial. Exclusion criteria will include: not being discharged home, documented cognitive decline, non-Medicare eligibility, and presence of a terminal malignancy. Randomization concealment and sequence generation will occur through a centrally-monitored computer program. Patients randomized to the control group will receive usual post-discharge care. Patients randomized to receive the intervention will be offered usual post-discharge care and a directed home medicines review at two months post-discharge. The study endpoints will be six and twelve months post-discharge. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients who are adherent to a complete, guideline-based medication regimen. Secondary outcomes will include hospital readmission rates, length of hospital stays, changes in quality of life, smoking cessation rates, cardiac rehabilitation completion rates, and mortality. Discussion As the trial is closely based on an existing service, any improvements observed should be highly translatable into regular practice. Possible

  15. CASE OF EFFECTIVE REPERFUSION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT AND ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

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    L. V. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Currently, acute cerebrovascular accident is an extremely important medical and social issue. Stroke is a major cause of disability in the population and takes a leading place among the causes of death.Modern high­tech endovascular treatment of the ischemic stroke (IS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS includes effective methods of reperfusion of the brain and myocardium within first hours of the disease.In this paper, we report two clinical examples of high­tech reperfusion endovascular treatment in the same patient at an intervals of 1 year and 6 months in the development of clinical picture of the stroke and ACS in Regional Clinical hospital № 1 n.a. Prof. S.V. Ochapovsky.In the first case, intra­aortic TLT of two cerebral arteries (ACA and MCA was performed simultaneously with delayed recanalization and complete regression of focal neurological symptoms. And in the second case, selective thrombolytic therapy was performed in the acute phase of stroke, which developed few hours after PTCA RCA in ACS, with a good clinical effect. 

  16. Acute myocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome: role of early cardiac magnetic resonance in its diagnosis.

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    Monney, Pierre A; Sekhri, Neha; Burchell, Thomas; Knight, Charles; Davies, Ceri; Deaner, Andrew; Sheaf, Michael; Baithun, Suhail; Petersen, Steffen; Wragg, Andrew; Jain, Ajay; Westwood, Mark; Mills, Peter; Mathur, Anthony; Mohiddin, Saidi A

    2011-08-01

    In patients presenting with acute cardiac symptoms, abnormal ECG and raised troponin, myocarditis may be suspected after normal angiography. To analyse cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings in patients with a provisional diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in whom acute myocarditis was subsequently considered more likely. 79 patients referred for CMR following an admission with presumed ACS and raised serum troponin in whom no culprit lesion was detected were studied. 13% had unrecognised myocardial infarction and 6% takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The remainder (81%) were diagnosed with myocarditis. Mean age was 45±15 years and 70% were male. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 58±10%; myocardial oedema was detected in 58%. A myocarditic pattern of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was detected in 92%. Abnormalities were detected more frequently in scans performed within 2 weeks of symptom onset: oedema in 81% vs 11% (p3 weeks), oedema decreased from 84% to 39% (p<0.01) and LGE from 5.6 to 3.0 segments (p=0.005). Three patients presented with sustained ventricular tachycardia, another died suddenly 4 days after admission and one resuscitated 7 weeks following presentation. All 5 patients had preserved EF. Our study emphasises the importance of access to CMR for heart attack centres. If myocarditis is suspected, CMR scanning should be performed within 14 days. Myocarditis should not be regarded as benign, even when EF is preserved.

  17. the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome

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    Radovan Hojs

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR is often estimated from serum creatinine. Recently several formulas for estimation of GFR have been developed. The most widely used are the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD Study equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation (C & G. The prevalence of CKD is rising. The patients with CKD are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.Patients and methods: In our study 449 patients (308 men and 141 women with acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention were included. The average age was 63 years (SD ± 11.9. We collected blood samples for measuring serum concentrations of creatinine. The GFR was estimated using the MDRD Study equation and C & G equation.Results In our study women were statistically significantly older than men. 369 patients (82 % had an acute myocardial infarction. The prevalence of CKD was 26.3 % when GFR was estimated by MDRD Study equation and 25.8 % when GFR was estimated by C & G equation. A greater prevalence of CKD was found in women and in patients older than 65 years old. Stages of CKD correlated with age and gender of the patients, with previously known ishemic heart disease and with diffuse coronary artery disease.Conclusions: In our study the prevalence of CKD in patients with acute coronary syndrome was high. CKD was an independent predictor for development of diffuse coronary artery disease.

  18. [Importance of telecommunication and transportation of patients with acute coronary syndrome].

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    Ostricki, Branko

    2009-02-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the method of choice for reperfusion in the setting of acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation (STEMI). According to the guidelines, it is necessary to provide as many patients as possible with the opportunity of interventional treatment, even those living far from PCI capable hospitals. Every region in Croatia should develop a clear protocol for patients with acute coronary syndrome in whom primary PCI is indicated, while relying on already existing networks of healthcare providers. Therefore, the application of telemedical communication systems is useful, since it allows confirmation of the diagnosis by a specialist of internal medicine or cardiology and enables communication between physicians on the spot and physicians at a district hospital or PCI capable hospital. In order to save time, it should be attempted to transport the patient directly to the PCI capable hospital, skipping district hospital. The transport of the patient with the acute coronary syndrome is generally safe if safety protocols are followed: an educated attending healthcare professional, ambulance with required equipment and use of appropriate procedures of prehospital treatment.

  19. The relationship between sexual satisfaction and quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome

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    Taghadosi M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute coronary syndrome as one of the leading causes of death in the world, have several physical, psychological and social consequences. These consequences have impact on quality of life and sexual satisfaction of patients. Despite numerous studies, contradictory findings have been reported concerning the relationship between sexual satisfaction and quality of life in these patients. The current study was conducted aimed to determine the relationship between sexual satisfaction and quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome.  Materials and Method: This Descriptive-correlational study was performed on patients with acute coronary syndrome hospitalized in the coronary angiography ward in a hospital in Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Three hundred patients were selected and entered into the study through purposive sampling. Data collection was done through using the demographic and clinical data questionnaire, SF-36 quality of life questionnaire and Larson's sexual satisfaction questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13 and central indexes, independent T-test, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation test and linear regression analysis.  Results: Patients had high sexual satisfaction (101.19 ± 15.02 and average quality of life (56.3 ± 17.15. There was significant positive correlation between sexual satisfaction of patients with quality of life (P = 0.001, it’s physical (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.001 aspects.  Conclusion: There is relationship between sexual satisfaction with the quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome, therefore it is recommended that nurses must pay attention to education concerning the sexual relationship and physical and psychological support in patients with low rejection fraction.

  20. Biomarkers and Coronary Lesions Predict Outcomes after Revascularization in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

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    Lindholm, Daniel; James, Stefan K; Bertilsson, Maria; Becker, Richard C; Cannon, Christopher P; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Harrington, Robert A; Himmelmann, Anders; Kontny, Frederic; Siegbahn, Agneta; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Storey, Robert F; Velders, Matthijs A; Weaver, W Douglas; Wallentin, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Risk stratification in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) is currently mainly based on clinical characteristics. With routine invasive management, angiography findings and biomarkers are available and may improve prognostication. We aimed to assess if adding biomarkers [high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT-hs), N-terminal probrain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)] and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) might improve prognostication in revascularized patients with NSTE-ACS. In the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, 5174 NSTE-ACS patients underwent initial angiography and revascularization and had cTnT-hs, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 measured. Cox models were developed adding extent of CAD and biomarker levels to established clinical risk variables for the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD)/spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), and CVD alone. Models were compared using c-statistic and net reclassification improvement (NRI). For the composite end point and CVD, prognostication improved when adding extent of CAD, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 to clinical variables (c-statistic 0.685 and 0.805, respectively, for full model vs 0.649 and 0.760 for clinical model). cTnT-hs did not contribute to prognostication. In the full model (clinical variables, extent of CAD, all biomarkers), hazard ratios (95% CI) per standard deviation increase were for cTnT-hs 0.93(0.81-1.05), NT-proBNP 1.32(1.13-1.53), GDF-15 1.20(1.07-1.36) for the composite end point, driven by prediction of CVD by NT-proBNP and GDF-15. For spontaneous MI, there was an association with NT-proBNP or GDF-15, but not with cTnT-hs. In revascularized patients with NSTE-ACS, the extent of CAD and concentrations of NT-proBNP and GDF-15 independently improve prognostication of CVD/spontaneous MI and CVD alone. This information may be useful for selection of patients who might benefit from more intense and/or prolonged antithrombotic

  1. Obesity Paradox - The Controversial Role of Body Mass Index and Plasma Adiponectin in Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

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    Lin, Chao-Feng; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an anthropometric index used to evaluate a person's weight. In the general population, higher BMI is associated with more adverse outcomes as well as cardiovascular risk factors. The current clinical guidelines suggest weight control within desirable BMI as 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2). In the event of coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome, the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes still remains controversial. Some studies have demonstrated that overweight and obese patients had better prognosis than normal weight patients. Adiponectin, a secretory protein produced by adipocytes and inversely proportional to BMI, is a possible mediator for the so-called "obesity paradox", a term for the obese-protective phenomenon. Lower plasma adiponectin is associated with the progression of coronary artery disease. However, in the presence of acute coronary syndrome, patients with higher plasma adiponectin could be associated with adverse outcomes. Further studies including serial change of plasma adiponectin, or the use of other methods to discriminate lean and fat body mass are necessary to investigate this seemingly contradictory topic. Adiponectin; Body mass index; Obesity paradox.

  2. Apixaban Plus Mono Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Insights From the APPRAISE-2 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, C.N.; James, S.; Lopes, R.D.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Neely, M.L.; Liaw, D.; Hagstrom, E.; Bhatt, D.L.; Husted, S.; Goodman, S.G.; Lewis, B.S.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Caterina, R. De; Ogawa, H.; Wallentin, L.; Alexander, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bleeding limits anticoagulant treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether background concomitant antiplatelet therapy influences the effects of apixaban after ACS. METHODS: This study examined high-risk ACS patients who were treated with

  3. [The clinical characteristics and prognosis of non ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in different genders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chun-li; Qiao, Shu-bin; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Jue; Yang, Wei-xian; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wen-jia

    2010-09-01

    To determine gender differences in baseline characteristics and intervention treatment in relation to prognosis in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). A total of 814 patients (545 men and 269 women) with NSTEACS were randomized to early intervention (coronary angiography 36 hours after randomization). The primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 6 months. Women were older and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes, and history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or chronic angina (P different gender had the different prognostic predictor. Severe coronary diseases were as an independent predictor for both male and female patients. An early intervention strategy resulted in a beneficial effect in men which was not seen in women.

  4. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

  5. [Determination of molecular genetic markers in acute coronary syndromes and their relationship to cardiovascular adverse events].

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    Canseco-Ávila, Luis Miguel; Jerjes-Sánchez, Carlos; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The genes coding for proteins due to their activity in several metabolic pathways could be related with the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Relationship among polymorphisms and adverse events in. Prospective. In--hospital, one--year follow-up. Inclusion Acute coronary syndromes with ST elevation or depression secondary to atherothrombosis, clinical stability. In all, polymerase chain reaction and length polymorphism of restriction fragments. By standardizing chain reactions and genotyping,a preliminary analysis of distribution of genotypes was performed for each polymorphism and no deviations were observed in the law of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>.05). From 2003 to 2005, 150 subjects were enrolled. We analyzed 14 polymorphisms in 9 genes (fibrinogen, factor v, vii, ii, xiii, plasminogen activator and inhibitor-1, C-reactive protein). In acute coronary syndromes, fibrinogen>450 mg/dL and white blood count 8500 cells/mm(3) were markers of poor prognosis to one year. Regression analysis identified the -148 CT/TT and fibrinogen -717 AG/GG of C-reactive protein as a marker of recurrent ischemia and reinfarction 1691GA + AA. We are showing a relationship among polymorphisms involved in inflammation and hemostasis with adverse events in the acute phase and follow-up in acute coronary syndromes patients that could be considered as markers of ischemic heart disease. Larger sample is needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2011 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. [Intelligent systems tools in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes: A systemic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprockel, John; Tejeda, Miguel; Yate, José; Diaztagle, Juan; González, Enrique

    2017-03-27

    Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of non-communicable deaths worldwide. Its diagnosis is a highly complex task, for which modelling through automated methods has been attempted. A systematic review of the literature was performed on diagnostic tests that applied intelligent systems tools in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. A systematic review of the literature is presented using Medline, Embase, Scopus, IEEE/IET Electronic Library, ISI Web of Science, Latindex and LILACS databases for articles that include the diagnostic evaluation of acute coronary syndromes using intelligent systems. The review process was conducted independently by 2 reviewers, and discrepancies were resolved through the participation of a third person. The operational characteristics of the studied tools were extracted. A total of 35 references met the inclusion criteria. In 22 (62.8%) cases, neural networks were used. In five studies, the performances of several intelligent systems tools were compared. Thirteen studies sought to perform diagnoses of all acute coronary syndromes, and in 22, only infarctions were studied. In 21 cases, clinical and electrocardiographic aspects were used as input data, and in 10, only electrocardiographic data were used. Most intelligent systems use the clinical context as a reference standard. High rates of diagnostic accuracy were found with better performance using neural networks and support vector machines, compared with statistical tools of pattern recognition and decision trees. Extensive evidence was found that shows that using intelligent systems tools achieves a greater degree of accuracy than some clinical algorithms or scales and, thus, should be considered appropriate tools for supporting diagnostic decisions of acute coronary syndromes. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Suspected Poststroke Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Sylvia Marie Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS can complicate acute ischemic stroke, causing significant morbidity and mortality. To date, literatures that describe poststroke acute coronary syndrome and its morbidity and mortality burden are lacking. Methods. This is a single center, retrospective study where clinical characteristics, cardiac evaluation, and management of patients with suspected poststroke ACS were compared and analyzed for their association with inpatient mortality and 1-year all-cause mortality. Results. Of the 82 patients, 32% had chest pain and 88% had ischemic ECG changes; mean peak troponin level was 18, and mean ejection fraction was 40%. The medical management group had older individuals (73 versus 67 years, p<0.05, lower mean peak troponin levels (12 versus 49, p<0.05, and lower mean length of stay (12 versus 25 days, p<0.05 compared to those who underwent stent or CABG. Troponin levels were significantly associated with 1-year all-cause mortality. Conclusion. Age and troponin level appear to play a role in the current clinical decision making for patient with suspected poststroke ACS. Troponin level appears to significantly correlate with 1-year all-cause mortality. In the management of poststroke acute coronary syndrome, optimal medical therapy had similar inpatient and all-cause mortality compared to PCI and/or CABG.

  8. [16-MDCT angiography coronary artery in the emergency department for patients with acute coronary syndrome (NSTEMI-UA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciani, E; Polettini, E; Bertini, L; Rotolo, F; Truscelli, G; Pittalis, A; Masselli, G; Campagnano, S; Pastore, R; Gualdi, G F

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina in the emergency department (ED) remains a challenge. The aim of our study was to investigate quality and the diagnostic accuracy of 16-MDCT coronary angiography, detecting coronary artery lesions in patients with suspected ACS presented in ED. We studied with 16-MDCT (Sensation 16, Siemens, Forchleim, Germania) and coronary angiography 37 patients with the following inclusion criteria: chest pain compatible with myocardial ischemia, normal or no-diagnostic ECG changes and initial concentrations of serum troponin-I 50% and correctly ruled out significant coronary artery disease in 19 patients with 1 FP and 2 FN: sensitivity 88%, specificity 95%, PPV 94%, NPV 90%. The plaques were hard in 6 cases, mixt in 16 cases and soft in 14 cases, respectively. Our results point-out that 16-MDCT in ED has the real ability to detect and rule out significant coronary stenoses in patients with ACS.

  9. Acute Coronary Syndrome in an Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Referral Centre in Central Nepal: The Spectrum and Coronary Risk Factors.

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    Mani Prasad Gautam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome is the major leading cause for coronary care unit admission. Its spectrum comprises a variety of disorders including unstable angina, non ST elevation and ST elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: An observational study was designed to study the spectrum of acute coronary syndrome and associated coronary heart disease risk factors in subjects admitted in intensive care unit from August 2009 to September 2010. Details including coronary risk factors and the categories and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome were analyzed. Results: A total of 57 subjects were included in the study. The majority (63.1% were males. The mean age was 64.54±13.8 years. Five (8.8% patients were ≤45 years and 29 (50.88% patients were ≥65 years. Majority of the patients were smokers (50.87%. The other major coronary heart disease risk factors were diabetes (43.85%, hypertension (36.87%, dyslipidemia (26.32% and previous history of coronary heart disease (31.58%. Coronary heart disease figured prominently in the family history as well (26.32%. ST elevation myocardial infarction was the major category (42.11% followed by non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina (31.58% and 26.32% respectively. Myocardial infarction complicated with cardiogenic shock had very high mortality (83.33%. Conclusions: The ST elevation myocardial infarction was the major clinical form of acute coronary syndrome admitted in intensive care unit. Prevention should be targeted on modifiable risk factors such as the management of risk factors. In addition, the improvement in cardiology service with the establishment of CCU and cathlab might alter the mortality and morbidity in ACS management. Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; coronary risk factors; intensive care unit.

  10. Acute coronary syndrome in the young Nepalese population with their angiographic characteristics

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    Shankar Laudari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is an emerging cardiac problem in the young population in Asia and Nepalese population is not an exception to this. Early ACS in young age imparts huge familial and social economic burden. Early identification and proper management strategy is still a challenging problem in developing countries like Nepal where there are limited coronary intervention centers. The study was conducted with objective to study the clinical spectrum, etiologies, coronary angiographic characteristics and their clinical outcomes.Materials & Methods:  This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary hospital in central Nepal. Forty patients with acute coronary syndrome with age less than 40 years were enrolled in the study.Results: Majority of the patients were males with male: female=1.8:1. Twenty six (65% patients were having ST segment elevation myocardial infarction followed by non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in nine (22.50% patients and unstable angina in five (12.50%. patients. The most common risk factors were smoking, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Majority were having single vessel disease. Twenty (50% patients had undergone primary angioplasty followed by thrombolysis in seven patients and the rest were managed medically because of late presentation. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events and mortality were higher among STEMI than NSTEMI and unstable angina.Conclusion: Acute coronary syndrome in the young is increasing in the Nepalese population. This group of population should be well educated and made aware of the potential coronary risk factors and their modification. 

  11. High-risk plaque detected on coronary CT angiography predicts acute coronary syndromes independent of significant stenosis in acute chest pain: results from the ROMICAT-II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Stefan B; Liu, Ting; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Truong, Quynh A; Lee, Hang; Fleg, Jerome L; Nagurney, John T; Udelson, James E; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2014-08-19

    It is not known whether high-risk plaque, as detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), permits improved early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) independently to the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute chest pain. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether high-risk plaque features, as detected by CTA in the emergency department (ED), may improve diagnostic certainty of ACS independently and incrementally to the presence of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment in patients with acute chest pain but without objective evidence of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction (MI). We included patients randomized to the coronary CTA arm of the ROMICAT-II (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer-Assisted Tomography II) trial. Readers assessed coronary CTA qualitatively for the presence of nonobstructive CAD (1% to 49% stenosis), significant CAD (≥50% or ≥70% stenosis), and the presence of at least 1 of the high-risk plaque features (positive remodeling, low acute chest pain but negative initial electrocardiogram and troponin, presence of high-risk plaques on coronary CTA increased the likelihood of ACS independent of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment (age, sex, and number of cardiovascular risk factors). (Multicenter Study to Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Computed Tomography [ROMICAT-II]; NCT01084239). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in acute coronary syndrome: Routine screening in intensive coronary care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, S; Bughin, F; Solecki, K; Aboubadra, M; Lattuca, B; Gouzi, F; Macia, J-C; Cung, T-T; Cade, S; Cransac, F; Davy, J-M; Dauvilliers, Y; Corrado, D; Roubille, F

    2017-09-01

    Increased evidence has shown that, despite the maximum care afforded to patients admitted with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a residual risk of mortality remains, in which obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) appears to be a largely undiagnosed factor, particularly in the intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU). The purpose of this study is to determine whether the systematic screening for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is feasible and may be recommended. The aims of our study are to determine: (1) The estimated prevalence of OSA in patients admitted to the ICCU for ACS determined by a validated, user-friendly portable screening device; (2) The feasibility of the screening in this context; (3) To assess any negative impact of OSA on the severity of ACS. This is an observational study of 101 patients admitted to the ICCU for ACS showing no clinical evidence of heart failure (HF). In the 24-72hours following admission, they underwent an overnight sleep study using a 3-channel portable screening device with automatic analysis. Sixty-two out of the 101 patients proved positive to the screening test, and its feasibility was acceptable. OSA patients tended to have greater peak levels of hs-cTnT (3685±3576ng/L versus 2830±3333ng/L, P=0.08) than the non-OSA group. Compared with the non-OSA group, OSA patients presented more severe ACS, with a greater average GRACE score at admission of 112.2±26.3 (versus 98.4±19.2, P<0.001). In the OSA group, we found a statistically significant inverse correlation between the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the linear regression analysis (r=-0.26; P=0.037). A systematic screening of patients in the ICCU is acceptable. OSA is frequently found in the acute phase of ischaemic heart disease and its presence is associated with more severe ACS and a poorer left ventricle systolic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid usage associated with acute coronary syndrome in bodybuilder

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    Ertan Sonmez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been argued in current studies that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are misused by a great number of bodybuilders and athletes. However, there is diverse and often conflicting scientific data on the cardiac and metabolic complications caused by the misuse of AAS. There may be various reasons for myocardial infarction (MI with normal coronary arteries. However, for the majority of patients, the exact cause is still unknown. Case report: A 32 year-old male who was complaining about severe chest pain was admitted to our emergency department. He had been taking methenolone acetate 200 mg weekly for a period of three years for body building. His cardiac markers were significantly elevated and electrocardiogram (ECG showed peaked T waves in all derivations, which did not show ST elevation or depression. Both right and left coronary artery systems were found to be completely normal as a result of the angiogram. Conclusion: The purpose of this study is to show that AAS induced MI can be encountered with normal coronary arteries during acute coronary syndrome. Keywords: Bodybuilder, Anabolic steroids, Methenolone acetate, Acute coronary syndrome

  14. [The role of direct-acting P2Y12 inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriakina, T A; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2012-01-01

    P2Y12 receptor inhibitors are recommended for treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome and/or percutaneous coronary intervention as a part of dual antiplatelet therapy. While thienopyridine group of P2Y12 inhibitors remains to be widely used treatment for patients with ACS, there are still complications for its application. Emerging antiplatelet treatments expand therapy strategies for management of ACS. The purpose of this article is to define the developing role of novel non-thienopyridine reversible P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor to present its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenetic characteristics, based on current evidence.

  15. Management of immune thrombocytic purpura and acute coronary syndrome: A double-edged sword!

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    Ashish H. Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating patients known to have immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS pose challenges, especially if they undergo percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting, as they require certain period of dual anti-platelet medication based up on the type of stent been deployed. Co-existence of therapies to increase platelet number as well as anti-platelet efficacy at the same time appears contradictory; imbalance in antagonistic treatment approach of increasing platelet number to treat ITP and inhibiting their activity to treat ACS can result in life threatening complications.

  16. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.-B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; van Hout, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (BID) in combination with standard antiplatelet therapy (ST-APT) versus ST-APT alone, for the secondary prevention of ACS in adult patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers without a pri...

  17. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Najida; Stephens, Stephanie; Schoeman, Olaf; Fraschke, Anina; Kirsch, Bodo; Briere, Jean-Baptiste; Verheugt, Freek W. A.; van Hout, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. Objective The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5?mg twice daily (BID) in combination with standard antiplatelet therapy (ST-APT) versus ST-APT alone, for the secondary prevention of ACS in adult patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers without a prior...

  18. [Myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: definitions, classification, and diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Mishnev, O D; Kakturskiĭ, L V

    2014-01-01

    The review gives the definitions and classification of and diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in accordance with the "The third universal definition of myocardial infarction" adopted in 2012 (Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, 2012). It also discusses the clinical and morphological comparisons of and the problems in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a nosological entity within coronary heart disease with other coronarogenic and non-coronarogenic necroses of the myocardium.

  19. The Role of Infection in the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Awadalla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A potential link between infectious agents and atherosclerosis has been suggested. Data obtained from several seroepidemiological studies have suggested that infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and Cytomegalovirus can initiate or maintain the atherosclerotic process. Aim of this study is to evaluate the probable relationship between serum titers of some various infectious agents and the development of acute coronary syndrome and to investigate the relationship between these infectious agents and other risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of CVD. METHOD: This is a hospital based case- control study was conducted on two groups: patients group included 86 patients, cases were collected from patients admitted to Cardiac Care Unit (CCU of Cleopatra hospital, and Ain Shams University hospital with acute myocardial infarction between January 2010 and June 2010 and control group included 86 apparently healthy individuals. A questionnaire was designed to determine conventional coronary artery risk factors. The sero-prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori IgG antibodies were evaluated using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The results showed that there was an increased level of serum IgG antibodies of C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori among patients with acute coronary syndrome compared to control subjects CONCLUSION: C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori were expected to be predictors for the development of coronary artery disease, as there was significant elevation of the serum level of IgG antibodies against them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 715-722

  20. Usefulness of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper K; Dalsgaard, Morten; Teisner, Ane S

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a prognostic marker in patients admitted with high-risk acute coronary syndrome. In patients admitted with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction...... identify patients at high risk who would potentially benefit from intensive treatment and surveillance. Two populations of consecutive patients admitted with high-risk NSTE-ACS (n = 123) and STEMI (n = 314) were evaluated with serial measurements of PAPP-A. The incidence of mortality and nonfatal...... myocardial infarction was prospectively registered for 2.66 to 3.47 years. In the patients with high-risk NSTE-ACS, PAPP-A was related to the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction (p = 0.02) and death (p = 0.03). This result was consistent on multivariate analysis of the combination of mortality or nonfatal...

  1. Survival following an acute coronary syndrome: a pet theory put to the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G B; Gayed, A; Owen, C A; Hyett, M P; Hilton, T M; Heruc, G A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to revisit findings from previous studies reporting that pet ownership improves outcome following an admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Four hundred and twenty-four patients admitted to a cardiac unit with an ACS completed questions regarding pet ownership in hospital. Rates of cardiac death and readmission were assessed 1 year following hospitalization. Pet owners were more likely to experience a death or readmission following their hospitalization, after controlling for key psychosocial and medical covariates. When dog and cat owners were considered separately, cat ownership was significantly associated with increased risk of death or readmission. In this independent study, pet ownership at baseline, and cat ownership in particular, was associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in the year following an admission for an acute coronary syndrome, a finding contrary to previous reports.

  2. In-hospital management and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in relation to prior history of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanfei; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Kornder, Jan M; Gyenes, Gabor T; Grondin, Francois R; Brieger, David; DeYoung, J Paul; Gallo, Richard; Yan, Andrew T

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of prior heart failure in acute coronary syndromes has not been well studied. Accordingly, we evaluated the baseline characteristics, management patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes who had prior heart failure. The study population consisted of acute coronary syndrome patients in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, expanded Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events between 1999 and 2008. Of the 13,937 eligible patients (mean age 66±13 years, 33% female and 28.3% with ST-elevation myocardial infarction), 1498 (10.7%) patients had a history of heart failure. Those with prior heart failure tended to be older, female and had lower systolic blood pressure, higher Killip class and creatinine on presentation. Prior heart failure was also associated with significantly worse left ventricular systolic function and lower rates of cardiac catheterization and coronary revascularization. The group with previous heart failure had significantly higher rates of acute decompensated heart failure, cardiogenic shock, myocardial (re)infarction and mortality in hospital. In multivariable analysis, prior heart failure remained an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.03, p=0.015). Prior heart failure was associated with high risk features on presentation and adverse outcomes including higher adjusted in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients. However, acute coronary syndrome patients with prior heart failure were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies, suggesting potential opportunities to target more intensive treatment to improve their outcome. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  3. [The features of a functional state of the coronary circulation in women-smokers with non st elevation acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Соломенчук, Тетяна М; Бедзай, Артем О; Процько, Василь В

    2017-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is one of the most adverse prognostic clinical forms of ischemic heart disease. In recent years, attention of researchers and cardiologists practical attract female patients due to a substantial increase in the prevalence including acute coronary syndrome, differences in the causes and features of its course. Women often diagnosed myocardial infarction without ST elevation and nonobstructive coronary heart disease associated with coronary spasm or stratification of coronary artery. The study of the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial infarction also showed the existence of certain gender differences. However, the available literature contains little data on the impact of smoking on morphological and functional condition of the coronary arteries in women with severe forms of coronary heart disease. to conduct contrastive analysis of coronary circulation state according to data of coronarography (CAG) in women with non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. 61 women aged 35-77 were examined (middle age 57, 9±1,2) who were hospitalized because of non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Depending on smoking habit all the patients of general group were divided into two subgroups. First subgroup (n=29, middle age 54,3±1,5) consisted of smoking women who had been smoking for 5 years ≥5 cigarettes a day (an average number of smoked cigarettes per day was 9,8) Second subgroup (n=32, middle age 61,8±1,3) consisted of ill non-smoking women. We studied a type of coronary circulation? its nature, localization and evidence of coronary arteria damage and characteristics of microvascular and collateral blood flow. smoking women with non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome more often have bigger damages of coronary arteria: hemodynamically relevant and diffusive damages mostly located in proximal medial segments often with connected damage of distal segments especially of the left coronary arteria and its interventricular branch that causes a

  4. Optimism and Recovery After Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Clinical Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldson, Amy; Molloy, Gerard J.; Wikman, Anna; Poole, Lydia; Kaski, Juan-Carlos; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Optimism is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, but its impact on recovery after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that greater optimism would lead to more effective physical and emotional adaptation after ACS and would buffer the impact of persistent depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes. Methods This prospective observational clinical study took place in an urban general hospital and involved 369 patients admitted with a ...

  5. Social Support, Heart Failure, and Acute Coronary Syndromes: The Role of Inflammatory Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-03

    elderly. Valvular and congenital heart disease . Journal of the American College of Cardiology , 10, 60A-62A. Reed, D., McGee, D., Yano, K...Psychology David Krantz, Ph. . Department of Medical & Clinical Psychology Committee Member ’""hi~rdi~pl;n~ . .~Emerging Infectious Diseases ’:Molecular...Department of Medical & Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services University Abstract Title of Thesis: “Social Support, Acute Coronary Syndromes, and Heart

  6. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  7. Multiple Chronic Conditions and Psychosocial Limitations in Patients Hospitalized with an Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; Gurwitz, Jerry; McManus, David D; Saczynski, Jane S; Erskine, Nathaniel; Waring, Molly E; Anatchkova, Milena; Awad, Hamza; Parish, David C; Lessard, Darleen; Kiefe, Catarina; Goldberg, Robert

    2016-06-01

    As adults live longer, multiple chronic conditions have become more prevalent over the past several decades. We describe the prevalence of, and patient characteristics associated with, cardiac- and non-cardiac-related multimorbidities in patients discharged from the hospital after an acute coronary syndrome. We studied 2174 patients discharged from the hospital after an acute coronary syndrome at 6 medical centers in Massachusetts and Georgia between April 2011 and May 2013. Hospital medical records yielded clinical information including presence of eight cardiac-related and eight non-cardiac-related morbidities on admission. We assessed multiple psychosocial characteristics during the index hospitalization using standardized in-person instruments. The mean age of the study sample was 61 years, 67% were men, and 81% were non-Hispanic whites. The most common cardiac-related morbidities were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes (76%, 69%, and 31%, respectively). Arthritis, chronic pulmonary disease, and depression (20%, 18%, and 13%, respectively) were the most common noncardiac morbidities. Patients with ≥4 morbidities (37% of the population) were slightly older and more frequently female than those with 0-1 morbidity; they were also heavier and more likely to be cognitively impaired (26% vs 12%), have symptoms of moderate/severe depression (31% vs 15%), high perceived stress (48% vs 32%), a limited social network (22% vs 15%), low health literacy (42% vs 31%), and low health numeracy (54% vs 42%). Multimorbidity, highly prevalent in patients hospitalized with an acute coronary syndrome, is strongly associated with indices of psychosocial deprivation. This emphasizes the challenge of caring for these patients, which extends well beyond acute coronary syndrome management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Eptifibatide: The evidence for its role in the management of acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Shah; Shakeel O Khan; Surender Malhotra; Tim Fischell

    2009-01-01

    Ibrahim Shah, Shakeel O Khan, Surender Malhotra, Tim FischellBorgess Heart institute, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USAIntroduction: Acute coronary syndromes and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction are often initiated by platelet activation. Eptifibatide is a cyclic heptapeptide and is the third inhibitor of glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa that has found broad acceptance after the specific antibody abciximab and the nonpeptide tirofiban entered the global market. Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors act by inhibiting the f...

  9. Unusual pharyngeal pain caused by acute coronary syndrome: a report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Anzai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients complaining of pharyngeal pain have an upper respiratory tract infection or other local explanation for their pain. Here we show 3 rare cases of patients visiting our Otorhinolaryngology Department who had an initial symptom of pharyngeal pain caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS. An electrocardiogram and a cardiac biomarker test are recommended to exclude ACS with atypical presentation in cases without pharyngolaryngeal findings comparable to pharyngeal pain.

  10. ANMCO Scientific Statement: clinical management of hypercholesterolaemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Colivicchi, Furio; Massimo Gulizia, Michele; Arca, Marcello; Abrignani, Maurizio Giuseppe; Perna, Gian Piero; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Nardi, Federico; Riccio, Carmine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction after Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) is associated with a significant decrease in subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Accordingly, international guidelines recommend a reduction of LDL-C below 70?mg/dL in ACS patients. Such a result can be effectively accomplished in most cases by using high intensity statins. In selected cases, the association with ezetimibe may be necessary in order to achieve recommended LDL-C targets. This document ...

  11. Anti-inflammatory treatment and risk of depression in 91,842 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 91,860 individuals without acute coronary syndrome in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined if treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), or statins after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are associated with decreased risk of depression. Method This register-based cohort study included all individuals with a first-time hos......Background We examined if treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), or statins after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are associated with decreased risk of depression. Method This register-based cohort study included all individuals with a first......-time hospital admissions with an ACS diagnosis registered between January 2001 to December 2009 (N = 91,842) and a comparable reference population without ACS (N = 91,860). Information of ASA, NSAID, and statin use were retrieved from a national prescription register. The study population was followed...... for hospitalization with depression or receiving prescription of antidepressant medication for up to one year after ACS or study entry (early depression) or one to twelve years after ACS or study entry (late depression). Results ASA use after ACS was associated with decreased risk of early depression with hazard...

  12. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor when treating non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitillo, Francesco; Iacoviello, Massimo; Caldarola, Pasquale; Valle, Roberto; Chiatto, Mario; Aspromonte, Nadia

    2015-06-01

    ADP-induced platelet activation via P2Y12 receptor plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of arterial thrombosis and acute coronary syndrome. The value of dual antiplatelet therapy with the addition of the thienopyridine clopidogrel to aspirin has been widely established. Prasugrel, another thienopyridine, has demonstrated more potent platelet inhibition and efficacy than clopidogrel, although this drug requires metabolic activation and is associated with increased risk of bleedings. In this article, we discuss the role of ticagrelor in the management of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes treatment. We describe the unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of this drug and the extensive data obtained by preclinical and Phase II and III clinical studies. Current guidelines recommend ticagrelor, in addition to aspirin, for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes at moderate to high-risk regardless of initial therapeutic strategy. Benefit of ticagrelor, as regard mortality, may be related to off-target effects of the drug, especially those involving the metabolism of adenosine. Ticagrelor represents a cost-effective alternative in the spectrum of P2Y12 inhibitors; however, further studies are required to enable the physician to choose the most appropriate antiplatelet agent for each patient.

  13. [Role of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in the management of acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choussat, R; Collet, J P; Beygui, F; Borentain, M; Montalescot, G

    2003-12-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone in the medical management of acute coronary syndromes. Three classes of antiplatelet drugs are available in this setting: acetylsalicylic acid, thienopyridines, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. During the last ten years, numerous clinical trials have been conducted in large populations of patients suffering from acute coronary syndromes. Further investigations are in progress. In the light of these results, the respective roles of the different antiplatelet drugs have been more precisely defined, in terms of class preference as well as in terms of the combination of several antiplatelet drugs and of antiplatelet drugs with other therapies, including non fractionated--or low molecular weight--heparin and non-invasive or invasive revascularisation procedures. In the present article, we review the results of the major published or non published trials that addressed the role of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists in the management of acute coronary syndromes. Based on these results, the current therapeutic guidelines for clinical practice issued by the American and European cardiology societies are given in the conclusion, with their level of evidence.

  14. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product: A Biomarker for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise J. N. Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE and its ligands are linked to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD, and circulating soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, reflecting the RAGE activity, is suggested as a potential biomarker. Elevated sRAGE levels are reported in relation to acute ischemia and this review focuses on the role of sRAGE as a biomarker for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The current studies demonstrated that sRAGE levels are elevated in relation to ACS, however during a very narrow time period, indicating that the time of sampling needs attention. Interestingly, activation of RAGE may influence the pathogenesis and reflection in sRAGE levels in acute and stable CAD differently.

  15. Acute coronary syndrome without critical epicardial coronary disease: prevalence, characteristics, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Wong, Vincent; Brunelli, Michele; von Korn, Hubertus; Farah, Ahmed; Memisevic, Nedim; Richter, Stefan; Tukhiashvili, Ketevan; Lauer, Bernward

    2015-02-01

    Absence of significant epicardial coronary artery stenosis in patients with acute onset of chest pain and elevation of myocardial necrosis markers is occasionally observed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics and the outcome of such patients. All patients with myocardial infarction (MI) but without significant coronary artery stenosis (≥50%) on angiography from May 2002 to April 2011 were compared with patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention due to non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). Of 4311 consecutive patients with MI, 272 patients (6.3%) did not show significant coronary artery stenosis (group I) and were compared with 253 NSTEMI patients (group II). Younger age (61.9±14.0 vs 65.4±12.0 years; P=.003), female sex (49.3% vs 28.9%; Pcoronary stenosis accounts for a minority of patients presenting with MI and is associated with a better outcome compared to patients with NSTEMI, and the prognosis is inversely related to the troponin level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome

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    Mari Ângela Gaedke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To analyze if the demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with the use of medicines for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS : In this cohort study, we included 138 patients with acute coronary syndrome, aged 30 years or more and of both sexes. The data were collected at the time of hospital discharge, and after six and twelve months. The outcome of the study was the simultaneous use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome: platelet antiaggregant, beta-blockers, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. The independent variables were: sex, age, education in years of attending, monthly income in tertiles and percutaneous coronary intervention. We described the prevalence of use of each group of medicines with their 95% confidence intervals, as well as the simultaneous use of the four medicines, in all analyzed periods. In the crude analysis, we verified the outcome with the independent variables for each period through the Chi-square test. The adjusted analysis was carried out using Poisson Regression. RESULTS : More than a third of patients (36.2%; 95%CI 28.2;44.3 had the four medicines prescribed at the same time, at the moment of discharge. We did not observe any differences in the prevalence of use in comparison with the two follow-up periods. The most prescribed class of medicines during discharge was platelet antiaggregant (91.3%. In the crude analysis, the demographic and socioeconomic variables were not associated to the outcome in any of the three periods. CONCLUSIONS : The prevalence of simultaneous use of medicines at discharge and in the follow-ups pointed to the under-utilization of this therapy in clinical practice. Intervention strategies are needed to improve the quality of care given to patients that extend beyond the hospital discharge, a critical

  17. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  18. P2Y12 Receptor Inhibitors in Acute Coronary Syndromes: What Is New on the Horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Adriana Dana; Popescu, Wanda M

    2013-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor represents the cornerstone therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous interventions, leading to a reduction of subsequent ischemic events. Variable response to clopidogrel has received close attention, and pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenomic factors have been identified as culprits. This led to the introduction of newer, potentially safer, and more effective antiplatelet agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Additionally, several point-of-care assays of platelet function have been developed in recent years to rapidly screen individuals on antiplatelet therapy. While the routine use of platelet function testing is uncertain and not currently recommended, it may be useful in instances when the degree of platelet inhibition may be uncertain such as high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or when there may be a suspected pharmacodynamic interaction with other drugs. The current paper focuses on the P2Y12 receptor inhibitors and their pharmacogenetics and indications in patients with acute coronary syndromes or receiving percutaneous coronary interventions as well as the applicability of platelet function testing in this clinical context.

  19. Acute coronary syndrome and cocaine use: 8-year prevalence and inhospital outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Xavier; Curós, Antoni; Muga, Robert; Serra, Jordi; Sanvisens, Arantza; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2011-05-01

    The use of cocaine as a recreational drug has increased in recent years. The aims of this study were to analyse the prevalence and in-hospital evolution of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) associated with cocaine consumption (ACS-ACC). Prospective analysis of ACS patients admitted to a coronary care unit from January 2001 to December 2008. During the study period, 2752 patients were admitted for ACS, and among these 479 were ≤50 years of age. Fifty-six (11.7%) patients had a medical history of cocaine use with an increase in prevalence from 6.8% in 2001 to 21.7% in 2008 (P = 0.035). Among patients younger than 30 years of age, 25% admitted to being users compared with 5.5% of those aged 45-50 years (P = 0.007). Similarly, the prevalence of positive urine tests for cocaine was four times higher in the younger patients (18.2 vs. 4.1%, P = 0.035). Acute coronary syndrome associated with cocaine consumption patients (n = 24; those who had a positive urine test for cocaine or who admitted to being users upon admission) had larger myocardial infarcts as indicated by troponin I levels (52.9 vs. 23.4 ng/mL, P coronary care unit have greater myocardial damage and more frequent complications.

  20. Receptor Inhibitors in Acute Coronary Syndromes: What Is New on the Horizon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dana Oprea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor represents the cornerstone therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous interventions, leading to a reduction of subsequent ischemic events. Variable response to clopidogrel has received close attention, and pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenomic factors have been identified as culprits. This led to the introduction of newer, potentially safer, and more effective antiplatelet agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor. Additionally, several point-of-care assays of platelet function have been developed in recent years to rapidly screen individuals on antiplatelet therapy. While the routine use of platelet function testing is uncertain and not currently recommended, it may be useful in instances when the degree of platelet inhibition may be uncertain such as high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or when there may be a suspected pharmacodynamic interaction with other drugs. The current paper focuses on the P2Y12 receptor inhibitors and their pharmacogenetics and indications in patients with acute coronary syndromes or receiving percutaneous coronary interventions as well as the applicability of platelet function testing in this clinical context.

  1. INTERACTION OF CYTOKINE CASCADE WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shalenkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The role of immune factors in development of atherosclerotic process and anxiety-depressive disorders is of utmost importance. Serum levels of IL-6 and -10 were studied in forty-nine patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as their interactions with psychological state of the patients. Serum concentrations of the cytokines proved to be higher in unstable angina. A correlation was confirmed between the cytokine levels and co-morbidity with affective disorders in acute ischaemic heart disease.

  2. Myocarditis Mimicking an Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Case Related to Salmonella enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rossetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective myocarditis is most commonly due to a viral infection; occasionally it has been related to bacteria. Gastrointestinal infections associated with myocarditis have only rarely been described in young people, and the pathogenesis is unclear. We report a case of myocarditis mimicking an acute coronary syndrome (ACS in a patient hospitalized for fever and diarrhoea. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from stool, and no other pathogens were found. The coronary angiography was normal, and there were not other coronary artery risk factors, other than hypertension. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin, acetylsalicylate acid, and ramipril with rapid clinical improvement and normalization of cardiac abnormalities. Final diagnosis of Salmonella enteritis and related myocarditis was made based on clinical, laboratory, ECG and echocardiographical findings.

  3. PROGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Alidzhanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of acute coronary syndrome (ACS in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is one of the areas of modern cardiology. The prevalence, course, prognosis and tactics of treatment of myocardial infarction in CKD are not well understood. The analysis of literature sources allows us to state that CKD in ACS doubles the risk of immediate and long-term death and adverse cardiovascular events. It is necessary to determine the CKD stage to predict the hospital and long-term mortality of the infarct patient. It is difficult to diagnose ACS at advanced stages of CKD. CKD should be considered an independent risk of death after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary bypass surgery.

  4. Incidence and relevance of acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Bertoli, Silvio V; Assanelli, Emilio; Marana, Ivana; De Metrio, Monica; Rubino, Mara; Moltrasio, Marco; Grazi, Marco; Campodonico, Jeness; Milazzo, Valentina; Veglia, Fabrizio; Lauri, Gianfranco; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2013-03-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. To date, however, no standardized definition of AKI has been used for patients with ACS. As a result, information on its true incidence and the clinical and prognostic relevance according to the severity of renal function deterioration are still lacking. We retrospectively studied 3,210 patients with ACS. AKI was identified on the basis of the changes in serum creatinine during hospitalization according to the AKI Network criteria. Overall, 409 patients (13%) developed AKI: 262 (64%) had stage 1, 25 (6%) stage 2, and 122 (30%) stage 3 AKI. In-hospital mortality was greater in patients with AKI than in those without AKI (21% vs 1%; p <0.001). The adjusted risk of death increased with increasing AKI severity. Compared to no AKI, the adjusted odds ratio for death was 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 6.83) with stage 1 AKI and 31.2 (95% confidence interval 16.96 to 57.45) with stage 2 to 3 AKI. A significant parallel increase in major adverse cardiac events was also observed comparing patients without AKI and those with stage 2 to 3 AKI. In conclusion, in patients with ACS, AKI is a frequent complication, and the graded increase of its severity, as assessed using the AKI Network classification, is associated with a progressive increased risk of in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute coronary syndrome and acute kidney injury: role of inflammation in worsening renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Jorge; Springall, Rashidi; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Arana-Martinez, Julio-C; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Bojalil, Rafael

    2017-07-26

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), a common complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stays. The role of cytokines and other mediators is unknown in AKI induced by an ACS (ACS-AKI), leading to several unanswered questions. The worsening of renal function is usually seen as a dichotomous phenomenon instead of a dynamic change, so evaluating changes of the renal function in time may provide valuable information in the ACS-AKI setting. The aim of this study was to explore inflammatory factors associated to de novo kidney injury induced by de novo cardiac injury secondary to ACS. One hundred four consecutive patients with ACS were initially included on the time of admission to the Coronary Unit of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología in Mexico City, from February to May 2016, before any invasive procedure, imaging study, diuretic or anti-platelet therapy. White blood count, hemoglobin, NT-ProBNP, troponin I, C-reactive protein, albumin, glucose, Na + , K + , blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, creatinine (Cr), endothelin-1 (ET-1), leukotriene-B4, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, resolvin-D1 (RvD1), lipoxin-A4 (LXA4), interleukin-1β, -6, -8, and -10 were measured. We finally enrolled 78 patients, and subsequently we identified 15 patients with ACS-AKI. Correlations were obtained by a Spearman rank test. Low-rank regression, splines regressions, and also protein-protein/chemical interactions and pathways analyses networks were performed. Positive correlations of ΔCr were found with BUN, admission Cr, GRACE score, IL-1β, IL-6, NT-ProBNP and age, and negative correlations with systolic blood pressure, mean-BP, diastolic-BP and LxA4. In the regression analyses IL-10 and RvD1 had positive non-linear associations with ΔCr. ET-1 had also a positive association. Significant non-linear associations were seen with NT-proBNP, admission Cr, BUN

  6. [Depression in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Application of the Beck Depression Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Jimmy J; Soto, Karen A; Caamaño, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    Depression has been related to the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and also appears to increase the risk of death from coronary artery disease. The presence of depression after the occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its relationship with socioeconomic factors has not been studied in Colombia. To describe the frequency of depression and associated factors in patients hospitalized with an ACS. A cross-sectional study was carried out between April and May 2008 in three coronary care units in Santa Marta, Colombia. The presence of depression was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Depression was considered to be present if BDI was equal or greater than 10. The relationship between the presence of depression and demographic, clinic and laboratory characteristics was analyzed. A BDI score ≥10 (any degree of depression) was seen in 21 (63.64%) of the patients. In 9 out of 10 (91.66%) patients without stable income had depression in contrast to 12 out of 23 (57.14%) with stable income (P=.037). Depression was found in in 8 of the 8 (100%) patients with electrocardiographic pathological T wave inversion, in contrast to 13 out of the 25 (52%) without changes in T wave (P=.014). Depression was detected in 17 of 22 (77.27%) patients who smoked cigarettes versus 4 of 11 (36.36%) of patients who have never smoked (P=.021). Depressive symptoms are significantly present in patients suffering an acute coronary syndrome. Unemployment, pathological T wave inversion, and smoking seem to be associated with the presence of depressive symptoms after an acute coronary event. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of the National Service Framework for coronary heart disease on treatment and outcome of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J J; Timmis, A; Cooper, J; Ramdany, S; Deaner, A; Ranjadayalan, K; Knight, C

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the impact the National Service Framework (NSF) for coronary heart disease has had on emergency treatment and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Retrospective cohort study. Coronary care units of two district general hospitals. Data from 3371 patients were recorded, 1993 patients in the 27 months before the introduction of the NSF and 1378 patients in the 24 months afterwards. After the introduction of the NSF in-hospital mortality was significantly reduced (95 patients (4.8%) v 43 (3.2%), p = 0.02). This was associated with a reduction in the development of Q wave myocardial infarction (40.6% v 33.3%, p < 0.0001) and in the incidence of left ventricular failure (15.9% v 12.3%, p = 0.003). The proportion of patients receiving thrombolysis increased (69.4% v 84.7%, p < 0.0001) with a decrease in the time taken to receive it (proportion thrombolysed within 20 minutes 12.1% v 26.6%, p < 0.0001). The prescription of beta blockers (51.9% v 65.8%, p < 0.0001), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (37% v 66.4%, p < 0.0001), and statins (55.2% v 72.7%, p < 0.0001) improved and the proportion of patients referred for invasive investigation increased (18.3% v 27.0%, p < 0.0001). Trend analysis showed that improvements in mortality and thrombolysis were directly associated with publication of the NSF, whereas the improvements seen in prescription of beta blockers and statins were the continuation of pre-existing trends. In the two years that followed publication of the NSF the initial treatment and outcome of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes improved. Some of the improvements can be attributed to the NSF but others are continuations of pre-existing trends.

  8. CYP2C19 activity and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna; Medina-Gil, José María; Garay-Sánchez, Paloma; Tugores, Antonio

    2017-09-20

    CYP2C19 is a major isoform of cytochrome P450 that metabolizes a number of drugs and is involved in the glucocorticoids synthesis. CYP2C19 polymorphisms have been associated with the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes. Five hundred and three patients with an acute coronary event were studied to assess the association between the CYP2C19 activity (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 variants) and the type of acute coronary syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors (arterial systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking), analytical parameters and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Genotype distribution in our series was similar to that expected in the Caucasian population. Among the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, very poor metabolizer patients (*2/*2, *3/*3 or *2/*3) had a greater tendency to present diabetes mellitus needing insuline (P=.067). Conversely, when we compared very poor, poor and normal metabolizers vs. rapid and ultrarapid metabolizers we found significant differences in those diabetic patients under insulin treatment (64 patients [18%] vs. 17 patients [11%]; P=.032). On the contrary, analytical parameters, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking or the personal/family history of coronary artery disease did not reach statistical significance regardless of CYP2C19 activity. Similarly, the number and the type of coronary disease (thrombotic, fibrotic or both) did not differ between patients with different CYP2C19 enzyme activity. Patients with an acute coronary event and a very poor, poor and normal CYP2C19 metabolizer genotype have a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus needing insuline than patients with the rapid and ultrarapid metabolizers CPY2C19 genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender differences in the presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes: a national sample of 1365 admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Frank; De La Harpe, Davida; McGee, Hannah; Shelley, Emer; Conroy, Ronán

    2005-01-01

    Background Gender differences in presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are well established internationally. This study investigated differences in a national Irish sample. Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods All centres (n= 39) admitting cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care provided information on 25 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients and other ACS patients admitted concurrently (n= 1365 episodes). Patient data was analyzed in terms of those wi...

  10. 48. Can early 24 hours Holter monitoring predict obstructive coronary artery lesions in patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of patients at increased risk of death due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS can add to risk stratification and guide the next step in the management of those patients. Altered HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart disease, but this has not been established in patients with acute chest pain.This study aimed to create a non-invasive, economical and risk-free method in the clinical evaluation and diagnosis of significant CAD among patients with unstable angina.Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings of 100 patients with ACS were initiated within 24 hours of admission at the emergency department; stress ECG was done for all patients while coronary angiography was done only for patients with abnormal stress test. Time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV were examined.The mean SDNN was statistically significantly lower in patients with abnormal stress test, many time and frequency domain HRV parameters was statistically lower in patients with significant coronary arteries obstruction. HRV measured close to the ACS onset may assist in risk stratification. HRV parameters may provide additional, incremental prognostic information to established assessment guidelines and possible early intervention in those patients.

  11. Markedly Elevated Troponin in Diabetic Ketoacidosis without Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Menekşe Gerede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Troponin gives excellent accuracy in the identification of myocardial necrosis, however, it may elevate also in a series of non-atherosclerotic heart diseases. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. She had markedly increased levels (90 fold of cardiac biomarkers (troponin I and CK-MB and initial electrocardiography changes compatible with myocardial infarction. She had normal a coronary angiogram. This case shows that nonspecific myocardial injury may occur in DKA with the findings mimicking myocardial infarction including increased level of cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiography changes.

  12. Clinician gestalt estimate of pretest probability for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism in patients with chest pain and dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Stubblefield, William B

    2014-03-01

    Pretest probability helps guide diagnostic testing for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Pretest probability derived from the clinician's unstructured gestalt estimate is easier and more readily available than methods that require computation. We compare the diagnostic accuracy of physician gestalt estimate for the pretest probability of acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism with a validated, computerized method. This was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected, multicenter study. Patients (N=840) had chest pain, dyspnea, nondiagnostic ECGs, and no obvious diagnosis. Clinician gestalt pretest probability for both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism was assessed by visual analog scale and from the method of attribute matching using a Web-based computer program. Patients were followed for outcomes at 90 days. Clinicians had significantly higher estimates than attribute matching for both acute coronary syndrome (17% versus 4%; Pprobability but on receiver operating curve analysis were as accurate for pulmonary embolism but not acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of cardiovascular emerging risk factors with acute coronary syndrome and stroke: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Linares, José Manuel; Guisado Barrilao, Rafael; Ocaña Peinado, Francisco Manuel; Salgado Parreño, Francisco Javier

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we estimated the risk of acute coronary syndrome and stroke associated with several emerging cardiovascular risk factors. This was a case-control study, where an age - and sex-matched acute coronary syndrome group and stroke group were compared with controls. Demographic and clinical data were collected through patient interviews, and blood samples were taken for analysis. In the bivariate analysis, all cardiovascular risk factors analyzed showed as predictors of acute coronary syndrome and stroke, except total cholesterol and smoking. In the multivariate logistic regression model for acute coronary syndrome, hypertension and body mass index, N-terminal section brain natriuretic peptide and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A were independent predictors. For stroke, the predictors were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and N-terminal section brain natriuretic peptide. Controlling for age, sex, and classical cardiovascular risk factors, N-terminal section brain natriuretic peptide and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A were independent emerging cardiovascular risk factors for acute coronary syndrome, but pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A was not for stroke. High levels of cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with no episodes of cardiovascular disease requires the implementation of prevention programs, given that at least half of them are modifiable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Extended dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome in Spain: Results from the EPICOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Alfredo; Leal, Manuel; Arrarte, Vicente; Garcia-Moll, Xavier; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Bueno, Héctor

    2017-04-01

    Real-world, country-specific studies of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are important for improving long-term prognosis. To investigate DAPT duration after hospital discharge for ACS in Spain. Data from patients enrolled in the Spanish cohort of the EPICOR (long-tErm follow-up of antithrombotic management Patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients) study (NCT01171404) were analyzed for changes to antithrombotic medication up to 2 years postdischarge according to index event diagnosis and patient characteristics. Deaths, coronary events, and bleeding events were analyzed over the same period. Overall, a high proportion of patients remained on DAPT at 2 years (53.1%). Among patients who experienced any on-treatment bleeding event, almost two-thirds remained on DAPT at the end of follow-up. Patients >65 years, diabetic, or those that were medically managed were more likely to continue with DAPT until 2 years following discharge. At 2 years, the incidence of bleeding events requiring hospitalization was low compared with the incidence of coronary events (1.4% vs 6.6%). There was a numerical reduction in coronary events, but no increase in bleeding events, with DAPT continuation compared with single antiplatelet therapy. More than half of patients in this unselected cohort study remained on DAPT at 2 years following discharge for ACS. Continuation with DAPT was greater among patients with additional cardiovascular risk factors, which suggests that treating physicians in Spain prioritizes ischemic risk reduction over bleeding risk in patients with ACS, according to patient's risk profile. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [TIMI risk score validation for patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, Rodrigo H; Urinovsky, Fernando M; Contreras, Alejandro E; Estrada, Carlos D

    2009-01-01

    Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) are frequent cause of hospitalization, being responsible for 10-15% of infarcts or deaths per year. The study was designed to analyze 6 months follow-up of cardiovascular events as well as to validate the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score for patients hospitalized for NSTE-ACS. We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted with NSTE-ACS. Telephone follow-up were performed at 6 month. Combination of death, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome and revascularization were considered as end point. Two hundred and four patients were included for the analysis. There were 70.2% males, with a mean age of 64.5 +/- 11.8 years. After the initial evaluation, we diagnosed unstable angina in 34.6% of cases, MI in 38.9% of cases, and 26.4% of patients were categorized as "non coronary chest pain". Applying the TIMI risk score, 52 (25.5%) patients had low risk, 106 (52%) intermediated risk, and 46 (22.5%) high risk. The global mortality was 12.3%. We found a progressively and significant increase in the rate of combined events as the TIMI score increase (p TIMI risk score was well related to newer cardiovascular events at 6 month follow-up.

  16. Association Between Family History, a Genetic Risk Score, and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Premature Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindieh, Waseem; Pilote, Louise; Cheema, Asim; Al-Lawati, Hatim; Labos, Christopher; Dufresne, Line; Engert, James C; Thanassoulis, George

    2016-06-01

    A genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary artery disease has recently been shown to be independent of family history (FHx) in predicting future cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether the presence of these risk factors, either individually or together, was associated with a higher burden of angiographic coronary artery disease. We included 763 patients with premature acute coronary syndrome (median age, 50 [46-53] years; 30.8% women) with at least 1 major epicardial vessel stenosis enrolled in the Gender and Sex Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease From Bench to Beyond in Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome (GENESIS-PRAXY) study, a multicentre prospective cohort study of premature patients with acute coronary syndrome (aged ≤55 years). The prevalence of multivessel disease (ie, ≥2 vessels with >50% stenosis) in individuals with FHx was 49.7% as compared with 37.9% in those without FHx (Pprevalence of 3-vessel disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-2.21; P=0.12 for 2-vessel disease and OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.95; P=0.005 for 3-vessel disease). Individuals with a high GRS were also more likely to have multivessel disease (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.99; P=0.047) after adjustment for traditional risk factors, including FHx. Individuals with both a FHx and a high GRS as compared with those with neither had the highest ORs for multivessel disease (adjusted OR, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.69; P=0.0064). In patients with premature acute coronary syndrome, the presence of either a high GRS or FHx is associated with greater severity of coronary artery disease at angiography. Whether preventive strategies targeted to genetically predisposed individuals will reduce the burden of early acute coronary syndrome warrants further study. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Tissue Doppler echocardiographic quantification. Comparison to coronary angiography results in Acute Coronary Syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allal Joseph

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiples indices have been described using tissue Doppler imaging (DTI capabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of one or several regional DTI parameters in separating control from ischemic myocardium. Methods Twenty-eight patients with acute myocardial infarction were imaged within 24-hour following an emergent coronary angioplasty. Seventeen controls without any coronary artery or myocardial disease were also explored. Global and regional left ventricular functions were assessed. High frame rate color DTI cineloop recordings were made in apical 4 and 2-chamber for subsequent analysis. Peak velocity during isovolumic contraction time (IVC, ejection time, isovolumic relaxation (IVR and filling time were measured at the mitral annulus and the basal, mid and apical segments of each of the walls studied as well as peak systolic displacement and peak of strain. Results DTI-analysis enabled us to discriminate between the 3 populations (controls, inferior and anterior AMI. Even in non-ischemic segments, velocities and displacements were reduced in the 2 AMI populations. Peak systolic displacement was the best parameter to discriminate controls from AMI groups (wall by wall, p was systematically Conclusion DTI-analysis appears to be valuable in ischemic heart disease assessment. Its clinical impact remains to be established. However this simple index might really help in intensive care unit routine practice.

  18. Update: Acute coronary syndromes (V). Personalized antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbel, Paul A; Rafeedheen, Rahil; Tantry, Udaya S

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate during clopidogrel therapy is an independent risk factor for ischemic event occurrences in a postpercutaneous coronary intervention patients. However, the precise role of platelet function testing remains debated. Platelet function testing to ensure optimal platelet inhibition has been recommended by some authorities to improve outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel. Recent prospective, randomized trials of personalized antiplatelet therapy have failed to demonstrate a benefit of platelet function testing in improving outcomes. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for clopidogrel nonreponsiveness, recent trials of platelet function testing, and other new developments in the field of personalized antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute psychological stress as a precipitant of acute coronary syndromes in patients with undiagnosed ischemic heart disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Melanie L

    2009-01-01

    Acute psychological stress causes a number of physiologic responses that can trigger acute coronary syndromes in individuals with silent coronary artery disease. The mechanisms behind this phenomena have been the subject of much speculation. The following is a case report and brief review of the literature. A PubMed search was undertaken using the key words stress and myocardial infarction, stress and ischemia, mental stress and coronary artery disease, psychological stress and acute coronary syndrome, and mental stress and plaque destabilization. Articles were restricted to the English language and those dating through December 2007. Acute coronary syndrome is thought to be the end result of a complex mechanism involving platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have shown that acute mental stress leads to enhanced platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanism behind this involves both the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine response. Acute psychological stress may lead to acute coronary syndromes in patients with previously silent disease. Physicians should inquire about cardiac symptoms in patients with cardiac risk factors who are experiencing psychological distress. Further research will hopefully lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism behind this process to improve therapeutic interventions.

  20. Acute coronary syndrome caused by anomalous origin of the right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute coronar .s' ndmme caused b anomalous art 'in on the rt '/1[ corona!" arler ruin the 10 t sinus 0 ' Valxalva - A. S. Assiri'. y s . . . . to high incidence of Sudden Cardiac Deathfijl Full-spectrum of clinical presentation including origin, myocardial infarction and even sudden death have been described. 6. In 1992, Taylor and ...

  1. Estimating the incidence of the acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Foldspang, Anders; Larsen, Mogens L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of incidence are crucial to the planning of public health measures, but most studies of incidence of, for example, acute myocardial infarction (MI) are troubled by methodological problems such as; (i) selection biases of the patients being included for study, (ii) lack...

  2. [Registry of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes in a tertiary hospital (RESCATA-SEST registry)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pliego, José Angel; Gutiérrez-Díaz, Gonzalo Israel; Celis, Alfredo; Gudiño-Amezcua, Diego Armando

    2014-01-01

    To describe the clinical-epidemiologic profile and the process of care of the non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes in a tertiary hospital. We analyzed the clinical information, the risk stratification and diagnostic methods, the revascularization therapy and the prescription trends at discharge, of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes cared for in one year. Two hundred and eighty-three patients with mean age of 58 years were included (63% men). The largest number of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (88.6%) was found between 50 to 59 years of age. The most common risk factor was hypertension; 82.5% of the patients had a low-intermediate TIMI score; residual ischemia was demonstrated in 37% and coronary obstructions were seen in 80 patients (70%). In 90%, a percutaneous coronary intervention was performed, mainly with drug-eluting Stents (87.5%). At discharge, even though antiplatelet agents and statins were prescribed in more than 90%, other drugs were indicated in a few more than 50% of patients. In this population, non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes predominates in relatively young men, often with hypertension. To stratify risk, to look for residual ischemia and to revascularize with drug-eluting stents are common practices, but the evidence-based guidelines compliance is still suboptimal. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress induced cardiomyopathy presenting as acute coronary syndrome: Tako-Tsubo in Mercogliano, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemme L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tako-tsubo syndrome (TTS in its typical (apical and atypical (non-apical forms is being increasingly recognized in the West owing to early systematic coronary angiography in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Aim of the study To assess the incidence, the clinical characteristics and the outcome of TTS in a single high volume cath lab in Southern Italy over the last 6 years. Methods Among 1674 consecutive patients (pts referred to our coronary care units in the last 6 years (2001–2006 for ACS we selected 6 (0.5% pts (6 women; age 57 ± 6 years who fulfilled the following 4 criteria: 1 transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities resulting in ballooning at contrast ventricolographic or echocardiographic evaluation; 2 normal coronary artery on coronary angiography performed 5 ± 9 hours from hospitalization; 3 new electrocardiographic ischemic-like abnormalities (either ST-segment elevation or T-wave inversion and 4 emotional or physical trigger event. Results At admission all pts had presumptive diagnosis of ACS and ECG revealed ST elevation in 3 (50% and T wave inversion with QT elongation in 3 (50%. In the acute phase cardiogenic shock occurred in 2 (33% and heart failure in 1(16%. Presenting symptoms were chest pain in 6 (100%, dyspnoea in 2 (33% and lipotimia in 1 (16%. At echocardiographic-ventricolographic assessment, the mechanical dysfunction (ballooning was apical in all 6 pts ("classic" TTS. In all patients wall motion abnormalities completely reversed within 4.5 ± 1.5 days. The region of initial recovery was the anterior and lateral wall in 4 cases and the lateral wall in 2 cases. Ejection fraction was 35 ± 8% in the acute phase and increased progressively at discharge (55 ± 6% and at 41 ± 20 months follow-up (60 ± 4%, p Conclusion Classic TTS is a frequent serendipitous diagnosis after coronary angiography showed "surprisingly" normal findings in a clinical setting mimicking an ACS. Despite its long

  4. Prasugrel overcomes high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in the acute phase of acute coronary syndrome and maintains its antiplatelet potency at 30-day follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozinski, M.; Obonska, K.; Stankowska, K.; Navarese, E.P.; Fabiszak, T.; Stolarek, W.; Kasprzak, M.; Siller-Matula, J.M.; Rosc, D.; Kubica, J.; Servi, S. De

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess antiplatelet effect of prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on clopidogrel, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A prospective, platelet reactivity-guided,

  5. Comparison of Functional Capacity using Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Pharmacological Therapy on ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Nurkusuma Wardhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is a shift manifestations pattern of ischemic myocardium. Revascularization either with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or pharmacological therapy is an optional treatment for ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (STEACS patients. The aim of the study was to compare the functional capacity using six-minute walking test on STEACS patients who underwent Primary PCI or pharmacological therapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from September to October 2012 to 35 STEACS patients who were treated after two years. The samples were obtained from the list of patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients diagnosed as STEACS, cooperative and not experiencing cognitive disturbance. The exclusion criteria were STEACS patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarct in the last month, stable exertional angina, and pregnant women. The patients underwent 6 minutes walking test,VO2max was measured using theCalahin and Cooper formula, then Metabolic Equation Task (METs was calculated. Data were analyzed by unpaired T-test. Results: There were 19 Primary PCI and 16 pharmacological therapy patients. The average of age between the two groups was distributed evenly. Most of the STEACS patients were male, had a college/academic degree and were retired. Patients treated with pharmacological therapy had higher average of VO2 max and METs than patients with Primary PCI. There was no significantly differences of METs between those groups (p>0.05 Conclusions: There were no significantly differences of functional capacity in STEACS patients treated with Primary PCI or Pharmacological therapy.

  6. The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome: A review and expert consensus opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Markku S; Buerke, Michael; Cohen-Solál, Alain; Costa, Susana; Édes, István; Erlikh, Alexey; Franco, Fatima; Gibson, Charles; Gorjup, Vojka; Guarracino, Fabio; Gustafsson, Finn; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Husebye, Trygve; Karason, Kristjan; Katsytadze, Igor; Kaul, Sundeep; Kivikko, Matti; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Masip, Josep; Matskeplishvili, Simon; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Møller, Jacob E; Nessler, Jadwiga; Nessler, Bohdan; Ntalianis, Argyrios; Oliva, Fabrizio; Pichler-Cetin, Emel; Põder, Pentti; Recio-Mayoral, Alejandro; Rex, Steffen; Rokyta, Richard; Strasser, Ruth H; Zima, Endre; Pollesello, Piero

    2016-09-01

    Acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock are frequently triggered by ischemic coronary events. Yet, there is a paucity of randomized data on the management of patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome, as acute coronary syndrome and cardiogenic shock have frequently been defined as exclusion criteria in trials and registries. As a consequence, guideline recommendations are mostly driven by observational studies, even though these patients have a particularly poor prognosis compared to heart failure patients without signs of coronary artery disease. In acute heart failure, and especially in cardiogenic shock related to ischemic conditions, vasopressors and inotropes are used. However, both pathophysiological considerations and available clinical data suggest that these treatments may have disadvantageous effects. The inodilator levosimendan offers potential benefits due to a range of distinct effects including positive inotropy, restoration of ventriculo-arterial coupling, increases in tissue perfusion, and anti-stunning and anti-inflammatory effects. In clinical trials levosimendan improves symptoms, cardiac function, hemodynamics, and end-organ function. Adverse effects are generally less common than with other inotropic and vasoactive therapies, with the notable exception of hypotension. The decision to use levosimendan, in terms of timing and dosing, is influenced by the presence of pulmonary congestion, and blood pressure measurements. Levosimendan should be preferred over adrenergic inotropes as a first line therapy for all ACS-AHF patients who are under beta-blockade and/or when urinary output is insufficient after diuretics. Levosimendan can be used alone or in combination with other inotropic or vasopressor agents, but requires monitoring due to the risk of hypotension. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and troponin in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzo, Luiz; Santos, Elizabete Silva dos; Timerman, Ari

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western world and its treatment should be optimized to decrease severe adverse events. To determine the effect of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cardiac troponin I measurement in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and evaluate clinical outcomes at 180 days. Prospective, observational study, carried out in a tertiary center, in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory variables were analyzed, with emphasis on previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac troponin I. The Pearson chi-square tests (Pereira) or Fisher's exact test (Armitage) were used, as well as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's test. Variables with significance levels of mean age of 62.1 years, of whom 63.7% were males, were included. Risk factors such as hypertension (85.3%) and dyslipidemia (75.9%) were the most prevalent, with 35% of diabetics. In the evaluation of events at 180 days, there were 28 deaths (6.2%). The statistical analysis showed that the variables that interfered with troponin elevation (> 0.5 ng / mL) were high blood glucose at admission (p = 0.0034) and ST-segment depression ≥ 0.5 mm in one or more leads (p = 0.0016). The use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors prior to hospitalization was associated with troponin ≤ 0.5 ng / mL (p = 0.0482). The C-statistics for this model was 0.77. This study showed a correlation between prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and reduction in the myocardial necrosis marker troponin I in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, there are no data available yet to state that this reduction could lead to fewer severe clinical events such as death and re-infarction at 180 days.

  8. Complete atrioventricular block in acute coronary syndrome: prevalence, characterisation and implication on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar Rosa, Silvia; Timóteo, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Lurdes; Carvalho, Ramiro; Oliveira, Mario; Cunha, Pedro; Viveiros Monteiro, André; Portugal, Guilherme; Almeida Morais, Luis; Daniel, Pedro; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to characterise acute coronary syndrome patients with complete atrioventricular block and to assess the effect on outcome. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome were divided according to the presence of complete atrioventricular block: group 1, with complete atrioventricular block; group 2, without complete atrioventricular block. Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics and prognosis during one year follow-up were compared between the groups. Among 4799 acute coronary syndrome patients admitted during the study period, 91 (1.9%) presented with complete atrioventricular block. At presentation, group 1 patients presented with lower systolic blood pressure, higher Killip class and incidence of syncope. In group 1, 86.8% presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and inferior STEMI was verified in 79.1% of patients in group 1 compared with 21.9% in group 2 ( Pcoronary intervention ( P<0.001). During hospitalisation group 1 had worse outcomes, with a higher incidence of cardiogenic shock (33.0% vs. 4.5%; P<0.001), ventricular arrhythmias (17.6% vs. 3.6%; P<0.001) and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (25.3% vs. 5.1%; P<0.001). After a propensity score analysis, in a multivariate regression model, complete atrioventricular block was an independent predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 3.671; P=0.045). There was no significant difference in mortality at one-year follow-up between the study groups. Complete atrioventricular block conferred a worse outcome during hospitalisation, including a higher incidence of cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmias and death.

  9. Association between Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Troponin in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Minuzzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western world and its treatment should be optimized to decrease severe adverse events. Objective: To determine the effect of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cardiac troponin I measurement in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and evaluate clinical outcomes at 180 days. Methods: Prospective, observational study, carried out in a tertiary center, in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory variables were analyzed, with emphasis on previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac troponin I. The Pearson chi-square tests (Pereira or Fisher's exact test (Armitage were used, as well as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's test. Variables with significance levels of 0.5 ng / mL were high blood glucose at admission (p = 0.0034 and ST-segment depression ≥ 0.5 mm in one or more leads (p = 0.0016. The use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors prior to hospitalization was associated with troponin ≤ 0.5 ng / mL (p = 0.0482. The C-statistics for this model was 0.77. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and reduction in the myocardial necrosis marker troponin I in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, there are no data available yet to state that this reduction could lead to fewer severe clinical events such as death and re-infarction at 180 days.

  10. Effect of preoperative small dose of tirofiban on PCI treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of preoperative small dose of tirofiban on PCI treatment prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: A total of 108 cases with acute coronary syndrome who received PCI treatment in our hospital from August 2011 to May 2014 were included for study and randomly divided into observation group and control group by half according to different treatment methods. Control group received PCI treatment alone, observation group received small dose of tirofiban combined with PCI treatment, and then differences in hemorheology indicators, platelet function, left ventricular systolic function and left ventricular diastolic function parameters, serum indicators and so on were compared between two groups after treatment. Results: Whole blood high shear viscosity, whole blood low shear viscosity, reduced high shear viscosity, reduced low shear viscosity, plasma ratio viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index and erythrocyte deformability index of observation group after treatment were all less than those of control group (P<0.05; PAdT, PAgT, CD62p, CD40L and P-selectin values of observation group after treatment were all lower than those of control group (P<0.05; LPER and LPFR values of observation group 1 week after treatment were higher than those of control group while LTPER and LTPFR values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum GA, MCP-1, PAI-1, NT-proBNP, PAC-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 values of observation group after treatment were all lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Small dose of tirofiban combined with PCI treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome can effectively enhance therapeutic effect, inhibit platelet activity while protect heart function and optimize long-term treatment outcome.

  11. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein and male gender are independently related to the severity of coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and an acute coronary event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high-risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the major determinants of coronary disease severity, including those coronary risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, during the early period after an acute coronary episode. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory markers, especially highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, are related to coronary atherosclerosis, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Subjects of both genders aged 30 to 75 years (N = 116 were prospectively included if they had suffered a recent acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and if they had metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were submitted to a coronary angiography and the burden of atherosclerosis was estimated by the Gensini score. The severity of coronary disease was correlated (Spearman’s or Pearson’s coefficient with gender (r = 0.291, P = 0.008, age (r = 0.218, P = 0.048, hsCRP (r = 0.256, P = 0.020, ApoB/ApoA ratio (r = 0.233, P = 0.041, and carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.236, P = 0.041. After multiple linear regression, only male gender (P = 0.046 and hsCRP (P = 0.012 remained independently associated with the Gensini score. In this high-risk population, male gender and high levels of hsCRP, two variables that can be easily obtained, were associated with more extensive coronary disease, identifying patients with the highest potential of developing new coronary events.

  12. Predictors of myocardial damage prior to hospital admission among patients with acute chest pain or other symptoms raising a suspicion of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Leif; Isaksson, Leif; Axelsson, Christer; Nordlander, Rolf; Herlitz, Johan

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate factors which, prior to hospital admission, predict the development of acute coronary syndrome or acute myocardial infarction among patients who call for an ambulance due to suspected acute coronary syndrome. Prospective observational study. All the patients who called for an ambulance due to suspected acute coronary syndrome in South Hospital's catchment area in Stockholm and in the Municipality of Göteborg between January and November 2000, were included. On arrival of the ambulance crew, a blood sample was drawn for bedside analysis of serum myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK)MB and troponin-I. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was simultaneously recorded. In all, 538 patients took part in the survey. Their mean age was 69 years and 58% were men. In all, 307 patients (57.3%) had acute coronary syndrome and 158 (29.5%) had acute myocardial infarction. Independent predictors of the development of acute coronary syndrome were a history of myocardial infarction (P=0.006), angina pectoris (P=0.005) or hypertension (P=0.017), ECG changes with ST elevation (Psyndrome, predictors of myocardial damage can be defined prior to hospital admission on the basis of previous history, sex, ECG changes, the elevation of biochemical markers and the interval from the onset of symptoms until the ambulance reaches the patient.

  13. Is recent cannabis use associated with acute coronary syndromes? An illustrative case series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casier, Isabelle; Vanduynhoven, Philippe; Haine, Steven; Vrints, Chris; Jorens, Philippe G

    2014-01-01

    ...). The mechanism of the cardiovascular collapse was different in each case. The first case presented with asystole and was found to have diffuse coronary vasospasm on coronary angiography in the hours after acute cannabis abuse...

  14. Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Alcohol Abuse: Prospective Evaluation in the ERICO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilha, Abner; Karagulian, Samuel; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S; Benseñor, Isabela M; Goulart, Alessandra C

    2015-06-01

    Some studies have indicated alcohol abuse as one of the contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease. However, this relationship is controversial. To investigate the relationship between post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) alcohol abuse in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO Study). 146 participants from the ERICO Study answered structured questionnaires and underwent laboratory evaluations at baseline, 30 days and 180 days after ACS. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to assess harmful alcohol consumption in the 12 months preceding ACS (30 day-interview) and six months after that. The frequencies of alcohol abuse were 24.7% and 21.1% in the 12 months preceding ACS and six months after that, respectively. The most significant cardiovascular risk factors associated with high-risk for alcohol abuse 30 days after the acute event were: male sex (88.9%), current smoking (52.8%) and hypertension (58.3%). Six months after the acute event, the most significant results were replicated in our logistic regression, for the association between alcohol abuse among younger individuals [35-44 year-old multivariate OR: 38.30 (95% CI: 1.44-1012.56) and 45-54 year-old multivariate OR: 10.10 (95% CI: 1.06-96.46)] and for smokers [current smokers multivariate OR: 51.09 (95% CI: 3.49-748.01) and past smokers multivariate OR: 40.29 (95% CI: 2.37-685.93)]. Individuals younger than 54 years and smokers showed a significant relation with harmful alcohol consumption, regardless of the ACS subtype.

  15. Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Alcohol Abuse: Prospective Evaluation in the ERICO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner Morilha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have indicated alcohol abuse as one of the contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease. However, this relationship is controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship between post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS alcohol abuse in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO Study. Methods: 146 participants from the ERICO Study answered structured questionnaires and underwent laboratory evaluations at baseline, 30 days and 180 days after ACS. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was applied to assess harmful alcohol consumption in the 12 months preceding ACS (30 day-interview and six months after that. Results: The frequencies of alcohol abuse were 24.7% and 21.1% in the 12 months preceding ACS and six months after that, respectively. The most significant cardiovascular risk factors associated with high-risk for alcohol abuse 30 days after the acute event were: male sex (88.9%, current smoking (52.8% and hypertension (58.3%. Six months after the acute event, the most significant results were replicated in our logistic regression, for the association between alcohol abuse among younger individuals [35-44 year-old multivariate OR: 38.30 (95% CI: 1.44-1012.56 and 45-54 year-old multivariate OR: 10.10 (95% CI: 1.06-96.46] and for smokers [current smokers multivariate OR: 51.09 (95% CI: 3.49-748.01 and past smokers multivariate OR: 40.29 (95% CI: 2.37-685.93]. Conclusion: Individuals younger than 54 years and smokers showed a significant relation with harmful alcohol consumption, regardless of the ACS subtype.

  16. Risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes--does the TIMI risk score work in unselected cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiza, R L; Leslie, S J; Williamson, P; Wai, S; Harrild, K; Peden, N R; Hargreaves, A D

    2006-02-01

    Management of patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) requires accurate risk stratification to guide appropriate therapy. To assess the utility of the TIMI risk score in stratifying patients with possible ACS in routine clinical practice. Prospective observational study. We recruited 869 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of possible ACS attending the acute medical receiving unit of a district general hospital. The main outcome measures were recurrent myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization, and all-cause mortality. TIMI risk score was calculated for each patient, and each was also assigned a risk group based on electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and troponin levels only. After follow-up, Cox univariate and multivariate regression was used to evaluate the influence of potential risk factors on duration of event-free survival, and likelihood ratio tests to assess the fit of the models. Increasing TIMI risk score was associated with increased risk of events (prisk group from ECG plus troponin stratification (pTIMI risk score (difference 13.910, 5 degrees of freedom, p = 0.016). The TIMI risk score is a valid tool for risk stratification in unselected cases with possible acute coronary syndrome. It is superior to ECG changes and troponin alone, although this simpler method also achieves good risk stratification.

  17. Statistical studies for SNP association in acute coronary syndrome ex vivo use of agonists and nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das Roy, P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria Background information Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), nick named as heart attack, is becoming one of the more frequent causes of death in today’s fast paced stressed out life, 4.8% of total death around... it occurs in order to prevent further blood loss during bleeding. However, sometime this platelet aggregation within the blood vessels cause the blocking of blood flow to the heart and hence cause what we know as heart attack, strokes, and peripheral...

  18. The Influence of Hyperglycemia at Admission on In-hospital Arrhythmia Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fariz M.Z Zein

    2015-12-01

    were no association between type of ACS, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, and hypertension, with the in-hospital arrhythmias. In multivariate analysis, the adjusted OR of HA was 2.85 (95% CI 1.35-6.02, and DM was the confounding variable. Conclusion: the incidence of in-hospital arrhythmias in patients with ACS was 21.55% (95% CI 16.26-26.84. Hyperglycemia at admission may increase the risk of in-hospital arrhythmia in patients with ACS. Key words: hyperglycemia at admission; in-hospital arrhythmia; acute coronary syndrome

  19. Analysis of a Latent Class Model in Diagnostic Classification Scales Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sprockel Díaz, John Jaime; Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud-Hospital de San José; Fontalvo, María Teresa; Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud-Hospital de San José; Araque, Carolina; Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud-Hospital de San José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chest pain is one of the leading causes of visits to the emergency department, identifying situations that endanger life, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACS), becomes the priority. The Braunwald and TIMI scales are two of the approximations used in the initial classification of patients.Methodology: From a database obtained from a study of the application of critical paths in the diagnosis of ACS, consisting of patients with chest pain, we conducted an exploratory study in...

  20. Prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (DECARD) randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Hansen, Baiba Hedegaard; Hanash, Jamal Abed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Escitalopram may prevent depression following acute coronary syndrome. We sought to estimate the effects of escitalopram on self-reported health and to identify subgroups with higher efficacy. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a 12-month double-blind clinical trial randomizing non...... trajectories on any scale compared with placebo (P > 0.28). Efficacy of escitalopram may have been better among those scoring at least the normative score on general health perceptions (hazard ratio (HR) for depression 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.02-1.42) ) or social functioning (HR = 0.12 (0...

  1. EVALUATION OF MENTAL STATUS AND ITS CORRECTION AGOMELATINE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Poponina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous sampling method using aquestionnaireHospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (GSHTD held survey 250 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS admitted to the emergency Department of cardiologyInstituteofCardiology, SB of RAMS. Of these, 85 people (34% were detected symptoms of anxiety and depression in 165 people (66%, anxiety and depressive symptoms were found. In a pilot randomized prospective comparative study included 46 people. Against the background of the basic treatment of ACS, 23 patients received an additional agomelatine. Results of the study are showed an improvement in mental status and quality of life

  2. Angiographic advancement of the coronary disease and the cardiovascular risk at the acute coronary syndrome in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widecka-Ostrowska, Katarzyna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Lewandowski, Maciej; Przybycień, Krzysztof; Gorący, Jarosław; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława

    2018-01-03

    with the metabolic syndrome a significantly higher left ventricular ejection fraction was found, compared to patients without this syndrome. In the whole examined group evaluated as a whole, the coronary disease angiographic advancement expressed as the epicardial artery affected correlated alternately positively correlated alternatively positively with age, BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR concentration. The cardiovascular risk assessed with the GRACE 2.0 score correlated with age, BMI, insulin concentration on fasting and with HOMA-IR, and negatively with systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and triglycerides concentration. The multiple regression model for predicting the left ventricular ejection fraction value indicated the strongest prognostic factor for LFEF was the type of acute coronary syndrome. Among other examined parameters, independent and statistically significant effect on the left ventricular ejection fraction had pulse value, Killip class, HDL cholesterol concentration, genetic predisposition toward cardiovascular diseases and the presence of metabolic syndrome. Observed correlative dependence between the coronary disease angiographic advancement and the age, BMI, insulin resistance confirm importance of these parameters in development of the coronary atherosclerosis. Demonstrated correlations between estimated cardiovascular risk, measured using GRACE score and insulin resistance confirm prognostic importance of metabolic parameters in patients after their first ACS. In patients with the first ACS for predicting the discharge fraction of the left ventricle, the most useful is the type of acute coronary syndrome, and among other evaluated parameters the presence of the metabolic syndrome and the pulse value, Killip class, HDL cholesterol concentration and genetic predisposition toward cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Rationale, design and methodology of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in prevention of Depression in Acute Coronary Syndrome (DECARD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba Hedegaard; Hanash, Jamal Abed; Rasmussen, Alice

    2009-01-01

    with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Two hundred forty non-depressed patients with acute coronary syndrome are randomized to treatment with either escitalopram or placebo for 1 year. Psychiatric and cardiac assessment of patients is performed to evaluate the possibility of preventing depression. Diagnosis...

  4. Underuse of an invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ida; Hvelplund, Anders; Hansen, Kim Wadt

    2015-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The study is a nationwide cohort study linking Danish national registries containing information on healthcare. The study population comprises all patients hospitalised with first-time ACS in Denmark during 2005-2007 (N=24 952). Diabetes was defined as claiming of a prescription for insulin and......BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We investigated if patients with diabetes with ACS are offered coronary angiography (CAG) and revascularisation to the same extent as patients without diabetes. METHODS....../or oral hypoglycaemic agents within 6 months prior to the ACS event. Diabetes was present in 2813 (11%) patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were older (mean 69 vs 67 years, p

  5. The Prevalence of COPD in Individuals with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Spirometry-Based Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooe, Thomas; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of COPD among individuals with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is estimated at 5% to 18%, and COPD appears to be a predictor of poor outcome. Diagnosis of COPD has mostly been based on medical records without spirometry. As COPD is largely undiagnosed and misdiagnosed, the prevalence and clinical significance of COPD in the ACS population has not been reliably assessed. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of COPD in patients with ACS and evaluate the accuracy of medical record-based COPD diagnoses. This was a single-centre spirometry screening study for COPD in patients admitted for ACS in the county of Jämtland, Sweden. Patient medical records were reviewed to register previous medical history. Spirometry was performed prior to discharge or at the first follow-up outpatient visit after discharge. COPD was defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC of coronary disease. ISRCTN number 05697808 (www. controlled-trials.com).

  6. Comparison of traditional cardiovascular risk models and coronary atherosclerotic plaque as detected by computed tomography for prediction of acute coronary syndrome in patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencik, Maros; Schlett, Christopher L; Bamberg, Fabian; Truong, Quynh A; Nichols, John H; Pena, Antonio J; Shapiro, Michael D; Rogers, Ian S; Seneviratne, Sujith; Parry, Blair Alden; Cury, Ricardo C; Brady, Thomas J; Brown, David F; Nagurney, John T; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine the association of four clinical risk scores and coronary plaque burden as detected by computed tomography (CT) with the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with acute chest pain. The hypothesis was that the combination of risk scores and plaque burden improved the discriminatory capacity for the diagnosis of ACS. The study was a subanalysis of the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computer-Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) trial-a prospective observational cohort study. The authors enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a chief complaint of acute chest pain, inconclusive initial evaluation (negative biomarkers, nondiagnostic electrocardiogram [ECG]), and no history of coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients underwent contrast-enhanced 64-multidetector-row cardiac CT and received standard clinical care (serial ECG, cardiac biomarkers, and subsequent diagnostic testing, such as exercise treadmill testing, nuclear stress perfusion imaging, and/or invasive coronary angiography), as deemed clinically appropriate. The clinical providers were blinded to CT results. The chest pain score was calculated and the results were dichotomized to ≥10 (high-risk) and patient was assigned to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk category. Because of the low number of subjects in the high-risk group, the intermediate- and high-risk groups were combined into one. CT images were evaluated for the presence of plaque in 17 coronary segments. Plaque burden was stratified into none, intermediate, and high (zero, one to four, and more than four segments with plaque). An outcome panel of two physicians (blinded to CT findings) established the primary outcome of ACS (defined as either an acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina) during the index hospitalization (from the presentation to the ED to the discharge from the hospital). Logistic regression modeling was performed to examine the association of risk scores

  7. The Adoption of Mediterranean Diet Attenuates the Development of Acute Coronary Syndromes in People with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tousoulis Dimitrios

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this work we investigated the effect of the consumption of the Mediterranean diet on coronary risk, in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods During 2000–2002, we randomly selected, from all Greek regions, 848 hospitalised patients (695 males, 58 ± 10 & 153 females, 65 ± 9 years old with a first event of acute coronary syndrome and 1078 frequency matched, by sex, age, region controls, without any suspicious for cardiovascular disease. Nutritional habits were evaluated through a validated questionnaire, while the metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP ATP III criteria. Mediterranean diet was defined according to the guidelines of the Division of Nutrition/Epidemiology, of Athens Medical School. Results Of the 1926 participants, 307 (36.2% of the patients and 198 (18.4% of the controls (P 0.1. Eighty (26% of the patients and 70 (35% of the controls (P Conclusion Consequently, the adoption of Mediterranean diet seems to attenuate the coronary risk in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Predictors of mortality in hospital survivors with type 2 diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonitto, Stefano; Morici, Nuccia; Nozza, Anna; Cosentino, Francesco; Perrone Filardi, Pasquale; Murena, Ernesto; Morocutti, Giorgio; Ferri, Marco; Cavallini, Claudio; Eijkemans, Marinus Jc; Stähli, Barbara E; Schrieks, Ilse C; Toyama, Tadashi; Lambers Heerspink, H J; Malmberg, Klas; Schwartz, Gregory G; Lincoff, A Michael; Ryden, Lars; Tardif, Jean Claude; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2018-01-01

    To define the predictors of long-term mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and recent acute coronary syndrome. A total of 7226 patients from a randomized trial, testing the effect on cardiovascular outcomes of the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist aleglitazar in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and recent acute coronary syndrome (AleCardio trial), were analysed. Median follow-up was 2 years. The independent mortality predictors were defined using Cox regression analysis. The predictive information provided by each variable was calculated as percent of total chi-square of the model. All-cause mortality was 4.0%, with cardiovascular death contributing for 73% of mortality. The mortality prediction model included N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.68; 95% confidence interval = 1.51-1.88; 27% of prediction), lack of coronary revascularization (hazard ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.77-2.93; 18% of prediction), age (hazard ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05; 15% of prediction), heart rate (hazard ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.03; 10% of prediction), glycated haemoglobin (hazard ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.19; 8% of prediction), haemoglobin (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.02; 8% of prediction), prior coronary artery bypass (hazard ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval = 1.11-2.32; 7% of prediction) and prior myocardial infarction (hazard ratio = 1.40; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.87; 6% of prediction). In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and recent acute coronary syndrome, mortality prediction is largely dominated by markers of cardiac, rather than metabolic, dysfunction.

  9. Elevated fasting glucose is associated with increased short-term and 6-month mortality in ST- and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnaeve, Peter; Steg, P.Gabriel; Fox, Keith AA; Van de Werf, Frans; Montalescot, Gilles; Dabbous, Omar; Knobel, Elias; Avezum, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated blood glucose level at admission is associated with worse outcome after a myocardial infarction. The impact of elevated glucose level, particularly fasting glucose, is less certain in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. We studied the relationship between elevated fasting blood glucose levels and outcome across the spectrum of ST-segment elevation and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes in a large multicenter population broadly representative ...

  10. Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Analysis in Mortality Prediction of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babińska Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of incorrect assessment of mortality risk factors in a group of patients affected by acute coronary syndrome, due to the lack of hazard proportionality in the Cox regression model. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and no age limit were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. The proportional hazard assumptions were verified using Schoenfeld residuals, χ2 test and rank correlation coefficient t between residuals and time. In the total group of 150 patients, 33 (22.0% deaths from any cause were registered in the follow-up time period of 64 months. The non-survivors were significantly older and had increased prevalence of diabetes and erythrocyturia, longer history of coronary artery disease, higher concentrations of serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, and lower concentrations of serum sodium. No significant differences in echocardiography parameters were observed between groups. The following factors were risk of death factors and fulfilled the proportional hazard assumption in the univariable model: smoking, occurrence of diabetes and anaemia, duration of coronary artery disease, and abnormal serum concentrations of uric acid, sodium, homocysteine, cystatin C and NT-proBNP, while in the multivariable model, the risk of death factors were: smoking and elevated concentrations of homocysteine and NT-proBNP. The study has demonstrated that violation of the proportional hazard assumption in the Cox regression model may lead to creating a false model that does not include only time-independent predictive factors.

  11. The effectiveness and experience of self-management following acute coronary syndrome: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Harris, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used to support self-management, and to explore patients' experiences after acute coronary syndrome in relation to self-management. Scoping review. Keyword search of CINAHL Plus, Medline, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases for studies conducted with adult population and published in English between 1993 and 2014. From title and abstract review, duplicated articles and obviously irrelevant studies were removed. The full texts of the remaining articles were assessed against the selection criteria. Studies were included if they were original research on: (1) effectiveness of self-management interventions among individuals following acute coronary syndrome; or (2) patients' experience of self-managing recovery from acute coronary syndrome. 44 articles (19 quantitative and 25 qualitative) were included. Most studies were conducted in western countries and quantitative studies were UK centric. Self-management interventions tended to be complex and include several components, including education and counselling, goal setting and problem solving skills which were mainly professional-led rather than patient-led. The review demonstrated variation in the effectiveness of self-management interventions in main outcomes assessed - anxiety and depression, quality of life and health behavioural outcomes. For most participants in the qualitative studies, acute coronary syndrome was unexpected and the recovery trajectory was a complex process. Experiences of making adjustment and adopting lifestyle changes following acute coronary syndrome were influenced by subjective life experiences and individual, sociocultural and environmental contexts. Participants' misunderstandings, misconceptions and confusion about disease processes and management were another influential factor. They emphasised a need for ongoing input and continued support from health professionals in their self-management of rehabilitation and recovery

  12. Efficacy and safety of eptifibatide versus tirofiban in acute coronary syndrome patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Wu, Xinyu; Sun, Huan; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were the strongest available antiplatelet therapy and have been shown to reduce cardiac ischemic complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, evidences are still lacking on the superiority of eptifibatide over tirofiban or vice versa in patients with acute coronary syndrome. To compare the efficacy and safety of eptifibatide and tirofiban used among patients with acute coronary syndrome by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed, Ovid/Medline, Ovid/Embase, Clinicaltrials.gov, CBM and CNKI to identify randomized controlled trials comparing eptifibatide with tirofiban for acute coronary syndrome until November 2015. The methodological quality was assessed with the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool. 1256 patients from 9 randomized controlled trials were finally included. Compared with tirofiban, eptifibatide could reduce more risk of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor bleeding (RR 0.61, 95%CI 0.38, 0.98). However, no significant differences were observed for major adverse cardiac events (RR 0.41, 95%CI 0.15 to 1.12), major bleeding, thrombocytopenia in the two treatment groups. The relative treatment benefits were similar in subgroups of patients according to types of acute coronary syndrome, or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Available evidence suggests that the safety of eptifibatide is slightly superior to tirofiban in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but no significant difference was observed on efficacy. Future studies should focus on the randomized controlled trials with larger sample, multi-center, long-term follow-up, high quality to compare the two drugs. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. ST-segment elevation in lead aVR in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabati, Maryam; Emadi, Marzieh; Mollaalipour, Maede; Bagheri, Babak; Nouraei, Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the value of aVR ST-segment elevation (STE) during acute non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina. STE in lead aVR has been associated with severe coronary lesions in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of this finding. We evaluated the initial electrocardiogram (ECG) in 129 patients admitted to our hospital with acute NSTEMI or unstable angina without STE in leads other than aVR or V1. STE in aVR lead was measured and echocardiography and coronary angiography were performed within 48-72 hours after hospitalization. Overall, 40.3% (52 patients) had more than 0.05 mv STE in lead aVR. These patients had an increased prevalence of ST ≥ 1 mm in lead V1, a more frequent and extensive ST-segment depression (STD) in other leads, a higher prevalence of anterior and lateral STD and a lower frequency of isolated negative T waves. It was also strongly associated with cardiac enzyme rising and a trend toward higher 3-month mortality. Furthermore, patients with STE in lead aVR were more likely to have three-vessel or multivessel disease, higher Gensini score of the coronary arteries, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and higher incidence of mitral regurgitation (MR). Our study showed that among ECG markers, the sole criterion STE in lead aVR was independently associated with atherosclerosis severity and decreased LVEF. Also, it was significantly associated with the presence of MR.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Guidance in Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome Caused by Plaque Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haibo; Kubo, Takashi; Akasaka, Takashi; Yu, Bo

    2018-01-25

    For several decades, most physicians have believed that acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused by coronary thrombosis resulting from rupture of vulnerable plaque characterized by a thin fibrous cap overlying a large necrotic core and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. However, nearly one-third of ACS cases are caused by plaque erosion characterized by intact fibrous cap, less or absent necrotic core, less inflammation, and large lumen. Because of the limitations of current imaging modalities, including angiography and intravascular ultrasound, the importance of plaque erosion as a cause of acute coronary events is less well known. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an emerging modality with extremely high resolution is the only intravascular imaging modality available for identification of plaque erosion in vivo, which provides new insight into the mechanism of ACS. More importantly, the introduction of OCT to clinical practice enables us to differentiate the patients with ACS caused by plaque erosion from those caused by plaque rupture, thereby providing precise and personalized therapy based on the different underlying mechanisms. We systematically review the morphological characteristics of plaque erosion identified by OCT and its implications for the management of ACS.

  15. Improved clinical outcomes with intracoronary compared to intravenous abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Iversen, Allan; Abdulla, Jawdat

    2010-01-01

    Intracoronary (IC) administration of abciximab may increase local drug levels by several orders of magnitude compared to intravenous (IV) treatment and may improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the absence...... of results from large multicenter, randomized trials, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies comparing IC to IV abciximab in these patients....

  16. Prognostic implications of elevated whole blood choline levels in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, Oliver; Möckel, Martin; Lueders, Christian; Mügge, Clemens; Zschunke, Gustav A; Lufft, Hans; Müller, Christian; Frei, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    Troponins I and T represent the current biomarker standard for diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Even small increases of cardiac troponins have prognostic implications, but not all patients at risk are correctly classified, particularly at admission. We identified elevated whole-blood choline as a promising marker and performed a prospective study of 327 patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome that focused on the analysis of troponin-negative patients. Diagnostic classification of patients and the definition of troponin cutoffs were performed according to the new European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology criteria. Blood was sampled serially and choline was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in whole blood. Patients were followed for 30 days. In patients with negative troponin I test results at admission (n = 250), choline was a predictor of cardiac death and nonfatal cardiac arrest (hazard ratio 6.0, p = 0.003), life-threatening arrhythmias (hazard ratio 3.75, p = 0.004), heart failure (hazard ratio 2.87, p = 0.002), and coronary angioplasty (hazard ratio 2.57, p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis of troponin-negative patients, choline was the strongest predictor of cardiac death or arrest (odds ratio 6.05, p = 0.01). Choline was not a marker for myocardial necrosis but indicated high-risk unstable angina in patients without acute myocardial infarction (sensitivity 86.4%, specificity 86.2%). Thus, an increased concentration of choline at hospital admission is a predictor of adverse cardiac events in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Whole blood choline may be useful for early risk stratification of these patients, particularly if troponin results are negative on admission.

  17. Patients with acute coronary syndromes express enhanced CD40 ligand/CD154 on platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlichs, C D; Eskafi, S; Raaz, D; Schmidt, A; Ludwig, J; Herrmann, M; Klinghammer, L; Daniel, W G; Schmeisser, A

    2001-12-01

    To investigate whether CD40L/CD154 on platelets and soluble CD40L/CD154 may play a role in the inflammatory process of acute coronary syndromes. Observational study in a university hospital. 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 25 patients with unstable angina, 15 patients with stable angina, and 12 controls. CD40L/CD154 on platelets, P-selectin/CD62P on platelets, soluble CD40L/CD154 serum concentrations. Mean (SD) CD40L/CD154 expression on platelets was 6.2 (2.8) MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) in the infarct group, 11 (3.3) MFI in the unstable angina group (p angina group (p angina), and 3.2 (1.0) MFI in the controls (p angina; NS v stable angina). Soluble CD40L/CD154 concentration was 5.2 (1.1) ng/ml in the infarct group, 4.2 (0.7) ng/ml in the unstable angina group (p angina group (p angina), and 3.0 (0.5) ng/ml in the controls (p angina; NS v stable angina). At a six months follow up, there was lower expression of CD40L/CD154 on platelets in patients with unstable angina (12.3 (3.6) v 3.8 (1.2) MFI, p angina who needed redo coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or who had recurrence of angina were characterised by increased CD40L/CD154 expression on platelets compared with the remainder of the study group (recurrence of angina: 12.7 (3.2) v 9.7 (1.6) MFI, p angina and myocardial infarction. These findings suggest that CD40-CD40L/CD154 interactions may play a pathogenic role in triggering and propagation of acute coronary syndromes.

  18. Integrated SPECT/CT for assessment of haemodynamically significant coronary artery lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispler, Shmuel [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Cardiology, Rambam Health Care Campus and the B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus and the B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Aronson, Doron; Roguin, Ariel; Beyar, Rafael [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Cardiology, Rambam Health Care Campus and the B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Abadi, Sobhi; Engel, Ahuva [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Medical Imaging, Rambam Health Care Campus and the B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Israel, Ora; Keidar, Zohar [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus and the B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2011-10-15

    Early risk stratification in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) is important since the benefit from more aggressive and costly treatment strategies is proportional to the risk of adverse clinical events. In the present study we assessed whether hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) technology could be an appropriate tool in stratifying patients with NSTE-ACS. SPECT/CCTA was performed in 90 consecutive patients with NSTE-ACS. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score (TIMI-RS) was used to classify patients as low- or high-risk. Imaging was performed using SPECT/CCTA to identify haemodynamically significant lesions defined as >50% stenosis on CCTA with a reversible perfusion defect on SPECT in the corresponding territory. CCTA demonstrated at least one lesion with >50% stenosis in 35 of 40 high-risk patients (87%) as compared to 14 of 50 low-risk patients (35%; TIMI-RS <3; p <0.0001). Of the 40 high-risk and 50 (16%) low-risk TIMI-RS patients, 16 (40%) and 8 (16%), respectively, had haemodynamically significant lesions (p = 0.01). Patients defined as high-risk by a high TIMI-RS, a positive CCTA scan or both (n = 45) resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 49%, PPV of 35% and NPV of 97% for having haemodynamically significant coronary lesions. Those with normal perfusion were spared revascularization procedures, regardless of their TIMI-RS. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by SPECT/CCTA may play an important role in risk stratification of patients with NSTE-ACS by better identifying the subgroup requiring intervention. (orig.)

  19. Highly sensitive troponin and coronary computed tomography angiography in the evaluation of suspected acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencik, Maros; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian; Januzzi, James L

    2016-08-07

    The evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a clinical challenge. The traditional assessment includes clinical risk assessment based on cardiovascular risk factors with serial electrocardiograms and cardiac troponin measurements, often followed by advanced cardiac testing as inpatient or outpatient (i.e. stress testing, imaging). Despite this costly and lengthy work-up, there is a non-negligible rate of missed ACS with an increased risk of death. There is a clinical need for diagnostic strategies that will lead to rapid and reliable triage of patients with suspected ACS. We provide an overview of the evidence for the role of highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) in the rapid and efficient evaluation of suspected ACS. Results of recent research studies have led to the introduction of hsTn with rapid rule-in and rule-out protocols into the guidelines. Highly sensitive troponin increases the sensitivity for the detection of myocardial infarction and decreases time to diagnosis; however, it may decrease the specificity, especially when used as a dichotomous variable, rather than continuous variable as recommended by guidelines; this may increase clinician uncertainty. We summarize the evidence for the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the rapid diagnostic tool in this population when used with conventional troponin assays. Coronary CTA significantly decreases time to diagnosis and discharge in patients with suspected ACS, while being safe. However, it may lead to increase in invasive procedures and includes radiation exposure. Finally, we outline the opportunities for the combined use of hsTn and coronary CTA that may result in increased efficiency, decreased need for imaging, lower cost, and decreased radiation dose. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. What decides the suspicion of acute coronary syndrome in acute chest pain patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians assessing chest pain patients in the emergency department (ED) base the likelihood of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) mainly on ECG, symptom history and blood markers of myocardial injury. Among these, the ECG has been stated to be the most important diagnostic tool. We aimed to analyze the relative contributions of these three diagnostic modalities to the ED physicians’ evaluation of ACS likelihood in clinical practice. Methods 1151 consecutive ED chest pain patients were prospectively included. The ED physician’s subjective assessment of the patient’s likelihood of ACS (obvious ACS, strong, vague or no suspicion of ACS), the symptoms and the ECG were recorded on a special form. The ED TnT value was retrieved from the medical records. Frequency tables and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the contributions of the diagnostic tests to the level of ACS suspicion. Results Symptoms determined whether the physician had any suspicion of ACS (odds ratio, OR 526 for symptoms typical compared to not suspicious of ACS) since neither ECG nor TnT contributed significantly (ORs not significantly different from 1) to this assessment. ACS was suspected in only one in ten patients with symptoms not suspicious of ACS. Symptoms were also more important (OR 620 for typical symptoms) than ECG (OR 31 for ischemic ECG) and TnT (OR 3.4 for a positive TnT) for the assessment of obvious ACS/strong suspicion versus vague/no suspicion. Of the patients with ST-elevation on ECG, 71% were considered to have an obvious ACS, as opposed to only 6% of those with symptoms typical of ACS and 10% of those with a positive TnT. Conclusion The ED physicians used symptoms as the most important assessment tool and applied primarily the symptoms to determine the level of ACS suspicion and to rule out ACS. The ECG was primarily used to rule in ACS. The TnT level played a minor role for the assessment of ACS likelihood. Further studies regarding ACS prediction based on

  1. Management of acute coronary syndromes at hospital discharge: do targeted educational interventions improve practice quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory M; Thompson, Angus; Pulver, Lisa K; Robertson, Marion B; Brieger, David; Wai, Angela; Tett, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines exist for the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), yet adherence is suboptimal. The Discharge Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome project used a quality improvement approach, with targeted intervention strategies to optimize: prescription of guideline-recommended medications; education regarding lifestyle modifications, including cardiac rehabilitation (CR); and communication between hospital staff, patients, and general practitioners. Hospitals across Australia participated in a quality improvement cycle of audit, feedback, intervention, and reaudit. Interventions involved educational meetings, academic detailing and point-of-care reminders, and feedback of baseline audit results. Outcome measures included prescription of guideline-recommended medications, referral to CR, and documentation and communication of management plan. At baseline, 49 hospitals recruited 1,545 patients, and postintervention, 45 hospitals remained active in the project and recruited 1,589 patients. Three thousand and thirty-four hospital staff attended group education or academic detailing sessions. Postintervention, there was a significant increase in the prescription of all four guideline-recommended medications (69% vs. 57%; pplans. Targeted educational interventions used as part of a quality improvement cycle can enhance adherence to evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with ACS. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  2. Ticagrelor: a P2Y12 antagonist for use in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyeratne, Yanushi Dullewe; Joshi, Rashi; Heptinstall, Stan

    2012-05-01

    Agents that inhibit platelet function are used routinely in the treatment and prevention of acute coronary syndromes. The main antiplatelet treatments used combine aspirin with one of the thienopyridine P2Y(12) antagonists, either clopidogrel or prasugrel. By blocking the synthesis of thromboxane A(2) in platelets and by blocking the effects of ADP, respectively, these agents reduce platelet activity, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Ticagrelor (marketed by AstraZeneca as Brilinta™ in the USA, and as Brilique(®) or Possia(®) in Europe) is a cyclopentyl-triazolo-pyrimidine, a new chemical class of P2Y(12) antagonist that is now approved for use in the wide spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. In this article we provide an overview of ticagrelor. We discuss the differences in mode of action compared with other P2Y(12) antagonists, examine its pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and summarize the various clinical trials that have provided information on its efficacy in combination with aspirin. Ticagrelor appears to overcome some of the difficulties that have been encountered with other antiplatelet treatments, clopidogrel in particular.

  3. The relationship between depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C Huffman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeff C Huffman1, Christopher M Celano1, James L Januzzi21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA USAAbstract: Depression and anxiety occur at high rates among patients suffering an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Both depressive symptoms and anxiety appear to adversely affect in-hospital and long term cardiac outcomes of post-ACS patients, independent of traditional risk factors. Despite their high prevalence and serious impact, mood and anxiety symptoms go unrecognized and untreated in most ACS patients and such symptoms (rather than being transient reactions to ACS persist for months and beyond. The mechanisms by which depression and anxiety are linked to these negative medical outcomes are likely a combination of the effects of these conditions on inflammation, catecholamines, heart rate variability, and endothelial function, along with effects on health-promoting behavior. Fortunately, standard treatments for these disorders appear to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in this population; indeed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may actually improve cardiac outcomes. Future research goals include gaining a better understanding of the combined effects of depression and anxiety, as well as definitive prospective studies of the impact of treatment on cardiac outcomes. Clinically, protocols that allow for efficient and systematic screening, evaluation, and treatment for depression and anxiety in cardiac patients are critical to help patients avoid the devastating effects of these illnesses on quality of life and cardiac health.Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, anxiety, anxiety disorders, depression, myocardial infarction, unstable angina

  4. Effect of calcifediol treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Valverde, Cristina; Quesada-Gómez, Jose M; Pérez-Cano, Ramón; Fernández-Palacín, Ana; Pastor-Torres, Luis F

    2018-01-03

    Vitamin D deficiency has been consistently linked with cardiovascular diseases. However, results of intervention studies are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with calcifediol (25(OH)D 3 ) on the cardiovascular system of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention. A prospective study assessing≥60-year-old patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease and percutaneous revascularisation. We randomly assigned 41 patients (70.6±6.3 years) into 2 groups: Standard treatment+25(OH)D 3 supplementation or standard treatment alone. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were evaluated at the conclusion of the 3-month follow-up period. 25(OH)D levels were analysed with regard to other relevant analytical variables and coronary disease extent. Basal levels of 25(OH)D≤50nmol/L were associated with multivessel coronary artery disease (RR: 2.6 [CI 95%:1.1-7.1], P=.027) and 25(OH)D≤50nmol/L+parathormone ≥65pg/mL levels correlated with increased risk for MACE (RR: 4 [CI 95%: 1.1-21.8], P=.04]. One MACE was detected in the supplemented group versus five in the control group (P=.66). Among patients with 25(OH)D levels≤50nmol/L at the end of the study, 28.6% had MACE versus 0% among patients with 25(OH)D>50nmol/L (RR: 1,4; P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency plus secondary hyperparathyroidism may be an effective predictor of MACE. A trend throughout the follow up period towards a reduction in MACE among patients supplemented with 25(OH)D 3 was detected. 25(OH)D levels≤50nmol/L at the end of the intervention period were significantly associated with an increased number of MACE, hence, 25(OH)D level normalisation could improve cardiovascular health in addition to bone health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Flow analysis of individual blood extracellular vesicles in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagida, Murad; Arakelyan, Anush; Lebedeva, Anna; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Shpektor, Alexander; Vasilieva, Elena; Margolis, Leonid

    2017-03-01

    A diverse population of small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are released by various cells has been characterized predominantly in bulk, a procedure whereby the individual characteristics of EVs are lost. Here, we used a new nanotechnology-based flow cytometric analysis to characterize the antigenic composition of individual EVs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma EVs were captured with 15-nm magnetic nanoparticles coupled to antibodies against CD31 (predominantly an endothelial marker), CD41a (a marker for platelets), and CD63 or MHC class I (common EV markers). The total amounts of EVs were higher in the ACS patients than in the controls, predominantly due to the contribution of patients with acute myocardial infarction. For all captured fractions, the differences in the EV amounts were restricted to CD41a+ EVs. The increase in the numbers of EVs in the ACS patients, predominantly of platelet origin, probably reflects platelet activation and may indicate disease progression.

  6. [Acute coronary syndromes in Latin America: lessons from the ACCESS registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Jerjes-Sánchez, Carlos; Nicolau, José Carlos; Bazzino, Oscar; Antepara, Norka; Mármol, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes among Latin American (LA) patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is scarce. ACCESS, international prospective multicenter registry to evaluate risk stratification, management and outcomes in ACS (unstable angina or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction [UA/NSTEMI] or ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) in developing countries. Primary endpoint: all-cause death at 1 year; all-cause mortality within 30 days was also recorded, Patients with acute ischemic symptoms within 24 hours of symptoms onset and electrocardiographic evidence of ischemia were enrolled. Coronary artery disease was proved by positive invasive or non-invasive tests. Between 2007 and 2008, 4436 patients with ACS (2562 UA/NSTEMI and 2374 STEMI) from eight LA countries. On admission, acute symptoms were identified in 79 % and 90%, respectively. Both groups had a long delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival. Low access to pharmacological (29%) and mechanical reperfusion (32%) were observed. At admission, rates of evidence-based treatment were low in all groups. The most common in-hospital complications were heart failure (10% UA/NSTEMI and 20% STEMI) and recurrent ischemia (8% and 11%). Mortality at 30 days was 2% and 8% at 1 year. ACCESS registry provides contemporary information of patients with ACS in LA and their hospital management and subsequent clinical outcomes.

  7. [Acute coronary syndrome in nonagenarians: clinical evolution and validation of the main risk scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Talavera, Sandra; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Vivas, David; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Martín-García, Agustín; Higueras-Nafría, Javier; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Several risk scores regarding the probability of death/complications in the acute setting and during the follow-up of patients admitted with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have been published, such as the GRACE, TIMI and ZWOLLE risk score. Our objective was to assess the prognosis of nonagenarians admitted to a coronary care unit with an ACS, as well as the usefulness of each of these scores. A retrospective analysis was performed on nonagenarians with an ACS admitted between 2003 and 2011. Vital status was determined at 14, 30 days, and 6 months after the ACS, and later during the follow-up. The risk scores were evaluated by area under the curve ROC (AUC). A total of 45 patients with an ACS, 26 (57.8%) with ST-segment elevation and 19 (42.2%) with non-ST elevation. The GRACE- AUC for in-hospital mortality was excellent, 0.91, (95% CI: 0.82-1; PTIMI-AUC and ZWOLLE-AUC did not reach statistical significance. It is useful calculate the GRACE risk score in order to estimate risk and survival in the acute phase of ACS in nonagenarians. This can help appropriate in making invasive or conservative treatment decisions. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Frailty and quality of life in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiak M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Lisiak,1 Izabella Uchmanowicz,1 Radosław Wontor2 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Department of Cardiology, T. Marciniak Lower Silesian Specialist Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Frail elderly people are at risk of developing adverse health outcomes such as disability, hospitalization, and mortality. In recent years, the literature has drawn attention to the role of frailty syndrome (FS in acute coronary syndrome (ACS. There are few studies regarding the relationship between two multidimensional variables such as FS and quality of life (QoL.Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between FS and early QoL of elderly patients with ACS (≥65 years old.Methods: The study was conducted among 91 patients aged 65 years and over with ACS. The MacNew questionnaire was used to evaluate QoL and the Tilburg frailty indicator to evaluate frailty.Results: FS was present in 82.4% of patients. The average Tilburg frailty indicator score was 7.43±2.57. A negative correlation between the global values of FS and QoL was shown (r=−0.549, P<0.05. The vulnerability factors that negatively affected early QoL were: FS, marital status, conservative therapy, and hypertension. In multivariate analysis, FS was found to be the independent predictor of worse QoL (β ± standard error −0.277±0.122, P=0.026.Conclusion: The presence of FS has a negative impact on early QoL in patients with ACS. The study suggests that in elderly patients with ACS, there is a need to identify frailty in order to implement additional therapeutic and nursing strategies in ACS. Keywords: frailty syndrome, aging, frail elderly, assessment, quality of life, acute coronary syndrome

  9. A prospective survey of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin; the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Euro Heart Survey ACS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasdai (David); S. Behar (Solomon); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); N. Danchin (Nicolas); A.K. Gitt (Anselm); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); A. Battler (Alexander); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To better delineate the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in representative countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and to examine adherence to current guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective

  10. Inhibition of Secretory Phospholipase A(2) in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: Rationale and Design of the Vascular Inflammation Suppression to Treat Acute Coronary Syndrome for 16 Weeks (VISTA-16) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, Stephen J.; Cavender, Matthew A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Schwartz, Gregory; Waters, David D.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Bash, Dianna; Hislop, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Background The action of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) on lipoproteins may render them more susceptible to oxidation, thereby promoting vascular inflammation and increasing cardiovascular risk. Patients with acute coronary syndrome face a high risk of early, recurrent cardiovascular events

  11. Impact of abciximab in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention: results from a high-volume, single-center registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp; Joens, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and ischemic heart disease is increasing. Moreover, patients with DM experiencing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have an increased risk of adverse outcomes after revascularization compared to non-diabetics. Data have suggested that the glycoprotein IIb...

  12. Intracoronary administration of levosimendan in patients with acute coronary syndromes and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    OpenAIRE

    CAREV, MLADEN; MARINOV, VJERA; Karanovic, Nenad; Bulat, Cristijan; KOCEN, DUBRAVKA; Lojpur, Mihajlo; COVIC, ZDENKO; IVANCEV, BOZENA; PARCINA, ZVONIMIR

    2017-01-01

    In cardiac surgery patients, intracoronary (IC) administration of levosimendan can provide optimal drug spread, enabling effective manifestation of favorable drug effects and avoiding potentially harmful systemic hypotension. This could be beneficial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We present ten cases of IC administration of levosimendan in ACS manifested as ST segment elevation myocardial infarction...

  13. Blood glucose in acute coronary syndromes. How low should you go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Hélia; Monteiro, Sílvia; Gonçalves, Francisco; Monteiro, Pedro; Pêgo, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia at admission seems to identify a subgroup of patients with acute coronary syndromes with poorer outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the glycemic variation during hospitalization in long-term mortality in nondiabetic patients. Retrospective study of 2043 consecutive patients without known diabetes mellitus admitted for acute coronary syndrome in a single coronary care unit from May 2007 through August 2013. The population was divided in quartiles regarding glycemia at admission (≤ 90 mg/dL, n = 374; 90-140 mg/dL, n = 1307; 141-180 mg/dL, n = 230; ≥ 181mg/dL, n = 111) and the mortality rate quantified for patients with glycemic variation above/below the mean for their respective quartile. The median follow-up was about 1200 days. The all-cause mortality during follow-up was significantly and successively higher in the upper quartiles (9.1%, 9.7%, 13.5% and 18.9%; P = .007). Multivariate regression analysis showed that hyperglycemia at admission (≥ 181mg/dL) was a strong independent predictor of mortality during follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.8; P = .027). In the fourth quartile (≥ 181mg/dL), the mortality is higher in patients with higher variations of glycemia (37.5% vs 8.5%; P < .001). Hyperglycemia at admission is a predictor of all-cause mortality in our population. The mortality is higher in patients with higher glycemic variations. More studies are needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel atherosclerotic risk factors and angiographic profile of young Gujarati patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Jayesh; Jain, Sharad; Virpariya, Kapil; Rawal, Jayesh; Joshi, Hasit; Sharma, Kamal; Roy, Bhavesh; Thakkar, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    In this study we aimed to analyse the frequency of atherosclerotic risk factors with focus to novel risk factors for coronary artery disease and angiographic profile in young (≤ 40 years) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patient with healthy controls in Gujarat, India. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 109 consecutive young patients aged ≤ 40 years old, diagnosed to have ACS were included in the study. All ACS patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. An equivalent age and sex matched population without coronary disease with similar risk factors without tobacco considered a control group. All angiographic patients were evaluated for conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, obesity as well as novel atherogenic risk factors like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), Lipoprotein(a) [LP(a)], homocysteine, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB). In a study group, out of 109 young patients, 90 (82.6%) patients were presented to our hospital as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 10 (9.2%) presented as known non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 9 (8.3%) presented as unstable angina (UA). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, LP(a) and lipid tetrad index were significantly higher in the study group whereas the HDL levels significantly lower as compared to the control group. A quite common risk factors of premature CAD are smoking, high Hs-CRP, high LP(a), hyperhomocysteinaemia and positive family history in the young ACS. Most common presentation of ACS in young was STEMI. On angiography, single vessel involvement was the most common finding.

  15. Impacts of insulin infusion protocol on blood glucose level and outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouhi, Fakhri; Maleki, Mahboubeh; Amini, Masoud; Kerdegari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is the most common disease in the world. Several studies suggest that hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of insulin infusion protocol and conventional therapy on the blood glucose level and outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients with diabetes mellitus. We studied 64 patients (32 in each group) with acute coronary syndrome and acute myocardial infarction, who were admitted to the coronary care unit in a hospital in Isfahan, Iran in 2012. Inclusion criterion was blood sugar (BS) of more than 180 mg/dl on admission. Patients in the intervention group received insulin with East Jefferson insulin infusion protocol for at least 4 h, and in the control group, the subjects received subcutaneous insulin (conventional therapy) for at least for 48 h. Independent t-test, Student's t-test, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Groups were matched for baseline characteristics. Blood glucose was significantly reduced in the two groups (P sliding scale method. The protocol allows nurses to commence and maintain the infusion more effectively and safely compared to the traditional method.

  16. Design and baseline characteristics of a coronary heart disease prospective cohort: two-year experience from the strategy of registry of acute coronary syndrome study (ERICO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra C. Goulart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the ERICO study (Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome, a prospective cohort to investigate the epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: The ERICO study, which is being performed at a secondary general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, is enrolling consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients who are 35 years old or older. The sociodemographic information, medical assessments, treatment data and blood samples are collected at admission. After 30 days, the medical history is updated, and additional blood and urinary samples are collected. In addition, a retinography, carotid intima-media thickness, heart rate variability and pulse-wave velocity are performed. Questionnaires about food frequency, physical activity, sleep apnea and depression are also applied. At six months and annually after an acute event, information is collected by telephone. RESULTS: From February 2009 to September 2011, 738 patients with a diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. Of these, 208 (28.2% had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 288 (39.0% had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and 242 (32.8% had unstable angina (UA. The mean age was 62.7 years, 58.5% were men and 77.4% had 8 years or less of education. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension (76% and sedentarism (73.4%. Only 29.2% had a prior history of coronary heart disease. Compared with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, the unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients had higher frequencies of hypertension, diabetes, prior coronary heart disease (p<0.001 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.03. Smoking was more frequent in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other hospital registries, our findings revealed a higher burden of CV risk factors and less frequent prior CHD history.

  17. Design and baseline characteristics of a coronary heart disease prospective cohort: two-year experience from the strategy of registry of acute coronary syndrome study (ERICO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Sitnik, Debora; Staniak, Henrique L; Fedeli, Ligia M; Pastore, Carlos Alberto; Samesima, Nelson; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Pereira, Alexandre C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-01-01

    To describe the ERICO study (Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome), a prospective cohort to investigate the epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome. The ERICO study, which is being performed at a secondary general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, is enrolling consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients who are 35 years old or older. The sociodemographic information, medical assessments, treatment data and blood samples are collected at admission. After 30 days, the medical history is updated, and additional blood and urinary samples are collected. In addition, a retinography, carotid intima-media thickness, heart rate variability and pulse-wave velocity are performed. Questionnaires about food frequency, physical activity, sleep apnea and depression are also applied. At six months and annually after an acute event, information is collected by telephone. From February 2009 to September 2011, 738 patients with a diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. Of these, 208 (28.2%) had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 288 (39.0%) had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 242 (32.8%) had unstable angina (UA). The mean age was 62.7 years, 58.5% were men and 77.4% had 8 years or less of education. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension (76%) and sedentarism (73.4%). Only 29.2% had a prior history of coronary heart disease. Compared with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, the unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients had higher frequencies of hypertension, diabetes, prior coronary heart disease (p<0.001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.03). Smoking was more frequent in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (p = 0.006). Compared with other hospital registries, our findings revealed a higher burden of CV risk factors and less frequent prior CHD history.

  18. The renoprotective effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huan; Liu, Yong; Xie, Haixia; Zhang, Guolin; Zhan, Huimin; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Ping; Geng, Qingshan; Guo, Lan

    2017-08-01

    Some statins, such as atorvastatin, have proven renoprotective effects. The comparative renoprotective potential of simvastatin is less clear. This study aimed to compare the renoprotective effects of simvastatin with atorvastatin in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This observational study examined the medical records of 271 patients who were treated at the Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute from April 2004 to February 2008. Patients had received either 40 mg simvastatin (n = 128) or 20 mg atorvastatin (n = 143), daily, for a period of at least 6 months following PCI. Declined renal function (DRF) was defined at the occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or elevated CKD stages at 6-months post-PCI. Results showed that the incidence of DRF was similar among patients taking simvastatin or atorvastatin (25.00% vs 26.57%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients who developed DRF had a higher incidence of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) than those without DRF (17.41% vs 28.57%, P = .0308). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified diabetes and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate as independent risk factors for DRF. Collectively, our results indicate that simvastatin has comparable renoprotective effects to atorvastatin in ACS patients undergoing PCI. Further studies are warranted to confirm the comparative renoprotective effects of statins.

  19. Prospective study one-year clinical outcomes of the Calypso coronary stent in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Воробьев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stent use Calypso Angiolain Russia with primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA.Methods. The study prospectively included 150 patients who underwent PTCA in acute coronary syndrome (ACS for the period from January to December 2015. During the one-year follow-up period were evaluated indicators insolvency target lesion (cardiac death, myocardial infarction in the pool target artery, target lesion revascularization when clinically indicated, major adverse cardiac events (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization as clinically indicated. Results. In one year, the incidence of target lesion failure was 6.66% for cardiac death rate of 1.33%, myocardial infarction in the target artery 3.33% and target lesion revascularization at 5.3%. The frequency of cardiac major adverse cardiac events was 12% at mortality 2.66%, myocardial infarction 4% and revascularization when clinically indicated 8.66%. Conclusion. The use of stents in primary PTCA Calypso is possible, the percentage of cardiovascular complications is comparable with the data of clinical trials.Received 31 January 2017. Accepted 17 March 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. Development and validation of a stent thrombosis risk score in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangas, George D; Claessen, Bimmer E; Mehran, Roxana; Xu, Ke; Fahy, Martin; Parise, Helen; Henriques, José P S; Ohman, E Magnus; White, Harvey D; Stone, Gregg W

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to develop a practical risk score to predict the risk of stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). ST is a rare, yet feared complication after PCI with stent implantation. A risk score for ST after PCI in ACS can be a helpful tool to personalize risk assessment. This study represents a patient-level pooled analysis of 6,139 patients undergoing PCI with stent implantation for ACS in the HORIZONS-AMI (Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction) and ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy) trials who were randomized to treatment with bivalirudin versus heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. The cohort was randomly divided into a risk score development cohort (n = 4,093) and a validation cohort (n = 2,046). Cox regression methods were used to identify clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics associated with Academic Research Consortium-defined definite/probable ST at 1 year. Each covariate in this model was assigned an integer score based on the regression coefficients. Variables included in the risk score were type of ACS (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation ACS with ST deviation, or non-ST-segment elevation ACS without ST changes), current smoking, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, prior PCI, baseline platelet count, absence of early (pre-PCI) anticoagulant therapy, aneurysmal/ulcerated lesion, baseline TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade 0/1, final TIMI flow grade development cohort (p for trend validation cohort (p for trend = 0.006). The C-statistic for this risk score was over 0.65 in both cohorts. The individual risk of ST can be predicted using a simple risk score based on clinical, angiographic, and procedural variables. (Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction [HORIZONS-AMI]; NCT

  1. Comparison of stenting and surgical revascularization strategy in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes and complex coronary artery disease (from the Milestone Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszman, Pawel E; Buszman, Piotr P; Bochenek, Andrzej; Gierlotka, Marek; Gąsior, Mariusz; Milewski, Krzysztof; Orlik, Bartłomiej; Janas, Adam; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Kiesz, R Stefan; Zembala, Marian; Poloński, Lech

    2014-10-01

    The optimal revascularization strategy in patients with complex coronary artery disease and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes is undetermined. In this multicenter, prospective registry, 4,566 patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions, unstable angina, and multivessel coronary disease, including left main disease, were enrolled. After angiography, 3,033 patients were selected for stenting (10.3% received drug-eluting stents) and 1,533 for coronary artery bypass grafting. Propensity scores were used for baseline characteristic matching and result adjustment. Patients selected for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were younger (mean age 64.4±10 vs 65.2±9 years, p=0.03) and more frequently presented with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (32.0% vs 14.5%, p=0.01), cardiogenic shock (1.5% vs 0.7%, p65 years, women, patients with unstable angina, those with European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores>5, those with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores >4, those receiving drug-eluting stents, and those with 2-vessel disease. In conclusion, in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes and complex coronary artery disease, immediate stenting was associated with lower mortality risk in the long term compared with surgical revascularization, especially in subgroups at high clinical risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. All-Cause Mortality Following an Acute Coronary Syndrome: 12-Year Follow-Up of the Comprehensive 2002 New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Chris J; Gamble, Greg D; Williams, Michael J A; Matsis, Phil; Elliott, John M; Devlin, Gerry; Mann, Stewart; French, John K; White, Harvey D

    2017-11-07

    To describe the long-term mortality of a complete national cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients enrolled in 2002, to compare this with a national age, sex and Māori ethnicity matched population, and to assess the influence of baseline factors on the 12-year mortality. We reviewed 721 patients with a discharge diagnosis of an ACS who were enrolled in the first New Zealand ACS audit group cohort over 14days in May 2002. We matched the cohort to the national mortality database using each patient's unique national identity number. Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years of 721 patients discharged with an ACS, overall mortality was 52%: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (58%), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (61%) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) (42%) patients, pSociety of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Panic attack and its correlation with acute coronary syndrome - more than just a diagnosis of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Keng Chuan; Lee, Cheng

    2010-03-01

    The panic attack is able to mimic the clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), to the point of being clinically indistinguishable without appropriate investigations. However, the literature actually demonstrates that the 2 conditions are more related than just being differential diagnoses. Through a review of the literature involving epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses found on a Medline search, the relation between panic disorder and ACS is explored in greater depth. Panic disorder, a psychiatric condition with recurrent panic attacks, has been found to be an independent risk factor for subsequent coronary events. This has prognostic bearing and higher mortality rates. Through activation of the sympathetic system by differing upstream mechanisms, the 2 conditions have similar presentations. Another psychiatric differential diagnosis would be that of akathisia, as an adverse effect to antidepressant medications. An overview on the investigations, diagnostic process, treatment modalities and prognoses of the two conditions is presented. Panic disorders remain under-diagnosed, but various interviews are shown to allow physicians without psychiatric training to accurately pick up the condition. Comprehensive multidisciplinary approaches are needed to help patients with both coronary heart disease and anxiety disorder.

  4. System barriers to the evidence-based care of acute coronary syndrome patients in China: qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Rong, Ye; Du, Xin; Wang, Yangfang; Gao, Runlin; Patel, Anushka; Wu, Yangfeng; Iedema, Rick; Hao, Zhixin; Hu, Dayi; Turnbull, Fiona

    2014-03-01

    Organizational and wider health system factors influence the implementation and success of interventions. Clinical Pathways in Acute Coronary Syndromes 2 is a cluster randomized trial of a clinical pathway-based intervention to improve acute coronary syndrome care in hospitals in China. We performed a qualitative evaluation to examine the system-level barriers to implementing clinical pathways in the dynamic healthcare environment of China. A qualitative descriptive analysis of 40 in-depth interviews with health professionals conducted in a sample of 10 hospitals purposively selected to explore barriers to implementation of the intervention. Qualitative data were analyzed using the Framework method. In-depth interviews identified 5 key system-level barriers to effective implementation: (1) leadership support for implementing quality improvement, (2) variation in the capacity of clinical services and quality improvement resources, (3) fears of patient disputes and litigation, (4) healthcare funding constraints and high out-of-pocket expenses, and (5) patient-related factors. System-level barriers affect the ability of acute coronary syndrome clinical pathways to change practice. Addressing these barriers in the context of current and planned national health system reform will be critical for future improvements in the management of acute coronary syndromes, and potentially other hospitalized conditions, in China. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/default.aspx. Register. Unique identifier: ACTRN12609000491268.

  5. ANTICOAGULANTS IN THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITHOUT ST SEGMENT ELEVATION: WHICH DRUG TO BE CHOSEN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Komarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of anticoagulant choice in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is discussed. Results of the main trials on low-molecular heparin therapy in patients with ACS as well as recommendations of European cardiology society and American heart association are presented. Peculiarities of other therapies (thrombin inhibitors, Ха-factor inhibitors in ACS are surveyed.

  6. The cost-utility of point-of-care troponin testing to diagnose acute coronary syndrome in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Michelle M.A.; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Moesker, Marco J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Kusters, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Background: The added value of using a point-of-care (POC) troponin test in primary care to rule out acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is debated because test sensitivity is inadequate early after symptom onset. This study investigates the potential cost-utility of diagnosing ACS by a general

  7. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Silent but Dangerous Complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Kolste, Henryk Jan; Balm, Ron; de Mol, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACoS) is a serious, limb-threatening condition, but ACoS after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is rare. ACoS is diagnosed with the help of typical symptoms, but due to the use of analgesics in a postoperative setting, these symptoms may vary. Identifying risk

  8. Onset and Recurrence of Depression as Predictors of Cardiovascular Prognosis in Depressed Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, Marij; Thombs, Brett D.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Depression after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with worse cardiac outcomes. This systematic review evaluated whether depressed ACS patients are at differential risk depending on the recurrence and timing of onset of depressive episodes. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO

  9. No Added Value of Novel Biomarkers in the Diagnostic Assessment of Patients Suspected of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poldervaart, Judith M.; Rottger, Emma; Dekker, Marieke S.; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313995494; Verheggen, Peter W. H. M.; de Vrey, Evelyn A.; Wildbergh, Thierry X.; van 't Hof, Arnoud W. J.; Mosterd, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156271583; Hoes, Arno W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101111762

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of high-sensitive troponin (hs-cTnT), there is still room for improvement in the diagnostic assessment of patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Apart from serial biomarker testing, which is time-consuming, novel biomarkers like copeptin have been

  10. Cost-effectiveness of early versus selectively invasive strategy in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, L. M.; Hirsch, A.; Windhausen, F.; Asselman, F. F.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.; de Winter, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The ICTUS trial compared an early invasive versus a selectively invasive strategy in high risk patients with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome and an elevated cardiac troponin T. Alongside the ICTUS trial a cost-effectiveness analysis from a provider perspective was performed.

  11. Outcomes after revascularisation with everolimus- and sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with acute coronary syndromes and stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Hansen, Henrik S

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this substudy of the SORT OUT IV trial was to compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) treated with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Methods and results: We performed a post hoc...

  12. Fasting triglycerides predict recurrent ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregory G; Abt, Markus; Bao, Weihang; DeMicco, David; Kallend, David; Miller, Michael; Mundl, Hardi; Olsson, Anders G

    2015-06-02

    Most patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are treated with statins, which reduce atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. It is uncertain whether triglycerides predict risk after ACS on a background of statin treatment. This study examined the relationship of fasting triglyceride levels to outcomes after ACS in patients treated with statins. Long-term and short-term relationships of triglycerides to risk after ACS were examined in the dal-OUTCOMES trial and atorvastatin arm of the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Acute Cholesterol Lowering) trial, respectively. Analysis of dal-OUTCOMES included 15,817 patients (97% statin-treated) randomly assigned 4 to 12 weeks after ACS to treatment with dalcetrapib (a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor) or placebo and followed for a median 31 months. Analysis of MIRACL included 1,501 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg daily beginning 1 to 4 days after ACS and followed for 16 weeks. Fasting triglycerides at initial random assignment were related to risk of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and unstable angina in models adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and body mass index. Fasting triglyceride levels were associated with both long-term and short-term risk after ACS. In dal-OUTCOMES, long-term risk increased across quintiles of baseline triglycerides (p175/≤80 mg/dl) was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.34 to 1.94). There was no interaction of triglycerides and treatment assignment on the primary outcome. In the atorvastatin group of MIRACL, short-term risk increased across tertiles of baseline triglycerides (p=0.03), with a hazard ratio of 1.50 [corrected] (95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.15) in highest/lowest tertiles (>195/≤135 mg/dl). The relationship of triglycerides to risk was independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both studies. Among patients with ACS treated effectively

  13. [Women and acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation: Excess mortality related to longer delays and spontaneous coronary dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, H; Motreff, P; Jessen, P; Piquet, M; Haziza, F; Chevalier, B

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of patients with ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been increasingly improving in the general population over the past few decades. However, detailed analysis of the results show that the reduction in mortality rates is higher in males compared to their female counterparts. The excess mortality rate observed in women, though sometimes questioned, has been widely reported in the literature. The higher mortality rate observed in women with ST elevation ACS can be explained by the presence of aggravating clinical factors such as older age, a higher percentage of diabetics, and a higher frequency of cardiogenic shock. Other factors pertaining to patient management seem to negatively impact the outcome. These factors include a lower use of reperfusion strategies, longer time to treatment mainly as a result of diagnostic uncertainty with respect to a disease, which is believed to affect principally the male gender. The doubts that female patients themselves and their families have about the nature of their symptoms are also present in the medical environment but cease to exist in the catheterization laboratory. This is illustrated in the first clinical case that we present here. Coronary reperfusion is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of MI. In this context, bleeding complications associated with the implemented treatments can also result in an increased mortality rate in this more vulnerable population. When all the factors likely to influence the prognosis are taken into account, excess mortality seems to persist in women, especially in younger patients. As described in the second clinical case, a distinct physio-pathological factor, more frequent in women, could account for this higher mortality rate. Indeed, spontaneous coronary dissection and intramural hematoma are not always easy to diagnose and may not be adequately managed by reperfusion treatments. In addition, these coronary reperfusion strategies are probably not adapted

  14. [Usefulness of the residual SYNTAX score to predict long term outcome in acute coronary syndrome patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Xu, J J; Tang, X F; Ma, Y L; Yao, Y; He, C; Wang, H H; Liu, R; Xu, N; Jiang, P; Jiang, L; Zhao, X Y; Gao, Z; Gao, R L; Qiao, S B; Yang, Y J; Xu, B; Yuan, J Q

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To quantify the extent and complexity of residual coronary stenosis following PCI by the residual SYNTAX score, and to evaluate its impact on adverse ischemic outcomes in acute coronary syndrome(ACS) patients. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2013, a total of 1 414 consecutive moderate- and high-risk ACS patients who underwent any PCI with multi-vessel coronary artery disease were evaluated.Patients were stratified by rSS quartiles and their outcomes were compared. Results: The rSS was 4.8±6.7. 591 patients (41.8%) had rSS=0(CR), 233 patients (16.5%) had rSS>0 but ≤ 3, 296 patients (20.9%) had rSS>3 but ≤8 and 294 patients (20.8%) had rSS>8.Clinical risk factors were more frequent in patients with incomplete revascularization(IR) compared with complete revascularization(CR). The 2-year rates of all-caused death(1.2% vs 0.4%, 2.0%, 4.4%, P=0.003), cardiac death, revascularization and MACCE were significantly higher in high rSS group, compared to other groups.By multivariable analysis, rSS was a strong independent predictor of ischemic outcomes at 2-year, including all-cause mortality (HR=1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, P=0.019), cardiac death, revascularization and MACCE. Conclusions: The rSS is a strong independent predictor of all-caused death, cardiac death, revascularization and MACCE and has moderated predictive ability for those ischemic outcomes.

  15. Extent of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing angiography for stable or acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Marini

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Patients undergoing coronary angiography for ACS or stable CAD presented with a similar extent of angiographic CAD, although patients with ACS had a higher prevalence of significant lesions in the presence of a better cardiovascular risk profile and higher inflammation levels. The extent of angiographic CAD in both the groups shared common determinants such as hsCRP, age, and hyperglycemia, but these appeared to explain only a small part of the variation of coronary atherosclerosis.

  16. Albuminuria and cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from the TRACER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Axel; Clare, Robert M; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Wallentin, Lars; Held, Claes; Van de Werf, Frans; Moliterno, David J; Patel, Uptal D; Leonardi, Sergio; Armstrong, Paul W; Harrington, Robert A; White, Harvey D; Aylward, Philip E; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Tricoci, Pierluigi

    2016-08-01

    Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. We evaluated albuminuria, alone and in combination with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as a predictor of mortality and CV morbidity in 12,944 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Baseline serum creatinine and urinary dipsticks were obtained, with albuminuria stratified into no/trace albuminuria, microalbuminuria (≥30 but albuminuria and creatinine values were available in 9473 patients (73.2%). More patients with macroalbuminuria, versus no/trace albuminuria, had diabetes (66% vs 27%) or hypertension (86% vs 68%). Rates for CV death and overall mortality per strata were 3.1% and 4.8% (no/trace albuminuria); 5.8% and 9.0% (microalbuminuria); and 7.7% and 12.6% (macroalbuminuria) at 2 years of follow-up. Corresponding rates for CV death or MI were 12.2%, 16.9%, and 23.5%, respectively. Observed acute kidney injury rates were 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.9% (n = 79), respectively. Adjusted HRs for macroalbuminuria on CV mortality were 1.65 (95% CI 1.15-2.37), and after adjustment with eGFR, 1.37 (95% CI 0.93-2.01). Corresponding HRs for overall mortality were 1.82 (95% CI 1.37-2.42) and 1.47 (95% CI 1.08-1.98). High-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes and albuminuria have increased morbidity and increased overall mortality independent of eGFR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative ST-depression in acute coronary syndromes: the PLATO electrocardiographic substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Westerhout, Cynthia M; Fu, Yuling; Harrington, Robert A; Storey, Robert F; Katus, Hugo; James, Stefan; Wallentin, Lars

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated whether electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics were aligned with clinical outcomes and the effect of ticagrelor within the diverse spectrum of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients enrolled in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. There were 8884 PLATO patients who had baseline ECGs assessed by a core laboratory; of these, 4935 had an ECG at hospital discharge that also was assessed. Associations with study treatment on vascular death or myocardial infarction within 1 year were examined. At baseline, most patients had either no or ≤0.5 mm of ST-segment depression (57%); 26% had 1.0 mm, and 17% had more extensive depression (>1.0 mm). Across the baseline ST-segment depression strata, there was a consistent treatment benefit with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on vascular death/myocardial infarction. The extent of residual ST-segment depression at discharge was similar in the treatment groups, and the treatment effect did not differ by the extent of discharge ST-segment depression. There was a progressive increase in vascular death/myocardial infarction with increasing extent of baseline ST-segment depression (1.0 mm [vs no/0.5 mm]: hazard ratio [HR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.45; >1.0 mm: HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.78; P <.001) and at discharge (HR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.54-2.95; P <.001). The treatment effect of ticagrelor among non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients was consistently expressed across all baseline ST-segment depression strata. There was no indication of an anti-ischemic benefit of ticagrelor as reflected on the discharge ECG. Our data affirm the independent prognostic relationship of both baseline and hospital discharge ST-segment depression on outcomes within 1 year in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the TIMI and the GRACE risk scores with the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mazhar; Achakzai, Abdul Samad; Akhtar, Parveen; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2013-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The cross-sectional study comprising 406 consecutive patients was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from August 2010 to March 2011. For all patients, the GRACE and TIMI RS's relevant scores on the two indices were calculated on admission using specified variables. The patients underwent coronary angiography to determine the extent of the disease. A significant level was defined as > or =70% stenosis in any major epicardial artery or > or =50% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Both the indices showed good predictive value in identifying the extent of the disease. A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score >4 and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score >133 was significantly associated with 3vessel disease and left main disease, while for the former score score risk scores, the discriminatory accuracy of the latter was significantly superior to the former in predicting 2vessel, 3vessel and left main diseases (p<0.05). Although both the indices were helpful in predicting the extent of the disease, the Global Registry showed better performance and was more strongly associated with multi-vessel and left main coronary artery disease.

  19. The role of platelets CD40 ligand (CD154) in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu el-Makrem, Mona A; Mahmoud, Yehia Z; Sayed, Douaa; Nassef, Noussa M; Abd el-Kader, Samir S; Zakhary, Madiha; Ghazaly, Taghreed; Matta, Ragaa

    2009-12-01

    Despite of the proof of the biological function of CD154 on platelets, there has been little information about its role either in patients with stable angina or in those with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aimed to investigate the expression of CD154 on platelets and its role in ACS. The study included 50 patients with ACS (24 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 26 patients with unstable angina (UA)), 20 patients with stable angina (SA) and 18 healthy volunteers. CD154 and CD62 expression on platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Their relations to the clinical and laboratory data were assessed in the studied group. Patients with AMI and UA had higher levels of platelets CD154 and CD62 as compared to those with SA and among patients with AMI, UA and SA versus healthy volunteers. Platelets CD154 showed significant positive correlations with the studied pro-inflammatory markers (Ox-LDL, CRP and fibrinogen), segmental wall motion score and the studied risk factors. There were significant negative correlations between platelet CD154 and serum nitric oxide among patients. CD154 may be used as a marker of thrombo-embolic events. Nitric oxide may have an anti-atherogenic effect. There is an association between platelet activation and severity of coronary artery disease among patients with ACS.

  20. Polyvascular Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Its Predictors and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Al Thani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated prevalence and clinical outcome of polyvascular disease (PolyVD in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Data for 7689 consecutive ACS patients were collected from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events between October 2008 and June 2009. Patients were divided into 2 groups (ACS with versus without PolyVD. All-cause mortality was assessed at 1 and 12 months. Patients with PolyVD were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. On presentation, those patients were more likely to have atypical angina, high resting heart rate, high Killip class, and GRACE risk scoring. They were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and hypertension were independent predictors for presence of PolyVD. PolyVD was associated with worse in-hospital outcomes (except for major bleedings and all-cause mortality even after adjusting for baseline covariates. Great efforts should be directed toward primary and secondary preventive measures.

  1. Novel Antiplatelet Agent Use for Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Emergency Department: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Curial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is a clinical condition encompassing ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI, Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI, and Unstable Angina (UA and is characterized by ruptured coronary plaque, ischemic stress, and/or myocardial injury. Emergency department (ED physicians are on the front lines of ACS management. The role of new antiplatelet agents ticagrelor and prasugrel in acute ED management of ACS has not yet been defined. Objective. To critically review clinical trials using ticagrelor and prasugrel in the treatment of ACS and inform practitioners of their potential utility in treating ACS in the ED. Results. Trials on the efficacy of ticagrelor and prasugrel achieve statistical significance in decreasing composite endpoints in select patient populations. Conclusion. The use of ticagrelor and prasugrel as first line ED treatment of ACS is not well established. Current evidence supports the use of several agents with the final decision based on treatment protocols conjointly developed between cardiology and emergency medicine (EM. Further clinical trials involving head-to-head trials or comparisons of drug-based strategies are required to show superiority in reducing cardiac endpoints with regard to ED initiation of treatment.

  2. Immediate effect of intensive atorvastatin therapy on lipid parameters in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrakova, Dagmar; Ostadal, Petr; Kruger, Andreas

    2010-07-14

    Intensive statin therapy decreases mortality and incidence of coronary events in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recently it has been reported that spontaneous lipid levels remain clinically stable during ACS. The immediate influence of lipid levels by high-dose statin therapy initiated at admission in ACS patients is, however, not clear. We have analyzed a group of 114 patients with ACS (mean age 63.7; females 25.4%). Atorvastatin 80 mg was administered at admission and then once daily for the rest of hospitalization. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL), HDL-cholesterol (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) were measured at admission (D0), and then every morning of hospitalization (D1, D2). The mean entry values (D0) of TC, LDL, HDL and TG (in mmol/L) were 5.24, 3.26, 1.07 and 1.31, respectively. The therapy with atorvastatin 80 mg resulted in a decrease of TC levels in the first morning (D1) by 6.1% and in the second morning (D2) by 13.2% (pintensive statin therapy started at admission in ACS patients has a highly significant, immediate effect on all monitored lipid levels. Since TC and LDL levels were decreased as predicted, reduction in HDL and increase in TG levels suggest a different acute effect of high-dose statin on lipid levels in comparison with long-term treatment of ACS patients.

  3. The prognostic impact of worsening renal function in Japanese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Yajima, Junji; Oikawa, Yuji; Oshima, Toru; Tanaka, Shingo; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Shinya; Kato, Yuko; Otsuka, Takayuki; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Sagara, Koichi; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    The prognostic impact of worsening renal function (WRF) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients is not fully understood in Japanese clinical practice, and clinical implication of persistent versus transient WRF in ACS patients is also unclear. With a single hospital-based cohort in the Shinken database 2004-2012 (n=19,994), we followed 604 ACS patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). WRF was defined as an increase in creatinine during hospitalization of ≥0.3mg/dl above admission value. Persistent WRF was defined as an increase in creatinine during hospitalization of ≥0.3mg/dl above admission value and maintained until discharge, whereas transient WRF was defined as that WRF resolved at hospital discharge. WRF occurred in 78 patients (13%), persistent WRF 35 patients (6%) and transient WRF 43 patients (7%). WRF patients were older and had a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease, history of myocardial infarction (MI), and ST elevation MI. WRF was associated with elevated inflammatory markers and reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction in acute, chronic phase. Incidence of all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE: all-cause death, MI, and target lesion revascularization) was significantly higher in patients with WRF. Moreover, in the WRF group, incidences of all-cause death and MACE were higher in patients with persistent WRF than those with transient WRF. A multivariate analysis showed that as well as older age, female gender, and intubation, WRF was an independent determinant of the all-cause death in ACS patients who underwent PCI. In conclusion, WRF might have a prognostic impact among Japanese ACS patients who underwent PCI in association with enhanced inflammatory response and LV remodeling. Persistent WRF might portend increased events, while transient WRF might have association with favorable outcomes compared with persistent WRF. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier

  4. Management, characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Bataduwaarachchi, Vipula R; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Galappatthy, Gamini K S; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Warapitiya, Dinuka S; Sivapathasundaram, Mythily; Wickramarathna, Thilini; Senarath, Upul; Sridharan, Sathasivam; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Ekanayaka, Ruvan

    2018-02-16

    Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of in-hospital mortality in Sri Lanka. Acute Coronary Syndrome Sri Lanka Audit Project (ACSSLAP) is the first national clinical-audit project that evaluated patient characteristics, clinical outcomes and care provided by state-sector hospitals. ACSSLAP prospectively evaluated acute care, in-hospital care and discharge plans provided by all state-sector hospitals managing patients with ACS. Data were collected from 30 consecutive patients from each hospital during 2-4 weeks window. Local and international recommendations were used as audit standards. Data from 87/98 (88.7%) hospitals recruited 2177 patients, with 2116 confirmed as having ACS. Mean age was 61.4±11.8 years (range 20-95) and 58.7% (n=1242) were males. There were 813 (38.4%) patients with unstable angina, 695 (32.8%) with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 608 (28.7%) with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Both STEMI (69.9%) and NSTEMI (61.4%) were more in males (P<0.001). Aspirin, clopidogrel and statins were given to over 90% in acute setting and on discharge. In STEMI, 407 (66.9%) were reperfused; 384 (63.2%) were given fibrinolytics and only 23 (3.8%) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Only 42.3 % had thrombolysis in <30 min and 62.5% had PCI in <90 min. On discharge, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers were given to only 50.7% and 69.2%, respectively and only 17.6% had coronary interventions planned. In patients with ACS, aspirin, clopidogrel and statin use met audit standards in acute setting and on discharge. Vast majority of patients with STEMI underwent fibrinolyisis than PCI, due to limited resources. Primary PCI, planned coronary interventions and timely thrombolysis need improvement in Sri Lanka. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  5. Factors influencing choice of pre-hospital transportation of patients with potential acute coronary syndrome: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Tim; Greenslade, Jaimi H; Parsonage, William A; Hawkins, Tracey; Dalton, Emily; Hammett, Christopher; Cullen, Louise

    2017-04-01

    To determine factors associated with ambulance use in patients with confirmed and potential acute coronary syndrome presenting to the ED. A convenience sample of patients (n = 247) presenting to the ED from April 2014 to January 2015 with suspected acute coronary syndrome were included in the study. Data on mode of transport and patient demographics were collected from the Emergency Department Information System database. Clinical data were collected from chart records and information systems. A questionnaire assessed reasons for using a chosen method of transport, symptom timing and characteristics, acute coronary syndrome knowledge, and awareness of the National Heart Foundation Early Warning Symptoms campaign. Approximately half the patients (49.4%) assessed with symptoms of potential acute coronary syndrome used ambulance transport to the ED. Patients who arrived by ambulance were older than those not arriving by ambulance (mean 56.7 years vs 51.7 years, P = 0.01). Risk factors were not associated with ambulance use. Dizziness (P < 0.01), sweating (P = 0.03), nausea (P = 0.03) and vomiting (P = 0.04) were associated with increased ambulance use. Mean systolic blood pressure was lower in the ambulance group (136 mmHg, standard deviation [SD] = 19.8) than in the non-ambulance group (143 mmHg, SD = 25.9). Awareness of the National Heart Foundation Heart Attack Warning Signs campaign was not associated with ambulance use. Patients with possible ischaemic symptoms who are at a high risk of cardiac disease do not utilise ambulance services more than low risk patients. In general, transport to hospital using ambulance services by patients with symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome is low despite community campaigns. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. A Survey on the Frequency of Depression and Anxiety in the Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome, Ekbatan Hospital of Hamadan City

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ghaleiha; F. Emami; B. Naghsh Tabrizi; R. Ali Hassani

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Depression and anxiety are common after acute myocardial infarction and are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Also acute coronary syndrome is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in everyday cardio logical practice. Because the frequency of depression and anxiety in patients with acute coronary syndrome has not been examined well in our institute, we conducted a study to make it clear. Materials & Methods: In a descriptive cross-sect...

  7. The use of risk scores for stratification of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalill, Ramjane; Han, Lei; Jing, Chang; Quan, He

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the methods available for the risk stratification of non-ST elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and to evaluate the use of risk scores for their initial risk assessment. DATA SOURCES: The data of the present review were identified by searching PUBMED and other databases (1996 to 2008) using the key terms “risk stratification”, “risk scores”, “NSTEMI”, “UA” and “acute coronary syndrome”. STUDY SELECTION: Mainly original articles, guidelines and critical reviews written by major pioneer researchers in this field were selected. RESULT: After evaluation of several risk predictors and risk scores, it was found that estimating risk based on clinical characteristics is challenging and imprecise. Risk predictors, whether used alone or in simple binary combination, lacked sufficient precision because they have high specificity but low sensitivity. Risk scores are more accurate at stratifying NSTE ACS patients into low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups. The Global Registry of Acute Cardiac Events risk score was found to have superior predictive accuracy compared with other risk scores in ACS population. Treatments based according to specific clinical and risk grouping show that certain benefits may be predominantly or exclusively restricted to higher risk patients. CONCLUSION: Based on the trials in the literature, the Global Registry of Acute Cardiac Events risk score is more advantageous and easier to use than other risk scores. It can categorize a patient’s risk of death and/or ischemic events, which can help tailor therapy to match the intensity of the patient’s NSTE ACS. PMID:19675816

  8. "DK Crush" Technique for a Tightly Stenosed Conjoined SVG Lesion in a Patient with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Chang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Su, Chieh-Shou

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery bifurcation disease of saphenous venous graft (SVG) is extremely rare. SVG disease remains a challenging lesion to treat because of increased morbidity and mortality with repeated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), high rates of periprocedural complications, and in-stent restenosis or occlusion requiring repeat revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the first reported case of using the "DK crush" technique to treat an inverted Y-shaped SVG bifurcation disease in a patient with a prior CABG and new-onset acute coronary syndrome. Arising from our treatment, favorable immediate and mid-term angiographic and clinical outcomes were obtained. Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG); "DK crush" technique; Saphenous venous graft (SVG).

  9. Long-term clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome and dysglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Jeanette; Jörneskog, Gun; Wemminger, Malin; Bengtsson, Mattias; Lundman, Pia; Kalani, Majid

    2015-09-17

    Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are major risk factors for atherosclerosis including coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study's aim was to investigate the importance of glucose tolerance for long-term clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A total 1062 consecutive patients, 781 men and 281 women, aged 32-80 years, admitted to the coronary care unit at Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, for ACS from 2006 to 2008 were included. At discharge, the patients were categorized according to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as having normal glucose tolerance (NGT), n = 295 (28%); impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and IGT, n = 299 (28%); diabetes discovered by OGTT, n = 156 (15%); or known diabetes at admission, n = 312 (29%). Mortality and reinfarction rates were studied during a mean follow-up time of 4.0 (±0.8) years. Clinical outcome data were obtained from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry and the Swedish National Registry. There was significantly higher (p < 0.001) mortality within, 30 days, 1 and 3 years in patients with known diabetes as compared to the other groups. During the follow-up, 86 patients (28%) with known diabetes had reinfarction as compared to 36 patients (12%) with NGT and 79 patients (17%) with dysglycaemia (IFG, IGT and diabetes) discovered by OGTT. A majority (72% in this study) of patients admitted for ACS have disturbed glucose metabolism, including diabetes, with high prevalence of previously undiagnosed dysglycaemia. Both patients with known diabetes and dysglycaemia discovered by OGTT show a high risk for poor clinical prognosis.

  10. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Ripa, R.S.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. YKL-40 is involved in remodelling and angiogenesis in non-cardiac inflammatory diseases. Aim was to quantitate plasma YKL-40 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or stable chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and YKL-40 gene activation in human myocardium....... Methods and results. We included 73 patients: I) 20 patients with STEMI; II) 28 patients with stable CAD; III) 15 CAD patients referred for coronary by-pass surgery. YKL-40 mRNA expression was measured in myocardium subtended by stenotic or occluded arteries and areas with no apparent disease; and IV) 10...

  11. The Comparison of Depression and Anxiety Levels in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yesilbursa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aimed to compare depression and anxiety levels of patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS with patients followed for stable coronary artery disease in outpatient clinics and control group without coronary artery disease. Material and Method: Study population was composed of 300 patients. Firstly all patients underwent standardized mini mental test and patients whose test scores were under 23 were excluded and patients whose scores were 23 or higher were included in the study. After the demograhic characteristics of patients had been recorded all patients were administered the following scales: Geriatric Depression Scale( GDS, Beck Depression Inventory(BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI 1 and STAI 2. The scores obtained from these scales were compared between all three groups. Results: All test scores were significantly higher in ACS group (p<0.001.In ACS group GDS, BDI and BAI scores were higher in male patients compared to females (p<0.05. When ACS group was divided as ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris the test scores were higher in STEMI subgroup but the relation was not statistically significant. The hospitalisation period length was found to be significantly related to all test scores in patients with ACS (p<0,001. Discussion: Depression and and levels of patients with ACS syndrome must be surely evaluated. This will help us both to improve life quality of these patients and decrease mortality and morbidity of these patients by diagnosing depression and anxiety disorders and treating them on time.

  12. Prognostic significance of serum creatinine and its change patterns in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Cosentino, Nicola; Assanelli, Emilio; Milazzo, Valentina; Rubino, Mara; Lauri, Gianfranco; Morpurgo, Marco; Moltrasio, Marco; Marana, Ivana; De Metrio, Monica; Bonomi, Alice; Veglia, Fabrizio; Bartorelli, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    In acute coronary syndromes (ACS), serum creatinine (sCr) levels have short- and long-term prognostic value. However, it is possible that repeated evaluations of sCr during hospitalization, rather than measuring sCr value at admission only, might improve risk assessment. We investigated the relationship between sCr baseline value, its changes, and in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with ACS. In 2,756 ACS patients, sCr was measured at hospital admission and then daily, until discharge from coronary care unit. Patients were grouped according to the maximum sCr change observed: <0.3 mg/dL change from baseline (stable renal function [SRF] group), ≥0.3 mg/dL decrease (improved renal function [IRF] group), and ≥0.3 mg/dL increase (worsening renal function [WRF] group). Of the 2,756 patients, 2,163 (78%) had SRF, 292 (11%) had IRF, and 301 (11%) had WRF. In-hospital mortality in the 3 groups was 0.5%, 2%, and 14% (P < .001), respectively. Peak sCr value was a more powerful predictor of mortality (area under the curve 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.92) than the initial sCr value (area under the curve 0.69, 95% CI 0.63-0.77; P < .001). When sCr and its change patterns during coronary care unit stay were evaluated together, improved mortality risk stratification was found. In ACS patients, daily sCr value and its change pattern are stronger predictors of in-hospital mortality than the initial sCr value only; thus, their combined evaluation provides a more accurate and dynamic stratification of patients' risk. Finally, the intermediate mortality risk of IRF patients possibly reflects acute kidney injury started before hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tobacco modalities used and outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an observational report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al Habib, Khalid; Singh, Rajvir; Hersi, Ahmad; Al Nemer, Khalid; Asaad, Nidal; Al Saif, Shukri; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Almahmeed, Wael; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Amin, Haitham; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al Bustani, Nizar; Al-Sagheer, Norah Q; Ali, Waleed M

    2012-10-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence and effect of the various tobacco use modalities among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compared them with non-tobacco and ex-tobacco users. An analysis of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events conducted between October 2008 and June 2009 and which included 7930 consecutive patients hospitalised with ACS was made. Patients initially were divided into non-tobacco users, ex-tobacco users and current tobacco users. Subanalysis according to the tobacco modality used was subsequently made: cigarette, waterpipe or smokeless tobacco users. Overall, 2834 (36%) patients were current tobacco users, 306 (3.9%) patients were waterpipe smokers and 240 patients (3%) were oral tobacco users. When compared with non-tobacco and ex-tobacco users, overall current tobacco users were younger, more likely to be male subjects and less likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Mortality rate (p=0.001) and overall cardiovascular events (p=0.001) were lower among current tobacco users when compared with the other two groups. After adjustment for baseline variables, tobacco use was not an independent predictor of adverse events. Subset analysis demonstrates oral tobacco users and waterpipe smokers were older and more likely to be women when compared with cigarette smokers. Among the various tobacco groups, inhospital mortality rates were significantly higher among the waterpipe smokers when compared with the other two groups. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of ACS patients depend on the tobacco modality used. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of emerging tobacco use modalities on patients with coronary artery disease.

  14. Anti-thrombin III, Protein C, and Protein S deficiency in acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasnan Ismail

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The final most common pathway for the majority of coronary artery disease is occlusion of a coronary vessel. Under normal conditions, antithrombin III (AT III, protein C, and protein S as an active protein C cofactor, are natural anticoagulants (hemostatic control that balances procoagulant activity (thrombin antithrombin complex balance to prevent thrombosis. If the condition becomes unbalanced, natural anticoagulants and the procoagulants can lead to thrombosis. Thirty subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS were studied for the incidence of antithrombin III (AT III, protein C, and protein S deficiencies, and the result were compare to the control group. Among patients with ACS, the frequency of distribution of AT-III with activity < 75% were 23,3% (7 of 30, and only 6,7% ( 2 of 30 in control subject. No one of the 30 control subject have protein C activity deficient, in ACS with activity < 70% were 13,3% (4 of 30. Fifteen out of the 30 (50% control subjects had protein S activity deficiency, while protein S deficiency activity < 70% was found 73.3.% (22 out of 30. On linear regression, the deterministic coefficient of AT-III activity deficiency to the development ACS was 13,25 %, and the deterministic coefficient of protein C activity deficient to the development of ACS was 9,06 %. The cut-off point for AT-III without protein S deficiency expected to contribute to the development of vessel disease was 45%. On discriminant analysis, protein C activity deficiency posed a risk for ACS of 4,5 greater than non deficient subjects, and AT-III activity deficiency posed a risk for ACS of 3,5 times greater than non deficient subjects. On binary logistic regression, protein S activity acted only as a reinforcing factor of AT-III activity deficiency in the development of ACS. Protein C and AT III deficiency can trigger ACS, with determinant coefficients of 9,06% and 13,25% respectively. Low levels of protein C posed a greater risk of

  15. Optimal Timing of Complete Revascularization in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Rouan; Habib, Bettina; Filion, Kristian B; Reynier, Pauline; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2017-04-10

    Studies have suggested that complete revascularization is superior to culprit-only revascularization for the treatment of enzyme-positive acute coronary syndrome. However, the optimal timing of complete revascularization remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing single-stage complete revascularization with multistage percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with multivessel disease. We systematically searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, and MEDLINE for randomized controlled trials comparing single-stage complete revascularization with multistage revascularization in patients with enzyme-positive acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events at longest follow-up. Data were pooled using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models. Four randomized controlled trials (n=838) were included in our meta-analysis. The risk of unplanned repeat revascularization at longest follow-up was significantly lower in patients randomized to single-stage complete revascularization (risk ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99). Results also suggest a trend towards lower risks of major adverse cardiovascular events for patients randomized to single-stage revascularization at 6 months (risk ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.40-1.11) and at longest follow-up (risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.52-1.20). Risks of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction at longest follow-up were also lower with single-stage revascularization, but 95% CIs were wide and included unity. Our results suggest that single-stage complete revascularization is safe. There also appears to be a trend towards lower long-term risks of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events; however, additional randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the potential

  16. Predictive value of acute coronary syndrome discharge diagnoses in the Danish national patioent registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Albert Marni; Jensen, Majken K.; Overvad, Kim

    Background: Updated data on the predictive value of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnoses, including unstable angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest, in hospital discharge registries are sparse. Design: Validation study. Methods: All first-time ACS diagnoses in the Danish...... (95.3%) registered with a first-time ACS diagnosis. The overall positive predictive value for ACS was 65.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 62.9 - 67.7%). Stratification by subdiagnoses and hospital department showed significantly higher positive predictive values for myocardial infarction diagnoses (81.......9%; 95% CI 79.5 - 84.2%) and among patients diagnosed with an ACS diagnosis from a ward (80.1%;  95% CI 77.7 - 82.3%), respectively. Conclusion: The ACS diagnoses in hospital discharge registries should be used with caution. If validation is not possible, restricting analyses to patients with myocardial...

  17. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings...... is unknown. Objective: To investigate adverse cardiovascular outcomes of an early versus conservative invasive strategy in a national cohort of patients with ACSs. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Administrative health care data on hospitalizations, procedures, and outcomes abstracted from...... 60 days of hospitalization. Results: Compared with a conservative approach, early invasive strategies were associated with a lower risk for cardiac death (cumulative incidence, 5.9% vs. 7.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.75 [95% CI, 0.66 to 0.84]; P

  18. Practical Care Support During the Early Recovery Period After Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduk, Alexandra M; Hyde, Jacquelyn E; Waring, Molly E; Lessard, Darleen M; McManus, David D; Fauth, Elizabeth B; Lemon, Stephenie C; Saczynski, Jane S

    2016-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and predictors of receipt of practical support among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) survivors during the early post-discharge period. 406 ACS patients were interviewed about receipt of practical (instrumental and informational) support during the week after discharge. Demographic, clinical, functional, and psychosocial predictors of instrumental and informational practical support were examined. 81% of participants reported receiving practical support during the early post-discharge period: 75% reported receipt of instrumental support and 51% reported receipt of informational support. Men were less likely to report receiving certain types of practical support, whereas married participants and those with higher education, impaired health literacy, impaired activities of daily living, and in-hospital complications were more likely to report receiving certain types of practical support. Receipt of practical support is very common among ACS survivors during the early post-discharge period, and type of support received differs according to patient characteristics.

  19. Intracoronary eptifibatide bolus administration during percutaneous coronary revascularization for acute coronary syndromes with evaluation of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy and platelet function: the Intracoronary Eptifibatide (ICE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Albert J; Jennings, Lisa K; Tcheng, James E; Neva, Cathy; Earhart, Angela D; Gibson, C Michael

    2010-02-16

    Eptifibatide reduces major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intracoronary bolus administration of eptifibatide may result in higher levels of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy in the local coronary bed, disaggregate thrombus in the epicardial artery and microvasculature, and thereby improve coronary flow. Patients undergoing PCI for an acute coronary syndrome were randomized to either intracoronary or intravenous bolus administration of eptifibatide. The primary end point was the local glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy measured in the coronary sinus. There were no angiographic, electrophysiological, or other adverse findings attributable to intracoronary eptifibatide. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy was significantly greater with intracoronary versus intravenous administration: first bolus, 94+/-9% versus 51+/-15% (Peptifibatide during PCI in patients with acute coronary syndromes results in higher local platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy, which is associated with improved microvascular perfusion demonstrated by an improved cTFC.

  20. Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with anomalous origin of coronary artery presenting with acute coronary syndrome: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karur, Satish; Patra, Soumya; Shankarappa, Ravindranath K; Agrawal, Navin; Math, Ravi S; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2013-09-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are found in 0.6%-1.5% of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiogram. Intervention in these patients poses a particular technical challenge secondary to the aberrancies in the vessel origin and course. From March 2011 to February 2013, 13 cases with complex coronary artery anomalies were observed among 2482 patients undergoing CAG (0.52%) at our cath lab. Only three patients had severe stenosis in the anomalous artery sufficient to require an intervention and had presented with myocardial infarction. PCI was performed successfully in these 3 patients two of which had anomalous left circumflex artery and the other having an anomalous right coronary artery.

  1. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: baseline results from a national quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, A; Pulver, L K; Oliver, K; Thompson, A

    2012-05-01

    Evidence-practice gaps exist in the continuum of care for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), particularly at hospital discharge. We aimed to describe the methodology and baseline results of the Discharge Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes (DMACS) project, focusing on the prescription of guideline-recommended medications, referral to cardiac rehabilitation and communication between the hospital, patient and their primary healthcare professionals. DMACS employed Drug Use Evaluation methodology involving data collection, evaluation and feedback, and targeted educational interventions. Adult patients with ACS discharged during a 4-month period were eligible to participate. Data were collected (maximum 50 patients) at each site through an inpatient medical record review, a general practitioner (GP) postal/fax survey conducted 14 days post discharge and a patient telephone survey 3 months post discharge. Forty-nine hospitals participated in the audit recruiting 1545 patients. At discharge, 57% of patients were prescribed a combination of antiplatelet agent(s), beta-blocker, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin II-antagonist. At 3 months post discharge, 48% of patients reported using the same combination. Some 67% of patients recalled being referred to cardiac rehabilitation; of these, 33% had completed the programme. In total, 83% of patients had a documented ACS management plan at discharge. Of these, 90% included a medication list, 56% a chest pain action plan and 54% risk factor modification advice. Overall, 65% of GPs rated the quality of information received in the discharge summary as 'very good' to 'excellent'. The findings of our baseline audit showed that despite the robust evidence base and availability of national guidelines, the management of patients with ACS can be improved. These findings will inform a multifaceted intervention strategy to improve adherence to guidelines for the discharge management of

  2. New Oral Anticoagulants in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Is There Any Advantage Over Existing Treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Messori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: After an acute coronary syndrome, dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin is still a standard of care, but several new approaches have been investigated. Objectives: The present study re-examined the studies published thus far on this topic to evaluate the effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy in comparison to some of these new approaches (mainly, ticagrelor + aspirin and dual therapy plus a new oral anticoagulant [NOAC]; i.e., “triple therapy”. Materials and Methods: The clinical material was directly derived from that reported in recent meta-analyses. Our re-analysis relied on standard equivalence methods in which interpretation is based on Relative Risks (RRs along with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. The equivalence margins employed in our statistical testing were directly derived from those reported in randomized studies. Results: The equivalence margins were initially set at RR ranging from 0.775 to 1.29. According to these margins, triple therapy based on any NOAC proved to be superior to dual therapy alone, but at the same time demonstrated its equivalence with dual therapy. The results for apixaban-based triple therapy were inconclusive (not superior, not not-inferior, not equivalent and, of course, not inferior to the controls. Those for rivaroxaban-based triple therapy showed that this combination treatment was superior to dual therapy alone and failed to meet the criterion of equivalence. In the comparison between rivaroxaban-based triple therapy and ticagrelor + aspirin, the RR was 1 and its 95% CI remained within a post-hoc margin of ± 15%. Conclusions: Even if one considers the most effective NOAC in combination with clopidogrel + ticagrelor, this triple therapy is not more effective than ticagrelor + aspirin. On the other hand, the increased risk of bleeding with triple regimens is well demonstrated. We therefore conclude that these triple regimens did not play any important roles in the

  3. P2Y12 inhibitors for acute coronary syndromes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawarskas JJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available James J Nawarskas,1 Cheyenne Newsome,2 Joe R Anderson,1 Bina Ahmed3 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration, The University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy, The University of New Mexico Hospitals, 3Department of Internal Medicine, The University of New Mexico School of Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract: Antiplatelet therapies are a cornerstone for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs, based largely on the prominent role that platelet activation and aggregation has on the pathophysiology of the disease. Dual-antiplatelet therapy involving an oral P2Y12 inhibitor plus aspirin is now considered standard of care for treating ACS. While clopidogrel has enjoyed nearly exclusive use as the P2Y12 inhibitor of choice for many years, the more powerful P2Y12 inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor have recently challenged clopidogrel as the preferred antiplatelet therapy for treating ACS. Both prasugrel and ticagrelor have proven to be superior to clopidogrel in reducing cardiovascular events in large clinical trials, albeit at the risk of increased bleeding. With the availability of these newer more potent agents, tailoring P2Y12 inhibition to be more patient specific becomes an intriguing possibility. Factors such as type of ACS presentation, patient comorbidities, use of concomitant medications, platelet reactivity, genetic predisposition, and cost should all be considered. In addition to oral agents, intravenous P2Y12 inhibition with cangrelor offers the advantage of quick onset and offset of action, but its clinical role is yet to be defined. Optimal medical and mechanical treatment of ACS hinges on suppressing platelet-related pathways, and P2Y12 inhibition plays a key role. As our understanding of ACS continues to evolve, there remains much to learn with respect to optimizing the use of these powerful drugs to most effectively help achieve the best clinical

  4. Impact of Human Development Index on the profile and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ambuj; Roe, Matthew T; Neely, Megan L; Cyr, Derek D; Zamoryakhin, Dmitry; Fox, Keith A A; White, Harvey D; Armstrong, Paul W; Ohman, E Magnus; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-02-01

    To study the impact of national economic and human development status on patient profiles and outcomes in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes trial (TRILOGY ACS) population (51 countries; 9301 patients). Outcome measures compared baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes through 30 months by 2010 country-level United Nations Human Development Indices (HDIs) and per-capita gross national income. TRILOGY ACS enrolled 3659 patients from 27 very-high HDI countries, 3744 from 18 high-HDI countries and 1898 from 6 medium-HDI countries. Baseline characteristics of groups varied significantly, with the medium-HDI group having a lower mean age (63.0 years, vs 65.0 and 68.0 years for high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively; pcountries vs upper-income/middle-income (0.791(95% CI 0.632 to 0.990)) and high-income countries (0.756 (95% CI 0.616 to 0.928)), with differences largely attributable to myocardial infarction rates. Clinical patient profiles differed substantially by country HDI groupings. Lower unadjusted event rates in medium-HDI countries may be explained by younger age and lower comorbidity burden among these countries' patients. This heterogeneity in patient recruitment across country HDI groupings may have important implications for future global ACS trial design. NCT00699998. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Temporal trends in management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvy, Mony; Chen, Shmuel; Vorobeichik, Dina; Krashin, Eilon; Shlomo, Nir; Goldenberg, Ilan; Pereg, David

    2017-04-01

    Recent new therapeutic options have improved outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, data regarding the incremental effect of the improved treatment on patients with renal dysfunction are limited. We sought to evaluate temporal trends in management and outcome of ACS patients according to renal function. The study population consisted of all ACS patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndromes Israeli Survey (ACSIS) during 2002-2013. Patients were categorized as normal renal function, mild to moderate and severe renal insufficiency. Patient's characteristics, clinical data and outcomes were compared in each group between 2 time frames - early (2002-2006) vs. late (2008-2013). The study population included 11,234 patients. Regardless of renal function, patients enrolled in the recent surveys were more frequently selected for an invasive approach and were more commonly treated with guideline-based therapy. Among patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal dysfunction the improvement in treatment was associated with a significant reduction in 5-year mortality (10.1% vs. 12.6%, p=0.004, and 36% vs. 41.9%, p=0.01, respectively). On the other hand, outcomes of patients with severe renal insufficiency were unchanged. Multivariate analysis showed that reperfusion was associated with 41% mortality reduction in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency (HR=0.59 CI 95 0.48-0.72, pfunction and mild to moderate renal dysfunction but not in patients with severe renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal insufficiency increases mortality in acute coronary syndromes regardless of TIMI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Dariusz; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Siudak, Zbigniew; Depukat, Rafał; Chyrchel, Michał; Dziewierz, Artur; Mielecki, Waldemar; Rakowski, Tomasz; Rzeszutko, Łukasz; Dubiel, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) are the most frequent cause of admission to intensive care units. Early risk assessment and implementation of optimal treatment are of special importance in these patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that renal insufficiency is an independent risk factor in patients with cardiovascular disease. To assess the effects of renal function on the course of treatment and prognosis in patients with NSTE ACS admitted to hospitals without on-site invasive facilities but with a possibility of immediate transfer to a reference centre with a catheterisation laboratory. Twenty-nine community hospitals without on-site invasive facilities participated in the Krakow Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes - a prospective, multicentre, web-based, observational registry. Renal insufficiency (RI) was defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) 60 ml/min (NS). In-hospital mortality among patients remaining on conservative treatment in community hospitals was significantly higher among RI patients (4.0 vs. 0.6%; p TIMI risk score group: 7.3 vs. 2.4% (p risk group, 4.1 vs. 1.4% (NS) in the moderate and 3.6 vs. 0% (p risk group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified reduced creatinine clearance and a history of heart failure as independent factors influencing mortality. Renal insufficiency was present in one-third of NSTE ACS patients. Patients with renal insufficiency had worse clinical risk profile and received less aggressive treatment. Patients with NSTE ACS and renal insufficiency treated conservatively had higher in-hospital mortality. Renal insufficiency modifies mortality irrespective of the TIMI risk score. Creatinine clearance should be considered in modification of the TIMI risk score scale.

  7. Biomarkers in the prediction and management of acute coronary syndromes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilardi E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emanuele Gilardi, Paolo Iacomini, Davide Marsiliani, Guido De Marco, Marcello CovinoDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, A Gemelli Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: A large branch of research has focused on the search for biomarkers for early detection of myocardial cell injuries. Most of these studies have evaluated patients presenting to the emergency department, underlining the need for an ideal biomarker for rapid recognition of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. In the recent past, diagnosis of ACS in the emergency department has been based mostly on clinical information and electrocardiographic findings, and markers of generic cell damage have been used to support clinical suspicion. Over the last few years, the role of markers has taken up increasingly more space in non-life-threatening conditions, confining the clinical examination of the patient to the mere waiting for results of blood tests after the electrocardiograph. Currently, the biomarkers most widely used for the diagnosis of ACS are cardiac troponins. Since their introduction into clinical practice, several generations of commercial cardiac troponin assays have been validated in analytical and clinical trials. Development of newer high-sensitivity assays seems to have improved the value of cardiac troponin as both a diagnostic and risk indicator. Several other biomarkers of ACS apart from cardiac troponin have been investigated, but most still require validation in further studies. Among these, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, ischemia-modified albumin, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein seem to be the most promising markers under investigation for their possible usefulness in the emergency department setting for early diagnosis of ACS. In conclusion, a multimarker approach could be the future of research. In this review, we highlight the old and new markers, especially the most studied and widely used in clinical practice in recent

  8. Pattern of dyslipidaemia among the Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients presented with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M H; Mahmood, M; Haque, M A; Salim, M A

    2014-10-01

    Increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications in the developing communities would pose a threat in respect to their existing health care service. An increased incidence of atherosclerosis in insulin-dependent diabetic patients has long been recognized. Hyperlipidaemia, a common finding in these patients, may be one of the contributing factors. The objective of our study is to find out the patterns of dyslipidaemia among the Bangladeshi patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus presented with acute coronary syndrome. This study was conducted in the department of cardiology of BIRDEM and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of January 2009 to December 2009. A total of 100 patients were included in this study, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome was diagnosed according to the guideline of American Diabetic Association and American College of Cardiology respectively. Among the respondents Mean±SD of fasting blood sugar and 2 hours ABF were 9.23±3.6mmol/L and 12.61±8.52mmol/L respectively. Mean±SD of HbA1C of the respondents was 7.23±2.12. Total cholesterol level 200mg/dl were 27.0%, 42.0% and 31.0% respectively. HDL cholesterol 40mg/dl were 76.0% and 24.0% respectively. LDL cholesterol 150mg/dl were 43.0% and 57.0% respectively. TG within 40 to 160mg/dl and >160mg/dl were 73.0% and 27.0% respectively, Mean±SD of Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Triglyceride were 162.43±38.62, 37.41±8.59, 137.43±22.73 and 156.43±41.92mg/dl respectively.

  9. Long-term cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina-Cuadrado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness relationship of Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel for the management of acute coronary syndrome in Spain. Methods: The data from the PLATO study were used for the calculation of the events rate and health-related quality of life for Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel for the first 12 months, whereas the costs were obtained from Spanish sources. Quality of lifeadjusted survival and costs were estimated according to the fact that the patients did not suffer any thrombotic event (myocardial infarction or ictus or this one was not fatal. The lifetime cots, life years gained, and the quality of life-adjusted survival were estimated for both treatment arms. Incremental costeffectiveness ratios were assessed through the perspective of the Spanish healthcare system for 2013, by using a macro-costs strategy based on published literature and the survival tables for the Spanish population. Results: Treatment with Ticagrelor was associated to an incremental cost of 1,228 per year, an increase in 0.1652 life years gained, and 0.1365 years adjusted by quality of life, as compared to Clopidogrel. The cost for one quality of life-adjusted life year was 8,997 and the cost per one gained life year of 7,435 . The sensitivity analysis showed consistent results. Conclusions: Treatment of acute coronary syndrome for 12 months with Ticagrelor was associated with a cost per 1 life year of quality of life-adjusted cost below the cost-effectiveness limits generally accepted in Spain.

  10. [Risk stratified in the National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes at the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Arriaga-Nava, Roberto; Ramos-Corrales, Marco Antonio; García-Aguilar, Jorge; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    to identify prognostic factors in the National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes. patients in medical care units with acute ischemic coronary syndrome (AICS) according to the criteria of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology, considering the GRACE score (GS) were studied. there were 2389 patients, 28.9 % women and 71.1 % men, mean age 63 ± 11.7 years; with AICS with ST-segment elevation (69.11 %) and 30.89 % with AICS without ST elevation. The average of GS was 168. A GS > 150 points in patients with AICS without ST elevation was associated with recurrent ischemia or angina (RR = 1.4, p = 0.05), left ventricular failure (RR = 3.1, p < 0.0001), stroke (RR = 2.9, p = 0.004) and arrhythmias (RR = 2.7, p < 0.0001). The patients with AICS with ST-segment elevation were associated with death (RR = 1.6, p = 0.01), reinfarction (RR = 1.7, p = 0.001), recurrent ischemia (RR = 1.2, p = 0.04), left ventricular failure (RR = 3.4, p < 0.001), stroke (RR = 3.9, p < 0.001) and arrhythmias (RR = 2.3, p < 0.001). Fibrinolytic therapy was used in 40.2 %. There was a negative correlation between GS and fibrinolytic therapy (r -0.04, p = 0.04). the AICS with ST-segment elevation is more frequent and have a high GS.

  11. Characterization of the asynergic myocardium in acute coronary syndrome using simultaneous dual radionuclide emission computed tomography

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    Sone, Takahito; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Sassa, Hiromi; Okumura, Yasuki (Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Phantom and clinical studies were undertaken to determine the value of dual SPECT with Tl-201 and Tc-99m pyrophosphate using a simultaneous collection method in evaluating tissue characterization of ischemic myocardium. Phantom experiments revealed that the residual myocardium was detected from the severity of Tl-201 defect images; the influence of cross talk between two radionuclides was negligible; when the Tc-99m layer was located within 50% inside the phantom wall and the other space was filled with Tl-201 solution, the Tc-99m layer was visualized inwardly more clearly than the Tl-201 layer; and transmural infarction 2 to 2.5 cm in diameter was visualized as the total defect of Tl-201. Taking these results into account, scintigraphic characteristics in 84 patients with acute coronary syndrome were evaluated. Seventeen patients in whom asynergy had nearly resolved in the chronic phase were defined as the group of reversible ischemic myocardial damage. Tl-201 uptake in ischemic lesions was improved in the chronic phase when reinfarction was not seen. Both reduced uptake of Tl-201 and Tc-99m uptake in the subendocardial segment were seen in 43% for nontransmural infarction. Total defect of Tl-201 along with transmural uptake of Tc-99m was the most common for transmural infarction. For unstabler angina pectoris, there was no evidence of Tc-99m PYP uptake. Reduced or normal uptake of Tl-201 combined with negative Tc-99m uptake were dominant for reversible ischemic myocardial damage. Patients having relatively good recovery had a significantly higher prevalence of reduced Tl-201 uptake and subendocardial uptake of Tc-99m and a significantly lower prevalence of the total defect of Tl-201 and transmural uptake of Tc-99m. In conclusion, dual SPECT is useful for predicting reversibility in the early stage of acute coronary syndrome. (N.K.).

  12. [Prognostic value of aortic stenosis in patients after acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakova, O S; Selezneva, N D; Evdokimova, M A; Osmolovskaia, B S; Kochkina, M S; Aseĭcheva, O Iu; Minushkina, L O; Baklanova, T N; Talyzin, P A; Tereshchenko, S N; Dzhaiani, N A; Akatova, E V; Glezer, M G; Galiavich, A S; Zakirova, V B; Koziolova, N A; Polianskaia, E A; Iagoda, A V; Boeva, O I; Khorolets, E V; Shlyk, S V; Volkova, E G; Rodicheva, O A; Levashov, S Iu; Konstantinov, V O; Kalishevich, N B; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to assess prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) and prognostic value of its detection among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we examined 851 patients included into multicenter prospective study of risk factors of serious vascular events and death after acute coronary syndrome. The patients were enrolled into the study in stable condition on 10th day after onset of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA). Examination involved medical history, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Afterwards all cases of death and serious vascular events were registered. Severity of AS was specified by maximal aortic flow rate: 1st degree > 2.5, 2nd degree 3.0-4.0, 3rd degree > 4.0 m/s. AS was detected in 16 patients (1.9%). AS severity was 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree in 9, 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Patients with AS were significantly older (77.4 vs. 61.3 years, p p = 0.021) and lowered renal function (66.7 vs. 34.0%, p 75 years (OR 1,395 [1.023-1.902], p = 0.036), history of CHF (1.319 [1.015-1.713], p = 0.038), history of MI (1.692 [1.320-2.170], p p = 0.012), left atrial diameter (1.024 [1.001-1.047], p = 0.037) and presence of AS (3.211 [1.742-.,916], p < 0.001). Prevalence of preexisting AS among patients who have had MI/UA is 1.9% what is similar to data of European Heart Survey ACS-II (1.8%). Presence of AS of any severity in a survivor of ACS worsens prognosis independently of other known risk factors.

  13. [Correlation of TIMI risk score with angiographic extent and severity of coronary artery disease in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, H; Ouali, S; Hammas, S; Bougmiza, I; Gribaa, R; Ghannem, K; Neffati, E; Remadi, F; Boughzela, E

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether the TIMI risk score correlates with the angiographic extent and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing cardiac catheterization. We conducted a retrospective review of 239 medical records of patients who underwent coronary angiography secondary to non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome between 2002 and 2006. Patients were classified into three groups according to TIMI risk score: TIMI scores 0 to 2 (group 1: n=121), 3 to 4 (group 2: n=100), and 5 to 7 (group 3: n=18). We compared the coronary angiography findings of the three groups. Patients of group 1 had a greater likelihood of normal or non significant CAD than patients of group 2 (36.3 % vs 13 %, PTIMI score 0 to 2 than in patients with TIMI score 5 to 7 (28.9 % vs 0 %; P=0.01), and in patients with TIMI score 3 to 4 than in those with score 5 to 7 (35 % vs 0 %, P=0.006). However, 1-vessel disease was found in patients of group 1 as often as in patients of group 2. The frequency of two-vessel disease was similar whatever the level of TIMI score was low, intermediate or high. Three-vessel or left main disease was more likely found in patients of group 3 than in patients of group 2 (66.7 % vs 26 %; P=0.01), and than patients of group 1 (66.7 % vs 13.2 %; PTIMI score 5 to 7. In patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing cardiac catheterization, the TIMI risk score correlated with the extent and severity of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and therapeutic profile of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes who do not have significant coronary artery disease.The Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) Trial Investigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Roe (Matthew); A. Vahanian (Alec); R.A. Harrington (Robert Alex); D.M. Prosper; K.S. Pieper (Karen); E.J. Topol (Eric); D.L. Bhatt (Deepak); A.M. Lincoff (Michael); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); R.M. Califf (Robert); E.M. Ohman (Magnus); K. Karsch (Karl); M.M. Kitt (Michael); W. Ruzyllo (Witold); K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: A proportion of patients who present with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are found to have insignificant coronary artery disease (CAD) during coronary angiography, but these patients have not been well characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 5767

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of anergia (lack of energy) in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jonathan A; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi; Newman, Jonathan D; Gurland, Barry J; Maurer, Mathew S

    2012-11-01

    Anergia, a commonly occurring syndrome in older adults and patients with cardiovascular diseases, is associated with functional and clinical limitations. To date, the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of anergia in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have not been elucidated. We examined the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of anergia in a multiethnic sample of patients with ACS. Hospitalized patients with ACS (n = 472), enrolled in the Prescription Usage, Lifestyle, and Stress Evaluation (PULSE) prospective cohort study, completed assessments of demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics within 7 days of hospitalization for an ACS event. Current depressive disorder was ascertained using a structured psychiatric interview 3 to 7 days after discharge. Anergia was assessed at baseline and defined using patients' binary responses (yes/no) to 7 items related to energy level. At least 1 complaint of anergia was reported by 79.9% of patients (n = 377) and 32% of patients (n = 153) met criteria for anergia. In a multivariable logistic regression model, anergia was independently associated with being a woman, being white (compared to black), having bodily pain, participating in exercise, having current depressive disorder, and having higher values on the Charlson Co-morbidity Index. In conclusion, anergia is a highly prevalent syndrome in patients with ACS. It is distinct from depression and is associated with modifiable clinical factors such as participation in exercise and bodily pain that may be appropriate targets for intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The relation of the activity of postheparin lipoprotein lipase with the CBC parameters in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, N O; Kavtaradze, G V; Tananashvili, D E

    2008-05-01

    The aim of presented investigation was to study of the relation of the activity of postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) with the blood test parameters in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS) during first 6-12 hours after appearance of acute anginous pain. 47 patients with the disease of coronary arteries (DCA) have been investigated. Acute form of ACS was revealed in 27 patients (mean age--62.9+/-11.7 years), chronic form--in 20 patients (mean age 67.9+/-14.0 years). The study was carried out in the first 6-12 hours after appearance of acute anginous pain. Control group consisted of 23 healthy subjects (mean age--37.5+/-8.9 years). Postheparin activity of LPL has been determined in whole cohort by potentiometric method. Blood test was carried out by standard method. The acute coronary syndrome was confirmed by electrocardiographic findings. In ACS group the activity of LPL significantly correlated inversely with the value of leukocytes (r=-0.4022, p=0.038), stab (r=-0.4808, p=0.011) and segmental leukocytes (r=-0.5853, p=0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=-0.4188, p=0.030). Corning to the comparative analysis of chronic and acute forms of DCA, the activity of LPL was significantly lower in patients with chronic form compared to the acute form (p=0.043). Therefore, based on the obtained data it should be concluded that in 6-12 hours after development of acute coronary syndrome during worsening the inflammatory reaction (which reflected on the parameters of blood test) together with endothelial dysfunction it is expressed the decrease of the activity of endothelial enzyme LPL.

  17. Prevalence and management of hypertension in patients with acute coronary syndrome vary with gender: Observations from the Chinese registry of acute coronary events (CRACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun; Pan, Weiqi; Ning, Shangqiu; Song, Xiantao; Jin, Zening; Lv, Shuzheng

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension affects one billion people worldwide and is an independent risk factor for death after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and medical treatment of hypertension among 1,301 ACS patients enrolled into the Chinese registry of acute coronary events (CRACE) trial. Analyses were performed by gender, with both genders combined and according to international practice. Multivariable models identified factors associated with use of different classes of antihypertensive medication, and examined the correlation between hypertension and gender with mortality. The use of angiotensin‑converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), β-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics increased in both genders during management of presenting ACS. Hypertensive men were more likely to have been receiving β-blockers when they were discharged (77.2%) than women (69.2%). Hypertensive women were more likely to have received diuretics when they were discharged (28.4%) than men (22%). ACEI use increased by ~60% (absolute increase) in both women and men as a result of ACS treatment, but remained similar between the genders, and the same phenomenon was observed in the use of CCBs. Moreover, hypertensive women were less likely to receive evidence‑based medication to treat their acute coronary event than men (for women and men, respectively: β-blocker, 69.2 vs. 77.2%; ACEI, 85.8 vs. 87.5%). Hypertension is more prevalent in women than in men with ACS, and its medical management varies with gender, but it has a similar association with mortality in both genders. Opportunities exist to improve medical therapy and outcomes for women with hypertension.

  18. Clinical management and hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome patients in Mexico: The Third National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (RENASICA III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Carlos; Borrayo, Gabriela; Carrillo, Jorge; Juarez, Ursulo; Quintanilla, Juan; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To describe current management and clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Mexico. RENASICA III was a prospective multicenter registry of consecutive patients hospitalized with an ACS. Patients had objective evidence of ischemic heart disease; those with type II infarction or secondary ischemic were excluded. Study design conformed to current quality recommendations. A total of 123 investigators at 29 tertiary and 44 community hospitals enrolled 8296 patients with an ACS (4038 with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina [NSTEMI/UA], 4258 with ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]). The majority were younger (62±12years) and 76.0% were male. On admission 80.5% had ischemic chest pain lasting >20min and clinical stability. Left ventricular dysfunction was more frequent in NSTEMI/UA than in those with STEMI (30.0% vs. 10.7%, p<0.0001). In STEMI 37.6% received thrombolysis and 15.0% primary PCI. PCI was performed in 39.6% of NSTEMI/UA (early strategy in 10.8%, urgent strategy in 3.0%). Overall hospital death rate was 6.4% (8.7% in STEMI vs. 3.9% in NSTEMI/UA, p<0.001). The strongest independent predictors of hospital mortality were cardiogenic shock (odds ratio 22.4, 95% confidence interval 18.3-27.3) and ventricular fibrillation (odds ratio 12.5, 95% confidence interval 9.3-16.7). The results from RENASICA III establish the urgent need to develop large-scale regional programs to improve adherence to guideline recommendations in ACS, including rates of pharmacological thrombolysis and increasing the ratio of PCI to thrombolysis. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictive value of the fragmented QRS complex in 6-month mortality and morbidity following acute coronary syndrome

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    Akbarzadeh F

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fariborz Akbarzadeh,1 Leili Pourafkari,1 Samad Ghaffari,1 Mohammad Hashemi,2 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani3,41Cardiovascular Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 2Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 3Traffic Injury Prevention Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 4PHS Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Fragmented QRS encompasses different RSR' patterns showing various morphologies of the QRS complexes with or without the Q wave on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. It has been shown possibly to cause adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with some heart diseases, including coronary artery disease. In view of the need for risk stratification of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome in the most efficacious and cost-effective way, we conducted this study to clarify the value of developing fragmented QRS in a cohort of patients presenting with their first acute coronary syndrome in predicting 6-month mortality and morbidity.Methods: One hundred consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit at Shahid Madani Heart Center in Tabriz from December 2008 to March 2009 with their first acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographic and electrocardiographic data on admission, inhospital mortality, and need for revascularization were recorded. Electrocardiography performed 2 months after the index event was examined for development of fragmented QRS. Mortality and morbidity was evaluated at 6-month follow-up in all patients.Results: The patients were of mean age 57.7 ± 12.8 years, and 84% were men. The primary diagnosis was unstable angina in 17 (17% patients, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI in 11 (11%, anterior or inferior ST elevation MI in 66 (66%, and postero-inferior MI in six (6%. Fragmented QRS was present in 30 (30% patients during the first admission, which

  20. Predictors of beta-blocker intolerance and mortality in patients after acute coronary syndrome.

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    Laercio Martins De Stefano

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the predictors of intolerance to beta-blockers treatment and the 6-month mortality in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, and longitudinal study including 370 consecutive ACS patients in Killip class I or II. BBs were prescribed according to international guidelines and withdrawn if intolerance occurred. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of our university. STATISTICS: the clinical parameters evaluated at admission, and the related intolerance to BBs and death at 6 months were analyzed using logistic regression (p<0.05in PATIENTS. RESULTS: BB intolerance was observed in 84 patients and was associated with no prior use of statins (OR: 2.16, 95%CI: 1.26-3.69, p= 0.005 and Killip class II (OR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.30-4.75, p=0.004 in the model adjusted for age, sex, blood pressure, and renal function. There was no association with ST-segment alteration or left anterior descending coronary artery plaque. Intolerance to BB was associated with the greatest risk of death (OR: 4.5, 95%CI: 2.15-9.40, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: After ACS, intolerance to BBs in the first 48 h of admission was associated to non previous use of statin and Killip class II and had a high risk of death within 6 months.

  1. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries

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    Hassan A. Al-Thani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe prevalence and impact of peripheral arterial disease (PAD in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, data were collected over 5 months from 6 Middle Eastern countries. Patients were divided into 2 groups (with and without PAD. Out of 6705 consecutive ACS patients, PAD was reported in 177 patients. In comparison to non-PAD, PAD patients were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. They were more likely to have high Killip class, high GRACE risk score, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS at presentation. Thrombolytics, antiplatelet use, and coronary intervention were comparable in both groups. When presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, patients with PAD had worse outcomes, while in NSTEACS; PAD was associated with higher rate of heart failure in comparison to non-PAD patients. In diabetics, PAD was associated with 2-fold increase in mortality when compared to non-PAD (P=0.028. After adjustment, PAD was associated with high mortality in STEMI (adjusted OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.23–5.65, P=0.01. Prevalence of PAD in ACS in the Gulf region is low. Patients with PAD and ACS constitute a high risk group and require more attention. PAD in patients with STEMI is an independent predictor of in-hospital death.

  2. [Antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome. Prehospital phase: nothing, aspirin or what?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, T; Hamm, C

    2014-11-01

    In most cases of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) a major coronary vessel is occluded by a thrombus. This is why early and effective antiplatelet therapy plays a key role. The current guidelines recommend the administration of dual antiplatelet therapy as early as possible. Despite the lack of convincing clinical evidence, prehospital administration appears reasonable, primarily because of pharmacokinetic considerations. Ticagrelor should be preferentially administered because the largest amount of evidence is available and it appears to be safe. In high-risk patients undergoing transfer to a catheterization laboratory, upstream use of a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (tirofiban) may be considered. Acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation (NSTE-ACS) represents a clinically heterogeneous group. Current guidelines recommend that antiplatelet therapy should be initiated as early as possible when the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS is made. If there is high clinical suspicion of NSTE-ACS acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) should be given before hospital admission. In high-risk patients prehospital administration of ticagrelor may be considered.

  3. Negative attitudes to transition in post-communist Albania and acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Kark, Jeremy D

    2009-11-01

    The authors assessed the association of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with attitudes to the socioeconomic aspects of rapid change in transitional Albania. A population-based case-control study conducted in Tirana, Albania, in 2003-2006 included 467 nonfatal ACS patients (370 men, 97 women; 88% response) and a population-sampled control group (469 men, 268 women; 69% response). Reaction to transition was assessed as a composite score of 3 items capturing attitudes toward socioeconomic aspects of transition in Albania. Using logistic regression, there was a strong linear relationship of the attitude score with ACS. When categorized as negative, intermediate, or positive attitudes, the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the negative versus positive categories was 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.1, 4.3; p for linear trend Albania is a plausible mechanism linking a negative perception of transition with excess coronary risk. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome: an evidence-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer N; Negrelli, Jenna M; Manek, Megha B; Hawes, Emily M; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) describes the range of myocardial ischemic states that includes unstable angina, non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (MI), or ST-elevated MI. ACS is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and places a large financial burden on the health care system. The diagnosis of ACS begins with a thorough clinical assessment of a patient's presenting symptoms, electrocardiogram, and cardiac troponin levels as well as a review of past medical history. Early risk stratification can assist clinicians in determining whether an early invasive management strategy or an initial conservative strategy should be pursued and can help determine appropriate pharmacologic therapies. Key components in the management of ACS include coronary revascularization when indicated; prompt initiation of dual antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation; and consideration of adjuvant agents including β blockers, inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, and HmG-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. It is essential for clinicians to take an individualized approach to treatment and consider long-term safety and efficacy when managing patients with a history of ACS after hospital discharge. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  5. Anticoagulants in ischemia-guided management of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    2017-03-01

    The most recent joint guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) on the management of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) are a result of a substantial and considered undertaking, and those involved deserve much recognition for their efforts. However, the handling of anticoagulants seems somewhat inadequate, and this is a highly-relevant matter when managing NSTE-ACS. Among areas of potential uncertainty, emergency medicine professionals might still be left wondering about the particulars of anticoagulant therapy when pursuing ischemia-guided management of NSTE-ACS (that is, managing NSTE-ACS without an intent for early invasive measures, such as coronary angiography and revascularization). This review seeks to provide insight into this question. Relevant clinical trials are appraised and translated into clinical context for emergency medicine professionals, including the implications of noteworthy advancements in the management of NSTE-ACS. Although current guidelines from the AHA and ACC suggest enoxaparin has better evidence than other anticoagulants in the setting of NSTE-ACS management, careful review of the evidence shows this is not actually clearly supported by the available evidence in the era of contemporary management. Unless and until better contemporary data emerge, emergency medicine professionals must carefully weigh the available evidence, its limitations, and the possible clinical implications of the various anticoagulant options when managing NSTE-ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Coronary Syndromes in the Elderly [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Niels Engberding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical evidence for treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS in the elderly is less robust than in patients younger than 75 years. The elderly have the highest incidence of cardiovascular disease and frequently present with ACS. This number can be expected to increase over time because society is aging. Older adults often sustain unfavorable outcomes from ACS because of atypical presentation and delay in recognition. In addition, elderly patients commonly do not receive optimal guideline-directed ACS treatment. Owing to their high baseline risk of ischemic complications, the elderly also fare worse even with optimal ACS treatment as they frequently have more complex coronary disease, more comorbidities, less cardiovascular reserve, and a higher risk of treatment complications. They are also subjected to a broader range of pharmacologic treatment. Treatment complications can be mitigated to some extent by meticulous dose adjustment of antithrombotic and adjunctive therapies. While careful transitions of care and appropriate utilization of post-discharge secondary preventive measures are important in ACS patients of all ages, the elderly are more vulnerable to system errors and thus deserve special attention from the clinician.

  7. Influence of depression and anxiety on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Francesca; Di Stefano, Rossella; Pini, Stefano; Mazzotta, Gianfranco; Bovenzi, Francesco M; Bertoli, Daniele; Abelli, Marianna; Borelli, Lucia; Cardini, Alessandra; Lari, Lisa; Gesi, Camilla; Michi, Paola; Morrone, Doralisa; Gnudi, Luigi; Balbarini, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are related to endothelial function and progression of coronary artery disease. There is evidence of decreased numbers of circulating EPCs in patients with a current episode of major depression. We investigated the relationships between the level of circulating EPCs and depression and anxiety in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS admitted to three Cardiology Intensive Care Units were evaluated by the SCID-I to determine the presence of lifetime and/or current mood and anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. The EPCs were defined as CD133(+) CD34(+) KDR(+) and evaluated by flow cytometry. All patients underwent standardized cardiological and psychopathological evaluations. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed where appropriate. Out of 111 ACS patients, 57 were found to have a DSM-IV lifetime or current mood or anxiety disorder at the time of the inclusion in the study. The ACS group with mood or anxiety disorders showed a significant decrease in circulating EPC number compared with ACS patients without affective disorders. In addition, EPC levels correlated negatively with severity of depression and anxiety at index ACS episode. The current study indicates that EPCs circulate in decreased numbers in ACS patients with depression or anxiety and, therefore, contribute to explore new perspectives in the pathophysiology of the association between cardiovascular disorders and affective disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of Hypothyroidism on Occurrence and Outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome from the National Inpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Rashmi; Basnet, Sijan; Poudel, Dilli Ram

    2017-12-15

    Thyroid hormones have a profound effect on cardiovascular physiology. We utilized a large national inpatient database in the United States (National Inpatient Sample) to study hypothyroidism in relation to the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its impact on outcomes (mortality, the length of stay, and hospitalization cost) in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subgroup of CHD patients. We found that although hypothyroidism has an increased association with CHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.12, p <0.001), the odds of developing ACS in these CHD patients is lower in the hypothyroid group (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.72, p <0.001) after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Additionally, patients with hypothyroid ACS have a reduced odds of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88, p <0.001), shorter length of stay by 0.45 days (p <0.001), and lower hospitalization cost by $1,531.45 (p <0.001) compared with the euthyroid group. Our findings suggest that hypothyroidism has an increased CHD risk but a lower risk of development of ACS in hospitalized CHD patients, as well as a better short-term prognosis including ACS-associated mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiphospholipid antibodies in black south africans with hiv and acute coronary syndromes: prevalence and clinical correlates

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    Tikly Mohammed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is associated with a high prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL and increased thrombotic events but the aetiopathogenic link between the two is unclear. Findings Prospective single centre study from Soweto, South Africa, comparing the prevalence of aPL in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART naïve HIV positive and negative patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS. Between March 2004 and February 2008, 30 consecutive black South African HIV patients with ACS were compared to 30 black HIV negative patients with ACS. The HIV patients were younger (43 ± 7 vs. 54 ± 13, p = 0.004 and besides smoking (73% vs. 33%, p = 0.002 and lower HDL levels (0.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 had fewer risk factors than the control group. HIV patients had a higher prevalence of anticardiolipin (aCL IgG (47% vs. 10%, p = 0.003 and anti-prothrombin (aPT IgG antibodies (87% vs. 21%, p Conclusions Treatment naïve black South African HIV patients with ACS are younger with fewer traditional coronary risk factors than HIV negative patients but have a higher prevalence and different expression of aPL which is likely to be an epiphenomenon of the HIV infection rather than causally linked to thrombosis and the pathogenesis of ACS.

  10. [Early invasive strategy in diabetic patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza Román, Anna; Latour Pérez, Jaime; de Miguel Balsa, Eva; Pino Izquierdo, Karel; Coves Orts, Francisco Javier; García Ochando, Luis; de la Torre Fernández, Maria José

    2014-05-20

    In the management of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), several studies have shown a reduction in mortality with the use of an invasive strategy in high-risk patients, including diabetic patients. Paradoxically, other studies have shown an under-utilization of this invasive strategy in these patients. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of patients managed conservatively and identify determinants of the use of invasive or conservative strategy. Retrospective cohort study conducted in diabetic patients with NSTE-ACS included in the ARIAM-SEMICYUC registry (n=531) in 2010 and 2011. We performed crude and adjusted unconditional logistic regression. We analyzed 531 diabetic patients, 264 (49.7%) of which received invasive strategy. Patients managed conservatively were a subgroup characterized by older age and cardiovascular comorbidity, increased risk of bleeding and the absence of high-risk electrocardiogram (ECG). In diabetic patients with NSTE-ACS, independent predictors associated with conservative strategy were low-risk ECG, initial Killip class>1, high risk of bleeding and pretreatment with clopidogrel. The fear of bleeding complications or advanced coronary lesions could be the cause of the underutilization of an invasive strategy in diabetic patients with NSTE-ACS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of daily individual meteorological parameters on the incidence of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravljen, Mirjam; Bilban, Marjan; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Hovelja, Tomaž; Vavpotič, Damjan

    2014-11-12

    A nationwide study was conducted to explore the short term association between daily individual meteorological parameters and the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with coronary emergency catheter interventions in the Republic of Slovenia, a south-central European country. We linked meteorological data with daily ACS incidence for the entire population of Slovenia, for the population over 65 years of age and for the population under 65 years of age. Data were collected daily for a period of 4 years from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011. In line with existing studies, we used a main effect generalized linear model with a log-link-function and a Poisson distribution of ACS. Three of the studied meteorological factors (daily average temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) all have relevant and significant influences on ACS incidences for the entire population. However, the ACS incidence for the population over 65 is only affected by daily average temperature, while the ACS incidence for the population under 65 is affected by daily average pressure and humidity. In terms of ambient temperature, the overall findings of our study are in line with the findings of the majority of contemporary European studies, which also note a negative correlation. The results regarding atmospheric pressure and humidity are less in line, due to considerable variations in results. Additionally, the number of available European studies on atmospheric pressure and humidity is relatively low. The fourth studied variable-season-does not influence ACS incidence in a statistically significant way.

  12. Diagnostic importance of admission platelet volume indices in patients with acute chest pain suggesting acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Taghipour-Sani, Leila; Rezaei, Yousef; Rostami, Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a challenging issue in cardiovascular medicine. Given platelet role in atherothrombosis, we sought to determine whether platelet indices can be used as diagnostic tests for patients who suffered from an acute chest discomfort. We prospectively enrolled 862 patients with an acute chest pain and 184 healthy matched controls. They were divided into four groups: 184 controls, 249 of non-ACS, 421 of unstable angina (UA), and 192 of myocardial infarction (MI) cases. Blood samples were collected at admission to the emergency department for routine hematologic tests. The mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) were significantly greater in patients with MI compared with those of non-ACS or control subjects. Negative and significant correlations existed between MPV, PDW, and P-LCR values and platelet count (P chest discomfort. The sensitivities and specificities were found to be 72% and 40%, 73% and 37%, and 68% and 44% for MPV, PDW, and P-LCR, respectively. An elevated admission MPV, PDW, and P-LCR may be of benefit to detect chest pain resulting in MI from that of non-cardiac one, and also for risk stratification of patients who suffered from an acute chest discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease increases the mortality from acute coronary syndrome: an observational study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Nilanka; Indrakumar, Jegarajah; Abeysinghe, Waruni Vijitha; Fernando, Vihangi; Samaraweera, W M C K; Lawrence, Jayamal Sanjaya

    2016-02-12

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. But its effect on acute coronary syndrome is not clear. We performed this study to identify the prevalence of NAFLD in patients with ACS admitted to a tertiary care center in Sri Lanka. We also described the association of NAFLD with the severity of ACS predicted by the GRACE score. We performed a descriptive study including all consecutive patients with non-fatal ACS admitted to Colombo South Teaching Hospital from 01/02/2014 to 30/04/2014. Patients with excessive alcohol consumption, established cirrhosis and patients with identified risk factors for liver disease were excluded from the study. All patients underwent ultrasound scan of liver. There were 120 participants, 75 (62.5%) males and 45 (37.5%) females with acute coronary syndrome. Average age was 61.28 ± 11.83 years. NAFLD was seen in 56 (46.7%) patients with ACS. Patients with NAFLD had a higher GRACE score than patients without NAFLD (120.2 ± 26.9 Vs 92.3 ± 24.2, p acute coronary syndrome and thus require aggressive treatment of CAD. It is important to consider this novel risk factor when risk stratifying patients with ACS.

  14. Lower rate of invasive revascularisation after coronary angiography, following acute coronary syndrome, the longer distance you live from an invasive centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    Purpose We studied the population of all acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients examined with coronary angiography (CAG) in order to evaluate differences in invasive revascularisation rate. Denmark (population 5.5 million) has a universal health insurance coverage system and uniform national...... guidelines for the treatment of ACS. There are 5 tertiary invasive centres performing CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 8 hospitals with diagnostic units performing CAG only, and a further 36 hospitals without these facilities receiving patients...... with ACS. We investigated if there was a difference in revascularisation after CAG following admission with ACS, depending on distance between place of residence and invasive centre. Methods All patients hospitalised with a first ACS from January 2005 to December 2007 were identified in the National...

  15. Lower rate of invasive revascularisation in acute coronary syndrome patients with significant stenosis on coronary angiography when angiography is performed on a diagnostics only hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    Purpose We studied the population of all acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients examined with coronary angiography (CAG) in order to evaluate differences in invasive revascularisation rate. Denmark (population 5.5 million) has a universal health insurance coverage system and uniform national...... guidelines for the treatment of ACS. There are 5 tertiary invasive centres performing CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 8 hospitals with diagnostic units performing CAG only, and a further 36 hospitals without these facilities receiving patients...... with ACS. We investigated if there was a difference in revascularisation after CAG following admission with ACS, depending on distance between place of residence and invasive centre. Methods All patients hospitalised with a first ACS from January 2005 to December 2007 were identified in the National...

  16. Acute heart failure with and without acute coronary syndrome: clinical correlates and prognostic impact (From the HEARTS registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFaleh, Hussam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah A; Ullah, Anhar; AlHabib, Khalid F; Hersi, Ahmad; Mimish, Layth; Almasood, Ali; Al Ghamdi, Saleh; Ghabashi, Abdullah; Malik, Asif; Hussein, Gamal A; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Abuosa, Ahmed; Al Habeeb, Waleed; Kashour, Tarek S

    2016-05-20

    Little is know about the outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS-AHF), compared to those without ACS (NACS-AHF). We conducted a prospective registry of AHF patients involving 18 hospitals in Saudi Arabia between October 2009 and December 2010. In this sub-study, we compared the clinical correlates, management and hospital course, as well as short, and long-term outcomes between AHF patients with and without ACS. Of the 2609 AHF patients enrolled, 27.8 % presented with ACS. Compared to NACS-AHF patients, ACS-AHF patients were more likely to be old males (Mean age = 62.7 vs. 60.8 years, p = 0.003, and 73.8 % vs. 62.7 %, p prevalence of severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF coronary angiography and had higher prevalence of multi-vessel coronary artery disease (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The unadjusted hospital and one-month mortality were higher in ACS-AHF patients (OR = 1.6 (1.2-2.2), p = 0.003 and 1.4 (1.0-1.9), p = 0.026 respectively). A significant interaction existed between the level of left ventricular ejection fraction and ACS-AHF status. After adjustment, ACS-AHF status was only significantly associated with hospital mortality (OR = 1.6 (1.1-2.4), p = 0.019). The three-years survival following hospital discharge was not different between the two groups. AHF patients presenting with ACS had worse hospital prognosis, and an equivalent long-term survival compared to AHF patients without ACS. These findings underscore the importance of timely recognition and management of AHF patients with concomitant ACS given their distinct presentation and underlying pathophysiology compared to other AHF patients.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima DT

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel T Grima1, Stephen T Brown1, Laveena Kamboj2, Kevin R Bainey3, Ron Goeree4,5, Paul Oh6, Krishnan Ramanathan7, Shaun G Goodman81Cornerstone Research Group, Burlington, ON, 2AstraZeneca Canada, Mississauga, ON, 3Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute/University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, 4Program for Assessment of Technology in Health, St Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, ON, 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 6University Health Network, Toronto, ON, 7St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, 8St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Ticagrelor demonstrated a significant reduction in major cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS compared with clopidogrel in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO trial. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in ACS patients from the perspective of the Canadian publicly funded health care system.Methods: A two-part model was developed consisting of a 1-year decision tree and a lifetime Markov model. Within the decision tree, patients remained event-free, experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction, a nonfatal stroke, or death due to vascular or nonvascular related causes based on data from the PLATO trial. The lifetime Markov model followed these patients and allowed for subsequent myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Patient utility and resource use were derived from the PLATO trial. Transition probabilities and specific Canadian unit costs were derived from published sources. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted.Results: In the base case lifetime analysis, treatment with ticagrelor resulted in more years of life per person (0.097, more quality-adjusted life years per person (QALYs, 0.084, and an incremental cost per QALY gained of $9,745 (Canadian$, assuming a generic cost for clopidogrel. A

  18. [Relationship between antithrombin-III value with acute coronary syndrome and preprocedural TIMI flow grade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xia; Shan, Pei-ren; Hu, Long; Huang, Zhou-qing; Wu, Gao-jun; Xiao, Fang-yi; Huang, Wei-jian

    2012-03-27

    To explore the differences of antiprothrombin-III (AT-III) value in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) and examine the association of AT-III value with preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow in ACS patients. This study prospectively included 121 hospitalized ACS patients between February 2011 to June 2011, including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n = 50), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, n = 32) and unstable angina (UAP, n = 39). Meanwhile, 50 SAP cases during the same period were selected as the control group. The AT-III levels were measured by chromogenic substrate method before coronary angiography for all patients. (1) The AT-III levels were significantly lower in the ACS patients than those in the SAP cases. (2) In the STEMI subgroup, the AT-III levels were markedly lower in the patients with preprocedural TIMI flow grade ≤ 2 versus those with preprocedural TIMI flow grade 3 (86% ± 11% vs 93% ± 9%, P TIMI flow grade ≤ 2 than those with preprocedural TIMI flow grade 3 (85% ± 8% vs 95% ± 8%, P TIMI flow grade of culprit coronary artery in ACS patients. The AT-III levels were significantly lower in the ACS patients than those in the SAP patients. The activity of AT-III is positively correlated with the TIMI flow grade in ACS patients. In contrast, the activity of AT-III is negatively correlated with the severity of culprit vessel stenosis in the patients with NSTEMI. Thus AT-III level may be used to distinguish high-risk populations in ACS patients at an early stage.

  19. Nine-year comparison of presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes in Ireland: a national cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Emer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter time to treatment is associated with lower mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. A previous (1994 survey showed substantial delays for acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Ireland. The present study compared current practice with 1994 and surveyed acute coronary syndromes as a more complete contemporary evaluation of critical cardiac care than assessing AMI alone. Methods Following ethics committee approval, all centres (N = 39 admitting acute cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care unit provided information on 1365 episodes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Results Since 1994, median hospital arrival to thrombolysis time was reduced by 41% (76 to 45 minutes. Thrombolysis was delivered more often in the emergency department in 2003 (48% vs 2%. Thrombolysis when delivered in the emergency department was achieved faster than thrombolysis delivered in intensive/coronary care (35 mins v 60 mins; z = 5.62, p Conclusions Substantial improvements in time to thrombolysis have occurred since 1994, probably relating to treatment provision in emergency departments. Patient delay pre-hospital is still the principal impediment to effective treatment of ACS. A recent change of definition of AMI may have precluded an exact comparison between 1994 and 2003 data.

  20. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT FORM PATIENT’S ATTITUDE TO TREATMENT PRECEDING HOSPITALIZATION FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROM (DATA OF QUESTIONNAIRE WITHIN THE LIS REGISTER)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu. V. Lukina; M. L. Gynzburg; V. P. Smirnov; S. Yu. Martsevich; N. P. Kutishenko; A. V. Fokina; E. V. Daniels

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To determine the most significant factors forming patient’s attitude to treatment and factors of adherence to treatment preceding hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS...

  1. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT FORM PATIENT’S ATTITUDE TO TREATMENT PRECEDING HOSPITALIZATION FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROM (DATA OF QUESTIONNAIRE WITHIN THE LIS REGISTER)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu. V. Lukina; M. L. Gynzburg; V. P. Smirnov; S. Yu. Martsevich; N. P. Kutishenko; A. V. Fokina; E. V. Daniels

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the most significant factors forming patient’s attitude to treatment and factors of adherence to treatment preceding hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS...

  2. Impact of abciximab in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention: results from a high-volume, single-center registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp; Joens, Christian

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and ischemic heart disease is increasing. Moreover, patients with DM experiencing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have an increased risk of adverse outcomes after revascularization compared to non-diabetics. Data have suggested...... that the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab might be more efficient in diabetics than in those without DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the effect of abciximab in patients with DM and ACS from our percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry. Among 5,003 patients with ACS who underwent PCI, 629 had DM...

  3. [More risks and fewer treatments: the paradox about elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Cosimo Angelo; Bobbio, Marco

    2002-02-01

    The majority of patients with acute coronary syndromes are elderly subjects. They are at a high risk of events; in fact, they usually arrive to hospital late and this delay nullifies the advantages of reperfusion; they often present with a large and complicated acute myocardial infarction and the short-term mortality for such patients is 3-5 times higher than that observed for younger subjects. Although they are a high-risk population, paradoxically they receive thrombolytic therapy, beta-blocker drugs and acetyl salicylic acid less frequently than younger patients and they are rarely submitted to interventional procedures. In this overview, we analyze the reasons of this paradox and we suggest some management guidelines. The risk of bleeding associated with thrombolytic drugs is the main reason justifying the limited use of reperfusion therapy in elderly patients. The identification, in each patient, of the risk factors for bleeding permits stratification of such patients into different classes of risk. This may be of help to the physician in distinguishing those patients who are candidates for thrombolytic therapy from those who are not, reserving for the latter other therapeutic strategies such as primary coronary angioplasty. In elderly patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction, a careful and early risk stratification should serve as a guide when establishing the indication for interventional procedures. The latter should be encouraged in those patients in whom the risk of bleeding is high and whose overall clinical picture does not contraindicate such a therapeutic strategy. In such cases, invasive therapy can really improve the patient's quality of life.

  4. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Goes Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective: To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results: The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%, acute myocardial infarction (AMI without ST elevation (41.4%, and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%. According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3% and active (43.7%. A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15 and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54, and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion: A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS.

  5. Secondary Prevention Beyond Hospital Discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome: Evidence-Based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, David H; Goodman, Shaun G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Lin, Peter; Welsh, Robert; Stone, James; Grégoire, Jean; Mcfarlane, Philip; Langer, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    In the past 3 decades, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease has resulted in innovations in the treatment and prevention of its clinical manifestations such as death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After an acute coronary syndrome there are short- and long-term risks of subsequent cardiovascular events. This leads to opportunities to initiate strategies to reduce complications resulting from myocardial injury (cardiac protection) and to prevent recurrent acute coronary events (vascular protection). The results from clinical trials inform best practice and guidelines for patient management. Despite clear and consistent guidelines, an important number of patients are not receiving these treatments. Moreover, many others do not receive treatment that follows the strategy proven in the clinical trial and this is associated with a significant loss of opportunities to improve outcomes. The Canadian Heart Research Centre has therefore assembled a panel of experts to provide a review of available data and distill it to specific evidence-based recommendations that can be used by specialists and primary care physicians as a platform for secondary prevention. The therapeutic recommendations are conveniently divided into vascular protection (dual antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering, and renin angiotensin system inhibition) which should be considered in all patients; cardiac protection (addition of β-blocker therapy) in patients with left ventricular dysfunction including consideration for management of heart failure; and continuing management of risk factors and comorbid conditions on the basis of the specific patient profile. These recommendations are intended as a decision support tool and a quick reference for Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rationale, design and methodology of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in prevention of Depression in Acute Coronary Syndrome (DECARD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen Jørgen; Rasmussen Alice; Hanash Jamal; Hansen Baiba; Birket-Smith Morten

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome, i.e. myocardial infarction and unstable angina, is higher than in the general population. The prevalence of anxiety is higher as well. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor cardiac outcomes and higher mortality. Comorbid depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome often goes undiagnosed, and it is therefore a challenging task to prevent this risk factor. The study of DEpression in...

  7. Comparing the effect of clopidogrel versus ticagrelor on coronary microvascular dysfunction in acute coronary syndrome patients (TIME trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Don; Baek, Yong-Soo; Woo, Seong-Ill; Kim, Soo-Han; Shin, Sung-Hee; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Kwan, Jun; Park, Keum-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background Although prompt reperfusion treatment restores normal epicardial flow, microvascular dysfunction may persist in some patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Impaired myocardial perfusion is caused by intraluminal platelets, fibrin thrombi and neutrophil plugging; antiplatelet agents play a significant role in terms of protecting against thrombus microembolization. A novel antiplatelet agent, ticagrelor, is a non-thienopyridine, direct P2Y12 blocker that has shown greater, more...

  8. Circulating Th22 and Th9 Levels in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-zhong Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CD4+ T helper (Th cells play critical roles in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and the onset of acute coronary syndromes (ACS, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI and unstable angina pectoris (UAP. In addition to Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, Th22 and Th9 subsets have been identified in humans. In the present study, we investigated whether Th22 cells and Th9 cells are involved in the onset of ACS. Methods. The frequencies of Th22 and Th9 cells were detected using a flow cytometric analysis and their related cytokine and transcription factor were measured in the AMI, UAP, stable angina pectoris (SAP, and control groups. Results. The results revealed a significant increase in the peripheral Th22 number, AHR expression, and IL-22 levels in patients with ACS compared with those in the SAP and control groups. Although there was no difference in the peripheral Th9 number among the four groups, the PU.1 expression and IL-9 levels were significantly increased in patients with ACS compared with the SAP and control groups. Conclusions. Circulating Th22 and Th9 type responses may play a potential role in the onset of ACS symptom.

  9. Acute coronary syndrome critical pathway: chest PAIN caremap: a qualitative research study--provider-level intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Henock; Burroughs, Valentine J; Watkowska, Justyna; Valcarcel, Michelle; Moreno, Pedro; Maw, Myo

    2005-09-01

    Recently published data on healthcare performance continue to show a substantial gap between evidence-based guidelines and management of patients in real-world settings. This article describes an operational model that will be used to test whether a critical pathway applied in a secondary care-level institution may improve the process of care related to acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We have developed the pathway for management of all patients who present to our emergency department with a chief complaint of acute chest pain. Based on individual immediate ischemic event risk, patients are categorized according to a prespecified algorithm under the acronym of "PAIN" (P-Priority risk, A-Advanced risk, I-Intermediate risk, and N-Negative/low risk) as prespecified in an algorithm. Along with the algorithm come 2 detailed order sets, 1 for ST-elevation ACS and another for non ST-elevation ACS. The pathway, together with the 2 order sets, are color-coded with the "PAIN" acronym (P-red, A-yellow, I-yellow, N-green) that will guide patient management according to his or her risk stratification. These colors, similar to the road traffic light code, have been chosen as an easy reference for the provider about the sequential risk level of patients with ACS. This experimental model intends, with its unique structured approach, to increase awareness and improve adherence to the published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for the management of ACS.

  10. Risk model for suspected acute coronary syndrome is of limited value in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian Backer; Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Jess Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    if assigned to the high-risk group was 3.0. Allocation to the high-risk group, male gender and age above 60 years was associated with a higher risk of ACS. For patients fulfilling the high-risk definition, sensitivity was 71%, specificity 55%, negative predictive value 90% and positive predictive value 24......INTRODUCTION: Among patients with acute chest pain, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is seen only in a minority of the patients, which raises the question, whether it is possible to separate a group with a high risk of ACS for admission to a cardiac care unit (CCU) from those with a low risk who would...... be treated at an emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe a risk stratification model for a Danish context. METHODS: This was a historic prospective cohort study of patients with suspicion of ACS. The patient was defined as a low-risk patient and admitted to the ED if: 1...

  11. Proteomic analysis of plasma from patients during an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Cáceres, Petra J; García-Méndez, Antonio; López Farré, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Núñez, Antonio; Gómez, Juan; Alonso-Orgaz, Sergio; Carrasco, Carolina; Burgos, Marta Escribano; de Andrés, Raimundo; Granizo, Juan J; Farré, Jerónimo; Rico, Luis A

    2004-10-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze modifications in the plasma protein map during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using proteomics. Proteomics is a new technology that allows the detection and identification of several proteins at a given time in a sample. Plasma from 19 patients, 11 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 8 with unstable angina (UA), was investigated. The control group included nine age-matched volunteers. In two-dimensional electrophoresis using a pH range of 4 to 7, constant differences were found in at least four different areas within the plasma protein map. In area 1, we identified the presence of seven alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) isoforms in plasma from control subjects. alpha(1)-antitrypsin isoform 1 was undetectable in plasma from UA and AMI patients. The AAT isoforms 5, 6, and 7 were reduced in plasma from AMI patients when compared with UA patients. Three fibrinogen gamma chain isoforms were identified in area 2. Fibrinogen gamma chain isoforms 1 and 2 were increased in AMI patients with respect to UA patients. Five apolipoprotein A-I isoforms were identified in area 3. All of them were reduced in plasma from AMI patients with respect to UA patients. In area 4, the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chains were detected and were found increased in plasma from ACS patients. Plasma proteomic analysis makes it possible to develop a map of the protein isoforms that are expressed in plasma during an ACS.

  12. Genetic predisposition toward suicidal ideation in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min

    2017-11-07

    The genetic predisposition toward suicidal ideation has been explored to identify subgroups at high risk and to prevent suicide. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with an increased risk of suicide, but few studies have explored the genetic predisposition toward suicide in ACS populations. Therefore, this longitudinal study explored the genetic predisposition toward suicidal ideation in ACS patients. In total, of 969 patients within 2 weeks after ACS, 711 were followed at 1 year after ACS. Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the relevant items on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Ten genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonergic systems, neurotrophic factors, carbon metabolism, and inflammatory cytokines were examined. Associations between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal ideation within 2 weeks and 1 year of ACS were investigated using logistic regression models. The 5-HTTLPR s allele was significantly associated with suicidal ideation within 2 weeks of ACS after adjusting for covariates and after the Bonferroni correction. TNF-α -308 G/A , IL-1β -511 C/T , and IL-1β + 3953C/T were significantly associated with suicidal ideation within 2 weeks after ACS, but these associations did not reach significance after the Bonferroni correction in unadjusted analyses and after adjusting for covariance. However, no significant association between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal ideation was found at 1 year. Genetic predisposition, 5-HTTLPR s allele in particular, may confer susceptibility to suicidal ideation in ACS patients during the acute phase of ACS.

  13. Elevated white cell count in acute coronary syndromes: relationship to variants in inflammatory and thrombotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Christopher P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated white blood cell counts (WBC in acute coronary syndromes (ACS increase the risk of recurrent events, but it is not known if this is exacerbated by pro-inflammatory factors. We sought to identify whether pro-inflammatory genetic variants contributed to alterations in WBC and C-reactive protein (CRP in an ACS population. Methods WBC and genotype of interleukin 6 (IL-6 G-174C and of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN intronic repeat polymorphism were investigated in 732 Caucasian patients with ACS in the OPUS-TIMI-16 trial. Samples for measurement of WBC and inflammatory factors were taken at baseline, i.e. Within 72 hours of an acute myocardial infarction or an unstable angina event. Results An increased white blood cell count (WBC was associated with an increased C-reactive protein (r = 0.23, p 3 (95% CI = -0.41, 0.77, and -0.03/mm3 (95% CI = -0.55, 0.86 for IL1RN. Moreover, the composite endpoint was not significantly affected by an interaction between WBC and the IL1 (p = 0.61 or IL6 (p = 0.48 genotype. Conclusions Cytokine pro-inflammatory genetic variants do not influence the increased inflammatory profile of ACS patients.

  14. Body mass index and myocardium at risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola-Moreno, A L; Marfil-Alvarez, R; Catena, A; García-Retamero, R; Arrebola, J P; Melgares-Moreno, R; Ramirez-Hernández, J A; Kaski, J C

    2014-04-01

    Whilst traditional studies have shown that obese individuals are at a higher risk of cardiovascular events compared to lean subjects, recent studies in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have suggested that obesity may exert protective effects (the "obesity paradox"). We sought to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the BARI score (BARIsc), a validated tool used to assess myocardium at risk, in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Participants were 116 consecutive patients (mean age, 60.6 years; 97 men) with AMI (68 ST elevated myocardial infarction, STEMI; 48 non-ST elevated myocardial infarction, NSTEMI). Demographics, BMI, risk factors, biochemistry data, left ventricular function, angiographic data and the BARIsc were assessed in every patient. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that BMI significantly correlated with BARIsc; β=.23, p<0.02. This was found only in the overweight/obese patients, β=.27, p<0.01, but not in patients with normal BMIs, β=0.08, p=0.71. An increased body weight is associated with an increased area of myocardium at risk in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles Using Magnetic Nanoparticles in Blood of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagida, M S; Arakelyan, A; Lebedeva, A M; Grivel, J-Ch; Shpektor, A V; Vasilieva, E Yu; Margolis, L B

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from various cell types and play an important role in intercellular interactions. In our study, we investigated abundance of individual EVs in patients with acute forms of ischemic heart disease. Previously, we developed an approach for individual analysis of EVs conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which was applied in the current study for analyzing phenotypic composition of EVs (by staining for markers CD31, CD41a, and CD63). EVs were isolated using fluorescently labeled MNPs containing anti-CD31, CD41a, or CD63 antibodies and analyzed by combining fluorescently labeled anti-CD41a and CD63, CD31 and CD63, or CD41a and CD31 antibodies, respectively. EVs were analyzed in 30 individuals: 17 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Six and seven ACS patients were with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina, respectively. It was found that patients with ACS and healthy volunteers contained a dominant subset of EVs expressing surface CD41a antigen, suggesting that they originated from platelets. In addition, the total number of EVs isolated using either of the surface markers examined in our study was higher in patients with ACS compared to healthy volunteers. The subgroup of patients with acute myocardial infarction was found to contain significantly higher number of blood EVs compared to the control group. Moreover, increased number of EVs in patients with ACS is mainly due to the increased number of EVs in the subset of EVs bearing CD41a. By analyzing individual EVs, we found that plasma of patients with ACS, particularly upon developing of myocardial infarction, contained dominant platelet-derived EVs fraction, which may reflect activation of platelets in such patients.

  16. Triple-rule-out CT angiography for evaluation of acute chest pain and possible acute coronary syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halpern, Ethan J

    2009-01-01

    Triple-rule-out (TRO) computed tomographic (CT) angiography can provide a cost-effective evaluation of the coronary arteries, aorta, pulmonary arteries, and adjacent intrathoracic structures for the patient with acute chest pain...

  17. Clinical correlates of complicated grief among individuals with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Pini,1 Camilla Gesi,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Alessandra Cardini,1 Lisa Lari,1 Francesca Felice,2 Rossella Di Stefano,2 Gianfranco Mazzotta,3 Francesco Bovenzi,4 Daniele Bertoli,5 Lucia Borelli,4 Paola Michi,1 Claudia Oligeri,3 Alberto Balbarini,2 Vijaya Manicavasagar6 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry Sector, University of Pisa, Pisa, 2Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, 3Unit of Cardiology, Ospedale Sant’Andrea, La Spezia, 4Cardio-Respiratory Department, Ospedale Campo di Marte, Lucca, 5Unit of Cardiology, Ospedale San Bartolomeo, Sarzana (SP, Italy; 6Black Dog Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: The study aimed at exploring bereavement and complicated grief (CG symptoms among subjects without a history of coronary heart disease (CHD at the time of a first acute coronary syndrome (ACS and to evaluate the relationship of CG symptoms and ACS. Method: Overall, 149 subjects with ACS (namely, acute myocardial infarct with or without ST-segment elevation or unstable angina, with no previous history of CHD, admitted to three cardiac intensive care units were included and evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for Complicated Grief (SCI-CG, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36. Results: Of the total sample of 149 subjects with ACS, 118 (79.2% met criteria for DSM-5 persistent complex bereavement disorder. Among these, subjects who lost a partner, child, or sibling were older (P=0.008, less likely to be working (P=0.032, and more likely to be suffering from hypertension (P=0.021, returned higher scores on the SCI-CG (P=0.001 and developed the index ACS more frequently between 12 and 48 months after the death than those who lost a parent or another relative (P≤0.0001. The occurrence of ACS 12–48 months (P=0.019 after the loss was

  18. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and large infrarenal aorta in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis: a prospective monocenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Anne; Bui, Huu Tri; Barbe, Coralie; Henni, Amine Hadj; Journet, Julien; Metz, Damien; Nazeyrollas, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary heart disease. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the prevalence of AAA and of large abdominal aorta in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome and coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. AAA ultrasound screening was prospectively performed in 306 patients after they gave informed consent. AAA and large abdominal aorta were defined by maximum anteroposterior diameter of 30 mm or greater and of 20 to 29 mm, respectively. Patient characteristics were prospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for AAA and large abdominal aorta. A p value Prevalence reached 7.7% in patients older than 50 years. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04. 95% confidence [CI] 1.00-1.09 per year of age, p = 0.06) and previous coronary events (OR 2.44, 95% CI 0.96-6.25, p = 0.06) showed a borderline significant association with AAA. Large infrarenal aortic diameter was observed in 32% of patients. Age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05 per year of age, p prevalence seems high in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. Previous coronary events and older age might be associated with higher risk of AAA, and age, male gender, and obesity are significantly associated with large infrarenal aorta. If these results are confirmed in larger studies, further guidelines concerning AAA screening in this well-defined population should be considered. Copyright (c) 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of High Sensitive-CRP and Cardiac Marker Enzymes in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna R,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to different stages in the pathogenesis of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. High sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, an acute-phase plasma protein synthesized by the liver, is the most extensively studied systemic marker of inflammation. Elevated hsCRP concentrations early in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS, prior to the tissue necrosis, may be a surrogate marker for cardiovascular co-morbidities. The cardiac marker enzymes Creatine Kinase myocardial bound (CK-MB, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH have been known to be increased in coronary artery diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure hs-CRP levels and other cardiac marker enzymes in ACS patients and to compare the levels of hs-CRP with other cardiac marker enzymes between ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI patients. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 207 consecutive patients admitted to Sri Siddhartha Medical College Hospital within the first 6 hours from the onset of chest pain. Patients were diagnosed as Unstable Angina (UA, (n=84; STEMI (n=63 and NSTEMI (n=60. ACS patients were compared with 211 healthy age and sex matched controls. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were measured by standard methods in both groups at baseline and forcases at 36-48 hours i.e. Peak levels. Results: ACS patients had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of hs-CRP, CKMB, AST and LDH in comparison to controls at baseline. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were significantly higher in STEMI patients compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05 at baseline. There was a significant difference regarding peak hs-CRP levels between the two groups, as STEMI patients had significantly higher peak hs-CRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: STEMI patients have significantly higher peak hsCRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients. These data

  20. Magnitude of and risk factors for in-hospital and postdischarge stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes: findings from a Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events.

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    Budaj, Andrzej; Flasinska, Katarzyna; Gore, Joel M; Anderson, Frederick A; Dabbous, Omar H; Spencer, Frederick A; Goldberg, Robert J; Fox, Keith A A

    2005-06-21

    Stroke is a recognized complication after acute myocardial infarction, but few studies have investigated the incidence and outcome of stroke in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study examined the incidence and outcomes of hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic stroke and risk factors associated with stroke in patients with ACS. Data were obtained from 35,233 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) with an ACS. In-hospital strokes occurred in 310 patients (0.9%), of which 100 (32.6%) were fatal. The incidence of in-hospital stroke was significantly higher in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction than in non-ST-segment myocardial infarction or unstable angina (1.3%, 0.9%, 0.5%, respectively; P<0.001). Overall, 35.5% of in-hospital strokes occurred within 6 days of hospitalization. The strongest risk factor for in-hospital nonhemorrhagic stroke was in-hospital CABG, followed by in-hospital atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, initial enzyme elevation, and advanced age. Prior statin use was a protective factor. After controlling for potential confounders, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among patients who experienced an in-hospital stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 8.3; 95% CI, 6.0 to 11.4). A total of 269 additional strokes (1.1%) occurred within 6 months after discharge from hospital, of which 56 (20.9%) were fatal. The most important risk factor for postdischarge stroke was the occurrence of an in-hospital stroke. Stroke is an uncommon event in patients with ACS but is associated with high mortality. Despite current therapy, the incidence of postdischarge stroke is not low. New approaches are warranted to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with ACS.

  1. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with pre-existing moderate to severe valvular disease of the heart: lessons from the Euro-Heart Survey of acute coronary syndromes.

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    Hasdai, David; Lev, Eli I; Behar, Solomon; Boyko, Valentina; Danchin, Nicholas; Vahanian, Alec; Battler, Alexander

    2003-04-01

    To determine the frequency of pre-existing valvular disease (VD) among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and to compare the clinical characteristics, clinical course, treatment, and outcomes of ACS patients with and without pre-existing VD. The Euro Heart Survey ACS prospectively enrolled 10,484 ACS patients in 103 hospitals in 25 countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Of the 10,207 patients with data on VD status, 489 (4.8%) had a diagnosis of pre-existing VD: 3.7% of 4339 ST-segment-elevation-ACS patients, 5.2% of 5210 non-ST-segment-elevation-ACS patients, and 10.8% of 658 undetermined-electrocardiogram-ACS patients. Moderate/severe mitral regurgitation had been diagnosed in 54.0% (48.7% without and 5.3% with concomitant mitral stenosis), and moderate/severe aortic stenosis occurred in 31.7% (26.4% without and 5.3% with concomitant aortic regurgitation). Patients with pre-existing VD had worse baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, were more likely to present with heart failure and less likely to have typical angina, and had a more complicated in-hospital course (heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and renal failure). They were more likely to receive inotropic agents, diuretics, amiodarone, and warfarin, and less likely to receive antiplatelet agents and beta-adrenergic blockers. As compared to patients without VD, the adjusted risk (95% confidence interval) of in-hospital death for VD patients was 1.55 (0.85, 2.80), 1.92 (1.03, 3.59), and 1.77 (0.75, 4.17) for ST-segment-elevation-ACS, non-ST-segment-elevation-ACS, and undetermined-electrocardiogram-ACS, respectively. Patients with ACS and pre-existing VD constitute about 5% of all ACS patients; they have high-risk features and poor prognosis. There is a need to better define their optimal treatment, in order to improve their prognosis.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome in Colombia.

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    Mejía, Aurelio; Senior, Juan Manuel; Ceballos, Mateo; Atehortúa, Sara; Toro, Juan Manuel; Saldarriaga, Clara; Mejía, María Elena; Ramírez, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is one of the most frequent medical emergencies in developing countries. To determine, from the perspective of the Colombian health system, the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the Colombian health system comparing ticagrelor and clopidogrel for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome. To estimate the expected costs and outcomes, a Markov model was constructed in which patients could remain stable without experiencing new cardiovascular events, suffer from a new event, or die. For the baseline case, a 10-year time horizon and a discount ratio of 3% for costs and benefits were adopted. The transition probabilities were extracted from the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) clinical trial. Vital statistics were drawn from the Departmento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) and additional information from Colombian patients included in the Access registry. To identify and measure resource use, a standard case was built by consulting guidelines and protocols. Unit costs were obtained from Colombian rate lists. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted in which costs were represented by a triangular distribution, and the effectiveness through a beta distribution. In the base case, the additional cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained with ticagrelor was COP$ 28,411,503. The results were sensitive to changes in the time horizon and the unit cost of clopidogrel. For a willingness-to-pay equivalent to three times the Colombian per capita gross domestic product, the probability of ticagrelor being cost-effective was 75%. Ticagrelor is a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome in Colombia.

  3. Impact of Acute Coronary Syndrome Complicated by Ventricular Fibrillation on Long-term Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death.

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    Álvarez-Álvarez, Belén; Bouzas-Cruz, Noelia; Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubin, Sergio; López-López, Andrea; González Cambeiro, María Cristina; Peña-Gil, Carlos; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-10-01

    There is little information on the effect of acute coronary syndrome complicated by ventricular fibrillation on the long-term incidence of sudden cardiac death. We analyzed this effect in a contemporary cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome. We studied 5302 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome between December 2003 and December 2012. We compared mortality during and after hospitalization according to the presence or absence of ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation was observed in 163 (3.1%) patients, and was early onset in 72.4% of these patients. In-hospital mortality was 36.2% in the group with ventricular fibrillation and 4.7% in the group without (p<.001). After a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (standard deviation, 2.6 years), mortality was 30.7% in the ventricular fibrillation group and 24.7% in the other group (P=.23). After adjusting for confounding variables, the presence of ventricular fibrillation was not associated with an increased risk of death in the follow-up period (hazard ratio=1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.87). The cause of death was established in 72% of patients. The incidence of sudden death was 12.9% in the ventricular fibrillation group and 11.9% in the other group (P=.71). Cardiovascular-cause mortality was also similar between the 2 groups (35.5% and 34.4%, respectively. Patients with acute coronary syndrome complicated by ventricular fibrillation who survive the in-hospital phase do not appear to be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death or other cardiovascular-cause death. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Coronary Syndrome of Embolic Origin in a Patient on Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Three Years After Mechanical Mitral Valve Replacement

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    Andrew Kei-Yan Ng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dabigatran was shown to be inferior to warfarin for patients with mechanical heart valves. However it was postulated that its inferiority was limited to early post-operative period where the valves had not been adequately endothelialized. We present a case where thromboembolic acute coronary syndrome developed in a patient six months after switching from warfarin to dabigatran, despite three years after mechanical mitral valve replacement. We propose an alternative explanation for dabigatran failure.

  5. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Early Successful Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report

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    Ho-Ming Su

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by acute-onset dyspnea, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration, low pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, and an arterial oxygen tension/ inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200 mmHg. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, whether complicated by circulatory arrest, cardiogenic shock, and hypotension or not, was reported as an etiologic factor in the development of ARDS in the prethrombolytic era. In the thrombolytic era, two cases of AMI complicated with ARDS have been reported. ARDS in these two patients resulted from anaphylactic reaction to the thrombolytic agent and not from the hemodynamic consequences of AMI. Development of ARDS during the AMI period has not been reported after early successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Herein, we report a 61-year-old male patient with persistent chest pain who was diagnosed with Killip II anterior ST-segment elevation AMI. He was treated successfully with primary PCI 2.5 hours after the onset of chest pain. Unfortunately, on the third hospital day, acuteonset dyspnea (respiratory rate, 33 beats/min, fever (38.5°C, leukocytosis (white blood cell count, 18,360/μL, and diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration were noted. ARDS was diagnosed from the low PCWP (8 mmHg and a PaO2/FiO2 of less than 200 mmHg (160 mmHg. No usual causes of ARDS such as infection, aspiration, trauma, shock, or drug reactions were noted. We assumed that, in this particular patient, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome frequently induced by AMI might have caused this episode of ARDS. This may imply that AMI itself is a possible etiology of ARDS.

  6. Budget impact analysis of ticagrelor for preventive treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes

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    Gian Piero Perna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Budget impact analysis of ticagrelor for preventive treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromesBackgroundTicagrelor 90 mg BID is indicated for the prevention of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Outcomes from the PLATO trial demonstrated that ticagrelor + ASA reduced the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared to clopidogrel + ASA.ObjectiveThis analysis estimated the budget impact of the use of ticagrelor and clopidogrel for the prevention of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with ACS in Italy, based on the PLATO trial results.MethodsA budget-impact model (BIM was developed to estimate the direct costs up to 12 months after an ACS event from the Italian NHS perspective. Resource utilization (drugs, screening, monitoring, hospitalizations and transfusions was derived from the PLATO trial. Only direct medical costs were considered. Ex-factory prices (including all discounts and National Tariffs were used to estimate the costs of drugs and medical resource, respectively. The BIM showed the difference in expenditure and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death – PLATO trial generated by the base case as calculated for current prescription volumes (ticagrelor 50.6%, clopidogrel 49.4%, and for different prescription volume scenarios (ticagrelor at 75% and 100%. Key variables were tested in the sensitivity analysis.ResultsTicagrelor was associated with a medical cost offset driven by fewer hospitalizations; this partly offsets the incremental drug cost and results in an annual incremental cost per patient of €32.53 (€11,526.03 for ticagrelor and €11,493.50 for clopidogrel. Based on data from the PLATO trial, the incidence of ACS and current prescription volumes in Italy, the BIM predicts that the total number of cardiovascular events and costs are 6,169 and €652.3M, respectively. The BIM

  7. The Impact of Smoking Cessation Training-Counseling Programs on Success of Quitting Smoking in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Zeinab Kazemzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The smokers who use supportive programs have a greater chance to quit smoking. Smoking cessation recommendation is one of the most important prevention and treatment methods mentioned in care guidelines provided for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Aim: The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of training-counseling programs on smoking cessation in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Method: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 51 patients with acute coronary syndrome in Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, 2015, after filling the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA questionnaire, were categorized into two groups. Intervention group received smoking cessation training-counseling program and control group received some advices/recommendations to quit smoking. After a three-month telephone follow-up, smoking cessation standard questionnaire was filled for all patients. The data were analyzed using SPSS v11.5 and Chi-square test. Results: The age of study participants was 52.6± 7.9 and 56.2±12.3 for intervention and control group, respectively. According to Chi-square test, a significant difference was observed between intervention and control groups in first through fifth stages after the intervention in terms of  succeed to quit smoking (p

  8. Very early screening for sleep-disordered breathing in acute coronary syndrome in patients without acute heart failure.

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    Van den Broecke, Sandra; Jobard, Olivier; Montalescot, Gilles; Bruyneel, Marie; Ninane, Vincent; Arnulf, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Attali, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Screening of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has not been previously evaluated in ACS within 72 h in intensive care settings and its management could potentially enhance patients' prognosis. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of SDB screening at the early phase of ACS. All consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) for ACS without acute heart failure underwent one overnight-attended polysomnography (PSG) within 72 h after admission. A telemonitoring (TM) system was set up to remotely monitor the signals and repair faulty sensors. The 27 recordings were analyzed as respiratory polygraphy (RP) and as PSG, and the results were compared. The TM system allowed successful intervention in 48% of recordings, resulting in excellent quality PSG for 89% of cases. The prevalence of SDB [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15/h] was 82% and mainly consisted of central SDB and periodic breathing, except three patients with OSA. Compared with PSG, RP underestimated AHI, probably due to the poor sleep efficiency, reduction of slow-wave sleep, and alteration of rapid eye movement sleep. An early SDB screening by remote-attended PSG is feasible in ACS patients shortly after admission to CCU. The TM enhanced the quality of PSG. A high prevalence of central SDB was noticed, for which the etiology remains unknown. Further large-scale studies are needed to determine whether central SDB is an incidental finding in early ACS and whether the presence and severity of SDB have a prognostic impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteins involved in platelet signaling are differentially regulated in acute coronary syndrome: a proteomic study.

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    Andrés Fernández Parguiña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets play a fundamental role in pathological events underlying acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Because platelets do not have a nucleus, proteomics constitutes an optimal approach to follow platelet molecular events associated with the onset of the acute episode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed the first high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteome analysis of circulating platelets from patients with non-ST segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and validations were by western blotting. Forty protein features (corresponding to 22 unique genes were found to be differentially regulated between NSTE-ACS patients and matched controls with chronic ischemic cardiopathy. The number of differences decreased at day 5 (28 and 6 months after the acute event (5. Interestingly, a systems biology approach demonstrated that 16 of the 22 differentially regulated proteins identified are interconnected as part of a common network related to cell assembly and organization and cell morphology, processes very related to platelet activation. Indeed, 14 of those proteins are either signaling or cytoskeletal, and nine of them are known to participate in platelet activation by αIIbβ3 and/or GPVI receptors. Several of the proteins identified participate in platelet activation through post-translational modifications, as shown here for ILK, Src and Talin. Interestingly, the platelet-secreted glycoprotein SPARC was down-regulated in NSTE-ACS patients compared to stable controls, which is consistent with a secretion process from activated platelets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides novel information on platelet proteome changes associated with platelet activation in NSTE-ACS, highlighting the presence of proteins involved in platelet signaling. This investigation paves the way for future studies in the search for novel platelet-related biomarkers and drug targets

  10. The scores of Hamilton depression, anxiety, and panic agoraphobia rating scales in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

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    Vural, Mutlu; Acer, Mehmet; Akbaş, Berfu

    2008-02-01

    Psychological factors may influence the development and prognosis of coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of depression, anxiety, and panic agoraphobia in patients who had been treated for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We attempted to evaluate the relationship of the scores of depression, anxiety and panic agoraphobia, coronary risk factors, some clinical variables and coronary heart disease. We evaluated the levels of depression, anxiety, and panic agoraphobia of patients who had been treated for ACS, using the Hamilton depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton anxiety (HAM-A), and the Hamilton panic agoraphobia (HAM-PA) rating scales in 82 patients underwent treatment for acute coronary syndrome in this cross-sectional observational study. The relationship of these psychological variables with gender, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and coronary revascularization were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t test for independent samples and Chi-square test. The majority of the patients were male (54 males and 28 females); the mean age of the patients was 61.9 +/- 12.1 years; 46% were admitted for unstable angina, 37.8% for acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST elevation, and 16.7% with non-ST-elevation MI. Depressive symptoms (HAM-D score>8) were present in 87.8% of the patients. The HAM-D score was closely related to the HAM-A and the HAM-PA scores (ppanic agoraphobia were particularly common findings in female patients and in those patients with diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and CVD. Depression and anxiety disorder may be prevalent in patients who had been treated for ACS. We believe that patients should be carefully followed and treated for depression and anxiety disorder after ACS treatment to prevent adverse outcomes.

  11. Ticagrelor and Eptifibatide Bolus Versus Ticagrelor and Eptifibatide Bolus With 2-Hour Infusion in High-Risk Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients Undergoing Early Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Moazez J; Alli, Oluseun; Al Solaiman, Firas; Brott, Brigitta C; Sasse, Mark; Leesar, Tara; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Leesar, Massoud A

    2017-06-13

    In patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) with a potent P2Y12 inhibitor, ticagrelor, was inferior to tirofiban infusion at 2 hours, indicating that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are still needed. Ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus only may maximally inhibit platelet aggregation and decrease bleeding, but IPA with ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus versus 2-hour infusion is unknown. A total of 70 P2Y12-naïve patients, with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, were randomized to ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus (group 1) versus ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus with 2-hour infusion (group 2). Levels of IPA with ADP, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, collagen, and high on-treatment platelet reactivity were measured by light transmission aggregometry at baseline and at 2, 6, and 24 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention in both groups. The primary end point, IPA with ADP 20 μmol/L at 2 hours, was 99.59±0.43% in group 1 versus 99.88±1.0% in group 2 (Peptifibatide bolus maximally inhibited platelet aggregation at 2 hours, which was associated with no significant hemoglobin drop after percutaneous coronary intervention. This obviates the need for eptifibatide 2-hour infusion and might decrease bleeding complications. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01919723. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Time to standardize and broaden the criteria of acute coronary syndrome symptom presentations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, John G; Canto, Elizabeth A; Goldberg, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is essential to improving patient management and associated outcomes. It is widely reported that women might have a different ACS symptom presentation than men. Multiple review articles have examined sex differences in symptom presentation of ACS and these studies have yielded inconclusive results and/or inconsistent recommendations. This is largely because these studies have included diverse study populations, different methods of assessing the chief complaint and associated coronary symptoms, relatively small sample sizes of women and men, and lack of adequate adjustment for age or other potentially confounding differences between the sexes. There is a substantial overlap of ACS symptoms that are not mutually exclusive according to sex, and are generally found in women and men. However, there are apparent differences in the frequency and distribution of ACS symptoms among women and men. Women, on average, are also more likely to have a greater number of ACS-related symptoms contributing to the perception that women have more atypical symptoms than men. In this review, we address issues surrounding whether women should have a different ACS symptom presentation message than men, and provide general recommendations from a public policy perspective. In the future, our goal should be to standardize ACS symptom presentation and to elucidate the full range of ACS and myocardial infarction symptoms considering the substantial overlap of symptoms among women and men rather than use conventional terms such as "typical" and "atypical" angina. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome and heart failure in Latin America].

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    Hernández-Leiva, Edgar

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principle cause of death in Latin America. Data from the World Health Organization indicate that the region is currently experiencing a large-scale epidemic of cardiovascular disease. This could be attributable to demographic and lifestyle changes inherent in the epidemiologic transition: one consequence of increased life-expectancy is longer exposure to cardiovascular risk factors, which results in a higher probability of adverse events. Latin America is one of the regions of the world with the highest burden of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly overweight, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. These factors will have a significant impact on the incidence of coronary events and heart failure in the near future. In addition, infectious conditions, especially Chagas disease and rheumatic fever, affect large sections of the population in the region. Unless preventive measures are introduced in the next three to four decades, the number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease in the region will increase by more than 200%. Data currently available indicate that mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome is greater in Latin America than in developed countries. Among the possible factors that could explain this finding are the underuse of therapies that have been shown to be effective and the more conservative and later use of surgical and percutaneous interventions. In Latin America, heart failure occurs in younger subjects than in the rest of the world and is most frequently related to ischemic heart disease. However, Chagas disease is close to hypertension as the second most common cause. There is an urgent need for well-designed epidemiologic studies to guide the implementation of preventive measures and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimism and recovery after acute coronary syndrome: a clinical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Amy; Molloy, Gerard J; Wikman, Anna; Poole, Lydia; Kaski, Juan-Carlos; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Optimism is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, but its impact on recovery after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that greater optimism would lead to more effective physical and emotional adaptation after ACS and would buffer the impact of persistent depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes. This prospective observational clinical study took place in an urban general hospital and involved 369 patients admitted with a documented ACS. Optimism was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. The main outcomes were physical health status, depressive symptoms, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption measured 12 months after ACS, and composite major adverse cardiac events (cardiovascular death, readmission with reinfarction or unstable angina, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery) assessed over an average of 45.7 months. We found that optimism predicted better physical health status 12 months after ACS independently of baseline physical health, age, sex, ethnicity, social deprivation, and clinical risk factors (B = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-1.20). Greater optimism also predicted reduced risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.74-0.90), more smoking cessation, and more fruit and vegetable consumption at 12 months. Persistent depressive symptoms 12 months after ACS predicted major adverse cardiac events over subsequent years (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.16-5.67), but only among individuals low in optimism (optimism × depression interaction; p = .014). Optimism predicts better physical and emotional health after ACS. Measuring optimism may help identify individuals at risk. Pessimistic outlooks can be modified, potentially leading to improved recovery after major cardiac events.

  15. Total Fats, Saturated Fatty Acids, Processed Foods and Acute Coronary Syndrome in Transitional Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Iris; Bulo, Anyla

    2012-01-01

    Background: We aimed was to assess the association of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with selected food groups pertinent to non-Mediterranean prototype in Albania, a transitional post-communist country in Southeast Europe. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in Tirana in 2003-2006 including 467 non-fatal consecutive ACS patients (370 men aged 59.1±8.7 years, 97 women aged 63.3±7.1 years; 88% response) and a population-based control group (469 men aged 53.1±10.4 years, 268 women aged 54.0±10.9 years; 69% response). A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 105 food items was administered to all participants based on which the daily calorie intake for selected food groups (meat products, overall oils and fats, sweets, and junk food) was calculated. General linear model was used to assess the association of food groups with ACS. Results: Mean age-adjusted values of meat products, overall oils and fats, sweets and junk food were all considerably higher in cases than controls in both sexes. Cases had significantly higher mean “non-Mediterranean” diet scores (consisting of junk food, sweets, oils and fats except olive oil) than controls (10.3% vs. 5.9% in men and 15.2% vs. 8.3% in women, P<0.01 for both). Conclusions: In this Albanian population, intake of total fats, in particular saturated fatty acids was associated with a higher risk of ACS in both sexes. Furthermore, the consumption of processed foods was associated with considerable excess coronary risk which points to serious health implications for the Albanian adult population. PMID:23678315

  16. Usefulness of initial glucose level to improve acute coronary syndrome diagnosis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Sandrine; Cournot, Maxime; Lauque, Dominique; Girardi, Claire; Bounes, Vincent; Elbaz, Meyer; Ducassé, Jean Louis

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incremental usefulness of high blood glucose level for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnosis in patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for chest pain and suspected ACS. A post hoc analysis of a prospective, observational study of 11 months duration was carried out. Initial glucose levels were analysed in 672 consecutive patients admitted to the ED with chest pain and suspected non-ST elevation ACS. A cut-off glucose level (>140 mg/dl) for high glucose level diagnosis was defined. Based on hospital diagnostic test results, patients were classified as having non-ST elevation ACS by two independent physicians. The association and performance of high glucose level for ACS diagnosis were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Out of the 672 eligible patients who were recruited, 181 (26.9%) had a confirmed non-ST elevation ACS. The independent factors associated with a diagnosis of ACS were age, previous coronary artery disease, hyperlipidaemia, smoking status and glucose level >140 mg/dl (OR 1.98 95% CI 1.14 to 3.45). In addition to a predictive model that included the usual diagnostic tools for non-ST elevation ACS management, a glucose level >140 mg/dl added significant incremental information (p=0.03). However, the addition of blood glucose level >140 mg/dl to the conventional diagnostic tool resulted in small increases in the ability to classify ACS, as measured by the c-statistic (0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85). An initial serum glucose level >140 mg/dl is associated with non-ST elevation ACS in patients admitted to an ED for chest pain but added moderately to conventional tools used for ACS diagnosis. NCT00714298.

  17. Patent haemostasis prevents radial artery occlusion in patients with an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J; Mitchell, Andrew; Gray, Timothy J M; Loh, Hoe Jun; Cruden, Nick L

    2017-08-01

    A haemostatic technique that maintains radial artery flow ("patent haemostasis") following transradial catheterization reduces rates of radial artery occlusion (RAO) in patients with stable coronary disease. It is unclear whether this benefit extends to patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients undergoing inpatient transradial catheterization for an ACS were prospectively enrolled in a consecutive cohort study (n=300). Radial haemostasis was obtained using standard radial compression (cohort 1; n=150) or patent haemostasis (cohort 2; n=150). An end-of-case activated clotting time (ACT) was recorded and radial artery patency assessed within 24 hours of sheath removal by reverse Barbeau's test. The incidence of RAO was 16.0% following standard radial compression and 5.3% following patent haemostasis (p=0.003). Univariate predictors of RAO were patent haemostasis (OR 0.30; [0.13-0.68], p=0.004), hyperlipidaemia (OR 0.46; [0.21-0.98], p=0.04), history of current smoking (OR 2.86; [1.3-6.0], p=0.015) and longer procedure times (OR 1.03/additional minute; [1.01-1.05], p=0.003). There was no association between the end-of-case ACT and RAO (OR 1.00; [0.9-1.01] p=1.00). After adjusting for covariates, patent haemostasis reduced the risk of RAO by 70% compared to standard compression (OR 0.30; [0.12-0.77], p=0.12). The c-statistic for model discrimination was 0.79 (95% CI [0.71-0.86], ppatent haemostasis as an independent predictor of reduced RAO (OR 0.38 [0.15-0.95], p=0.039). Patent haemostasis is highly effective in preventing early RAO in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.