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Sample records for acute coronary ischemia

  1. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

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    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  2. [How to detect myocardial ischemia in patients following acute coronary syndrome treated by PCI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Nicolas; Malergue, Marie Christine; Achkouty, Guy; Czitrom, Daniel; Caussin, Christophe

    Unstable coronary artery disease is a more aggressive condition than stable coronary artery disease, accounting for the high incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events following acute coronary syndromes (ACS), which includes the need for iterative repeat revascularization. The aim of myocardial ischemia screening in post-ACS patients is to detect this unfavourable evolution (either on initial culprit or non culprit lesions) and to prevent any clinical complication. Although there is no strict recommendation in this particular situation, screening should be based on the use of stress imaging techniques. The optimal timing and frequency for testing will depend on the clinical characteristics of the patients and the coronary revascularization procedure features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical manifestation as acute coronary syndrome without electrocardiographically ischemia: a clue for aortic dissection

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    Hung Yi Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a critical condition requiring immediate assessment and management. Clinical presentation is commonly associated with severe chest pain and high blood pressure. However, misdiagnosis is frequent because of various features. We presented a case of 51-year-old woman who complained of dyspnea for 3 d after she experienced back pain for one week. She was presented with severe respiration distress with impending respiration failure on arrival to our hospital. Her chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with acute pulmonary edema. The laboratory data revealed elevated cardiac enzyme and electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia. She was hospitalized under the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The patient remained hemodynamically stable, and experienced one episode of chest discomfort. After electrocardiography, she was found with bigeminy ventricular premature beats without ST-T change. Follow-up cardiac enzyme demonstrated progressive declined. Cardiac catheterization was performed on the third day of admission, and coronary angiography revealed large intimal flap on aortic root with bilateral coronary artery involvement. Surgical management was arranged after immediate chest computed tomography study.

  4. Ischemia-modified albumin in differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation and unstable angina pectoris.

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    Wudkowska, Anna; Goch, Jan; Goch, Aleksander

    2010-04-01

    Ischemia modified albumin (IMA) was registered by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a marker of myocardial ischemia. To assess the usefulness of IMA measurement for differentiating patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with no ST elevation and patients with unstable angina pectoris. The study group consisted of 121 patients (mean age 63 +/- 12 years, 84 males), who were admitted to our department with retrosternal chest pain occurring at rest and lasting more than 20 minutes. The patients had laboratory tests performed including aspartate aminotransferase, izoenzyme of creatine kinase activity, troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), C-reactive protein, IMA concentration and creatinine clearance. Coronary angiography was also performed. All study patients were divided into 2 groups: group I with elevated troponin concentration (58 patients) and group II with troponin concentration below reference value (63 patients). The IMA concentration in the serum did not differ significantly between group I (troponin positive) and group II (troponin negative) (95.2 +/- 12.8 U/mL vs 94.0 +/- 17.9 U/mL, NS). The percentage of patients with elevated IMA values (cut off point of 85 U/mL) did not differ significantly between group I and group II patients (76.6% vs 76.2%, NS). In patients from group I an upward trend was noted, whereas in patients from group II a downward trend was associated with the duration of ischemic chest pain. In group I the correlation between the IMA concentration and the NT-proBNP concentration was positive (R = 0.2957; p unstable angina. 2. The upward trend of IMA concentration was associated with the duration of chest pain in patients with ACS, whereas the opposite trend was found in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

  5. Acute mesenteric ischemia: angiographic spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.; Gallant, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, selected by clinical criteria, underwent angiography for suspected acute mesenteric ischemia. Twenty-nine patients subsequently did not have mesenteric ischemia and had negative arteriograms. Twenty-seven patients had mesenteric ischemia: arterial thrombosis (three), arterial embolus (seven), venous thrombosis (five), vasculitis with thrombosis (one), and nonocclusive ischemia (11). Of these 27 patients, 12 (44%) received intraarterial vasodilator infusions. Overall, 13 (48%) of the 27 patients survived their hospitalization, including five (45%) of 11 with nonocclusive ischemia. This experience confirms that nonocclusive ischemia is the most common form of the disorder diagnosed by angiography. Most patients with mesenteric ischemia are candidates for intraarterial vasodilator therapy. Early angiography in patients with suspected acute mesenteric ischemia permits early diagnosis and differentiation between occlusive and nonocclusive types. Interventional infusion therapy may improve survival

  6. Acute mesenteric ischemia: angiographic spectrum

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    Clark, R.A.; Gallant, T.E.

    1984-03-01

    Fifty-six patients, selected by clinical criteria, underwent angiography for suspected acute mesenteric ischemia. Twenty-nine patients subsequently did not have mesenteric ischemia and had negative arteriograms. Twenty-seven patients had mesenteric ischemia: arterial thrombosis (three), arterial embolus (seven), venous thrombosis (five), vasculitis with thrombosis (one), and nonocclusive ischemia (11). Of these 27 patients, 12 (44%) received intraarterial vasodilator infusions. Overall, 13 (48%) of the 27 patients survived their hospitalization, including five (45%) of 11 with nonocclusive ischemia. This experience confirms that nonocclusive ischemia is the most common form of the disorder diagnosed by angiography. Most patients with mesenteric ischemia are candidates for intraarterial vasodilator therapy. Early angiography in patients with suspected acute mesenteric ischemia permits early diagnosis and differentiation between occlusive and nonocclusive types. Interventional infusion therapy may improve survival.

  7. A single intracoronary injection of midkine reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in swine hearts: a novel therapeutic approach for acute coronary syndrome

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    Hisaaki eIshiguro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Several growth factors are effective for salvaging myocardium and limiting infarct size in experimental studies with small animals. Their benefit in large animals and feasibility in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. We investigate the cardioprotective effect of midkine (MK in swine subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. I/R was created in swine by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 45 min using a percutaneous over-the-wire balloon catheter. MK protein was injected as a bolus through the catheter at the initiation of reperfusion (midkine injected group; MKT. Saline was injected in controls (CONT. Survival rate 24h after I/R was significantly higher in MKT than in CONT, whereas infarct size/area at risk was almost 5 times smaller. Echocardiography in MKT revealed a significantly higher percent wall thickening of the interventricular septum, a higher % fractional shortening and a lower E/e’ compared with CONT. LV catheterization in MKT showed a lower LVEDP, and a higher dP/dtmax compared with CONT. TUNEL-positive myocytes and CD45-positive cell infiltration in the peri-infarct area were significantly less in MKT than in CONT. Here, we showed that a single intracoronary injection of MK protein in swine hearts at the onset of reperfusion dramatically reduces infarct size and mortality and ameliorates systolic/diastolic LV function. This beneficial effect is associated with a reduction of apoptotic and inflammatory reactions. MK application during percutaneous coronary intervention may become a promising adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  8. Silent ischemia and severity of pain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Nielsen, S L; Knudsen, F

    1991-01-01

    An overall low tendency to complain of pain, due to a low perception of pain, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of silent ischemia, independent of the extent of the diseased coronaries and a history of previous acute myocardial infarction. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly...

  9. Proper Treatment of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

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    Kim, Sung Kwan; Han, Young Min [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital and School of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Hyo Sung [Research Institue of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and School of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hee Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital and School of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options for Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and establish proper treatment guidelines. From January 2007 to May 2010, 14 patients (13 men and 1 woman, mean age: 52.1 years) with acute mesenteric ischemia were enrolled in this study. All of the lesions were detected by CT scan and angiography. Initially, 4 patients underwent conservative treatment. Eleven patients were managed by endovascular treatment. We evaluated the therapeutic success and survival rate of each patient. The causes of ischemia included thromboembolism in 6 patients and dissection in 8 patients. Nine patients showed bowel ischemia on CT scans, 4 dissection patients underwent conservative treatment, 3 patients had recurring symptoms, and 5 dissection patients underwent endovascular treatment. Overall success and survival rate was 100%. However, overall success was 83% and survival rate was 40% in the 6 thromboembolism patients. The choice of 20 hours as the critical time in which the procedure is ideally performed was statistically significant (p = 0.0476). A percutaneous endovascular procedure is an effective treatment for acute mesenteric ischemia, especially in patients who underwent treatment within 20 hours. However, further study and a long term follow-up are needed.

  10. Preinfarct Health Status and the Use of Early Invasive Versus Ischemia-Guided Management in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

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    Qintar, Mohammed; Smolderen, Kim G; Chan, Paul S; Gosch, Kensey L; Jones, Philip G; Buchanan, Donna M; Girotra, Saket; Spertus, John A

    2017-10-01

    Early invasive management improves outcomes in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The association between preinfarct health status and the selecting patients for early invasive management is unknown. The Prospective Registry Evaluating outcomes after Myocardial Infarctions: Events and Recovery and Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in acute Myocardial infarction Patients' Health status are consecutive US multicenter registries, in which the associations between preinfarct angina frequency and quality of life (both assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire on admission) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and referral to early invasive management (coronary angiography within 48 hours) were evaluated using Poisson regression, after adjusting for site, demographics, and clinical and psychosocial variables. Of 3,768 patients with NSTEMI, 2,182 (57.9%) patients were referred for early invasive treatment. Patients with excellent, good, or very good baseline angina-specific quality of life, respectively, were more likely to receive early angiography, even after adjustment, as compared with patients reporting poor baseline quality of life because of angina (62.1.0%, 60.9%, 59.6%, vs 51.2%; adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.16; RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27; RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.31, respectively). Finally, patients with a GRACE score in the highest risk decile (199.5 to management. Further work is needed to understand the role of preinfarct health status and in-hospital treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    .8 % developed a recurrent depression. Most patient characteristics (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, health-related behavioural factors, somatic comorbidities, and severity of acute coronary syndrome) were significantly associated with increased HRs for both early and later......PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...... factors for developing depression early and later after an acute coronary syndrome and (2) whether prior depression modified these associations. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study, which includes 87,118 patients with a first time diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome during the period...

  12. Endothelin receptor mediated Ca(2+) signaling in coronary arteries after experimentally induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Sarah Brøgger; Haanes, Kristian A.; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death. It is caused by a blockage of a coronary artery leading to reduced blood flow to the myocardium and hence ischemic damage. In addition, a second wave of damage after the flow has been restored, named reperfusion injury...... greatly exacerbate the damage. For the latter, no medical treatment exist. In this study the aim was to characterize Ca(2+) sensitivity in coronary arteries following experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Arteries were isolated from hearts exposed to a well-established rat ischemia/reperfusion...... presumably through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC). In addition, we show that there is an increase in the stretch-induced tone after ischemia/reperfusion, and that this increase in tone is independent of the ETB-R upregulation. CONCLUSION: Our data support the theory that ischemia/reperfusion may induce...

  13. Endovascular Management of Acute Limb Ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Brian G

    2011-09-14

    Despite major advances in pharmacologic and endovascular therapies, acute limb ischemia (ALI) continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of ALI may be as high as 13-17 cases per 100,000 people per year, with mortality rates approaching 18% in some series. This review will address the contemporary endovascular management of ALI encompassing pharmacologic and percutaneous interventional treatment strategies.

  14. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illustration of coronary arteries ). A stent, a wire mesh tube, may be permanently placed in the artery ... Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support Network Heart Attack Tools & Resources My Cardiac Coach What ...

  15. Acute mesenteric ischemia: a vascular emergency.

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    Klar, Ernst; Rahmanian, Parwis B; Bücker, Arno; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Luther, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is still fatal in 50% to 70% of cases. This consensus paper was written with the participation of physicians from all of the involved specialties for the purpose of improving outcomes. Mesenteric ischemia must be recognized as a vascular emergency requiring rapid and efficient clinical evaluation and treatment. We reviewed pertinent literature that was retrieved by a PubMed search on the terms "mesenteric ischemia" AND "arterial" OR "venous" OR "clinical presentation" OR "diagnosis" OR "therapy" OR "surgery" OR " interventional radiology." Our review also took account of the existing guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. Intensive discussions among the participating physicians, representing all of the specialties involved in the management of mesenteric ischemia, led to the creation of this interdisciplinary paper. Biphasic contrast-enhanced computerized tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice for the detection of arterial or venous occlusion. If non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is suspected, angiography should be performed, with the option of intraarterial pharmacotherapy to induce local vasodilation. Endovascular techniques have become increasingly important in the treatment of arterial occlusion. Embolic central mesenteric artery occlusion requires surgical treatment; surgery is also needed in case of peritonitis. Portal-vein thrombosis can be treated by local thrombolysis through a transhepatically placed catheter. This should be done within 3 to 4 weeks of the event to prevent later complications of portal hypertension. Rapid diagnosis (within 4 to 6 hours of symptom onset) and interdisciplinary cooperation in the provision of treatment are required if the poor outcome of this condition is to be improved.

  16. Adult midgut malrotation presented with acute bowel obstruction and ischemia

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    Akile Zengin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Malrotation should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Surgical intervention should be prompt to limit morbidity and mortality.

  17. Transluminal coronary angioplasty in the treatment of silent ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, P.; Myler, R.K.; Shaw, R.E.; Stertzer, S.H.; Clark, D.A.; Ryan, C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-four asymptomatic patients with positive thallium exercise tests underwent coronary angiography followed by coronary angioplasty (PTCA), as the primary therapy for silent ischemia. The procedure was technically successful in 89% of these patients. Emergency bypass graft surgery was necessary in 2 (3.6%) and q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1 (1.8%) of these. All fifty-four patients have been followed for a mean of 35 months since angioplasty. Of the 48 patients with initially successful PTCA, 12 had either clinical restenosis (9/14 or 19%) or a new lesion (3/48 or 6%) during follow-up, which required a repeat PTCA. At the longest follow-up, 46 (85%) had been successfully treated with on or more PTCA procedures. Two patients (3.6%) had sustained late q-wave myocardial infarction and two additional patients reported angina pectoris. There were no deaths. Angioplasty as a primary therapy for silent ischemia appears efficacious, with success and restenosis rates comparable to those in the symptomatic population. Event-free survival is improved, compared with natural history data for patients with silent ischemia from other studies. Prudent risk/benefit analysis may help to define subgroups most likely to benefit from this intervention

  18. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

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    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  19. AICA riboside improves myocardial ischemia in coronary microembolization in dogs.

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    Hori, M; Kitakaze, M; Takashima, S; Morioka, T; Sato, H; Minamino, T; Node, K; Komamura, K; Inoue, M; Kamada, T

    1994-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA) riboside (acadesine), which augments adenosine release in ischemic myocardium, further attenuates ischemic injury after acute coronary microembolization. The left anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated and perfused with blood from the left carotid artery in 46 dogs, and coronary blood flow (CBF) of the perfused area was measured. In 12 dogs, 15-microns microspheres (5.0 x 10(4)/ml) were injected repeatedly until CBF approached zero. Changes in CBF, fractional shortening, lactate extraction ratio, and adenosine release were measured with and without administration of AICA riboside. In the control group (n = 7), CBF increased to 154 +/- 11 ml.100 g-1.min-1 at 16-30% of total coronary embolization, and adenosine release was 6.1 +/- 1.0 nmol.100 g-1.min-1. Administration of AICA riboside (n = 5) enhanced coronary hyperemia (187 +/- 8 ml.100 g-1.min-1, P AICA riboside preserved myocardial tissue ATP content of the embolized area. The administrations of 8-phenyltheophylline (n = 12) and alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (n = 10) abolished the beneficial effects of AICA riboside. Furthermore, AICA riboside increased ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity of the embolized myocardium (n = 12). Thus we conclude that AICA riboside attenuates contractile and metabolic dysfunction by enhancing adenosine release via activation of ectosolic 5'-nucleotidase and inducing local hyperemia in acute coronary microembolization.

  20. Marijuana use in acute coronary syndromes.

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    Draz, Eman I; Oreby, Mervat M; Elsheikh, Eman A; Khedr, Lamia A; Atlam, Salwa A

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances worldwide, and it has the highest prevalence among drugs used in Egypt. The aims were to evaluate whether the use of cannabis is a risk factor of acute coronary heart disease in low-risk, young males and to compare the cardiac pathological changes between cannabis exposed and non-exposed ischemic patients. This was a cross-sectional study that was performed on 138 male patients, aged ≤ 40 years, with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit at the University Hospital. Urine samples were submitted for toxicological analysis using a homogenous enzyme immunoassay technique to determine the substance of use. The patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 23), cannabis-positive only patients; group 2 (n = 28), patients positive for any other substance of use; and group 3 (n = 34), patients negative for any substance of use. Smoking was prominent, whereas group 1 had no other risk factors. In groups 1 and 2, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was dominant, whereas no ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) was prominent in group 3. Ischemic resting wall motion abnormalities were presented in 47.8% of group 1 and in only 11.8% of group 3. None of group 1 had normal coronaries, whereas 14.3% of group 3 had normal coronaries. Significant changes in echocardiography and angiography were observed between group 1 and other groups. Cannabis smoking could be a potential risk factor for the development of cardiac ischemia.

  1. CLINICAL VARIABLES RELATED TO PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION RESULTS IN MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA PATIENTS

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    Yanier Coll Muñoz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying clinical variables influencing the results of percutaneous coronary intervention is a very valuable element in the management of patients suffering from myocardial ischemia. Objective: To describe the relationship between the following clinical variables: positive results of coronary angiography and conventional stents implantation in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample consisted of 200 patients from Cienfuegos province who underwent angiography at the Cardiology Center of Santa Clara, in 2009. Age, sex, morbidity and results of coronary angiography, were used as clinical variables and were analyzed in relation to the use of therapeutic intervention. The relationship between clinical variables and results was identified.Results: The main result was the positive test in 46.5 % patients, with predominant affection of the anterior descending artery (35.5 %, allowing possible therapeutic intervention in 47.8 % of these patients. In relation to the use of therapeutic intervention, a significant relationship was found between sex (p = 0.002, smoking history (p = 0.004, diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.000 with positive results, diabetes mellitus (OR = 4.2, p = 0.000 and dyslipidemia (OR = 3.7, p = 0.000. Conclusions: This study revealed the importance of coronary angiography, especially in diabetic and dyslipidemic patients, because of its relationship with positive results and the use of interventional treatment.

  2. Statins in acute coronary syndromes.

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    Sposito, Alexandre Russo; Aguiar Filho, Gentil Barreira de; Aarão, Amanda Rezende; Sousa, Francisco Thiago Tomaz de; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara

    2011-10-01

    Statins are the main resource available to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels. Their continuous use decreases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerosis. The administration of these medications demonstrated to be effective in primary and secondary prevention clinical trials in low and high risk patients. Specialists believe that a possible benefit of hypolipidemic therapy in preventing complications of atherosclerotic diseases is in the reduction of deposition of atherogenic lipoproteins in vulnerable areas of the vasculature. Experimental studies with statins have shown an enormous variety of other effects that could extend the clinical benefit beyond the lipid profile modification itself. Statin-based therapies benefit other important components of the atherothrombotic process: inflammation, oxidation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, vasoreactivity and platelet function. The demonstration of the effects that do not depend on cholesterol lowering or the pleiotropic effects of statins provides the theoretical basis for their potential role as adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes. Retrospective analyses of a variety of studies indicate the potential benefit of statins during acute coronary events. Recent clinical studies have addressed this important issue in prospective controlled trials showing strong evidence for the administration of statins as adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  3. Identification of residual ischemia in the occluded coronary artery irrigation area using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

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    Baškot Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inspite the indisputable significance of coronarography, the implications of a revealed stenosis - and how close it is to occlusion could vary in regard to its physiological importance. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS possibility to prove and objectivise the presence of ischemia and myocardial viability within an occlusion found coronarographically is especially significant since it makes possible to the clinician to choose an adequate therapy. Case report. We reported a 43- year-old male patient who had been hospitalized to another institution due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI of posterolateral localisation. Following the acute AMI stage the ergometric test per Bruce protocole was performed, negative to ischemic heart disease, while multislice computed tomography showed no significant changes on the coronary arteries. The performed one-day-protocole MPS showed a massive area of residual ischemia within myocardial infarction (MI type culprit lesion of the posterolateral zone starting from the subapical level to the basal cross-section. According to the MPS findings coronarography was indicated due to a revascularisation assessment. The performed coronarography revealed an occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery (CCA right after the division of obtuse branch (OB that presented discretely in the distal parts from the homo- and heterocolaterals. The distal portion of CCA presented discretely out off the right coronary artery (RCA. Echocardiography confirmed an ejection fraction of 50% with hypokinesia of inferior and posterior walls, as well as the septum, showing a mild reduction of the general contractility. Flows through confluences were well. A month after MI a percutane coronary intervention (PCI was performed with the implantation of a drug-releasing stent (Taxus. Early after PCI (within two weeks a control MPS was done to evaluate the effects of the therapy giving the normal findings of myocardial perfusion

  4. Basic Electrophysiologic Mechanisms of Sudden Cardiac Death Caused by Acute Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Andrew L

    2017-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death caused by acute ischemia results from electrophysiologic changes in myocardium deprived of its blood supply. These changes include a reduction in resting potential and phase 0 depolarization and an increase in intercellular resistivity that slow conduction, cause conduction block, and lead to reentrant excitation and ventricular fibrillation. Reperfusion of a coronary artery after a short period of occlusion leads to similar changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia in high altitude of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 8 patients (38%) and venous thrombosis in 13 patients (62%). Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent risk factor ... Venous mesenteric thrombosis was more common than arterial mesenteric ischemia in our region. Keywords: Acute mesenteric ... perforated peptic ulcer or peritonitis. As intestinal ischemia progresses from ...

  6. Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia in high altitude of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Mesenteric ischemia which can be acute or chronic depending on the rapidity of compromised blood flow produces bowel ischemia, infarction, bacterial transmigration, endotoxemia, multisystem organ failure and death. High altitude can precipitate thrombosis because of hypobaric hypoxia and ...

  7. Nuclear cardiology procedures to diagnose ischemia in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is equipped with a broad spectrum of diagnostic capabilities which allow the evaluation of ventricular performance, perfusion and metabolism of the heart. The principle of nuclear medicine procedures consists in the administration of free radioisotopes or radiopharmaceuticals to detect their spatial distribution within the body by detecting their y-rays from outside by gamma cameras. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is the most important procedure in nuclear cardiology and is performed on a routine basis with 201 Thallium-Chloride ( 201 Tl) since 1975. With the Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) technique it is possible to diagnose ischemia of the left ventricle on the basis of coronary artery disease with a sensitivity of 90-95% and a specificity of about 55%. Recently 99m Tc-tracers were developed for this purpose, which have many advantages due to their better physical properties, their easy handling and availability. The diagnostic accuracy is the same compared to ( 201 Tl). Free fatty acids labeled with 123 Iodine like 123 IPPA are alternative tracers to diagnose ischemia by the metabolic alteration and are pathognomonic tracers to diagnose the heart involvement in myopathies or metabolic defects related to fatty acid degradation which are the main fuel of the normal myocytes. Finally we should not forget the radionuclide ventriculography (RNVG) which is one of the oldest nuclear cardiology procedures providing us with very objective, reliable results of ventricular performance. (orig.)

  8. Coronary artery disease: Which degree of coronary artery stenosis is indicative of ischemia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, Olivio F. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Kozerke, Sebastian [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Plass, Andre [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Wyss, Christophe [Cardiovascular Center, Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Falk, Volkmar [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Scheffel, Hans, E-mail: hans.scheffel@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the best cut-off value of stenosis degree for low-dose computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) to predict the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenoses compared to catheter angiography (CA) using a cardiac magnetic resonance based approach as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Fifty-two patients (mean age, 64 {+-} 10 years) scheduled for CA underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1.5-T and dual-source CTCA using prospective ECG-triggering the same day. Diagnostic performance of CTCA and CA to detect myocardial ischemia was evaluated with CMR as the standard of reference. The diagnostic performance and best cut-off values to predict the hemodynamic significance of coronary were determined from receiver operating characteristics analysis (ROC). Results: CA revealed >50% stenoses in 131/832 segments (15.7%) in 78/156 (50.0%) coronary arteries in 32/52 (62%) patients. CTCA revealed >50% stenoses in 148/807 (18.3%) segments, corresponding to 83/156 (53.2%) coronary arteries in 34/52 (65.4%) patients. CMR revealed ischemia in 118/832 (14.2%) myocardial segments corresponding to the territories of 60/156 (38.5%) coronary arteries in 29/52 (56%) patients. ROC analysis showed equal diagnostic performance for low-dose CTCA and CA with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.82 and 0.83 (P = 0.64). The optimal cut-off value was determined at stenosis of >60% for the prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis by CTCA. Using this cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV to predict hemodynamic significance by CTCA were 100%, 83%, 100%, and 88% on a per-patient basis and 88%, 73%, 83% and 81% on a per-artery analysis, respectively. Conclusion: By considering coronary stenosis >60%, diagnostic performance for predicting the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by CTCA is optimal and equals that of CA.

  9. Serum YKL-40 for monitoring myocardial ischemia after revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harutyunyan, Marina Jurjevna; Johansen, Julia S; Mygind, Naja D

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to investigate the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a monitor of myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: A total of 311 patients with stable CAD were included. Blood samples were taken at baseline, the day after coronary angiography and/or after...... percutaneous coronary intervention and after 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 148 (48%) patients were revascularized and 163 patients underwent only coronary angiography. In the entire population, serum YKL-40 increased significantly from baseline to 6 months (p = 0.05). This tendency was seen...... of disease progression but not of myocardial ischemia in patients with stable CAD....

  10. Gender bias in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiardini, Raffaele; Estrada, Jose L Navarro; Nikus, Kjell; Hall, Alistair S; Manfrini, Olivia

    2010-03-01

    The major aim of this review was to ascertain whether effective evidence-based treatments for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are underutilized in women in various geographic areas compared with men. The focus of our review was the relative use of effective treatments in patients with coronary angiographic evidence of obstructive coronary disease, defined as a lumen stenosis >50% of the adjacent non-diseased arterial diameter. We searched MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database between January 1998 and May 2008. Only a few of the published clinical registries on ACS provide data on treatments dichotomized by confirmed coronary angiographic disease. Consequently, we also accessed individual patient-level data from 3 established ACS registries: the Finnish TACOS (Tampere Acute COronary Syndrome), the British EMMACE 2 (Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events) and the Argentine PACS-ITALSIA (Prognosis in Acute Coronary Syndromes and the ITALian hospital Sindrome Isquemico Agudo). Despite presenting with higher risk characteristics and having higher in-hospital and 6 months risk of death, women with ACS and obstructive coronary artery disease were apparently treated less aggressively with secondary preventive drugs than were men, being less likely to receive aspirin, beta-blockers and statins at discharge. Overall, coronary revascularization appears to be performed in a similar proportion of women and men - once angiography has been performed and the coronary anatomy is known. However, substantial geographic variation exists in the relative rate of coronary angiography in men and women. In United Kingdom coronary revascularization tends to be done less frequently in women. Our study, therefore, demonstrates a gender bias in the delivery of secondary drug treatments for ACS, even for patients with documented significant coronary disease.

  11. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfü Bekar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and it can be mistaken for coronary artery disease due to the symptoms and electrocardiography findings. In this report, we aimed to present a patient referred to our clinic with complaints of chest pain and electrocardiography findings who had been misdiagnosed as non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Acute coronary syndrome induced by oral capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Daniela; Colombo, Alessandro; Colombo, Nicola

    2006-03-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was undergoing oral chemotherapy with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer presented with recurrent episodes of chest pain associated with electrocardiographic signs of diffuse ST segment elevation. After spontaneous pain relief, the electrocardiogram showed ischemic evolution in the anterior precordial leads. Coronary and ventricular angiography, performed 24 h later, showed normal coronary arteries and normal left ventricular function. After therapy with capecitabine was discontinued, the patient did not experience further episodes of chest pain. After a nine-month follow-up, she remains alive, with a good performance status and without clinical evidence of persistent ischemia.

  13. Prophylactic antidepressant treatment following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole G; Madsen, Michael T; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    the current evidence of primary prophylactic treatment of depression in patients after acute coronary syndrome. The study protocol was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number CRD42015025587). A systematic review were conducted and reported according to Preferred Reporting Items......Major depressive disorder is significantly increased in patients following acute coronary syndrome resulting in twofold increased mortality compared with patients without depression. The depression diagnosis is often missed leading to considerable undertreatment. This systematic review assesses...

  14. High-Risk Coronary Plaques Complicated with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Young Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opincariu Diana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA has evolved notably over the last decade, gaining an increased amount of temporo-spatial resolution in combination with decreased radiation exposure. The importance of CCTA is emerging especially in vulnerable and young patients who might not have developed a viable collateral vascular network to sustain the circulation to an infarction area during a major adverse coronary event. There are a few well-known markers by which a vulnerable plaque can be assessed and that can predict the subsequent events of sudden myocardial ischemia, such as an increased positive remodeling index (cut-off >1.4, low-attenuation plaque (cut-off 0.7, and napkin-ring sign (NRS. This manuscript presents a series of 3 clinical cases of young patients experiencing symptoms and signs of myocardial ischemia who underwent CCTA in order to assess the composition and functional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and their repercussion in developing an acute coronary syndrome.

  15. Early expression of angiogenesis factors in acute myocardial ischemia and infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Wolf, P L; Escudero, R; Deutsch, R; Jamieson, S W; Thistlethwaite, P A

    2000-03-02

    When the myocardium is deprived of blood, a process of ischemia, infarction, and myocardial remodeling is initiated. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is critical for initiating early cellular responses to hypoxia. We investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of expression of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1alpha) and VEGF in specimens of human heart tissue to elucidate the early molecular responses to myocardial hypoxia. Ventricular-biopsy specimens from 37 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery were collected. The specimens were examined by microscopy for evidence of ischemia, evolving infarction, or a normal histologic appearance. The specimens were also analyzed with the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for HIF-1alpha and VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and by immunohistochemical analysis for the location of the HIF-1alpha and VEGF proteins. HIF-1alpha mRNA was detected in myocardial specimens with pathological evidence of acute ischemia (onset, response to myocardial ischemia or infarction. This response defines, at a molecular level, one of the first adaptations of human myocardium to a deprivation of blood. HIF-1alpha is a useful temporal marker of acutely jeopardized myocardium.

  16. Silent Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure (hypertension). Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs). Smoking. Obesity. Cardiomyopathy. Alcohol and drug abuse. What are the symptoms of silent ischemia? Silent ischemia has no symptoms. ...

  17. [Hyperglycaemia and Acute Coronary Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembiale, A; Cloro, C; Iorio, F; Cufone, S; Succurro, E; Arturi, F

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)is common, and is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in patients both with and without diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycaemia may be a marker of pre-existing diabetes or glucose intolerance or may also represent a transient stress response mediated through the autonomic nervous system with release of adrenal corticosteroids and catecholamines. Several evidences suggest that an intensive control of hyperglycaemia results in a significant improvement of the adverse outcomes in the short and long term. In fact, an intensive metabolic treatment can counteract the negative effects of hyperglycaemia. However, the main difficulty to intensive glucose control in patients with ACS remains hypoglycaemia that is associated with an increased risk of mortality and myocardial re-infarction. No definitive data are available about the beneficial effects of insulin intensive treatment. Therefore, randomized multicenter clinical trials will be needed to definitively establish whether intensive glucose control will reduce the associated increased mortality rate and higher rates of complications in hospitalized ACS patients with hyperglycaemia.

  18. Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmia and Brugada-Type ST-Segment Elevation Associated With Acute Ischemia of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rena; Nishizaki, Mitsuhiro; Lee, Kiko; Shimizu, Masato; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Yamawake, Noriyoshi; Sakurada, Harumizu; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2017-02-24

    Brugada-type ECG (Br-ECG) is occasionally observed during acute myocardial ischemia of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). No studies have explored, however, the association of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and development of Br-ECG due to acute ischemia of the RVOT.Methods and Results:The study included 13 consecutive patients with acute ischemia of the RVOT during coronary catheterization. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with Br-ECG (group B) and those without (group N). The proportion of male patients was higher in group B than in group N (100% vs. 25%, Pright ventricular (RV) branch of the right coronary artery and no VT/VF was seen in patients with organic coronary stenosis despite Br-ECG. Acute myocardial ischemia of the RVOT caused Br-ECG predominantly in male patients and subsequent development of VT/VF in some patients. VT/VF was seen in patients without any obstructive lesion but arrhythmic events were not observed in RVOT ischemia in the case of pre-existing coronary occlusion or stenosis of the conus or RV branch, suggesting the effects of precondition.

  19. Relationship between coronary contrast-flow quantitative flow ratio and myocardial ischemia assessed by SPECT MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Jeff M.; Rosendael, Alexander R. van; Jukema, J.W.; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J.; Scholte, Arthur J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Koning, Gerhard [Medis Medical Imaging Systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Mertens, Bart J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Leiden (Netherlands); Reiber, Johan H.C. [Medis Medical Imaging Systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    A new method has been developed to calculate fractional flow reserve (FFR) from invasive coronary angiography, the so-called ''contrast-flow quantitative flow ratio (cQFR)''. Recently, cQFR was compared to invasive FFR in intermediate coronary lesions showing an overall diagnostic accuracy of 85%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cQFR and myocardial ischemia assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI). Patients who underwent SPECT MPI and coronary angiography within 3 months were included. The cQFR computation was performed offline, using dedicated software. The cQFR computation was based on 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and computational fluid dynamics. The standard 17-segment model was used to determine the vascular territories. Myocardial ischemia was defined as a summed difference score ≥2 in a vascular territory. A cQFR of ≤0.80 was considered abnormal. Two hundred and twenty-four coronary arteries were analysed in 85 patients. Overall accuracy of cQFR to detect ischemia on SPECT MPI was 90%. In multivariable analysis, cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI (OR per 0.01 decrease of cQFR: 1.10; 95% CI 1.04-1.18, p = 0.002), whereas clinical and QCA parameters were not. Furthermore, cQFR showed incremental value for the detection of ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters (global chi square 48.7 to 62.6; p <0.001). A good relationship between cQFR and SPECT MPI was found. cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI and showed incremental value to detect ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters. (orig.)

  20. Myocardial protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury post coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew; Ali, Asghar; Chawla, Raveen; Aziz, Hammad A; Abbate, Antonio; Jovin, Ion S

    2015-01-01

    Effective primary and secondary prevention and advances in cardiac surgery have significantly improved the care and outcomes of patients with myocardial ischemia. While timely reperfusion has proved to be an invaluable tool, ischemia-reperfusion injury represents a mechanism that may limit its effectiveness. Numerous experimental studies have shown effective protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury in animal models, but translation into clinical practice has been less successful. This article summarizes the role of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease and gives an overview of the various modalities that have been developed in order to provide myocardial protection from reperfusion injury in clinical practice.

  1. Acute limb ischemia in cancer patients: should we surgically intervene?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, Julian S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. Certain chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with the development of thrombosis. Reported cases of acute arterial ischemic episodes in cancer patients are rare. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for acute limb ischemia associated with malignancy in a university teaching hospital over a 10-year period were identified. Patient demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy use, site of thromboembolism, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients underwent surgical intervention for acute arterial ischemia, 16 of these patients (3.8%) had associated cancer. Commonest cancer sites were the urogenital tract (n = 5) and the lungs (n = 5). Eight patients (50%) had been recently diagnosed with cancer, and four (25%) of these cancers were incidental findings after presentation with acute limb ischemia. Four patients (25%) developed acute ischemia during chemotherapy. The superficial femoral artery was the most frequent site of occlusion (50%), followed by the brachial (18%) and popliteal (12%) arteries. All patients underwent thromboembolectomy, but two (12%) patients subsequently required a bypass procedure. Six patients (37%) had limb loss, and in-patient mortality was 12%. Histology revealed that all occlusions were due to thromboembolism, with no tumor cells identified. At follow-up, 44% of patients were found to be alive after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Cancer and chemotherapy can predispose patients to acute arterial ischemia. Unlike other reports that view this finding as a preterminal event most appropriately treated by palliative measures, in this series, early diagnosis and surgical intervention enabled limb salvage and patient survival.

  2. The relation between angina and myocardial ischemia during exercise stress in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1988-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of occurrence of anginal chest pain from the aspect of myocardial ischemia, myocardial Tl-201 SPECT scans were obtained immediately and 3 hr after exercise (Ex) in 35 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent of ischemia was defined as the percentage of ischemic segments to the entire left ventricle. The minimum washout (WO) rate correlated well with the ratio of Tl uptake in the ischemic area to that in the normal area during Ex in the other 9 patients having single vessel CAD without previous history of myocardial infarction. This suggested that the miminum WO rate reflects the severity of Ex-induced ischemia. According to the development of angina during Ex, patients were classified as having either symptomatic ischemia (n = 16) or silent ischemia (n = 19). In regard to age, sex, a history of myocardial infarction, severity of CAD, and the extent of Ex-induced ischemia, there was no difference between the two groups. The minimum WO rate and the incidence of Ex-induced ST depression were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the group with symptomatic ischemia than that with silent ischemia. The severity of Ex-induced ischemia has important implications for the development of anginal chest pain. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Acute Limb Ischemia Masquerading as Stroke: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Result: A 56year old hypertensive female with complicated with chronic atrial fibrillation ... years post-menopause. Her husband died 14 .... Treatment. The treatment of acute limb ischemia is urgent revascularisation either by endovascular or open surgical means but may require a combination of the two more often than not.

  4. Coronary vascular age: An alternate means for predicting stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carmela; Gaudieri, Valeria; Acampa, Wanda; Arumugam, Parthiban; Assante, Roberta; Zampella, Emilia; Mannarino, Teresa; Mainolfi, Ciro Gabriele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Petretta, Mario; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2018-01-22

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) can be used to estimate vascular age in adults, providing a convenient transformation of CAC from Agatston units into a year's scale. We investigated the role of coronary vascular age in predicting stress-induced myocardial ischemia in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 717 subjects referred to CAC scoring and 82 Rb PET/CT stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging for suspected CAD were studied. CAC score was measured according to the Agatston method and coronary vascular age by equating estimated CAD risk for chronological age and CAC using the formula 39.1 + 7.25 × ln(CAC + 1). Stress-induced ischemia was present in 105 (15%) patients. Mean chronological age, CAC score, and coronary vascular age were higher (all P age was added to clinical variables. Including vascular age in the model, the global Chi square further increased from 68.77 to 106.38 (P age to clinical data, continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) was 0.57, while adding vascular age to clinical data and chronological age cNRI was 0.62. At decision curve analysis, the model including vascular age was associated with the highest net benefit compared to the model including only clinical data, to the model including chronological age and clinical data, and to a strategy considering that all patients had ischemia. The model including vascular age also showed the largest reduction in false-positive rate without missing any ischemic patients. In subjects with suspected CAD, coronary vascular age is strongly associated with stress-induced ischemia. The communication of a given vascular age would have a superior emotive impact improving observance of therapies and healthier lifestyles.

  5. Acute stent thrombosis after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Peter; Wiberg, Sebastian; Van't Hof, Arnoud

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine clinical, procedural, and treatment factors associated with acute stent thrombosis (AST) in the EUROMAX (European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography) trial. BACKGROUND: Bivalirudin started during transport for primary percutaneous coronary int...

  6. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAGER, Hendrik B.; NAHRENDORF, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis’ most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes.

  7. Quantitative plaque features from coronary computed tomography angiography to identify regional ischemia by myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Fuchs, Tobias A; Slomka, Piotr; Otaki, Yuka; Arsanjani, Reza; Gransar, Heidi; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Dey, Damini

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether quantitative plaque features measured from coronary CT angiography (CCTA) predict ischemia by myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging (MPI). Hundred and eighty-four consecutive patients (63% males) with suspected-coronary artery disease, undergoing hybrid CCTA, and attenuation corrected solid state 99mTc stress/rest MPI and single vessel ischemia were considered. Quantitative analysis of CCTA derived non-calcified plaque (NCP), low-density NCP [difference (CD, maximum difference in HU/lumen area within lesion). Normal thresholds for plaque features were defined as 95th percentile thresholds, from 40% of vessels with non-ischemic MPI regions. These vessels were excluded from further analysis. Regional ischemia (≥ 2%) was quantified from MPI. All plaque features were higher in arteries corresponding to ischemia (P Quantitative plaque features obtained from CCTA, LDNCP, and CD, are associated with ischemia by MPI independent of stenosis. LDNCP burden and CD are associated with ischemia in stenosis 30-69% and ≥ 70%, respectively. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Quantification of coronary flow using dynamic angiography with 320-detector row CT and motion coherence image processing: Detection of ischemia for intermediate coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Michinobu; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Kamitani, Takeshi; Kawanami, Satoshi; Sagiyama, Koji; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Shimomiya, Yamato; Matoba, Tetsuya; Mukai, Yasushi; Odashiro, Keita; Baba, Shingo; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishie, Akihiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical coronary stenosis is not always indicative of functional stenosis, particularly for intermediate coronary lesions. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method for quantifying coronary flow using dynamic CT angiography for the whole heart (heart-DCT) and investigate its ability for detecting ischemia from intermediate coronary stenosis. Participants comprised 36 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent heart-DCT using 320-detector CT with tube voltage of 80kV and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Heart-DCT was continuously performed at mid-diastole throughout 15-25 cardiac cycles with prospective ECG-gating after bolus injection of contrast media (12-24ml). Dynamic datasets were computed into 90-100 data sets by motion coherence image processing (MCIP). Next, time-density curves (TDCs) for coronary arteries with a diameter >3mm were automatically calculated for all phases using MCIP. On the basis of the maximum slope method, coronary flow index (CFI) was defined as the ratio of the maximum upslope of coronary artery attenuation to the upslope of ascending aorta attenuation on the TDC, and was used to quantify coronary flow. CFIs for the proximal and distal sites of coronary arteries with mild-to-moderate stenosis were calculated. Coronary territories were categorized as non-ischemic or ischemic by MPS. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff for CFI to detect ischemia. Distal CFI was significantly lower for ischemia (0.26±0.08) than for non-ischemia (0.50±0.17, pdetect ischemia, with C-statistics of 0.91, 100% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. This novel imaging technique allows coronary flow quantification using heart-DCT. Distal CFI can detect myocardial ischemia derived from intermediate coronary stenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery using intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerkowski Hans-Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, manipulations on the beating heart can lead to transient interruptions of myocardial oxygen supply, which can generate an accumulation of oxygen-dependent metabolites in coronary venous blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy as a monitoring method to detect possible ischemic events in off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures. Methods In 15 elective patients undergoing off-pump myocardial revascularization, intravascular near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of coronary venous blood was performed. NIR signals were transferred through a fiberoptic catheter for signal emission and collection. For data analysis and processing, a miniature spectrophotometer with multivariate statistical package was used. Signal acquisition and analysis were performed before and after revascularization. Spectroscopic data were compared with hemodynamic parameters, electrocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory findings. Results A conversion to extracorporeal circulation was not necessary. The mean number of grafts per patient was 3.1 ± 0.6. An intraoperative myocardial ischemia was not evident, as indicated by electrocardiogram and transesophageal echocardiography. Continuous spectroscopic analysis showed reproducible absorption spectra of coronary sinus blood. Due to uneventful intraoperative courses, clear ischemia-related changes could be detected in none of the patients. Conclusion Our initial results show that intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy can reliably be used for an online intraoperative ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. However, the method has to be further evaluated and standardized to determine the role of spectroscopy in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

  10. Heart ischemia-reperfusion induces local upregulation of vasoconstrictor endothelin receptor type B in rat coronary arteries downstream of occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Kruse, L.S.; Larsen, R

    2014-01-01

    . However, under pathophysiological conditions ETB receptors may also be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells mediating vasoconstriction. We aimed to investigate whether vasoconstrictor ETB receptors are upregulated in coronary arteries after experimental myocardial ischemia in rats....

  11. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mega, Jessica L; Braunwald, Eugene; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome....

  12. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Mimics Acute Coronary Syndrome in Older Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a fatal disease and an often missed diagnosis. There are no specific symptoms or signs. Accurate diagnosis followed by effective therapy can reduce mortality. We report on a 67-year-old man who underwent lumbar laminectomy and developed an acute anterior compressive-like chest pain and jaw numbness rather than dyspnea on the fifth postoperative day. Owing to refractory chest pain with suspicious posterior myocardial infarction or unstable angina on surface electrocardiogram, the patient received emergency coronary catheterization, which demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Further investigation provided a final diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary embolism with simultaneous recent neuro-surgery was a therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of postoperative hemorrhage threatening neurologic function. After treatment with enoxaparin and close monitoring of his neurologic condition, his symptoms were eliminated. Clinicians must keep in mind a differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a postoperative high-risk patient.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  14. Ischemia induced by coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch: a role for embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nuno; da Silva Castro, Alexandra; Pereira, Adriana; Silva, João Carlos; Almeida, Pedro Bernardo; Andrade, Aurora; Maciel, Maria Júlia; Pinto, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Non-occlusion of the internal mammary artery side branches may cause ischemia due to flow diversion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent angina after undergoing myocardial revascularization with a left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending bypass. He presented with impaired anterior wall myocardial perfusion in the setting of a patent left internal mammary artery side branch. Effective percutaneous treatment was carried out through coil embolization, with improved flow and clinical symptoms, confirmed through ischemia testing. Coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch is a controversial phenomenon and this type of intervention should be considered only in carefully selected patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. CLINICAL CASE OF RUSSIAN THROMBOLYTIC AGENT FORTELYZIN® USE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kireev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the three clinical examples of hospital thrombolysis using Russian thrombolytic agent recombinant protein comprising an amino acid sequence of staphylokinase is described. The trial was held in Chelyabinsk Regional Vascular Centre of specialized medical care for patients with acute coronary syndromes. Each of the three patients had similar reasons for systemic intravenous thrombolysis: hospitalization with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, unavailability of coronary interventions due to the X-ray operating room occupancy, high need for the reperfusion therapy in the setting of significant acute myocardial ischemia. In all the cases the pharmacologic reperfusion with recombinant protein comprising an amino acid sequence of staphylokinase was successful, hereafter percutaneous coronary interventions were performed. There were no complications registered.

  16. Intrapulmonary shear stress enhancement: a new therapeutic approach in acute myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sayed; Yang, Daya; Dai, Gong; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Minze; Lila, Nermine; Chachques, Juan Carlos; Wu, Guifu

    2013-10-09

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of mortality with insufficient results of current therapies, most probably due to maintained endothelial dysfunction conditions. Alternatively, we propose a new treatment that promotes endothelial shear stress (ESS) enhancement using an intrapulmonary pulsatile catheter. Twelve piglets, divided in equal groups of 6: pulsatile (P) and non-pulsatile (NP), underwent permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation through sternotomy. After 1 h of ischemia and heparin injection (150 IU/kg): in P group, a pulsatile catheter was introduced into the pulmonary trunk and pulsated intermittently over 1 h, and irrespective of heart rate (110 bpm). In NP group, nitrates were given (7 ± 2 mg/kg/min) for 1 h. In P group all 6 animals survived ischemia for 120 min, but in NP group only 2 animals survived. The 4 animals that died during the experiment in NP group survived for 93 ± 14 min. Hemodynamics and cardiac output (CO) were significantly improved in P group compared with NP group: CO was 0.92 ± 0.15 vs. 0.52 ± 0.08 in NP group (L/min; p p P group versus NP group: pulmonary resistance was 119 ± 13 vs. 400 ± 42 and systemic resistance was 319 ± 43 vs. 1857 ± 326, respectively. Myocardial apoptosis was significantly (p P group (0.66 ± 0.07) vs. (4.18 ± 0.27) in NP group. Myocardial endothelial NO synthase mRNA expression was significantly (p P group (0.90 ± 0.09) vs. (0.25 ± 0.04) in NP group. Intrapulmonary pulsatile catheter could improve hemodynamics and myocardial contractility in acute myocardial ischemia. This represents a cost-effective method, suitable for emergency setting as a first priority, regardless of classical coronary reperfusion. © 2013.

  17. Association of coronary ischemia estimated by fractional flow reserve and psychological characteristics of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Jovan Sreckovic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Psychological characteristics of patients, depression, stress and anxiety are recognized as important confounding risk factors for ischemic heart disease. However, the impact of psychological characteristics on coronary ischemia and vice versa remain poorly understood. Aim: To demonstrate the interplay of psychological characteristics, depression, stress and anxiety with coronary ischemia estimated with fractional flow reserve (FFR. Material and methods : From 2014 to 2016, 147 patients who were planned for FFR measurement were included in this study. Psychological characteristics of patients were evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 items (DASS 21 self-report questionnaire. Results : Comparing the FFR ischemic vs. FFR non-ischemic groups, a significant difference was observed regarding results achieved for the depression, anxiety and stress scales. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the correlation between FFR and the DAS scale. It was clear, when controlling for previous myocardial infarction, that FFR was significant in all analyses. However, when the Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris (CCS class was entered in the model, FFR was not a significant predictor of anxiety, but was significant in other analysis. Conclusions : Higher degrees of the psychological characteristics depression, stress and anxiety were observed in the group of patients with coronary ischemia, corresponding to lower fractional flow values.

  18. Optimal timing of coronary invasive strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Gurbel, Paul A; Andreotti, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations.......The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations....

  19. Acute humanin therapy attenuates myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzumdar, Radhika H; Huffman, Derek M; Calvert, John W; Jha, Saurabh; Weinberg, Yoni; Cui, Lingguang; Nemkal, Anjana; Atzmon, Gil; Klein, Laura; Gundewar, Susheel; Ji, Sang Yong; Lavu, Madhav; Predmore, Benjamin L; Lefer, David J

    2010-10-01

    Humanin (HN), an endogenous antiapoptotic peptide, has previously been shown to protect against Alzheimer's disease and a variety of cellular insults. We evaluated the effects of a potent analog of HN (HNG) in an in vivo murine model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Male C57BL6/J mice (8 to 10 week old) were subjected to 45 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by a 24-hour reperfusion. HNG or vehicle was administered IP 1 hour prior or at the time of reperfusion. The extent of myocardial infarction per area-at-risk was evaluated at 24 hours using Evans Blue dye and 2-3-5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Left ventricular function was evaluated at 1 week after ischemia using high-resolution, 2D echocardiography (VisualSonics Vevo 770). Myocardial cell signaling pathways and apoptotic markers were assessed at various time points (0 to 24 hours) following reperfusion. Cardiomyocyte survival and apoptosis in response to HNG were assessed in vitro. HNG reduced infarct size relative to the area-at-risk in a dose-dependent fashion, with a maximal reduction at the dose of 2 mg/kg. HNG therapy enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction and preserved postischemic left ventricular dimensions (end-diastolic and end-systolic), resulting in improved cardiac function. Treatment with HNG significantly increased phosphorylation of AMPK and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the heart and attenuated Bcl-2-associated X protein and B-cell lymphoma-2 levels following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. HNG improved cardiomyocyte survival and decreased apoptosis in response to daunorubicin in vitro. These data show that HNG provides cardioprotection in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion potentially through activation of AMPK-endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated signaling and regulation of apoptotic factors. HNG may represent a novel agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

  20. Early CT findings in acute middle cerebral artery ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.; Poniatowska, R.; Boguslawska, R.; Krawczyk, R.; Rejnowski, J.; Ryterski, J.; Tarrakowski, J.; Mendel, T.

    2004-01-01

    Stroke is characterized by a sudden onset of focal central neurological deficit, with symptoms lasting more than 24 hours, that can be fatal. The introduction of anti-coagulation treatments, together with continuous advances inneuroimaging techniques, have a positive impact, both on morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. It must be stressed, that 'therapeutic window' for fibrolytic treatment is up to 3 hours. The group consisted of 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of stroke, who met the following criteria: first ever, non-hemorrhagic stroke, middle cerebral artery territory involvement, first CT performed within 12 hours from the onset of symptoms, control CT, performed within 7 days, confirming signs of infarction in the distribution of middle cerebral artery. All CT were performed without contrast administration. First CT examinations were retrospectively studied for early evidence of ischemic changes, subsequently depicted as infarction in the control CT. Hyperdencemiddle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS), hypoattenuation of lentiform nucleus (ALN), loss of insular ribbon (LIR), hemispheric sulcus effacement (HES) were found as early abnormalities CT examinations continue to play a dominant role in the initial diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia. Signs of early ischemia can be often detected within the first three hours from the onset, in the hyper acute phase. CT is used in evaluation of recent symptoms in acute phase and proper selection of patients for thrombolysis with significant therapeutic results. [author

  1. [Registry of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes in a tertiary hospital (RESCATA-SEST registry)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pliego, José Angel; Gutiérrez-Díaz, Gonzalo Israel; Celis, Alfredo; Gudiño-Amezcua, Diego Armando

    2014-01-01

    To describe the clinical-epidemiologic profile and the process of care of the non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes in a tertiary hospital. We analyzed the clinical information, the risk stratification and diagnostic methods, the revascularization therapy and the prescription trends at discharge, of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes cared for in one year. Two hundred and eighty-three patients with mean age of 58 years were included (63% men). The largest number of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (88.6%) was found between 50 to 59 years of age. The most common risk factor was hypertension; 82.5% of the patients had a low-intermediate TIMI score; residual ischemia was demonstrated in 37% and coronary obstructions were seen in 80 patients (70%). In 90%, a percutaneous coronary intervention was performed, mainly with drug-eluting Stents (87.5%). At discharge, even though antiplatelet agents and statins were prescribed in more than 90%, other drugs were indicated in a few more than 50% of patients. In this population, non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes predominates in relatively young men, often with hypertension. To stratify risk, to look for residual ischemia and to revascularize with drug-eluting stents are common practices, but the evidence-based guidelines compliance is still suboptimal. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O'Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-02-19

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥ 8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥ 3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Mental stress-induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress-induced ischemia (all p stress-induced ischemia (all p stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product: A Biomarker for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise J. N. Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE and its ligands are linked to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD, and circulating soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, reflecting the RAGE activity, is suggested as a potential biomarker. Elevated sRAGE levels are reported in relation to acute ischemia and this review focuses on the role of sRAGE as a biomarker for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The current studies demonstrated that sRAGE levels are elevated in relation to ACS, however during a very narrow time period, indicating that the time of sampling needs attention. Interestingly, activation of RAGE may influence the pathogenesis and reflection in sRAGE levels in acute and stable CAD differently.

  4. Acute ischemia after revision hallux valgus surgery leading to amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, W David; Kruse, Dustin; Brantigan, Charles O; Stone, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Acute arterial insufficiency after revision hallux valgus surgery is a rare complication. The identification of surgical candidates who are at risk of vascular complications is of utmost importance. The patient-reported symptoms and physical findings combined with noninvasive vascular studies are generally reliable to assess the vascular status but can fail to identify patients with atypical disease patterns. We present the case of a patient with normal pulses who underwent revision hallux valgus surgery, leading to gangrene of the hallux that required transmetatarsal amputation. We reviewed the vascular evaluation methods and causes of acute ischemia after surgery, including vasculitis. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Differences in Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Viola; Wilmot, Kobina; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Ramadan, Ronnie; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J; Garcia, Ernest V; Nye, Jonathon; Ward, Laura; Hammadah, Muhammad; Kutner, Michael; Long, Qi; Bremner, J Douglas; Esteves, Fabio; Raggi, Paolo; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-08-24

    Emerging data suggest that young women with coronary heart disease (CHD) are disproportionally vulnerable to the adverse cardiovascular effects of psychological stress. We hypothesized that younger, but not older, women with stable CHD are more likely than their male peers to develop mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI). We studied 686 patients (191 women) with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). Patients underwent (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and with both mental (speech task) and conventional (exercise/pharmacological) stress testing. We compared quantitative (by automated software) and visual parameters of inducible ischemia between women and men and assessed age as an effect modifier. Women had a more-adverse psychosocial profile than men whereas there were few differences in medical history and CHD risk factors. Both quantitative and visual indicators of ischemia with mental stress were disproportionally larger in younger women. For each 10 years of decreasing age, the total reversibility severity score with mental stress was 9.6 incremental points higher (interaction, Pstress. Young women with stable CHD are susceptible to MSIMI, which could play a role in the prognosis of this group. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  7. [Heart rate as a therapeutic target after acute coronary syndrome and in chronic coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Marco; Scardina, Giuseppe; Favretto, Giuseppe; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Faggiano, Pompilio Massimo; Greco, Cesare; Pedretti, Roberto Franco

    2017-03-01

    For patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), either after hospitalization for acute cardiac events or in the chronic phase, comprehensive treatment programs should be devoted to: (i) reducing mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, (ii) reducing the ischemic burden and related symptoms, and (iii) increasing exercise capacity and quality of life.Heart rate (HR) has demonstrated to have prognostic value and patients beyond the limit of 70 bpm display increased risk of all the above adverse outcomes, even after adjustment for parameters such as the extension of myocardial infarction and the presence of heart failure. It is well known that a sustained HR elevation may contribute to the pathogenesis of SCAD, being the likelihood of developing ischemia, plaque instability, trigger for arrhythmias, increased vascular oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction the mechanisms resulting in this effect. Moreover, high HR could promote chronotropic incompetence, leading to functional disability and reduced quality of life.Despite the strong relationship between HR and prognosis, there is heterogeneity among current guidelines in considering HR as a formal therapeutic target for secondary prevention in SCAD, as far as the cut-off limit. This expert opinion document considered major trials and observational registries in the modern treatment era with beta-blockers and ivabradine, suggesting that an adequate HR control could represent a target for (i), (ii), and (iii) therapeutic goals in SCAD patients with systolic dysfunction (with major evidence for reduced left ventricular ejection fraction SCAD patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The defined cut-off limit is 70 bpm. To date, there is room for improvement of HR control, since in contemporary SCAD patients HR values <70 bpm are present in less than half of cases, even in the vulnerable phase after an acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute stage of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Sen; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Ihara, Ikuo

    1986-01-01

    The value of the nuclear magnetic resonance image (MRI) was investigated in the acute stage of experimental cerebral ischemia. The MRI system employed was designed for clinical use, and the superconducting magnet was operated at a field strength of 1.5 tesla. Ischemic insult was made by transorbital occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) permanently in 4 cats and temporarily in 2 cats. After MCA occlusion the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured on the affected cortex, and 5 cats with rCBF below 10 ml/100 g/min and one with rCBF over 15 ml/100 g/min were studied. In the permanent occlusion group, MRI was performed every 2 hours from 4 to 12 hours after MCA occlusion and another MRI was carried out 20 min after gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) intravenous administration. The earliest changes were found 6 to 8 hours after MCA occlusion on the spin echo image (repetition time = 1.4 sec, echo time = 70 msec) in 3 cats with severe ischemia. It was postulated that the ischemic lesion could be depicted less than 6 hours on more T 2 -weighted images. The increased intensity area was markedly enhanced with Gd-DTPA 12 hours after occlusion. In the recirculation group, the increased intensity area was observed on enhanced MRI in a cat with recirculation as early as one hour after MCA occlusion, although it was not found on the plain MRI. In the other cat with recirculation after 2 hours' occlusion, definite lesion was found in all parameter images without enhancement. The results suggest that changes in cerebral ischemia can be obtained on the MRI earlier than X-ray computed tomography, and that it may be possible to determine the severity of the ischemic brain injury by the MRI findings. (author)

  9. Acute coronary syndromes amongst type 2 diabetics with ischaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority had three coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors: obesity 86%, elevated LDL 73% and hypertension 60%. Therapy in use was OHA 43%, insulin 42%, insulin and OHA 1%; prophylactic aspirin 14.7% and statins 8.4%. Thirty four (35.8%) were classified as acute coronary syndrome (ACS); 29 ( 30.5%) acute ...

  10. Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction Accompanied by Acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction: A Very Rare Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alsancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare and mostly silent in clinical practice. First manifestation of this congenital abnormality can be devastating as syncope, acute coronary syndrome, and sudden cardiac death. Herein we report a case with coronary artery anomaly complicated with ST segment myocardial infarction in both inferior and anterior walls simultaneously diagnosed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

  11. Novel oral anticoagulants in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, Charis; Niespialowska-Steuden, Maria; Kukreja, Neville; Gorog, Diana A

    2013-09-10

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a prevalence that has now reached pandemic levels as a consequence of the rapid modernization of the developing world. Its presentation as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a frequent reason for hospital admission and of profound implications for personal, societal and global health. Despite improvements in the management of ACS with anti-platelet and anticoagulant therapy and revascularization techniques, many patients continue to suffer recurrent ischemic events. The need to reduce future cardiovascular events has led to the development of novel therapies to prevent coronary thrombosis, targeting thrombin-mediated pathways. These include direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban and darexaban), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and PAR 1 antagonists (vorapaxar and atopaxar). This article critically reviews the comparative mechanisms of action, the risks and benefits, together with the clinical evidence base for the use of these novel oral agents in the management of ACS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atherosclerotic Plaque Characteristics by CT Angiography Identify Coronary Lesions That Cause Ischemia: a Direct Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Bok; Heo, Ran; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Cho, Iksung; Gransar, Heidi; Nakazato, Ryo; Leipsic, Jonathon; Mancini, G.B. John; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Otake, Hiromasa; Budoff, Matthew J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Erglis, Andrejs; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the association between atherosclerotic plaque characteristics (APCs) by coronary CT angiography (CT) and lesion ischemia by fractional flow reserve (FFR). Background FFR is the gold standard for determining lesion ischemia. While APCs by CT—including aggregate plaque volume % (%APV), positive remodeling (PR), low attenuation plaque (LAP) and spotty calcification (SC)—are associated with future coronary syndromes, their relationship to lesion ischemia is unclear. Methods 252 patients (17 centers, 5 countries) [mean age 63 years, 71% males] underwent CT, with FFR performed for 407 coronary lesions. CT was interpreted for 50% stenosis, with the latter considered obstructive. APCs by CT were defined as: (1) PR, lesion diameter/reference diameter >1.10; (2) LAP, any voxel 50% but not for 50%. PMID:25592691

  13. [Surgical Treatment of Left Main Trunk Coronary Artery Aneurysm with Asymptomatic Myocardial Ischemia;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugi, Satoshi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Etsuji; Takiguchi, Yoji

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is rare, and there is no established protocol for surgical indication. On preoperative examination of orthopedic surgery, a 76-year-old male was found with asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Radiological examinations revealed triple vessel disease and a coronary artery aneurysm, 10 mm in size, at the bifurcation of the left main trunk. Combined with quintuple coronary artery bypass grafting, surgical repair of the aneurysm was peformed under cardiopulmonary bypass on beating heart. Epicardial echocardiography was used to detect the site and the blood flow on the aneurysm. Postoperative course was uneventful. Epicardial echocardiography was useful for detecting the coronary artery aneurysm in the myocardium and the residual aneurysmal blood flow.

  14. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalli, M.A.; Aamir, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome Study design: A Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from October 2007 to September 2008 Patients and Methods: Male patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Patients having angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery in the past and other co-morbid diseases were excluded. All patients were assessed for the presence of five components of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. ECG, cardiac enzymes, fasting glucose and lipid profile were also done. Results: A total of 135 male patients of ACS were studied with a mean age of 54.26 +- 11 years. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was present in 55 (40.7%) patients. MS with all five components was documented in 4 (7.27%) while MS with four and three components was seen in 23 (41.81%) and 28 (50.90%) patients respectively. Only 24 (43.63%) patients with MS had diabetes mellitus, remaining 31(56.36%) were non diabetic. Frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and family history of CAD were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients with normal metabolic status. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is fairly common and important risk factor in patients of IHD. Other risk factors like smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were also frequently found. Public awareness to control the risk factors can reduce the prevalence of CAD in our country. (author)

  16. ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME DUE TO CORONARY VASOSPASM – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Klimovskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spasm of the coronary arteries is a dynamic narrowing of one or more coronary arteries, leading to significant restriction of the lumen. The leading role in coronary  artery spasm diagnostic belongs to coronary  angiography and its accompanying provocative tests. Mechanisms of coronary  artery spasm development remain incompletely clarified and it's considered as a multifactorial disease with its own specific risk factors.  Though pathophysiology is no longer a matter of dispute, further  efforts should be aimed at the practical application of the recommendations. Diagnosis of the coronary  artery spasm  has important practical significance, due to the prevailing benefit of calcium antagonists in the treatment and absence of benefit from percutaneous coronary  interventions in most cases. A clinical case of the patient with multivessel, multifocal coronary  artery spasm is presented.

  17. Acute arterial ischemia in a patient with polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro Marín, Sandra; Júdez Navarro, Enrique; Alamillo Sanz, Antonio Salvador; Sánchez Nievas, Ginés

    Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate at cold temperatures. Their presence can be related to a type of vasculitis referred to as cryoglobulinemia. This condition, especially mixed cryoglobulinemia, has been associated with viral infections like hepatitis C virus in 60%-90% of cases, but it has also been reported in relation to connective tissue diseases, usually resulting in a more severe course. We describe the case of a patient with seronegative polyarthritis who developed acute arterial ischemia in association with cryoglobulinemia, with a good response to rituximab therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Body mass index and risk for mental stress induced ischemia in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufer, Robert; Fernandez, Antonio B; Meadows, Judith; Collins, Dorothea; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-05-19

    Acute emotionally reactive mental stress (MS) can provoke prognostically relevant deficits in cardiac function and myocardial perfusion, and chronic inflammation increases risk for this ischemic phenomenon. We have described parasympathetic withdrawal and generation of inflammatory factors in MS. Adiposity is also associated with elevated markers of chronic inflammation. High body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a surrogate for assessment of excess adiposity, and associated with traditional CAD risk factors, and CAD mortality. BMI is also associated with autonomic dysregulation, adipose tissue derived proinflammatory cytokines, which are also attendant to emotion provoked myocardial ischemia. Thus, we sought to determine if body mass index (BMI) contributes to risk of developing myocardial ischemia provoked by mental stress. We performed a prospective interventional study in a cohort of 161 patients with stable CAD. They completed an assessment of myocardial blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simultaneously during 2 conditions: laboratory mental stress and at rest. Multivariate logistic regression determined the independent contribution of BMI to the occurrence of mental-stress induced ischemia. Mean age was 65.6±9.0 years; 87.0% had a history of hypertension, and 28.6% had diabetes. Mean BMI was 30.4±4.7. Prevalence of mental stress ischemia was 39.8%. BMI was an independent predictor of mental stress ischemia, OR=1.10, 95% CI [1.01-1.18] for one-point increase in BMI and OR=1.53, 95% CI [1.06-2.21] for a 4.7 point increase in BMI (one standard deviation beyond the cohort BMI mean), p=0.025 for all. These data suggest that BMI may serve as an independent risk marker for mental stress ischemia. The factors attendant with greater BMI, which include autonomic dysregulation and inflammation, may represent pathways by which high BMI contribute to this risk and serve as a conceptual construct to replicate these findings in larger

  19. Diagnosis of Coronary Heart Diseases Using Gene Expression Profiling; Stable Coronary Artery Disease, Cardiac Ischemia with and without Myocardial Necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Kazmi

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in Europe, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. With the recent advances in genomic tools and technologies there is potential to predict and diagnose heart disease using molecular data from analysis of blood cells. We analyzed gene expression data from blood samples taken from normal people (n = 21, non-significant coronary artery disease (n = 93, patients with unstable angina (n = 16, stable coronary artery disease (n = 14 and myocardial infarction (MI; n = 207. We used a feature selection approach to identify a set of gene expression variables which successfully differentiate different cardiovascular diseases. The initial features were discovered by fitting a linear model for each probe set across all arrays of normal individuals and patients with myocardial infarction. Three different feature optimisation algorithms were devised which identified two discriminating sets of genes, one using MI and normal controls (total genes = 6 and another one using MI and unstable angina patients (total genes = 7. In all our classification approaches we used a non-parametric k-nearest neighbour (KNN classification method (k = 3. The results proved the diagnostic robustness of the final feature sets in discriminating patients with myocardial infarction from healthy controls. Interestingly it also showed efficacy in discriminating myocardial infarction patients from patients with clinical symptoms of cardiac ischemia but no myocardial necrosis or stable coronary artery disease, despite the influence of batch effects and different microarray gene chips and platforms.

  20. Improvement of pacing induced regional myocardial ischemia by Solcoseryl in conscious dogs with coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T; Sasayama, S; Takahashi, M; Osakada, G; Kawai, C

    1984-02-01

    The effects of Solcoseryl on regional myocardial function were studied in 5 conscious dogs with partial coronary constriction, in which temporary ischemia was induced by rapid cardiac pacing. During the coronary artery constriction, the percent shortening of the ischemic segment decreased by 9%. When the heart rate was increased by pacing, the percent shortening of the ischemic segments was further reduced by 57%. On cessation of cardiac pacing, the early potentiation of dP/dt and of control segment shortening became evident and was followed by exponential decay in the subsequent several beats. In the ischemic segment, the percent shortening was significantly improved in the first post-pacing beat but was more severely depressed at five seconds. Thirty minutes after administration of Solcoseryl, the cardiac pacing was repeated in the same manner but the pacing-induced hypokinesia of the ischemic segment were less marked, the percent shortening being at an average of 9.1% during control pacing and 12.7% during the second pacing after Solcoseryl (p less than 0.05). Postpacing deterioration of the ischemic segment shortening was also significantly improved from 9.8 to 11.8% at 5 seconds (p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that Solcoseryl exerts protective effects on the ischemic myocardium by promoting a rapid recovery from ischemia, probably due to the improvement of oxygen utility through activated cellular respiration.

  1. [Acute coronary syndromes in Latin America: lessons from the ACCESS registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Jerjes-Sánchez, Carlos; Nicolau, José Carlos; Bazzino, Oscar; Antepara, Norka; Mármol, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes among Latin American (LA) patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is scarce. ACCESS, international prospective multicenter registry to evaluate risk stratification, management and outcomes in ACS (unstable angina or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction [UA/NSTEMI] or ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) in developing countries. Primary endpoint: all-cause death at 1 year; all-cause mortality within 30 days was also recorded, Patients with acute ischemic symptoms within 24 hours of symptoms onset and electrocardiographic evidence of ischemia were enrolled. Coronary artery disease was proved by positive invasive or non-invasive tests. Between 2007 and 2008, 4436 patients with ACS (2562 UA/NSTEMI and 2374 STEMI) from eight LA countries. On admission, acute symptoms were identified in 79 % and 90%, respectively. Both groups had a long delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival. Low access to pharmacological (29%) and mechanical reperfusion (32%) were observed. At admission, rates of evidence-based treatment were low in all groups. The most common in-hospital complications were heart failure (10% UA/NSTEMI and 20% STEMI) and recurrent ischemia (8% and 11%). Mortality at 30 days was 2% and 8% at 1 year. ACCESS registry provides contemporary information of patients with ACS in LA and their hospital management and subsequent clinical outcomes.

  2. Myocardial fatty acid utilisation during exercise induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, K.S. [First Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland); Nikkinen, P. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland); Lindroth, L. [Medix Diacor Lab. Services, Ltd., Espoo (Finland); Kuikka, J.T. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    Aim: Reversible or irreversible myocardial damage due to ischemia correlates with altered membrane functions of the cells. To compare myocardial free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism and flow during exercise induced ischemia we studied ten patients with coronary artery disease but without previous myocardial infarction. Methods: A series of post-exercise single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements was performed after injection of {sup 123}I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). Myocardial perfusion was estimated from the separately performed exercise-redistribution thallium study. Fatty acid metabolic rate, thallium uptake and washout were calculated for anterior, lateral, posterior and septal segments. Results: The more reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate (-63{+-}18%, mean {+-}1 SD) compared to flow (-36{+-}16%) was related to the severity of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormalities. Conclusion: In this small group of patients, the reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate tentatively suggests a parsimonious workload of the exercising myocardium by reducing oxygen consumption in patients with coronary artery disease. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei reversibler und irreversibler Myokardschaedigung infolge Ischaemie sind die Membranfunktionen der Zellen veraendert. Um myokardialen Metabolismus freier Fettsaeuren (FFA) und Durchblutung bei belastungsinduzierter Ischaemie zu vergleichen, untersuchten wir zehn Patienten mit Koronarinsuffizienz, aber ohne vorangegangenen Myokardinfarkt. Methoden: Nach Injektion von {sup 123}I-markierter Heptadekansaeure (HDA) wurde eine Serie von SPECT-Messungen nach Belastung aufgenommen. Die myokardiale Perfusion wurde abgeschaetzt durch die separat durchgefuehrte Thalliumverteilungsstudie nach Belastung. Fettsaeurestoffwechsel, Thallium-Uptake und -Washout wurden fuer die anterioren, posterioren und septalen Segmente berechnet. Ergebnisse: Eine eingeschraenktere FFA-Stoffwechselrate (-63{+-}18%, {+-}1 SD

  3. [Inflammatory biomarkers in ischemic acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Abreu-González, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Diagnosing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department is often a complex process. Inflammatory markers might be useful for the rapid assessment of a patient's overall risk and might also help predict future episodes. The clinical use of these biomarkers could potentially lower the number of emergency visits and help in the prevention of future adverse events. The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical utility of markers of cardiovascular inflammation in emergency patients with ACS. Based on a critical analysis of a selection of the literature, we concluded that none of the biomarkers of cardiovascular inflammation would at present be useful for stratifying risk in emergency situations, aiding prognosis, or guiding therapy for patients with ACS.

  4. Nuclear cardiology in acute coronary syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulow, H.; Schwaiger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are a frequent manifestation of a coronary artery disease, usually being associated with chest pain and presenting as a medical emergency. Since a considerable number of patients with chest pain, however, have a non cardiac etiology of trier pain, properly triaging these patients represents a diagnostic challenge for physicians in the emergency department. As the available diagnostic procedures have limited accuracy, many different diagnostic strategies have been evaluated. Among these, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at rest or in combination with stress procedures has been investigated in many trails. MPI has been proven to be useful, especially in a patient population with a low to intermediate probability of an ischemic event. Perfusion scintigraphy has a high sensitivity in the detection of myocardial infarction and reveals an excellent negative predictive value, allowing a safe discharge strategy of patients with a negative scan result. Moreover, it enables risk stratification and provides incremental and independent prognostic information regarding short to long term future cardiac adverse events. Several cost effectiveness studies have shown that perfusion imaging leads to lower overall direct costs, mainly by a reduction of unnecessary hospital admissions and diagnostic angiograms, without worsening of the clinical outcome of these patients. As a possible study endpoint, myocardial perfusion imaging in the acute setting enables the quantification of salvaged myocardium and therefore the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Besides perfusion agents, several infarcts avid radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, which in part show promising results. However, larger randomized trials evaluating these tracers in clinical settings are needed to warrant routine clinical application

  5. Depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Prybol, Kevin; Rogers, Joseph; O'Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Adult patients with documented CHD were recruited for baseline mental stress and exercise stress screening testing as a part of the enrollment process of the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment trial. Patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. After a 24-48-hour β-blocker withdrawal, participants completed three mental stress tests followed by a treadmill exercise test. Ischemia was defined as a) any development or worsening of any wall motion abnormality and b) reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction at least 8% by transthoracic echocardiography and/or ischemic ST-segment change by electrocardiography during stress testing. MSIMI was considered present when ischemia occurred in at least one mental test. Data were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, and resting left ventricular ejection fraction. One hundred twenty-five (44.2%) of 283 patients were found to have MSIMI, and 93 (32.9%) had ESIMI. Unadjusted analysis showed that Beck Depression Inventory II scores were positively associated with the probability of MSIMI (odds ratio = 0.1.30: 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.60, p = .013) and number of MSIMI-positive tasks (all p < .005). These associations were still significant after adjustment for covariates (p values <.05). In patients with CHD, depressive symptoms were associated with a higher probability of MSIMI. These observations may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the association of depressive symptoms to future cardiovascular events. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00574847.

  6. Acute Coronary Syndrome Due to Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection in a Middle-Aged Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davran Cicek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available True spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is an extremely rare but important cause of acute coronary syndrome, with only about 200 cases reported in the literature. Diagnosis is often made at autopsy. Risk factors include oral contraceptive use, atherosclerotic disease and the peripartum period. SCAD should be considered when a healthy young patient presents with the onset of acute myocardial ischemic syndrome. A timely diagnosis and intervention are mandatory as SCAD can cause sudden death. We present a case of SCAD with an uncommon clinical presentation of acute coronary syndrome and without identifiable risk factors, and successfully treated with non-invasive (medical therapy.

  7. A combination of plasma DAO and citrulline levels as a potential marker for acute mesenteric ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Çakmaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no valid and reliable diagnostic test for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI. The aim of this study was to measure the plasma levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and citrulline in AMI to gain insight into its early diagnosis. Material and methods: A total of 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups, that is, control group, short-term ischemia group, and prolonged ischemia group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 15 min in the short-term ischemia group and for 12 h in the prolonged ischemia group. Twelve hours later, the experiment was terminated and plasma DAO and citrulline levels were measured. Intestinal tissue was evaluated for the histopathological changes. Results: Compared to the control group, the short-term and prolonged ischemia groups showed significant increases in the plasma levels of DAO, whereas the plasma citrulline levels decreased significantly. Prolonged ischemia caused a larger increase in the plasma DAO levels and a larger decrease in the plasma citrulline levels compared to the short-term ischemia (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively. Intestinal damage was shown to develop more in the prolonged ischemia group (p=0.001. Conclusion: In the early period of AMI, the plasma DAO levels increase while citrulline levels decrease, and the extent of these changes depends on the duration of ischemia.

  8. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism in Egyptian acute coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene polymorphism was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in several studies. In this investigation, we aimed to study the association between apo E gene polymorphism and acute coronary syndrome in Egyptian population. Subjects and methods: The study included ...

  9. Infective endocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report tow cases of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Case 1: A 60-year-old man with the diagnosis of mitral IE complicated by an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention with aspiration of the thrombus at the distal leftanterior ...

  10. Acute coronary syndrome caused by anomalous origin of the right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute coronary syndrome caused by anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. AS Assiri. Abstract. No Abstract. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 24(3) 2005: 278-279. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Coronary Artery Aneurysm After Bioresorbable Scaffold Implantation in a Woman With an Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Alberto F; Canova, Paolo A; Oreglia, Jacopo A; Soriano, Francesco S

    2017-07-01

    We herein report the case of an ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BRS) failure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed the exact mechanism of late BRS stent thrombosis due to an acquired coronary aneurysm related to BRS. A drug eluting OCT-guided stenting over a failed BRS in the context of an acute coronary syndrome, with the simultaneous presence of a BRS thrombosis and coronary artery aneurysm, proved to be effective.

  12. ANALYSIS OF PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Reshetko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the pre-hospital treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in 2001 and 2006.Material and methods. Retrospective pre-hospital treatment survey was performed in 1114 patients with acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction (AMI or unstable angina (UA in 2001 and 2006.Results. For acute myocardial infarction use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin was 0%, 0%, 81,5% in 2001 and 23,9%, 8%, 13,4% in 2006, respectively. Use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin in unstable angina were 0%, 16,2%, 12,3% in 2001 and 3,4%, 1,6%, 0,5% in 2006, respectively. Fibrinolytic therapy was not provided. Polypragmasia reduced in 2006 in comparison with 2001.Conclusions. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing current practice and guidelines for acute coronary syndrome.

  13. Acute complications of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for total occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Plante (Sylvain); G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M. Samson; B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); H. Suryapranata (Harry); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The incidence of major complications after percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of a totally occluded artery was assessed retrospectively. A total of 1649 PTCA procedures were analyzed. After exclusion of procedures for acute myocardial infarction or total occlusion

  14. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab H. El Sayed

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: In suspected acute coronary syndrome, determination of copeptin and cardiac troponin I provides a remarkable negative predictive value, which aids in early and safe ruling out of myocardial infarction.

  15. Pregnancy risks in women with pre-existing coronary artery disease, or following acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchill, Luke J.; Lameijer, Heleen; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Grewal, Jasmine; Ruys, Titia P. E.; Kulikowski, Julia D.; Burchill, Laura A.; Oudijk, M. A.; Wald, Rachel M.; Colman, Jack M.; Siu, Samuel C.; Pieper, Petronella G.; Silversides, Candice K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine outcomes in pregnant women with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) or following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including myocardial infarction (MI). Background The physiological changes of pregnancy can contribute to myocardial

  16. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease: Relationship of Symptom Amelioration and Ischemia Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youko Takakuwa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current management of coronary artery disease (CAD relies on three major therapeutic options, namely medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. However, severe CAD that is not indicated for PCI or CABG still bears a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatments. In 2006, extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW therapy reported on human for the first time. This treatment resulted in better myocardial perfusion as evaluated by dipyridamole stress thallium scintigraphy, angina symptoms, and exercise tolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate myocardial perfusion images and evaluate the relationship between the ischemia improvement and symptom amelioration by SW therapy. Methods: We treated ten patients (i.e., nine males and one female with cardiac SW therapy who had CAD but not indicated for PCI or CABG and aged 63–89 years old. After the SW therapy, all patients were followed up for three months to evaluate any amelioration of the myocardial ischemia based on symptoms, adenosine stress thallium scintigraphy, transthoracic echocardiography, and blood biochemical examinations. Results: The changes in various parameters were evaluated before and after cardiac SW therapy. The cardiac SW therapy resulted in a significant improvement in the symptoms as evaluated by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class score (P=0.016 and a tendency to improve in summed stress score (SSS (P=0.068. However, no significant improvement was observed in the summed rest score (SRS, summed difference score (SDS, left ventricular wall motion score index (LVWMSI, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic, and troponin I. The difference of CCS class score (ΔCCS was significantly correlated with those of SSS (ΔSSS and SDS (ΔSDS (r=0.69, P=0.028 and r=0.70, P=0.025, respectively. There was no significant correlation between ΔCCS and other parameters. Furthermore, no significant

  17. Assessment and diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, B.; Gieszczyk-Paraniak, B.; Gibinska, J.; Konopka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia (ABT) is a life-threatening condition which most often effects elderly patients. It requires an intensive treatment and quick diagnosis. Unfortunately ABI manifested not only by specific but also various nonspecific clinical or laboratory finding. The radiological symptoms of the bowel ischemia are also differentiated and often nonspecific while the specific findings are rather uncommon.That is why the knowledge of the bowel ischemia pathogenesis and possible CT findings is so important for the correct diagnosis. The our paper, we present the radiological findings of the acute bowel ischemia based on the analysis of the patients' abdominal -CT examination. The purpose of our study is to MDCT in patients with acute bowel ischemia. The material of this study consists of four computer tomography examinations - three of those an angio-CT and one abdominal - in patients with acute abdomen symptoms. The result revealed the mesenteric thrombosis in two cases, and mesenteric artery stenosis in one case. In one case, the thrombus was present in the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, we claim that the MDCT should be the modality of choice for the diagnosis of the acute bowel ischemia. (author)

  18. [Diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives in perioperative acute myocardial ischemia in heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-González, A M; Pérez-Vela, J L; Hernández, F; Renes, E; Arribas, P; Corres, M A; Gutiérrez, J; Perales, N

    2010-01-01

    Ischemia and infarct after surgical revascularization are a relatively frequent complication, with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is essential. However, this is less standardized and more complicated to diagnose than in patients who have not undergone surgery since there is no specific biomarker that allows the clinician to differentiate between myocardial ischemia due to the procedure itself and myocardial damage due to perioperative infarct. Once detected, perioperative ischemia should be treated immediately in order to limit myocardial damage. The objectives of this study have been 1. To show the diagnostic criteria for perioperative infarct and ischemia. 2. to show the different therapeutic options available. 3. to propose a treatment algorithm that includes the differential diagnosis, how to control vasospasm, implantation of balloon counterpulsation, and the possible revascularization strategies (percutaneous coronary intervention vs reoperation). Copyright 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. [Application of Ischemia Modified Albumin for Acute Ischemic Heart Disease in Forensic Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Zhu, Z L; Zhu, N; Yu, H; Yue, Q; Wang, X L; Feng, C M; Wang, C L; Zhang, G H

    2017-10-01

    To explore the application value and forensic significance of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in pericardial fluid to diagnose sudden cardiac death. IMA level in pericardial fluid was detected in acute ischemic heart disease group ( n =36), acute myocardial infarction group ( n =6), cardiomyopathy group ( n =4) and control group ( n =15) by albumin cobalt binding method. The levels of IMA were compared among these groups. The best cut-off IMA value was estimated and the sensitivity and specificity of acute myocardial ischemia group was distinguished from control group by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The IMA level in acute ischemic heart disease group was significantly higher than that of control group ( P 0.05). The cut-off value for the identification of acute myocardial ischemia which obtained by ROC analysis was 40.65 U/mL. And the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing acute ischemia cardiac disease was 60.0% and 80.5%, respectively. The IMA value in pericardial fluid can be a reference marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia, which also can provide objective basis for the forensic identification of sudden cardiac death. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  20. Acute Thrombotic Coronary Occlusion in a Patient with Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beganu Elena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with coronary artery anomalies are more susceptible to develop acute thrombotic coronary occlusions due to the abnormal anatomy of these arteries and the disturbance of the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to an accelerated atherosclerosis development. The following article presents the case of a 64-year-old female patient diagnosed with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patient underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention, which revealed the absence of the right coronary artery and separated origins of the left anterior descending artery and the left circumflex artery from the aorta.

  1. Meta-analysis of trials on mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with medical therapy in patients with stable coronary heart disease and objective evidence of myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, Hemal; Kirtane, Ajay J; Kereiakes, Dean J; Bangalore, Sripal; Moses, Jeffrey W; Généreux, Philippe; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George D; Leon, Martin B; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-05-01

    Outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus medical therapy (MT) in the management of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) remain controversial, with some but not all studies showing improved results in patients with ischemia. We sought to elucidate whether PCI improves mortality compared to MT in patients with objective evidence of ischemia (assessed using noninvasive imaging or its invasive equivalent). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PCI to MT in patients with SIHD. To maintain a high degree of specificity for ischemia, studies were only included if ischemia was defined on the basis of noninvasive stress imaging or abnormal fractional flow reserve. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We identified 3 RCTs (Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Silent Ischemia After Myocardial Infarction II, Fractional Flow Reserve versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation 2, and a substudy of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation trial) enrolling a total of 1,557 patients followed for an average of 3.0 years. When compared with MT in this population of patients with objective ischemia, PCI was associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.92, p=0.02). There was no evidence of study heterogeneity or bias among included trials. In this meta-analysis of published RCTs, PCI was shown to have a mortality benefit over MT in patients with SIHD and objective assessment of ischemia using noninvasive imaging or its invasive equivalent. In conclusion, this study provides insight into the management of a higher-risk SIHD population that is the focus of the ongoing International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Chevli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50 and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement.

  3. Prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a BleeMACS substudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannaccone, Mario; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Vadalà, Paolo; Wilton, Stephen B.; Noussan, Patrizia; Colombo, Francesco; Raposeiras Roubín, Sergio; Abu Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Henriques, Jose Paulo Simao; Saucedo, Jorge; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Garbo, Roberto; Huczek, Zenon; Nie, Shao-Ping; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; García Acuña, José María; Southern, Danielle; Alfonso, Emilio; Terol, Belén; Garay, Alberto; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Yalei; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Osman, Neriman; Möllmann, Helge; Shiomi, Hiroki; Giordana, Francesca; Kowara, Michal; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Wang, Xiao; Yan, Yan; Fan, Jing-Yao; Ikari, Yuji; Nakahashi, Takuya; Sakata, Kenji; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kalpak, Oliver; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer that experience acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have to be determined. The BleeMACS project is a multicentre observational registry enrolling patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention worldwide in 15

  4. Abdominal Aortic Dissection with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Shyan Lay

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of connective tissue, with various complications manifested primarily in the cardiovascular system. It potentially leads to aortic dissection and rupture, these being the major causes of death. We report a patient who complained of acute abdominal pain, which presented as acute mesenteric ischemia combined with abdominal aortic dissection. Echocardiography showed enlargement of the aortic root and mitral valve prolapse. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed acute mesenteric ischemia due to abdominal aortic dissection. Finally, the patient underwent surgery of aortic root replacement and had a successful outcome. Therefore, we suggest that for optimal risk assessment and monitoring of patients with Marfan syndrome, both aortic stiffness and the diameter of the superior mesenteric vein compared with that of the superior mesenteric artery are useful screening methods to detect acute mesenteric ischemia secondary to abdominal aortic dissection. Early diagnosis and early treatment can decrease the high mortality rate of patients with Marfan syndrome.

  5. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Hofker, H. S.; Zijlstra, J. G.

    Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS, in

  7. Cerebral ischemia and asymptomatic coronary artery disease: a prospective study of 83 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pasquale, G.; Andreoli, A.; Pinelli, G.; Grazi, P.; Manini, G.; Tognetti, F.; Testa, C.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective cardiologic evaluation was performed in 83 consecutive patients with transient cerebral ischemia or mild stroke and without symptoms or electrocardiographic signs of ischemic heart disease. Patients were studied with an electrocardiographic exercise test; a positive test was followed by exercise Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Results were compared to those obtained in a group of 83 age and sex-matched healthy subjects submitted to the same study protocol. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease was detected in 28% of cerebrovascular patients with adequate electrocardiographic exercise test. A scintigraphic perfusion defect of variable extension was found in 19 of them. In the control group the electrocardiographic exercise test was positive in only 6% (p less than 0.01). Our results support the concept that: asymptomatic ischemic heart disease is often associated with cerebrovascular disease; therefore cerebral ischemic attacks may be a marker of coronary artery disease, an active investigation of the heart should be considered in cerebrovascular patients in order to plan optimal, comprehensive management

  8. Resistin, exercise capacity, and inducible ischemia in patients with stable coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mary H; Na, Beeya; Schiller, Nelson B; Whooley, Mary A

    2010-12-01

    Resistin is an adipocytokine involved in insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Its role in the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) is not yet well-characterized. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between serum resistin levels, exercise capacity, and exercise-induced cardiac ischemia among patients with stable CHD. We measured serum resistin concentrations and determined treadmill exercise capacity and inducible ischemia by stress echocardiography in 899 outpatients with documented CHD. Of these, 215 (24%) had poor exercise capacity (<5 metabolic equivalent tasks), and 217 (24%) had inducible ischemia. As compared with participants who had resistin levels in the lowest quartile, those with resistin levels in the highest quartile were more likely to have poor exercise capacity (33% versus 16%, odds ratio [OR] 2.68, P<0.0001) and inducible ischemia (30% versus 17%, OR 2.08, P=0.001). Both associations remained robust after adjusting for numerous clinical risk factors, metabolic variables, and markers of insulin resistance (poor exercise capacity adjusted OR 1.73, P=0.04; inducible ischemia adjusted OR 1.82, P=0.01). However, further adjustments for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α eliminated the association with poor exercise capacity (adjusted OR 1.50, P=0.14) and substantially weakened the association with inducible ischemia (adjusted OR 1.72, P=0.03). Elevated serum resistin is associated with poor exercise capacity and exercise-induced cardiac ischemia in patients with stable coronary disease. Adjustment for inflammatory markers attenuated these associations, suggesting a possible role for resistin in inflammation and CHD pathophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zeinab H. El Sayed

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Acute coronary syndrome remains the principal cause of death, so the early diagnosis is of great importance. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for acute myo- cardial infarction. Cardiac chest pain immediately increased copeptin secretion. The combination of copeptin and ...

  10. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute coronary syndrome remains the principal cause of death, so the early diagnosis is of great importance. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac chest pain immediately increased copeptin secretion. The combination of copeptin and cardiac troponin I is being ...

  11. ADVANCIS Score Predicts Acute Kidney Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pei-Chun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), a common and crucial complication of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is associated with increased mortality and adverse outcomes. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for incident AKI after PCI for ACS. We included 82,186 patients admitted for ACS and receiving PCI between 1997 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and randomly divided them into a training cohort (n = 57,630) and validation cohort (n = 24,656) for risk model development and validation, respectively. Risk factor analysis revealed that age, diabetes mellitus, ventilator use, prior AKI, number of intervened vessels, chronic kidney disease (CKD), intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use, cardiogenic shock, female sex, prior stroke, peripheral arterial disease, hypertension, and heart failure were significant risk factors for incident AKI after PCI for ACS. The reduced model, ADVANCIS, comprised 8 clinical parameters (age, diabetes mellitus, ventilator use, prior AKI, number of intervened vessels, CKD, IABP use, cardiogenic shock), with a score scale ranging from 0 to 22, and performed comparably with the full model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 87.4% vs 87.9%). An ADVANCIS score of ≥6 was associated with higher in-hospital mortality risk. In conclusion, the ADVANCIS score is a novel, simple, robust tool for predicting the risk of incident AKI after PCI for ACS, and it can aid in risk stratification to monitor patient care.

  12. Frequency of stress testing to document ischemia prior to elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace A; Dudley, R Adams; Lucas, F L; Malenka, David J; Vittinghoff, Eric; Redberg, Rita F

    2008-10-15

    Guidelines call for documenting ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease prior to elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To determine the frequency and predictors of stress testing prior to elective PCI in a Medicare population. Retrospective, observational cohort study using claims data from a 20% random sample of 2004 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who had an elective PCI (N = 23 887). Percentage of patients who underwent stress testing within 90 days prior to elective PCI; variation in stress testing prior to PCI across 306 hospital referral regions; patient, physician, and hospital characteristics that predicted the appropriate use of stress testing prior to elective PCI. In the United States, 44.5% (n = 10 629) of patients underwent stress testing within the 90 days prior to elective PCI. There was wide regional variation among the hospital referral regions with stress test rates ranging from 22.1% to 70.6% (national mean, 44.5%; interquartile range, 39.0%-50.9%). Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-0.97), age of 85 years or older (AOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.95), a history of congestive heart failure (AOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92), and prior cardiac catheterization (AOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.38-0.54) were associated with a decreased likelihood of prior stress testing. A history of chest pain (AOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54) and black race (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) increased the likelihood of stress testing prior to PCI. Patients treated by physicians performing 150 or more PCIs per year were less likely to have stress testing prior to PCI (AOR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.93). No hospital characteristics were associated with receipt of stress testing. The majority of Medicare patients with stable coronary artery disease do not have documentation of ischemia by noninvasive testing prior to elective PCI.

  13. Acute Right Coronary Ostial Stenosis during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Umran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of acute right coronary artery stenosis developing in a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to coronary artery occlusion associated with cardiac valve surgery - the theories and treatments are discussed. A 85 year-old female was admitted under the care of the cardiothoracic team with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Investigations, including cardiac echocardiography and coronary angiography, indicated a critical aortic valve stenosis. Intraoperative right ventricular failure ensued post aortic valve replacement. Subsequent investigations revealed an acute occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery with resultant absence of distal flow supplying the right ventricle. An immediate right coronary artery bypass procedure was performed with resolution of the right ventricular failure. Subsequent weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass was uneventful and the patient continued to make excellent recovery in the postoperative phase. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of intraoperative acute coronary artery occlusion developing during valve surgery. However, surgeons should be aware of the potential for acute occlusion so that early recognition and rapid intervention can be instituted.

  14. The Influence of Endothelial Function and Myocardial Ischemia on Peak Oxygen Consumption in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Bacon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired endothelial function has been shown to limit exercise in coronary artery disease (CAD patients and has been implicated in myocardial ischemia. However, the association of endothelial function and ischemia on peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2 has not been previously reported. A total of 116 CAD patients underwent standard exercise stress testing, during which VO2 was measured. On a separate day, endothelial-dependent and -independent function were assessed by ultrasound using flow-mediated arterial vasodilation (FMD and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate administration (GTNMD of the brachial artery. Patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia had lower FMD than nonischemic patients (3.64±0.57 versus 4.98±0.36, P=.050, but there was no difference in GTNMD (14.11±0.99 versus 15.47±0.63, P=.249. Analyses revealed that both FMD (P=.006 and GTNMD (P=.019 were related to peak VO2. However, neither the presence of ischemia (P=.860 nor the interaction of ischemia with FMD (P=.382 and GTNMD (P=.151 was related to peak VO2. These data suggest that poor endothelial function, potentially via impaired NO production and smooth muscle dysfunction, may be an important determinant of exercise capacity in patients with CAD, independent of myocardial ischemia.

  15. Non invasive evaluation of the coronary atherosclerosis illness in patients with silent ischemia: utility of the SPECT of myocardial perfusion. Electric, angiographic and image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente B, A.; Roffe G, F.; Aceves C, J.; Gomez A, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the work was to determine the utility of the SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) of myocardial perfusion for the ischemia detection in asymptomatic patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis Illness. It was concluded that the SPECT of myocardial perfusion has a high sensitivity (97%) for the silent ischemia diagnosis

  16. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography with 64-Channel Multidetector Computed Tomography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulimoen, G. R.; Gjoennaess, E.; Atar, D.; Dahl, T.; Stranden, E.; Sandbaek, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Dept. of Vascular Diagnosis and Research, and Division of Cardiology, Aker Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-12-15

    Background: Advances in computer tomography (CT) imaging technology in recent years have facilitated the possibility of noninvasive coronary angiography. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with conventional invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for the detection of significant coronary stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and Methods: MDCT was performed in 60 patients classified with non-ST-elevation infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina and scheduled for ICA within 3 days. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT was evaluated using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as the gold standard. Results: 48 out of 60 patients had interpretable scans by both MDCT and ICA. On a segment-based analysis, 488 out of 665 segments with a diameter of =1.5 mm, as defined by QCA, were interpretable by MDCT. Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 47%, and negative predictive value 97% in detecting and excluding significant coronary stenosis, as defined with MDCT. On a per patient-based analysis, sensitivity was 89%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 84%, and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: Limited diagnostic accuracy restricts the usefulness of coronary MDCT in patient groups with a high pretest probability of disease, such as in acute coronary syndrome.

  17. Infections as a stimulus for coronary occlusion, obstruction, or acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Erkki; El-Segaier, Milad; Persson, Kenneth; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Sarna, Seppo; Ohlin, Hans; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2009-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease. Infections are a significant cause of inflammation. Acute infections might precipitate acute coronary syndromes (ACS) whereas chronic infections might be stimuli for the development of atherosclerosis. Coronary angiograms were done on 211 of 335 patients with ACS and the percentage of coronary obstruction was determined. Serum antibody levels to Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae heat shock protein 60 (CpnHSP60), human heat shock protein 60 (hHSP60), enterovirus (EV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and two major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were measured in healthy controls (n = 355) and all patients. Serum antibody levels to periodontal pathogens did not correlate with ACS. However, IgA-class antibody levels to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.021), CpnHSP60 (p = 0.048) an hHSP60 (p = 0.038) were higher in patients with coronary occlusion or obstruction compared to those without any obstruction. Odds ratios for coronary changes in the highest quartile as compared to the lower quartiles were for A. actinomycetemcomitans IgA 7.84 (95% CI 1.02-60.39, p = 0.048), for CpnHSP60 IgA 8.61 (1.12-65.89, p = 0.038), and for human HSP60 IgA 3.51 (0.79-15.69, p = 0.100). We have previously reported that EV and HSV titres correlated significantly to acute coronary events. They do not correlate to the degree of coronary obstruction as shown here. However, infection by A. actinomycetemcomitans or C. pneumoniae or host response against them associated with coronary obstruction. Clinical coronary events may arise by the effect of acute infections and obstructing lesions by a chronic inflammatory stimulus.

  18. Periodontal status and Prevotella intermedia antibody in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Hirofumi; Oe, Yoko; Nakayama, Hideki; Matsuo, Katsuhiko; Fukunaga, Takashi; Sugamura, Koichi; Kawano, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Seigo; Shinohara, Masanori; Izumi, Yuichi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2009-11-12

    We performed periodontal examination and measured serum antibody levels against Prevotella intermedia in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Composite periodontal risk scores were significantly higher in the ACS group than in the coronary artery disease (CAD) group. Serum antibody levels were higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group and those were significantly correlated with the composite periodontal risk scores. These results provided important information about the status of P. intermedia infection in patients with ACS.

  19. B-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor of ischemia/reperfusion injury immediately after myocardial reperfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Kentaro; Himeno, Hideo; Kirigaya, Jin; Otomo, Fumie; Matsushita, Kensuke; Nakahashi, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Satoru; Nitta, Manabu; Takamizawa, Tetsu; Yano, Hideto; Endo, Mitsuaki; Kanna, Masahiko; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    In animal models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) administered before and during coronary occlusion limits infarct size. However, the relation between plasma BNP levels and ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unclear. 302 patients with ST-segment elevation AMI (STEMI) received emergency percutaneous coronary intervention within six hours from the onset. The patients were divided into two groups according to the plasma BNP level before angiography: group L (n=151), BNP ≤ 32.2 pg/ml; group H (n=151), BNP >32.2 pg/ml. The Selvester QRS-scoring system was used to estimate infarct size. The rate of ischemia/reperfusion injury immediately after reperfusion, defined as reperfusion ventricular arrhythmias (26% vs. 11%, p=0.001) and ST-segment re-elevation (44% vs. 22%, p=0.008), was higher in group L than in group H. Group L had a greater increase in the QRS score during percutaneous coronary intervention (3.55 ± 0.17 vs. 2.09 ± 0.17, preperfusion injury (odds ratio, 2.620; preperfusion injury according to decreasing quartiles of BNP level, as compared with the highest quartile, were 1.536, 3.692 and 4.964, respectively (p trend=0.002). Plasma BNP level before percutaneous coronary intervention may be a predictor of ischemia/reperfusion injury and the resultant extent of myocardial damage. Our findings suggest that high plasma BNP levels might have a clinically important protective effect on ischemic myocardium in patients with STEMI who receive percutaneous coronary intervention. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. Arrhythmogenic effect of sympathetic histamine in mouse hearts subjected to acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gonghao; Hu, Jing; Li, Teng; Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Lu, Jun; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-10

    The role of histamine as a newly recognized sympathetic neurotransmitter has been presented previously, and its postsynaptic effects greatly depended on the activities of sympathetic nerves. Cardiac sympathetic nerves become overactivated under acute myocardial ischemic conditions and release neurotransmitters in large amounts, inducing ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, it is proposed that cardiac sympathetic histamine, in addition to norepinephrine, may have a significant arrhythmogenic effect. To test this hypothesis, we observed the release of cardiac sympathetic histamine and associated ventricular arrhythmogenesis that was induced by acute ischemia in isolated mouse hearts. Mast cell-deficient mice (MCDM) and histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC(-/-)) mice were used to exclude the potential involvement of mast cells. Electrical field stimulation and acute ischemia-reperfusion evoked chemical sympathectomy-sensitive histamine release from the hearts of both MCDM and wild-type (WT) mice but not from HDC(-/-) mice. The release of histamine from the hearts of MCDM and WT mice was associated with the development of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The incidence and duration of induced ventricular arrhythmias were found to decrease in the presence of the selective histamine H(2) receptor antagonist famotidine. Additionally, the released histamine facilitated the arrhythmogenic effect of simultaneously released norepinephrine. We conclude that, under acute ischemic conditions, cardiac sympathetic histamine released by overactive sympathetic nerve terminals plays a certain arrhythmogenic role via H(2) receptors. These findings provided novel insight into the pathophysiological roles of sympathetic histamine, which may be a new therapeutic target for acute ischemia-induced arrhythmias.

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M; Buddingh, K T; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H S; Zijlstra, J G

    2016-06-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS, in particular the occurrence of intestinal ischemia. The medical records of all patients admitted with severe acute pancreatitis admitted to the ICU of a tertiary referral center were reviewed. The criteria proposed by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) were used to determine whether patients had IAH or ACS. Fifty-nine patients with severe acute pancreatitis were identified. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements were performed in 29 patients (49.2 %). IAH was present in all patients (29/29). ACS developed in 13/29 (44.8 %) patients. Ten patients with ACS underwent decompressive laparotomy. A large proportion of patients with ACS had intra-abdominal ischemia upon laparotomy: 8/13 (61.5 %). Mortality was high in both the ACS group and the IAH group. This study confirms that ACS is common in severe acute pancreatitis. Intra-abdominal ischemia occurs in a large proportion of patients with ACS. Swift surgical intervention may be indicated when conservative measures fail in patients with ACS. National and international guidelines need to be updated so that routine IAP measurements become standard of care for patients with severe acute pancreatitis in the ICU.

  2. The relationship between coronary artery calcification detected by non-gated multi-detector CT in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease and myocardial ischemia detected by thallium exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Chikako; Okajima, Kaoru; Kudo, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Hattori, Ryuichi; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2005-12-01

    To examine whether we could predict myocardial ischemia when coronary artery calcification is detected by non-gated multidetector CT in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. Eighty-three patients suspected of having ischemic heart disease (55 men, 28 women; age range 36-83 years; mean age 68 years) underwent multidetector CT and T1-201 single photon emission computed tomography. Prediction of myocardial ischemia by coronary arterial calcification detected on CT was evaluated by comparing the coronary artery territories that showed calcification with the area of myocardial ischemia determined by SPECT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of multidetector CT for predicting myocardial ischemia were calculated. Coronary angiography was also examined and compared with multidetector CT. Risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and family history, were compared for evidence of coronary artery calcification detected by multidetector CT and myocardial ischemia detected by thallium nuclear scans. For analysis by patients, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of coronary artery calcification for myocardial ischemia detection were 65, 63, 56, and 71%, respectively. Similarly, for analysis by coronary arterial territories, those values were 56, 77, 41 and 86%, respectively. Coronary stenosis on CAG was also related to the ischemia determined by SPECT and calcification on multidetector CT. Ischemia was better influenced by risk factors than was coronary arterial calcification. For analysis by coronary arterial territories, the specificity and negative predictive value of coronary arterial calcification seen by multidetector CT are relatively high.

  3. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    of 60 min reperfusion following brief, reversible ischemia (15 min; 15I/60R) for comparison with irreversible I/R (60I/60R). Perfusate proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS), revealing 26 tissue-specific proteins released during...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified......Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin...

  4. Acute coronary syndrome induced by oral capecitabine

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinale, Daniela; Colombo, Alessandro; Colombo, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was undergoing oral chemotherapy with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer presented with recurrent episodes of chest pain associated with electrocardiographic signs of diffuse ST segment elevation. After spontaneous pain relief, the electrocardiogram showed ischemic evolution in the anterior precordial leads. Coronary and ventricular angiography, performed 24 h later, showed normal coronary arteries and normal left ventricular function. After therapy with capecit...

  5. Pathophysiology of brain ischemia as it relates to the therapy of acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Current knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, summarized in the present study, predicts that neurological deficits caused by moderate ischemia (flows in the penumbral range between 23 and 10 ml/100 g/min) are reversible provided flow is restored within 3-4 h of onset. It also...... predicts that areas of dense ischemia cannot be salvaged and that reperfusion of such areas is risky, because massive edema or even hemorrhage may develop following reperfusion. On this basis, it is argued that selection of stroke cases for thrombolysis or surgical revascularization must be based not only...... on computed tomographic (CT) scanning to exclude hemorrhagic stroke, but also on cerebral blood flow (CBF) tomography to exclude lacunar infarcts, early reperfusion, and dense ischemia. The methods available for routing CBF tomography in acute stroke cases are discussed, and it is concluded that single photon...

  6. Tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias and acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bradyarrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is 0.3% to 18%. It is caused by sinus node dysfunction (SND, high-degree atrioventricular (AV block, or bundle branch blocks. SND presents as sinus bradycardia or sinus arrest. First-degree AV block occurs in 4% to 13% of patients with ACS and is caused by rhythm disturbances in the atrium, AV node, bundle of His, or the Tawara system. First- or second-degree AV block is seen very frequently within 24 h of the beginning of ACS; these arrhythmias are frequently transient and usually disappear after 72 h. Third-degree AV blocks are also frequently transient in patients with infero-posterior myocardial infarction (MI and permanent in anterior MI patients. Left anterior fascicular block occurs in 5% of ACS; left posterior fascicular block is observed less frequently (incidence < 0.5%. Complete bundle branch block is present in 10% to 15% of ACS patients; right bundle branch block is more common (2/3 than left bundle branch block (1/3. In patients with bradyarrhythmia, intravenous (IV atropine (1-3 mg is helpful in 70% to 80% of ACS patients and will lead to an increased heart rate. The need for pacemaker stimulation (PS is different in patients with inferior MI (IMI and anterior MI (AMI. Whereas bradyarrhythmias are frequently transient in patients with IMI and therefore do not need permanent PS, there is usually a need for permanent PS in patients with AMI. In these patients bradyarrhythmias are mainly caused by septal necrosis. In patients with ACS and ventricular arrhythmias (VTA amiodarone is the drug of choice; this drug is highly effective even in patients with defibrillation-resistant out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There is general agreement that defibrillation and advanced life support is essential and is the treatment of choice for patients with ventricular flutter/fibrillation. If defibrillation is not available in patients with cardiac arrest due to VTA

  7. [ISCHEMIA - the Largest Ever R andomized Study in Stable Coronary Artery Disease. Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Patients in One Russian Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayganov, S A; Bershteyn, L L; Andreeva, A E; Katamadze, N O; Zbyshevskaya, E V; Kuzmina-Krutetskaya, A M; Volkov, A V; Gumerova, V E; Bitakova, F I

    2017-10-01

    Indications for coronary revascularization in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), presented in the current international guidelines are largely based on the clinical trials conducted sometimes more than 30 years ago. ISCHEMIA is the major multicenter international randomized trial intended to answer the question about the optimal treatment strategy in stable coronary artery disease at the present time. To analyze the most important baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the ISCHEMIA study in one Russian site. The principal inclusion criteria are a positive stress test (in our center, exercise stress echocardiography) of at least moderate risk and obstructive coronary heart disease confirmed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Main exclusion criteria are a significant stenosis of the left main coronary artery by CCTA, clinical progression/destabilization of the ischemic heart disease, angina of IV CCS class, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) 80% - beta blockers, >80% - ACE inhibitors/ARBs. They are at well controlled resting heart rate (.

  8. Unplanned transfer from the telemetry unit to the intensive care unit in hospitalized patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michele M; Loranger, Denise; Kozik, Teri M; Fidler, Richard; Hu, Xiao; Carey, Mary G

    Most patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are admitted to telemetry units. While telemetry is an appropriate level of care, acute complications requiring a higher level of care in the intensive care unit (ICU) occur. Among patients admitted to telemetry for suspected ACS, we determine the frequency of unplanned ICU transfer, and examine whether ECG changes indicative of myocardial ischemia, and/or symptoms preceded unplanned transfer. This was a secondary analysis from a study assessing occurrence rates for transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) using a 12-lead Holter. Clinicians were blinded to Holter data as it was used in the context research; off-line analysis was performed post discharge. Hospital telemetry monitoring was maintained as per hospital protocol. TMI was defined as >1mm ST-segment ↑ or ↓, in >1 ECG lead, >1minute. Symptoms were assessed by chart review. In 409 patients (64±13years), most were men (60%), Caucasian (93%), and had a history of coronary artery disease (47%). Unplanned transfer to the ICU occurred in 9 (2.2%), was equivalent by gender, and age (no transfer 64±13years vs transfer 67±11years). Four patients were transferred following unsuccessful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) attempt, four due to recurrent angina, and one due to renal and hepatic failure. Mean time from admission to transfer was 13±6hours, mean time to ECG detected ischemia was 6±5hours, and 8.8±5hours for symptoms prompting transfer. In two patients ECG detected ischemia and acute symptoms prompting transfer were simultaneous. In five patients, ECG detected ischemia was clinically silent. All patients eventually had symptoms that prompted transfer to the ICU. In all nine patients, there was no documentation or nursing notes regarding bedside ECG monitor changes prior to unplanned transfer. Hospital length of stay was longer in the unplanned transfer group (2days ± 2 versus 6days ± 4; p=0.018). In patients with suspected ACS

  9. The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Markku S; Buerke, M.; Cohen-Solal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock are frequently triggered by ischemic coronary events. Yet, there is a paucity of randomized data on the management of patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome, as acute coronary syndrome and cardiogenic shock have frequently been...... defined as exclusion criteria in trials and registries. As a consequence, guideline recommendations are mostly driven by observational studies, even though these patients have a particularly poor prognosis compared to heart failure patients without signs of coronary artery disease. In acute heart failure...... adrenergic inotropes as a first line therapy for all ACS-AHF patients who are under beta-blockade and or when urinary output is insufficient after diuretics. Levosimendan can be used alone or in combination with other inotropic or vasopressor agents, but requires monitoring due to the risk of hypotension. (C...

  10. N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, T.N.; Laursen, H; Fink-Jensen, A

    1999-01-01

    Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA......]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during...... normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA...

  11. Impaired resting myocardial annular velocities are independently associated with mental stress-induced ischemia in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Al Enezi, Fawaz; Samad, Zainab; Sedberry, Brenda; Boyle, Stephen H; O'Connor, Christopher; Jiang, Wei; Velazquez, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between resting myocardial function as assessed by tissue Doppler myocardial velocities and the propensity to develop mental stress-induced ischemia (MSIMI). Tissue Doppler myocardial velocities detect preclinical cardiac dysfunction and clinical outcomes in a range of conditions. However, little is known about the interrelationship between myocardial velocities and the propensity to develop MSIMI compared with exercise stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Resting annular myocardial tissue Doppler velocities were obtained in 225 patients with known coronary heart disease who were subjected to both conventional exercise stress testing as well as a battery of 3 mental stress tests. Diastolic early (e') and late (a') as well as systolic (s') velocities were obtained, and the eas index, an integrated measure of myocardial velocities, was calculated as e'/(a' × s'). MSIMI was defined as: 1) the development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) a reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 8%; and/or 3) ischemic ST-segment changes during 1 or more of the 3 mental stress tests. A total of 98 of 225 patients (43.7%) exhibited MSIMI. Patients developing MSIMI had significantly lower s' (7.0 ± 1.7 vs. 7.5 ± 1.2, p = 0.016) and a' (8.9 ± 1.8 vs. 10.0 ± 1.9, p stress-induced myocardial ischemia. MSIMI but not exercise stress-induced myocardial ischemia is independently associated with resting abnormalities in myocardial systolic and late diastolic velocities as well as the integrated measure of the eas index in patients with known coronary artery disease. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between coronary stenosis severity and compression type coronary artery movement in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim H; Chawantanpipat, Chirapan; Gattorna, Tim; Chantadansuwan, Thamarath; Kirby, Adrienne; Madden, Ann; Keech, Anthony; Ng, Martin K C

    2010-04-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is thought to occur at sites of minor coronary stenosis. Recent data challenge this and also propose a role for coronary artery movement (CAM) in plaque instability. We examined the relationship between coronary stenosis severity, CAM pattern, and infarct-related lesions (IRLs) in acute myocardial infarction. We investigated 203 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after successful fibrinolysis. Quantitative coronary angiography, CAM pattern, and extent score (atheroma burden) analysis was performed for each coronary artery segment. The IRL stenosis was at least moderate (>50%) and severe (>70%) in 78% and 31% of patients, respectively. Culprit arteries were associated with higher atheroma extent scores (25.2 vs 21.6, P 70% vs Compression CAM was also strongly associated with culprit segments (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.5, P compression CAM and stenosis severity were strongly correlated, with the likelihood of a coronary segment having compression CAM progressively increasing with worsening stenosis (OR 56.4, 95% CI 37.9-83.8, P 70% vs relationship between stenosis severity and IRLs. Our study also raises the hypothesis that compression CAM may accelerate atherosclerosis and predispose to plaque vulnerability. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Coronary Syndrome Manifesting as an Adverse Effect of All-trans-Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Report with Review of the Literature and a Spotlight on Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Govind Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by t(15;17. This leads to the formation of PML/RARα which blocks the differentiation of blasts at the stage of promyelocytes. This is reversed by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, a vitamin A derivative. Acute myocardial ischemia is a rare side effect of ATRA. Case Report. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome manifesting as an adverse effect of ATRA in a lady with APL who had no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. We emphasize the need for high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this entity. In the light of this case, the rare instances of ATRA associated acute myocardial ischemia recorded in the literature and the options available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia sans ATRA have been reviewed.

  14. Comparing stress testing and fractional flow reserve to evaluate presence, location and extent of ischemia in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanshetty, Deepak J; Bhat, Pradeep K; Gandhi, Sanjay; Pillai, Dilip P; Aneja, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    FFR provides an accurate and reproducible assessment of the functional severity of coronary stenosis. Whereas stress testing remains the preferred initial modality for assessment of ischemia, there is limited data comparing it with FFR. We sought to determine the correlation between cardiac stress testing and coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement for assessing the presence, location, and burden of myocardial ischemia in patients referred for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Over 5-year study period, of the 5420 consecutive coronary angiograms that were screened, 326 patients had FFR measurements. Of these, 96 patients with FFR measurements who had a preceding stress test (stress echocardiography [SE] or myocardial perfusion imaging [MPI]) within a year were included. Of the 96 patients, there were 46 (48%) men and 50 (52%) women with a mean age of 61 ± 10 years. SE was performed in 57 (59.3%) and MPI in 32 (40.7%) of patients. FFR was ≤0.79 in 54 (56%) patients. Stress testing had low sensitivity (55%) and specificity (47%) compared to FFR. The concordance between FFR and stress testing was low for both presence (k=0.03) and location (k=0.05) of the ischemic territory. The number of ischemic vascular territories was correctly estimated in only 39% of the stress tests. SE was more likely to overestimate and MPI more likely to underestimate extent of ischemia. In patients referred for evaluation of CAD, there was poor correlation between stress testing and FFR. A prospective study comparing these two modalities with FFR is needed. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Coronary Syndrome In Zanzibar, Tanzania | Budha | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was carried out to determine patients characteristics, prevalence of risk factors, presenting symptom, provisional diagnosis, final diagnosis and outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Thirteen cases were collected between July 2001 to July 2002 and September 2003 to April 2004. Eleven (84.6%) ...

  16. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: An Under-recognized Cause of Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naabi, Hanan; Al Lawati, Hatim

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare condition that is often underdiagnosed given limitations of conventional cineangiography. In addition to the diagnostic challenge, the condition poses a major therapeutic dilemma given paucity of literature to guide management. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman, who presented with acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography at the time of the index hospitalization revealed type 2 SCAD. She was managed conservatively. Repeat coronary angiography three months later showed complete resolution of the previously noted dissection. Because of the high association between SCAD and fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), a cross-sectional imaging was performed in this case, which ruled out underlying FMD. The patient has been followed longitudinally since her index event and has had no reported recurrences.

  17. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: An exceptional cause of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Djessan, J J; Zoumenou, A; Angoran, I; N'Guetta, R

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or sudden death, which typically affects young women. We reported two cases of black Africans patients, aged 56 and 52 years old, who presented to Abidjan Heart Institute for ACS. Coronary angiography showed spontaneous dissection of the right coronary artery in the first case, and dissection of the distal left anterior descending artery in the second. A conservative approach was preferred. Both patients received antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and statins, with a favorable in-hospital course. These cases highlight SCAD as a possible cause of ACS. Implementation of interventional cardiology in Sub-Saharan Africa will help identify this uncommon cause of ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: An Under-recognized Cause of Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Al Naabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare condition that is often underdiagnosed given limitations of conventional cineangiography. In addition to the diagnostic challenge, the condition poses a major therapeutic dilemma given paucity of literature to guide management. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman, who presented with acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography at the time of the index hospitalization revealed type 2 SCAD. She was managed conservatively. Repeat coronary angiography three months later showed complete resolution of the previously noted dissection. Because of the high association between SCAD and fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD, a cross-sectional imaging was performed in this case, which ruled out underlying FMD. The patient has been followed longitudinally since her index event and has had no reported recurrences.

  19. Comparison of minimum-norm estimation and beamforming in electrocardiography with acute ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konttila, Teijo; Mäntynen, Ville; Stenroos, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In the electrocardiographic (ECG) inverse problem, the electrical activity of the heart is estimated from measured electrocardiogram. A model of thorax conductivities and a model of the cardiac generator is required for the ECG inverse problem. Limitations and errors in methods, models, and data will lead to errors in the estimates. However, in experimental applications, the use of limited or erroneous models is often inevitable due to necessary model simplifications and the difficulty of obtaining accurate 3D anatomical imaging data. In this work, we focus on two methods for solving the inverse problem of ECG in the case of acute ischemia: minimum-norm (MN) estimation and linearly constrained minimum-variance beamforming. We study how these methods perform with different sizes of ischemia and with erroneous conductivity models. The results indicate that the beamformer can localize small ischemia given an accurate model, but it cannot be used for estimating the size of ischemia. The MN estimator is tolerant to geometry errors and excels in estimating the size of ischemia, although the beamformer performs better with accurate model and small ischemia. (paper)

  20. Sevoflurane mitigates shedding of hyaluronan from the coronary endothelium, also during ischemia/reperfusion: an ex vivo animal study

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    Chen C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Chen,1,3 Daniel Chappell,2,3 Thorsten Annecke,2,3 Peter Conzen,2 Matthias Jacob,2,3 Ulrich Welsch,4 Bernhard Zwissler,2 Bernhard F Becker3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Clinic of Anesthesiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Walter-Brendel-Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 4Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany Abstract: Glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA, a major constituent of the endothelial glycocalyx, helps to maintain vascular integrity. Preconditioning the heart with volatile anesthetic agents protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated a possible protective effect of sevoflurane on the glycocalyx, especially on HA. The effect of pre-ischemic treatment with sevoflurane (15 minutes at 2% vol/vol gas on shedding of HA was evaluated in 28 isolated, beating guinea pig hearts, subjected to warm ischemia (20 minutes at 37°C followed by reperfusion (40 minutes, half with and half without preconditioning by sevoflurane. HA concentration was measured in the coronary effluent. Over the last 20 minutes of reperfusion hydroxyethyl starch (1 g% was continuously infused and the epicardial transudate collected over the last 5 minutes for measuring the colloid extravasation. Additional hearts were fixed by perfusion after the end of reperfusion for immunohistology and electron microscopy. Sevoflurane did not significantly affect post-ischemic oxidative stress, but strongly inhibited shedding of HA during the whole period, surprisingly even prior to ischemia. Immunohistology demonstrated that heparan sulfates and SDC1 of the glycocalyx were also preserved by sevoflurane. Electron microscopy revealed shedding of glycocalyx caused by ischemia and a mostly intact glycocalyx in hearts exposed to sevoflurane. Coronary vascular permeability of the

  1. Src tyrosine kinase inhibition prevents pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaizu, Takeshi; Fung, Shan-Yu; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Guan, Zehong; Zhang, Qiao; dos Santos, Claudia C; Han, Bing; Mura, Marco; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion is a pathological process seen in several clinical conditions, including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, resuscitation for circulatory arrest, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary embolism. A better understanding of its molecular mechanisms is very important. Rat left lung underwent in situ ischemia for 60 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion. The gene expression profiles and Src protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) phosphorylation were studied over time, and PP2, an Src PTK inhibitor, was intravenously administered 10 min before lung ischemia to determine the role of Src PTK in lung injury. Reperfusion following ischemia significantly changed the expression of 169 genes, with Mmp8, Mmp9, S100a9, and S100a8 being the most upregulated genes. Ischemia alone only affected expression of 9 genes in the lung. However, Src PTK phosphorylation (activation) was increased in the ischemic lung, mainly on the alveolar wall. Src PTK inhibitor pretreatment decreased phosphorylation of Src PTKs, total protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and STAT3 phosphorylation. It increased phosphorylation of the p85α subunit of PI3 kinase, a signal pathway that can inhibit coagulation and inflammation. PP2 reduced leukocyte infiltration in the lung, apoptotic cell death, fibrin deposition, and severity of acute lung injury after reperfusion. Src inhibition also significantly reduced CXCL1 (GRO/KI) and CCL2 (MCP-1) chemokine levels in the serum. During pulmonary ischemia, Src PTK activation, rather than alteration in gene expression, may play a critical role in reperfusion-induced lung injury. Src PTK inhibition presents a new prophylactic treatment for pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury.

  2. Effect of Glucocorticoids on Ultrastructure of Myocardial Muscle in the Course of Experimentally Induced Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuropka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for effective methods of myocardial cytoprotection against ischemia is the most significant issue in modern cardiology and cardiac surgery. Glucocorticoids are deemed very strong modulators of inflammatory response and thus can potentially protect heart muscle from postreperfusion injury and myocardial ischemia during cardiac surgery. Ultrastructural examination of the left ventricle heart samples revealed that the intravenous application of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone proved to exert cytoprotective effect on cardiomyocytes during experimentally induced acute ischemia in rats.

  3. Acute coronary syndrome after levamisole-adultered cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Grabherr, Silke; Shiferaw, Kebede; Doenz, Franceso; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a well known trigger of acute coronary syndromes. Over the last 10 years levamisole, a veterinary anthelminthic drug has been increasingly used as an adulterant of cocaine. Levamisole was used to treat pediatric nephritic syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis before being withdrawn from the market due to its significant toxicity, i.e. hematological complications and vasculitis. The major complications of levamisole-adultered cocaine reported up to now are hematological and dermatological. The case reported here is of a 25 year old man with a history of cocaine abuse who died at home after complaining of retrosternal pain. Postmortem CT-angiography, autopsy, and chemical and toxicological analyses were performed. An eroded coronary artery plaque was found at the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Two myocardial infarct scars were present in the left ventricle. Microscopic examination of the coronary artery revealed infiltration of eosinophils into the adventitia and intima. Toxicological examination confirmed the presence of cocaine and its metabolites in the peripheral blood, and of levamisole in the urine and pericardial fluid. Eosinophilic inflammatory coronary artery pathologies have been clinically linked to coronary dissection, hypersensitivity coronary syndrome and vasospastic allergic angina. The coronary pathology in the presented case could be a complication of levamisole-adultered cocaine use, in which an allergic or immune-mediated mechanism might play a role. The rise in cocaine addiction worldwide and the increase of levamisole adulterated cocaine highlights the importance of updating our knowledge of the effects of adultered cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue characterization of non-culprit intermediate coronary lesions in non ST elevation acute coronary syndromes

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    Helmy Hassan Elghawaby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disruption of vulnerable plaques is the most common cause of acute coronary syndromes. Intravascular ultrasound facilitates cross-sectional imaging of coronary arteries. We aimed at using IVUS to investigate the morphology and tissue characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques of non-culprit intermediate coronary lesions in non-ST elevation ACS setting. Methods: IVUS assessment of sixty-one intermediate coronary lesions in twenty-eight patients with the diagnosis of Non ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Ultrasound signals were obtained by an IVUS system using a 40-MHz catheter. Results: Mean age was 53.2 ± 9.1 years. Males = 20 (71.4%. Smoking in 17 (60.7%, hypertension in 16 (57.1%, Dyslipidemia in 12 (42.9% and DM in 8 (28.6%. Culprit vessels represent 42% of affected vessels. Sixty-one intermediate lesions were detected. Twenty-nine lesions in culprit vessels and thirty-two lesions in non-culprit vessels with higher lipidic content in lesions of culprit vessels (P < 0.001 while a higher calcific content in lesions of non-culprit vessels (P < 0.001. Higher calcific content of proximal more than distal lesions (P = 0.048. Negative remodeling in 55.7% of lesions. Conclusions: A higher lipidic content in lesions of culprit vessels, while the lesions of non-culprit vessels were more calcific. Higher calcific content of proximal more than distal lesions was defined as well. Keywords: ACS: Acute coronary syndrome, Intermediate lesions, IVUS: Intravascular ultrasound, Vulnerable plaques, MHz: Mega Hertz

  5. High-Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Patient with Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome Secondary to Critical Subclavian Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Fanari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease are more likely to have extensive atherosclerosis that involves other major arteries. Critical subclavian artery (SCA stenosis can result in coronary subclavian steal syndrome that may present as recurrent ischemia and even myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. In patients with concomitant severe native coronary disease, occluded saphenous venous grafts (SVG to other arteries, percutaneous intervention on critical subclavian artery (SCA stenosis that will compromise the blood flow to left internal mammary graft (LIMA and left anterior descending (LAD artery will be a high-risk procedure and may be associated with cardiogenic shock, especially in patients with preexisting ischemic cardiomyopathy. The use of percutaneous left ventricular (LV assist device like Impella will offer better hemodynamic support and coronary perfusion and therefore results in decreased myocardial damage, maximized residual cardiac function, and lower incidence of cardiogenic shock.

  6. Aldose reductase modulates acute activation of mesenchymal markers via the β-catenin pathway during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Thiagarajan

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase (AR: human, AKR1B1; mouse, AKR1B3, the first enzyme in the polyol pathway, plays a key role in mediating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. In earlier studies, using transgenic mice broadly expressing human AKR1B1 to human-relevant levels, mice devoid of Akr1b3, and pharmacological inhibitors of AR, we demonstrated that AR is an important component of myocardial I/R injury and that inhibition of this enzyme protects the heart from I/R injury. In this study, our objective was to investigate if AR modulates the β-catenin pathway and consequent activation of mesenchymal markers during I/R in the heart. To test this premise, we used two different experimental models: in vivo, Akr1b3 null mice and wild type C57BL/6 mice (WT were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD followed by recovery for 48 hours or 28 days, and ex-vivo, WT and Akr1b3 null murine hearts were perfused using the Langendorff technique (LT and subjected to 30 min of global (zero-flow ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Our in vivo results reveal reduced infarct size and improved functional recovery at 48 hours in mice devoid of Akr1b3 compared to WT mice. We demonstrate that the cardioprotection observed in Akr1b3 null mice was linked to acute activation of the β-catenin pathway and consequent activation of mesenchymal markers and genes linked to fibrotic remodeling. The increased activity of the β-catenin pathway at 48 hours of recovery post-LAD was not observed at 28 days post-infarction, thus indicating that the observed increase in β-catenin activity was transient in the mice hearts devoid of Akr1b3. In ex vivo studies, inhibition of β-catenin blocked the cardioprotection observed in Akr1b3 null mice hearts. Taken together, these data indicate that AR suppresses acute activation of β-catenin and, thereby, blocks consequent induction of mesenchymal markers during early reperfusion after myocardial

  7. The role of stress echocardiography in the evaluation of coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padang, Ratnasari; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2016-10-01

    Considering the unfavorable prognosis of women with ischemic heart disease, an aggressive but safe approach to evaluate women presenting with chest pain is warranted so that coronary artery disease (CAD) can be identified and treated early. Stress echocardiography (SE) has matured into an invaluable technique for the noninvasive detection of obstructive epicardial CAD. Its versatility, accuracy, safety, noninvasiveness, and lack of radiation exposure make SE an attractive technique to apply to the assessment of women with known or suspected heart disease. This article focuses on the current evidence supporting the role of SE in the assessment of CAD and myocardial ischemia in women.

  8. Analysis of temporal dynamics in imagery during acute limb ischemia and reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Regan, John; Spain, Tammy A.; Caruso, Joseph D.; Rodriquez, Maricela; Luthra, Rajiv; Forsberg, Jonathon; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion injuries present major challenges for both military and civilian medicine. Improved methods for assessing the effects and predicting outcome could guide treatment decisions. Specific issues related to ischemia and reperfusion injury can include complications arising from tourniquet use, such as microvascular leakage in the limb, loss of muscle strength and systemic failures leading to hypotension and cardiac failure. Better methods for assessing the viability of limbs/tissues during ischemia and reducing complications arising from reperfusion are critical to improving clinical outcomes for at-risk patients. The purpose of this research is to develop and assess possible prediction models of outcome for acute limb ischemia using a pre-clinical model. Our model relies only on non-invasive imaging data acquired from an animal study. Outcome is measured by pathology and functional scores. We explore color, texture, and temporal features derived from both color and thermal motion imagery acquired during ischemia and reperfusion. The imagery features form the explanatory variables in a model for predicting outcome. Comparing model performance to outcome prediction based on direct observation of blood chemistry, blood gas, urinalysis, and physiological measurements provides a reference standard. Initial results show excellent performance for the imagery-base model, compared to predictions based direct measurements. This paper will present the models and supporting analysis, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  9. Comparison of coronary angiography and early oral dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.; Hicks, R.R.; Myers, G.H.; McCarthy, J.J.; Perry, J.R.; Adams, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated 50 consecutive patients who received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction using thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in combination with oral dipyridamole to assess the frequency of residual myocardial ischemia. Thallium studies were performed early after myocardial infarction at a mean of 4.6 days. The time from the onset of chest pain to the administration of thrombolytic therapy was 2.6 hours (range 0.5 to 5.5). Q wave myocardial infarction was evident in 46 patients; four patients had a non-Q wave infarction (anterior infarction in 31 patients and inferior infarction in 19 patients). The serum mean peak creatinine kinase was 1503 IU/L (range 127 to 6500). Coronary angiography was performed in all patients at a mean of 3.1 days (range 2 to 10) and revealed the infarct-related vessel to be patent in 36 patients (72%). The ejection fraction was 48% (range 26% to 67%). After dipyridamole administration, 13 patients (26%) developed angina that was easily reversed with the administration of intravenous aminophylline. Systolic blood pressure decreased from 122 to 115 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and the heart rate increased from 76 to 85 beats/min (p less than 0.05). None of the patients had significant hypotension, arrhythmias, or evidence of infarct extension. Perfusion abnormalities were present on the initial thallium images in 48 patients. Redistribution suggestive of ischemia was present in 36 patients (72%). Ischemia confined to the vascular distribution of the infarct vessel was evident in 22 patients. Seven patients had ischemia in the infarct zone as well as in a remote myocardial segment. Thus 29 patients (58%) had ischemia in the distribution of the infarct vessel. Ischemia in the infarct zone was evident in 19 of 36 patients with open infarct vessels and in 10 of 14 patients with occluded infarct vessels

  10. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bukowczan

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits protective and regenerative effects in some organs including the stomach, kidney, and the brain. In the pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. However, no studies investigated the effect of obestatin administration following the onset of experimental acute pancreatitis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obestatin therapy in the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, we tested the influence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and administration of obestatin on daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion.Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the pancreas. Obestatin (8 nmol/kg/dose was administered intraperitoneally twice a day, starting 24 hours after the beginning of reperfusion. The effect of obestatin in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed between 2 and 14 days, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Secretory studies were performed on the third day after sham-operation or induction of acute pancreatitis in conscious rats equipped with chronic pancreatic fistula.Treatment with obestatin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland, and led to earlier pancreatic regeneration. Structural changes were accompanied by biochemical and functional improvements manifested by accelerated normalization of interleukin-1β level and activity of myeloperoxidase and lipase, attenuation of the decrease in pancreatic DNA synthesis, and by an improvement of pancreatic blood flow. Induction of acute pancreatitis by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion significantly decreased daily food intake and

  11. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits protective and regenerative effects in some organs including the stomach, kidney, and the brain. In the pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. However, no studies investigated the effect of obestatin administration following the onset of experimental acute pancreatitis. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obestatin therapy in the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, we tested the influence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and administration of obestatin on daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the pancreas. Obestatin (8nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day, starting 24 hours after the beginning of reperfusion. The effect of obestatin in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed between 2 and 14 days, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Secretory studies were performed on the third day after sham-operation or induction of acute pancreatitis in conscious rats equipped with chronic pancreatic fistula. Results Treatment with obestatin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland, and led to earlier pancreatic regeneration. Structural changes were accompanied by biochemical and functional improvements manifested by accelerated normalization of interleukin-1β level and activity of myeloperoxidase and lipase, attenuation of the decrease in pancreatic DNA synthesis, and by an improvement of pancreatic blood flow. Induction of acute pancreatitis by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion significantly decreased daily food

  12. [Acute occlusion after coronary angioplasty. Early management and late course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, G L; Sousa, A G; Tanajura, L F; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G; Feres, F; Mattos, L A; Pinto, I M; Sousa, J E

    1993-06-01

    Assess the efficacy of the different strategies employed in the management of acute closure and verify the late prognosis of patients who develop this complication. From january 1987, through December 1990, 2315 consecutive patients underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in our Institution. We analyzed 100 patients who had had acute closure of the dilated vessel determining the total incidence of myocardial infarction and death, the effectiveness of the different treatment strategies and clinical and angiographic predictors of poor in-hospital outcome. Late follow-up was obtained in the hospital survivors. The incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the group of 100 patients was 57%; death occurred in 12% of the patients. Forty-one individuals were referred to emergency bypass surgery, 35 received clinical treatment and 24 underwent redilatation of the vessel. Those managed clinically had a higher incidence of myocardial infarction compared to the ones who underwent either redilatation or surgery (74.3% versus 50% and 48.8%). The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction p > 0.05). Acute coronary occlusion is a serious complication of angioplasty and is associated with high rates of major complications (myocardial infarction, death). Low left ventricular ejection fraction and PTCA involving the left anterior descending are predictors of higher in-hospital mortality in patients with acute closure. Late outcome is less favourable in patients submitted to clinical treatment in the acute phase.

  13. Unilateral Renal Ischemia as a Model of Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Fibrosis in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, C W; Brainard, B M; Hinson, W; Brown, S A; Brown, C A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the acute and chronic effects of 1-hour unilateral in vivo renal ischemia on renal function and histology in cats. Twenty-one adult purpose-bred research cats were anesthetized, and 1 kidney underwent renal artery and vein occlusion for 1 hour. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations, urine protein:creatinine ratio, urine-specific gravity, glomerular filtration rate, hematocrit, platelet concentration and function, and white blood cell count were measured at baseline and variable time points after ischemia. Renal histopathology was evaluated on days 3, 6, 12, 21, 42, and 70 postischemia; changes in smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen were examined. Following ischemia, whole animal glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced (57% of baseline on day 6; P kidneys exhibited severe acute epithelial necrosis accompanied by evidence of regeneration of tubules predominantly within the corticomedullary junction. At later periods, postischemic kidneys had evidence of tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation with significantly more smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen staining and interstitial fibrosis when compared with the contralateral control kidneys. This study characterizes the course of ischemic acute kidney injury in cats and demonstrates that ischemic acute kidney injury triggers chronic fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy in feline kidneys. These late changes are typical of those observed in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyıldırım, Serhan; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sahna, Engin; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.

  15. Interleukin-10 serum level in acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Alwi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To compare plasma IL-10 concentrations in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS with those in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD.Methods ACS patients hospitalized in intensive coronary care unit (ICCU of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital/Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia (CMH/FMUI, Persahabatan Hospital, MMC Hospital, and Medistra Hospital, Jakarta, between May 2005 and May 2006, were included in this study. The ambulatory CAD patients were taken as comparator. The serum IL-10 level was measured by immunoassay method, and compared by using Independent Student’s t-test. To investigate whether IL-10 serum level could predict ACS, the sensitivity and specificity of this parameter towards ACS in various IL-10 serum levels were calculated as well.Results In this observational study, as many as 146 subjects were analyzed, consisting of 84 ACS patients, and 62 coronary artery disease (CAD. The IL-10 level was higher in the group of ACS patients (7.37 pg/mL + 7.81, CI 95% 5.68-9.07 than that in CAD patients (1.59 pg/mL + 1.55, CI 95% 1.2-1.98. The optimal cut-off point for serum IL-10level is >1.95 pg/mL, with 79.76 % sensitivity and 77.42 % specificity.Conclusion The IL-10 level was higher in the ACS patients compared to that in CAD patients. Serum IL-10 measurement is a quite superior method to distinguish acute and stable condition, eventhough it is not as good as hsCRP for the same purpose. (Med J Indones 2009;18:165-9Key words: Interleukin-10, acute coronary syndrome

  16. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  17. Tibolone and its metabolites acutely relax rabbit coronary arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Susan Helene

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of estradiol, tibolone and its metabolites on coronary arteries in vitro and to investigate possible vascular mechanisms. METHODS: Coronary artery ring segments from female rabbits were mounted in myographs for isometric tension recordings. Concentration...

  18. Impact of coronary dominance on in-hospital outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kuno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the manner in which coronary dominance affects in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that left dominant coronary anatomies are associated with worse prognoses in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4873 ACS patients undergoing PCI between September 2008 and April 2013 at 14 hospitals participating in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database Registry. The patients were grouped based on diagnostic coronary angiograms performed prior to PCI; those with right- or co-dominant anatomy (RD group and those with left-dominant anatomy (LD group. RESULTS: The average patient age was 67.6±11.8 years and both patient groups had similar ages, coronary risk factors, comorbidities, and prior histories. The numbers of patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiopulmonary arrest were significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group (heart failure: 650 RD patients [14.7%] vs. 87 LD patients [18.8%], P = 0.025; cardiogenic shock: 322 RD patients [7.3%] vs. 48 LD patients [10.3%], P = 0.021; and cardiopulmonary arrest: 197 RD patients [4.5%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.003. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among LD patients than among RD patients (182 RD patients [4.1%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that LD anatomy was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.030. CONCLUSION: Among ACS patients who underwent PCI, LD patients had significantly worse in-hospital outcomes compared with RD patients, and LD anatomy was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.

  19. Using machine learning techniques to differentiate acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougand Setareh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is an unstable and dynamic process that includes unstable angina, ST elevation myocardial infarction, and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Despite recent technological advances in early diognosis of ACS, differentiating between different types of coronary diseases in the early hours of admission is controversial. The present study was aimed to accurately differentiate between various coronary events, using machine learning techniques. Such methods, as a subset of artificial intelligence, include algorithms that allow computers to learn and play a major role in treatment decisions. Methods: 1902 patients diagnosed with ACS and admitted to hospital were selected according to Euro Heart Survey on ACS. Patients were classified based on decision tree J48. Bagging aggregation algorithms was implemented to increase the efficiency of algorithm. Results: The performance of classifiers was estimated and compared based on their accuracy computed from confusion matrix. The accuracy rates of decision tree and bagging algorithm were calculated to be 91.74% and 92.53%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed methods used in this study proved to have the ability to identify various ACS. In addition, using matrix of confusion, an acceptable number of subjects with acute coronary syndrome were identified in each class.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luis Gustavo Campos; Dalio, Marcelo Bellini; Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Feres, Omar; Piccinato, Carlos Eli

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia. An experimental study was designed using 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups (n = 12): Control; Ischemia (I)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes; Hyperbaric oxygen treatment during ischemia (HBO2)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes and hyperbaric oxygen during the first 90 minutes; Pre-treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (PHBO2)--90 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen treatment before total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK); muscular malondialdehyde (MDA), muscular glycogen, and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). AST was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2 compared with control (P = .001). There was no difference in LDH. CPK was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p = .014). MDA was significantly higher in PHBO2, compared with other groups (p = .042). Glycogen was significantly decreased in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p < .001). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in acute total hindlimb ischemia exerted no protective effect on muscle injury, regardless of time of application. When applied prior to installation of total ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen treatment aggravated muscle injury.

  1. Fractional flow reserve in acute coronary syndromes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj R. Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractional flow reserve (FFR assessment provides anatomical and physiological information that is often used to tailor treatment strategies in coronary artery disease. Whilst robust data validates FFR use in stable ischaemic heart disease, its use in acute coronary syndromes (ACS is less well investigated. We critically review the current data surrounding FFR use across the spectrum of ACS including culprit and non-culprit artery analysis. With adenosine being conventionally used to induce maximal hyperaemia during FFR assessment, co-existent clinical conditions may preclude its use during acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, we include a current review of instantaneous wave free ratio as a novel vasodilator independent method of assessing lesion severity as an alternative strategy to guide revascularisation in ACS.

  2. Women and the management of acute coronary syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádal, P.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 9 (2012), s. 1151-1159 ISSN 0008-4212 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT12153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : sex differences * acute coronary syndrome * women Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2012

  3. The relationship between mean platelet volume and coronary collateral vessels in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated mean platelet volume (MPV has been proposed as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and is associated with poor clinical outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS. However, some studies have contradictory findings. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association of MPV with the presence of coronary collateral vessel (CCV in patients with ACS. Objective: To find MPV value in ACS patients and to find the predictive value of MPV in the spectrum of CAD and to examine whether levels of MPV predict the presence of CCVs. Methods: A total of 180 patients with first ACS were included in the study. MPV was measured. All patients underwent coronary angiography to know disease severity and CCVs. The CCVs are graded according to the Rentrop scoring system and according to coronary angiography results; patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 (poor CCV and Group 2 (good CCV. Results: The MPV was 10.74 ± 2 fl in poor collateral group patients and 11.01 ± 1.7 fl in good collateral group (P = 0.421. The presence of CCV was not significantly associated with high levels of MPV. MPV value did not show any prediction of the spectrum of CAD. Conclusion: MPV on admission was not associated with the development of CCV positively in patients with ACS. Furthermore, it is not associated with a number of vessel involvements.

  4. Cardiac troponin T in acute coronary syndrome with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Huck Chin

    2008-08-01

    Cardiac troponin levels are frequently elevated in patients with chronic renal failure, hence diagnosis of myocardial necrosis is difficult. The prevalence of elevated serum troponin T was determined and its diagnostic value in acute coronary syndrome was assessed in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed in 227 patients with chronic renal insufficiency and a diagnosis of unstable angina, non-ST or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. All patients had baseline serum troponin T levels measured at previous visits; the baseline troponin T level was raised in 53.3%. Cardiac troponin T levels did not correlate with creatinine levels, and were not affected by dialysis. Mortality after an acute coronary event was high (46.3%). Because of the elevated baseline cardiac troponin T levels, detection of acute coronary syndrome in patients with chronic renal failure requires evaluation of serial cardiac enzyme measurements and serial 12-lead electrocardiograms. Early and definitive cardiac interventions may contribute towards decreasing the mortality rate in this group of patients.

  5. Trastuzumab-Induced Myocardiotoxicity Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab is an important biological agent in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, with effects on response rates, progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life. Although this drug is well tolerated in terms of adverse effects, trastuzumab-associated myocardiotoxicity has been described to have an incidence of 0.6–4.5% and in rare cases, the drug can trigger severe congestive heart failure with progression to death or even mimic acute coronary syndrome with complete left bundle branch blockade. In this paper is reported a case of trastuzumab-associated myocardiotoxicity manifesting as acute coronary syndrome in a 69-year-old female. The patient is currently undergoing a conservative clinical treatment that restricts overexertion.The majority of clinical studies report trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity as a rare event, and, when present, characterized by mild to moderate clinical signs, the ease of reversibility with pharmacological measures and the temporary discontinuation of the medication. Conversely, it is vital for the oncologist/cardiologist to consider the possibility that trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity may manifest itself as a severe clinical case, mimicking acute coronary syndrome, justifying careful risk stratification and adequate cardiac monitoring, especially in high-risk patients.

  6. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Prognostic estimation of coronary artery disease risk with resting perfusion abnormalities and stress ischemia on myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leslee J; Hendel, Robert C; Heller, Gary V; Borges-Neto, Salvador; Cerqueira, Manuel; Berman, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    The extent and severity of stress ischemia are strong predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) events. Prognosis associated with myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) abnormalities on the resting scan as it relates to stress ischemia has been incompletely described. The Myoview Prognosis Registry was a prospective consecutive series of 7849 outpatients enrolled from 5 geographically diverse centers. Patients were followed up for the occurrence of CAD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or death related to MI, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death). Time to CAD event (n = 545) was estimated by use of univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models (risk adjusted by symptoms, risk factors, and comorbid conditions). For patients with no resting defects, overall CAD event rates were 1.2%, 8%, and 10% for patients with 0% ischemic myocardium, 1% to 4.9% ischemic myocardium, and 5% ischemic myocardium or greater, respectively (P ischemic myocardium, there was a 7% increased risk of CAD events (P disease, and MPS with provocative ischemia.

  8. Correlation of QRS complex after percutaneous coronary intervention with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis molecule contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Min Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of QRS complex after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis molecule contents. Methods: Patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were treated in Nanchong Central Hospital between June 2014 and August 2016 were selected and divided into the PCI group who received emergency PCI surgery and the control group who accepted selective PCI or refused emergency PCI after the medical data were retrospectively analyzed. The fQRS as well as the contents of ischemia reperfusion injury indexes and apoptosis molecules was determined after 1 week of treatment. Results: The incidence of fQRS in PCI group was significantly lower than that in control group; serum MDA, cTnI, H-FABP, sTWEAK, sFas, sTRAIL and Caspase-3 contents as well as peripheral blood Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression of PCI group were greatly lower than those of control group; serum MDA, cTnI, H-FABP, sTWEAK, sFas, sTRAIL and Caspase-3 contents as well as peripheral blood Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression of PCI group of patients with fQRS complex (+ were greatly higher than those of patients with fQRS complex (-. Conclusion: The occurrence of fQRS after PCI is closely related to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis.

  9. Combined analysis of stress myocardial tomo-scintigraphies and coronaries angio scanners to identify the arteries responsible of ischemia;Analyse combinee des tomoscintigraphies myocardiques de stress et angioscanners coronaires pour identifier les arteres responsables de l'ischemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didot, N.; Djaballah, W.; Daragon, N.; Gillet, N.; Meneroux, B.; Netter, F.; Paris-Grandpierre, S.; Karcher, G.; Marie, P.Y. [CHU de Nancy-Brabois, Service de medecine nucleaire, 54 (France); Mandry, D. [CHU de Nancy-Brabois, Service de radiologie, 54 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of an analysis by image fusion of myocardium tomo-scintigraphy and coronary angio scanner in the identification of coronary artery responsible for myocardial ischemia stress. As results, the identification in myocardium tomo-scintigraphy of the ischemic arterial trunk is rarely changed by a combined analysis with coronary angio scanner. Discrepancies between the two examinations are common, even after fusion, but especially for mild ischemia. (N.C.)

  10. RELEVANCIA DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ENTRE EL SÍNDROME AÓRTICO AGUDO Y EL SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO EN PACIENTES CON DOLOR TORÁCICO Y CRISIS HIPERTENSIVA: REVISIÓN A PROPÓSITO DE 2 CASOS / Relevance of the differential diagnosis between acute aortic syndrome and acute coronary syndrome in patients with thoracic pain and hypertensive crisis: review on 2 case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Simó Sánchez; Maria Pilar Portero Pérez; Jose Ramón Ruiz Arroyo; Jose Antonio Linares Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a pathological process with low incidence compared with acute coronary syndrome, although with a worse prognosis in the short term, which is why its early diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential to the favorable evolution of thepatient. Electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia, with acute evolution, are rare in acute aortic syndrome. Even in the presence of a suggestive thoracic pain and high levels of blood pressure, an adequate differentia...

  11. Blood Transfusion and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrowni, Wassef; Vora, Amit Navin; Dai, David; Wojdyla, Daniel; Dakik, Habib; Rao, Sunil V

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. To date, no studies have evaluated the association of blood transfusion with AKI in patients undergoing PCI. We used a retrospective cohort study of all patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI from CathPCI Registry (n=1 756 864). The primary outcome was AKI defined as the rise in serum creatinine post procedure ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% above baseline values. AKI developed in 9.0% of study sample. Patients with AKI were older, more often women, and had high prevalence of comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and advanced stages of chronic kidney disease at baseline. Blood transfusion was utilized in 2.2% of patients. In the overall sample, AKI developed in 35.1% of patients who received transfusion versus 8.4% of patients without transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 4.87 [4.71-5.04]). In the subgroup of patients who sustained bleeding event and received transfusion, the rate of AKI was significantly increased across all preprocedure hemoglobin levels versus no blood transfusion. Similar findings were seen in the subgroup of patients with no bleeding event. Blood transfusion is strongly associated with AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI. Further investigation is needed to determine whether a restrictive blood transfusion strategy might improve PCI outcomes by reducing the risk of AKI. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Prediction of acute coronary syndromes by urinary proteome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay M Htun

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals who are at risk of suffering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS may allow to introduce preventative measures. We aimed to identify ACS-related urinary peptides, that combined as a pattern can be used as prognostic biomarker. Proteomic data of 252 individuals enrolled in four prospective studies from Australia, Europe and North America were analyzed. 126 of these had suffered from ACS within a period of up to 5 years post urine sampling (cases. Proteomic analysis of 84 cases and 84 matched controls resulted in the discovery of 75 ACS-related urinary peptides. Combining these to a peptide pattern, we established a prognostic biomarker named Acute Coronary Syndrome Predictor 75 (ACSP75. ACSP75 demonstrated reasonable prognostic discrimination (c-statistic = 0.664, which was similar to Framingham risk scoring (c-statistics = 0.644 in a validation cohort of 42 cases and 42 controls. However, generating by a composite algorithm named Acute Coronary Syndrome Composite Predictor (ACSCP, combining the biomarker pattern ACSP75 with the previously established urinary proteomic biomarker CAD238 characterizing coronary artery disease as the underlying aetiology, and age as a risk factor, further improved discrimination (c-statistic = 0.751 resulting in an added prognostic value over Framingham risk scoring expressed by an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.273 ± 0.048 (P < 0.0001 and net reclassification improvement of 0.405 ± 0.113 (P = 0.0007. In conclusion, we demonstrate that urinary peptide biomarkers have the potential to predict future ACS events in asymptomatic patients. Further large scale studies are warranted to determine the role of urinary biomarkers in clinical practice.

  13. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Parsa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI, and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA by assessing nitric oxide (NO and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia, followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR. The five experimental groups (n=12 included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Results: Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Conclusion: Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  14. Tissue characterization of non-culprit intermediate coronary lesions in non ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghawaby, Helmy Hassan; Shawky, Mohamed Ashraf; Mowafi, Ahmed Hossam; Abd-Elbary, Akram Mohamed; Faris, Farouk Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    Disruption of vulnerable plaques is the most common cause of acute coronary syndromes. Intravascular ultrasound facilitates cross-sectional imaging of coronary arteries. We aimed at using IVUS to investigate the morphology and tissue characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques of non-culprit intermediate coronary lesions in non-ST elevation ACS setting. IVUS assessment of sixty-one intermediate coronary lesions in twenty-eight patients with the diagnosis of Non ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Ultrasound signals were obtained by an IVUS system using a 40-MHz catheter. Mean age was 53.2 ± 9.1 years. Males = 20 (71.4%). Smoking in 17 (60.7%), hypertension in 16 (57.1%), Dyslipidemia in 12 (42.9%) and DM in 8 (28.6%). Culprit vessels represent 42% of affected vessels. Sixty-one intermediate lesions were detected. Twenty-nine lesions in culprit vessels and thirty-two lesions in non-culprit vessels with higher lipidic content in lesions of culprit vessels ( P  < 0.001) while a higher calcific content in lesions of non-culprit vessels ( P  < 0.001). Higher calcific content of proximal more than distal lesions ( P  = 0.048). Negative remodeling in 55.7% of lesions. A higher lipidic content in lesions of culprit vessels, while the lesions of non-culprit vessels were more calcific. Higher calcific content of proximal more than distal lesions was defined as well.

  15. Oxygen or cooling, to make a decision after acute ischemia stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-cao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a salvageable penumbra, a region of ischemic brain tissue with sufficient energy for short-term survival, has been widely agreed as the premise for thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, which remains the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic transformation (HT. Blood brain barrier (BBB damage within the thrombolytic time window is an indicator for tPA-induced HT and both normobaric hyperoxia (NBO and hypothermia have been shown to protect the BBB from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, providing the O2 as soon as possible (NBO treatment, freezing the brain (hypothermia treatment to slow down ischemia-induced BBB damage or their combined use may extend the time window for the treatment of tPA. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of NBO, hypothermia or their use combined with tPA on ischemia stroke, based on which, the combination of NBO and hypothermia may be an ideal early stroke treatment to preserve the ischemic penumbra. Given this, there is an urge for large randomized controlled trials to address the effect.

  16. N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, T.N.; Laursen, H; Fink-Jensen, A

    1999-01-01

    is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined......]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during...... normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA...

  17. Primary Stent Placement of an Acute Occlusion in the Iliac Arteries of Patients with Acute Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Chan; Shin, Tae Beom; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Sung Hoon [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    To assess the efficacy of stent-assisted recanalization for the management of acute limb ischemia (ALI) after a failed surgical revascularization in patients with acute iliac arterial occlusion and considered unfit for a thrombolysis. The data on 6 patients with acute limb ischemia due to iliac arterial occlusion, and treated with stent implantation between November 2005 and March 2008, was analyzed retrospectively. The reasons for ALI in the patients analyzed included acute thrombosis related to a traumatic injury (n=3), acute in-situ thrombosis with pre-existing atherosclerotic stenosis (n=2), and cardiogenic embolism (n=1). A preprocedural CT angiography and conventional angiography revealed an occlusion at the iliac artery. This study examined the clinical data, technical and clinical outcome of the procedure, and complications related to the procedure or follow-up period for each patient. Primary stenting was technically successful in all patients, thus resulting in the reduction or elimination of clinical symptoms in the 5 patients observed. One patient expired due to multi-organ failure related to a reperfusion injury. The other five patients showed good clinical results without symptom recurrence and normal duplex USG or CT angiographic findings during the 3-15 month follow-up period. A stent-assisted recanalization is an effective treatment for patients with ALI, which are considered unfit for thrombolysis and surgical recanalization.

  18. Impact of triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in real-world practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Fan, Jing-Yao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Henriques, Jose P. Simao; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Saucedo, Jorge; González-Juanatey, José R.; Wilton, Stephen B.; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Huczek, Zenon; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-01-01

    The optimal antithrombotic regimen for patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains debated. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OAC plus clopidogrel with or without aspirin in a real-world

  19. Round-the-clock performance of coronary CT angiography for suspected acute coronary syndrome: Results from the BEACON trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lubbers (Marisa); A. Dedic (Admir); A. Kurata (Akira); M.L. Dijkshoorn (Marcel); J. Schaap (Jeroen); Lammers, J. (Jeroen); E.J. Lamfers (Evert); B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); R.L. Braam (Richard L.); H.M. Nathoe (Hendrik); J.C. Post; P.P.M. Rood (Pleunie); C.J. Schultz (Carl); A. Moelker (Adriaan); M. Ouhlous (Mohamed); B.M. van Dalen (Bas); H. Boersma (Eric); K. Nieman (Koen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess the image quality of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outside office hours. Methods: Patients with symptoms suggestive of an ACS underwent CCTA at the emergency department 24 hours, 7 days a week. A total of 118 patients, of

  20. Nationwide trends in use and timeliness of diagnostic coronary angiography in acute coronary syndromes from 2005 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim W; Sørensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine trends in the use of diagnostic coronary angiography according to distance from home to the nearest invasive heart centre following implementation of fast-track protocols and extensive pre-hospital triaging of acute coronary syndrome patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed...

  1. Neutrophil-derived microparticles are released into the coronary circulation following percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Barraclough, Jennifer Y; Nakhla, Shirley; Kienzle, Vivian; Robertson, Stacy; Mallat, Ziad; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2017-02-28

    To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MP are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilization and shed neutrophil-derived MP that have the potential to drive significant proinflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects. Eight ACS and eight SAP patients were included. Coronary sinus (CS) samples pre-intervention (CS1), 45 s following balloon angioplasty (CS2) and at 45 s intervals following stent deployment (CS3, CS4 and CS5), together with peripheral vein samples, pre- and post-PCI were analysed for neutrophil-derived (CD66b+), endothelial-derived (CD144+), platelet-derived (CD41a+), monocyte-derived (CD14+) and apoptotic (Annexin V+) MP. ELISA for interleukin (IL)-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and P-selectin was also performed. CD66b+ MP levels were similar in both groups pre-intervention. Post-PCI, CS levels rose significantly in ACS but not SAP patients (ACS area under the curve (AUC): 549 ± 83, SAP AUC: 24 ± 29, Pderived MP release post-PCI occurs in ACS compared with stable patients, likely to be reflective of plaque MP content in vulnerable lesions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. [CARDIOREABILITATION PECULIARITIES AND CORRECTION OF VIOLATIONS OF SISTOLIC, DIASOLIC FUNCTION AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AND CORONARY ARTERY REVASCULARIZATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, M; Tsuglevych, L; Kyrychok, I; Levytska, L; Boiko, T; Kitsak, Ya

    2017-04-01

    In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent coronary arteries revascularization, violations of hemodynamics, metabolism and heart rate variability often develop in the postoperative period, therefore, the goal of the study was to establish the features of disturbances and the effectiveness of correction of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction and heart rate variability in stages of cardiorehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary arteries revascularization. The experimental group included 40 patients with ACS in the postoperative period who underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of the coronary arteries (25 patients with ST-segment elevation ACS and 15 patients without ST-segment elevation ACS). The age of examined patients was 37 to 74 years, an average of 52.6±6.7 years. The control group consisted of 20 patients, comparable in age and clinico-laboratory manifestations of ACS, who underwent drug treatment with direct anticoagulants, double antiplatelet therapy, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors and statins. Clinical efficacy of cardiorespiratory process in patients of both groups was assessed by the dynamics of general clinical symptoms and parameters of natriuretic propeptide, systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle and heart rate variability. In the initial state, clinical and laboratory-instrumental signs of myocardial ischemia disappear in patients with ACS undergoing surgical revascularization of the coronary arteries, but clinical and subclinical manifestations of heart failure were diagnosed. The use of the accelerated program of cardiac rehabilitation already during the first month of studies leads to a decreasement of the signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction, the level of NT-proBNP and improve in the variability of the heart rhythm wich significantly improves the life quality of patients with ACS. To monitor the effectiveness and safety of cardiac rehabilitation in

  3. THE RESULTS OF URGENT CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY AND STENTING IN THE ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Davydkin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute coronary syndrome is a major cause of hospitalization and high mortality rates. For many there have been ongoing debates years over the treatment method choice and various diagnostic methods. The purpose of the research is to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of emergency coronary angiography and efficacy of transluminal balloon angioplasty with stenting for acute coronary syndrome with lifting and without ST elevation. Results In patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation myocardial contractility was better after thrombolytic therapy, which is appropriate over the first 2 hours of the onset of anginal pain. However, in the group of the patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation violations of local contractility was more common than in the group of patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation. In both groups of patients with ACS the risk of unfavorable outcome did not depend on the number of affected vessels, but on a variant of the syndrome (elevation or without ST elevation. In patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation was significantly more frequently identified hemodynamically significant stenosis of the arteries. In ACS without ST-segment elevation no statistically significant difference in myocardial contractility and risk of unfavorable outcome on the scale of GRACE in groups with single and biarterial coronary disease not obtained. In the case of significant stenoses diagnosed through emergency coronary angiography, emergency balloon angioplasty with stenting is indicated. When there is technical impossibility of angioplasty (excessive tortuosity, occlusion, stenosis of the left main coronary artery, etc., it is advisable to perform emergency bypass surgery. Discussion and Conclusions The analysis of the treatment results it revealed that timely percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting in combination with thrombolytic therapy has contributed significantly to improving not only contractility, but

  4. Left ventricular microfistulization: A rare cause of ischemia in a patient with normal coronary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Dindar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with chest pain occurring on physicalexercise was admitted to cardiology department.Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy revealed inferior andanteroapical segment hypoperfusion. Selective coronaryangiography revealed multiple coronary-cameral fistulasoriginating from the left anterior descending artery andthe right coronary artery and emptying into the left ventriclewithout any significant coronary artery stenosis. Coronaryartery fistulas are defined as abnormal communicationsbetween a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber ormajor vessel. Coronary-cameral fistulas terminating in theleft ventricle are uncommon. Small fistulas usually do notcause any hemodynamic compromise. However, the largerand multiple fistulas may cause myocardial ischemiaascribed to a coronary steal phenomenon. The best wayto manage cameral fistulae is uncertain largely due to therarity of the condition. In the present case, anti-ischemicmedications with metoprolol 50 mg/day provided an uneventfulfollow-up of six months without any intervention.

  5. Adverse Outcomes Among Women Presenting with Signs and Symptoms of Ischemia and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: Findings from the NHLBI-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Angiographic Core Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Barry; Wood, Todd; Shaw, Leslee; Johnson, B. Delia; Kelsey, Sheryl; Anderson, R. David; Pepine, Carl J.; Merz, Noel Bairey

    2013-01-01

    Background Women presenting with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia frequently have no or non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Objective To investigate associations between angiographic measures and longer-term clinical outcomes among women with signs and symptoms of ischemia referred for coronary angiography. Methods Prospective cohort analysis of women referred for coronary angiography and enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). An angiographic severity score was prospectively developed, assigning points for any stenosis weighted by stenosis severity, location and collaterals, and then tested for prediction for adverse outcome in 917 women over a median 9.3 years. Setting Referral centers. Patients Women, with signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia, referred for coronary angiography were consecutively consented and enrolled in a prospective study. Main Outcome Measures First occurrence of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Hospitalization for angina was a secondary outcome. Results Cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction at 10 years occurred in 6.7%, 12.8% and 25.9% of women with no, non-obstructive, and obstructive CAD (p50. The optimal threshold in the WISE severity score classifications for predicting cardiovascular mortality was >10 (e.g. 5.0–10 vs. 10.1–89), with both a sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and an area under the curve of 0.64 (p=0.02, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.68). Conclusions Among women with signs and symptoms of ischemia, non-obstructive CAD is common, and associated with adverse outcomes over the longer-term. The new WISE angiographic score appears to be useful for risk prediction in this population. PMID:23816032

  6. Coronary artery aneurysms in acute coronary syndrome: case series, review, and proposed management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nathan; Gupta, Rajesh; Schevchuck, Alex; Hindnavis, Vindhya; Maliske, Seth; Sheldon, Mark; Drachman, Douglas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

    2014-06-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon clinical finding, with an incidence varying from 1.5%-4.9% in adults, and is usually considered a variant of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAA identified in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a unique management challenge, particularly if the morphology of the CAA is suspected to have provoked the acute clinical syndrome. CAA is associated with thrombus formation due to abnormal laminar flow, as well as abnormal platelet and endothelial-derived pathophysiologic factors within the CAA. Once formed, mural thrombus may potentiate the deposition of additional thrombus within aneurysmal segments. Percutaneous revascularization of CAA has been associated with complications including distal embolization of thrombus, no-reflow phenomenon, stent malapposition, dissection, and rupture. Presently, there are no formal guidelines to direct the management of CAA in patients presenting with ACS; controversies exist whether conservative, surgical, or catheter-based management should be pursued. In this manuscript, we present an extensive review of the existing literature and associated clinical guidelines, and propose a management algorithm for patients with this complex clinical scenario. Armed with this perspective, therapeutic decisions may be tailored to synthesize patient factors and preferences, individualized clinical assessment, and existing American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of ACS.

  7. A Statewide Analysis of the Incidence and Outcomes of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in Maryland from 2009 – 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stuart Crawford

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Acute mesenteric ischemia is a surgical emergency that entails complex, multi-modal management, but its epidemiology and outcomes remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to perform a population analysis of the contemporary incidence and outcomes of mesenteric ischemia.Methods.This was a retrospective analysis of acute mesenteric ischemia in the state of Maryland during 2009 – 2013 using a comprehensive statewide hospital admission database. Demographics, illness severity, comorbidities, and outcomes were studied. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Survivors and non-survivors were compared using univariate analyses, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate risk factors for mortality.Results.During the 5-year study period, there were 3,157,499 adult hospital admissions in Maryland. 2,255 patients (0.07% had acute mesenteric ischemia, yielding an annual admission rate of 10/100,000. Increasing age, hypercoagulability, cardiac dysrhythmia, renal insufficiency, increasing illness severity, and tertiary hospital admission were associated with development of mesenteric ischemia. Inpatient mortality was high (24%. After multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for death were age > 65 years, critical illness severity, mechanical ventilation, tertiary hospital admission, hypercoagulability, renal insufficiency, and dysrhythmia.Conclusions.Acute mesenteric ischemia occurs in approximately 1/1000 admissions in Maryland. Patients with mesenteric ischemia have significant illness severity, substantial rates of organ dysfunction, and high mortality. Patients with chronic comorbidities and acute organ dysfunction are at increased risk of death, and recognition of these risk factors may enable prevention or earlier control of mesenteric ischemia in high-risk patients.

  8. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography-Dekived Fractional Flow Reserve Based on Machine Learning for Risk Stratification of Non-Culprit Coronary Narrowings in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguay, Taylor M.; Tesche, Christian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Lin, Han; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; De Santis, Domenico; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Bayer, Richard R.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Hoffmann, Ellen; Steinberg, Daniel H.; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and multivessel disease to gauge significance and guide management of non-culprit lesions. We retrospectively

  9. Acute brain ischemia as a complication of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, the case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Michal; Majos, Marcin A; Szubert, Wojciech; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2014-10-01

    Vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome involves many severe complications leading not only to organ-specific symptoms but often ends in a sudden death. The aim of this paper was to present a diagnostic possibilities and its efficiency rate in patients with vascular complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who suffered from artery dissection resulting in acute brain or limb ischemia. We analysed three patients with diagnosed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who were referred to radiology department for diagnostic imaging of affected vascular beds, each experienced brain ischemia. The paper also aims at offering some general recommendations for patients suffering from possible complications of type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome basing on our own experience and available literature data. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Contribution of inhibitory receptor glycoprotein iib / iiia in coronary angioplasty and acute coronary syndrome, about 152 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellami, Walid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the immediate results and long-term intake of anti-GP IIb / IIIa inhibitors for patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with coronary angioplasty. The use of anti-GP IIb / IIIa is a valid therapeutic option in patients with acute coronary syndrome with signs of severity and for patients undergoing complex angioplasty. Adverse effects of anti-GP IIb / IIIa can be seen to encourage vigilance and careful monitoring during the administration of these molecules and perfect knowledge of their pharmacological properties for appropriate use.

  11. Invasive "in the cath-lab" assessment of myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease: When does the gold standard not apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenati, Stefano; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Scarsini, Roberto; Porto, Italo; Banning, Adrian P

    2018-01-31

    International guidelines recommend that revascularization for coronary artery disease (CAD) should be guided by evidence of myocardial ischemia. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous free wave ratio (iFR) are the main invasive indices for assessing the ischemic potential of angiographically intermediate coronary stenosis as a large body of evidence supports their routine application. Both indices have been tested and validated in patients with isolated stable CAD, but notably their application outside this specific context is a matter of debate and investigation. In the present review we aim to look into the available evidence about the reliability and feasibility of FFR and iFR in clinical contexts different from stable angina where these techniques have been validated. We aim to shed light on which technique can be used to invasively assess ischemia when an angiographic moderate coronary stenosis is observed in a clinical setting other than isolated stable CAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Relationship of echocardiographic and coronary angiographic findings in patients with acute myocardial infarction secondary to penetrating cardiac trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Wilfredy; Morales, Carlos Hernando; Senior, Juan Manuel; Benjumea, William Yesid; Sanchez, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    Patients with cardiac wounds could experience a posttraumatic acute myocardial infarction (PAMI) as a complication. Usually, this complication is explained by occlusion of a coronary artery, but sometimes, it cannot be explained by this pathophysiologic finding. This study aimed to determine the incidence of PAMI, make an approximation of PAMI pathophysiology, and propose management strategies. A prospective observational study was conducted at San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellin, Colombia. During 12 months, we studied 51 patients with a history of a cardiac stab injury. We evaluated variables, such as Revised Trauma Score (RTS), surgical and anesthetic data, and possible risk factors. Diagnosis of PAMI was based on electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and troponin I serum levels. All PAMI patients had an coronary angiography. Risk factors possibly related to the development of PAMI were explored. Fifty-one patients were evaluated; three died (5.9%). Of the patients, 35 (68.62%) did not develop PAMI, 6 (11.76%) developed PAMI with coronary injury, and 10 (19.6%) experienced PAMI without coronary injury (PAMIWCI). An RTS of 5.3 or lower and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 9 or lower were risk factors associated with PAMIWCI (relative risk, 11.55; p = 0.03). We did not find a relationship between PAMI and the use of psychoactive substances or other comorbidities. Patients with penetrating cardiac trauma may develop PAMIWCI. Active search for PAMI must be done in all patients with cardiac stab wound trauma, even those without artery coronary injury or symptoms suggestive of coronary ischemia. It is likely that Glasgow Coma Scale score of 9 of lower and RTS of 5.3 of lower for patients with cardiac injury are associated with the development of PAMIWCI.

  13. Improved CT-detection of acute bowel ischemia using frequency selective non-linear image blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sven; Esser, Michael; Thaiss, Wolfgang; Boesmueller, Hans; Ditt, Hendrik; Nikolau, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) as a fast and reliable diagnostic technique is the imaging modality of choice for acute bowel ischemia. However, diagnostic is often difficult mainly due to low attenuation differences between ischemic and perfused segments. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new post-processing tool based on frequency selective non-linear blending with that of conventional linear contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) image blending for the detection of bowel ischemia. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (19 women; mean age = 73.7 years, age range = 50-94 years) with acute bowel ischemia were scanned using multidetector CT (120 kV; 100-200 mAs). Pre-contrast and portal venous scans (65-70 s delay) were acquired. All patients underwent surgery for acute bowel ischemia and intraoperative diagnosis as well as histologic evaluation of explanted bowel segments was considered "gold standard." First, two radiologists read the conventional CECT images in which linear blending was adapted for optimal contrast, and second (three weeks later) the frequency selective non-linear blending (F-NLB) image. Attenuation values were compared, both in the involved and non-involved bowel segments creating ratios between unenhanced and CECT. The mean attenuation difference between ischemic and non-ischemic wall in the portal venous scan was 69.54 HU (reader 2 = 69.01 HU) higher for F-NLB compared with conventional CECT. Also, the attenuation ratio between contrast-enhanced and pre-contrast CT data for the non-ischemic walls showed significantly higher values for the F-NLB image (CECT: reader 1 = 2.11 (reader 2 = 3.36), F-NLB: reader 1 = 4.46 (reader 2 = 4.98)]. Sensitivity in detecting ischemic areas increased significantly for both readers using F-NLB (CECT: reader 1/2 = 53%/65% versus F-NLB: reader 1/2 = 62%/75%). Frequency selective non-linear blending improves detection of bowel ischemia compared with conventional CECT by increasing

  14. Characteristics and outcomes associated with 30-day readmissions following acute coronary syndrome 2000-2013: the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovchik, Ilia; Pereg, David; Shlomo, Nir; Vorobeichik, Dina; Beigel, Roy; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Vered, Zvi; Goldenberg, Ilan; Minha, Sa'ar

    2018-04-01

    Readmissions following acute myocardial infarction are associated with poor outcomes and a heavy economic burden. There are few evidence-based data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients readmitted following acute coronary syndrome. We explored the incidence and outcomes of patients readmitted after an acute coronary syndrome in the past decade. The study population comprised all acute coronary syndrome patients who were enrolled and prospectively followed up in the biennial Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey from 2000 to 2013. Multivariate analysis identified factors independently associated with readmission and long-term mortality. There were 13,010 study patients, of whom 556 (4.2%) had an unplanned readmission within 30 days of the index event. Stent thrombosis during the index hospitalisation (odds ratio (OR) 8.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.11-16.07; P65 years; OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.06-1.55; P=0.011), and lack of dual-antiplatelet therapy (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.25-1.86; Psyndrome was observed between 2000 and 2013 ( Psyndrome comprise an undertreated, high-risk cohort. Our findings indicate that despite a significant decline in readmission rates following acute coronary syndrome over the past decade, readmission within 30 days following acute coronary syndrome still portends a grave outcome.

  15. Routine Troponin Measurements Are Unnecessary to Exclude Asymptomatic Coronary Events in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farwa; Young, Jimmy; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Flemming, Kelly D; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    Obtaining serum troponin levels in every patient with acute stroke is recommended in recent stroke guidelines, but there is no evidence that these contribute positively to clinical care. We sought to determine the clinical significance of measuring troponin levels in acute ischemic stroke patients. We reviewed 398 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke at a large academic institution from 2010 to 2012. Troponin levels were measured as a result of protocol in place during part of the study period. The mean age was 70 years (standard deviation ±16 years) and 197 (49.5%) were men. Chronic kidney disease was present in 78 (19.6%), coronary artery disease in 107 (26.9%), and atrial fibrillation in 107 (26.9%). Serum troponin T was measured in 246 of 398 patients (61.8%). Troponin was elevated (>.01 ng/mL) at any point in 38 of 246 patients (15.5%) and was elevated in 28 patients at all 3 measurements (11.3% of those with troponin measured). Only 4 of 246 patients (1.6%) had a significant uptrend. Two were iatrogenic in the setting of hemodynamic augmentation using vasopressors to maintain cerebral perfusion. One case was attributed to stroke and chronic kidney disease and another case to heart failure from inflammatory fibrocalcific mitral valvular heart disease. Serum troponin elevation in patients with ischemic stroke is not usually caused by clinically significant acute myocardial ischemia unless iatrogenic in the setting of vasopressor administration. Serum troponin levels should be measured judicially, based on clinical context, rather than routinely in all stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Colchicine Acutely Suppresses Local Cardiac Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients With an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Robertson, Stacy; Barraclough, Jennifer; Xia, Qiong; Mallat, Ziad; Bursill, Christina; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and downstream IL-6 are key inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Colchicine is believed to block the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic complex responsible for the production of IL-1β and IL-18. In vivo effects of colchicine on cardiac cytokine release have not been previously studied. This study aimed to (1) assess the local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), stable coronary artery disease and in controls; and (2) determine whether acute administration of colchicine inhibits their production. Methods and Results Forty ACS patients, 33 with stable coronary artery disease, and 10 controls, were included. ACS and stable coronary artery disease patients were randomized to oral colchicine treatment (1 mg followed by 0.5 mg 1 hour later) or no colchicine, 6 to 24 hours prior to cardiac catheterization. Blood samples from the coronary sinus, aortic root (arterial), and lower right atrium (venous) were collected and tested for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 using ELISA. In ACS patients, coronary sinus levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were significantly higher than arterial and venous levels (P=0.017, Colchicine administration significantly reduced transcoronary gradients of all 3 cytokines in ACS patients by 40% to 88% (P=0.028, 0.032, and 0.032, for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6, respectively). Conclusions ACS patients exhibit increased local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines. Short-term colchicine administration rapidly and significantly reduces levels of these cytokines. PMID:26304941

  17. Mechanistic insights and clinical relevance of the interaction between acute coronary syndromes and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Luis C. L.; Twickler, Marcel Th B.; Sposito, Andrei C.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the acute phase reaction, lipid metabolism is significantly altered in patients with unstable coronary syndromes. The clinical relevance and the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed in this article. Cholesterol reduction takes place in the first hours of an acute coronary

  18. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  19. Acute oxygen-ozone administration to rats protects the heart from ischemia reperfusion infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, C; Marfella, R; Capodanno, P; Ferraraccio, F; Coppola, L; Luongo, M; Mascolo, L; Luongo, C; Capuano, A; Rossi, F; D'Amico, M

    2008-10-01

    We tested here the effects of acute administration of an oxygen/ozone (O3) mixture on the myocardial tissue damage following an ischemic event. The study was done in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). 100; 150; and 300 microg/kg oxygen/O3 mixture were insufflated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to I/R. Myocardial infarct size measurement and immunhistochemistry or ELISA for nitrotyrosine, CD68, CD8,CD4 and caspase-3 were done. I/R produced a marked damage in the rat left ventricle with an infarct size as percentage of the area at risk (IS/ AR) of approximately 45 +/- 4% . Rats insufflated with a oxygen/O3 mixture showed a significant 2-h cardio-protection (e. g. infarct size over area at risk for the dose of 300 microg/kg was approximately 30 +/- 3%,) as compared with control rats (P <0.01). This effect was paralleled by a decrease in tissue levels of immunostaining for biomarkers of nitrosative stress (nitrotyrosine), inflammation (CD68) and immunity response (CD8 and CD4) between heart tissues from infarcted rats and infarcted O3 treated rats. These data indicate that the tissue and biochemical damages associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion can be counteracted by an acute O3 pretreatment.

  20. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in a non-selected study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Hauser, Andreas; Steinbrich, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the prospective diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily clinical routine was analyzed. Two hundred ninety-one consecutive patients with an acute or subacute abdomen, examined by MDCT over a time period of 5 months, were included in the study. All original CT diagnoses made during the daily routine by radiological generalists were compared to the final diagnoses made by using all available medical information from endoscopies, surgical interventions, autopsies and follow-up. Finally, all CT examinations of patients with an initial CT diagnosis or a final diagnosis of bowel ischemia were reread by a radiologist specialized in abdominal imaging in order to analyze the CT findings and the reasons for initially false negative or false positive CT readings. Twenty-four patients out of 291 (8.2%) had acute bowel ischemia. The age of affected patients ranged from 50 to 94 years (mean age: 75.7 years). Eleven patients were male, and 13 female. Reasons for acute bowel ischemia were: arterio-occlusive (n=11), non-occlusive (n=5), strangulation (n=2), over-distension (n=3) and radiation (n=3). The prospective sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MDCT for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily routine were 79.17, 98.51, 90.48 and 98.15%. MDCT reaches a similarly high sensitivity in diagnosing acute bowel as angiography. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being helpful in most of its clinical differential diagnoses and of being less invasive with the consecutive possibility of being used earlier in the diagnostic process with all the resulting positive effects on the patients prognosis. Therefore, nowadays MDCT should probably be used as the first step imaging modality of choice in patients with suspected acute bowel ischemia. (orig.)

  1. Adverse outcomes among women presenting with signs and symptoms of ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease: findings from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) angiographic core laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Barry; Wood, Todd; Shaw, Leslee; Johnson, B Delia; Kelsey, Sheryl; Anderson, R David; Pepine, Carl J; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2013-07-01

    Women presenting with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia frequently have no or nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to investigate the associations between angiographic measures and longer-term clinical outcomes among women with signs and symptoms of ischemia referred for coronary angiography. A prospective cohort analysis of women referred for coronary angiography and enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored WISE was performed. An angiographic severity score was prospectively developed, assigning points for any stenosis weighted by stenosis severity, location, and collaterals and was then tested for prediction for adverse outcome in 917 women, over a median of 9.3 years. The study was conducted in referral centers. Women with signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia referred for coronary angiography were consecutively consented and enrolled in a prospective study. Main outcomes included first occurrence of cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Hospitalization for angina was a secondary outcome. Cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction at 10 years occurred in 6.7%, 12.8%, and 25.9% of women with no, nonobstructive, and obstructive CAD (P 50. The optimal threshold in the WISE severity score classifications for predicting cardiovascular mortality was >10 (eg, 5.0-10 vs 10.1-89), with both a sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and an area under the curve of 0.64 (P = .02, 95% CI 0.59-0.68). Among women with signs and symptoms of ischemia, nonobstructive CAD is common and associated with adverse outcomes over the longer term. The new WISE angiographic score appears to be useful for risk prediction in this population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting as peripheral vascular disease and acute limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute limb ischemia and peripheral vascular disease (PVD are unusual presentations of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN. Here, we present a case with PVD of both lower limbs leading to foot claudication. Digital subtraction angiography showed narrowing, irregularity, and occlusion of both lower limb arteries with no involvement of the abdomen visceral arteries. Based on significant weight loss, diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg, myalgia, testicular pain, and angiographic abnormalities in medium-sized arteries, he was diagnosed as having PAN. He was treated with corticosteroid and bolus intravenous cyclophosphamide following which he had prompt and near-complete recovery of the symptoms without any tissue loss.

  3. Noninvasive imaging in acute coronary disease. A clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersh, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous highly complex and sensitive noninvasive imaging techniques have enhanced the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Optimum use requires specific objectives to be defined in advance, including a review of the potential impact of the test on subsequent decisions. An additional issue that is subject to scrutiny in the current climate of cost containment relates to the incremental value of a specific examination. The imaging modality to be used will partially depend on other issues, including accessibility, cost, and interindividual or institutional expertise with a particular technique. Major applications in noninvasive imaging in the acute coronary syndromes include the following: (1) diagnosis, including identification of associated diseases and contraindications for acute reperfusion; (2) evaluation and management of complications; (3) determination of prognosis (both early and late); (4) estimation of myocardial viability; (5) assessment of therapeutic efficacy; (6) investigational approaches, including 99mTc-sestamibi tomographic imaging, ultrafast cine computed tomographic scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Previous studies in the prethrombolytic era have documented the powerful impact of radionuclide stress testing on prognosis, but this needs to be reevaluated in the light of the changing current population undergoing stress testing. Preliminary data imply that the prognostic accuracy of stress testing after thrombolytic therapy is diminished. Moreover, the role of the open infarct-related artery in traditional estimates of prognosis requires further study. Noninvasive imaging has multiple applications in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary disease, but the decision to use a specific technology in a particular circumstance mandates good clinical judgment and selectivity. 82 references

  4. Automaticity in acute ischemia: Bifurcation analysis of a human ventricular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Sylvain; Jacquemet, Vincent; Vinet, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Acute ischemia (restriction in blood supply to part of the heart as a result of myocardial infarction) induces major changes in the electrophysiological properties of the ventricular tissue. Extracellular potassium concentration ([Ko+]) increases in the ischemic zone, leading to an elevation of the resting membrane potential that creates an “injury current” (IS) between the infarcted and the healthy zone. In addition, the lack of oxygen impairs the metabolic activity of the myocytes and decreases ATP production, thereby affecting ATP-sensitive potassium channels (IKatp). Frequent complications of myocardial infarction are tachycardia, fibrillation, and sudden cardiac death, but the mechanisms underlying their initiation are still debated. One hypothesis is that these arrhythmias may be triggered by abnormal automaticity. We investigated the effect of ischemia on myocyte automaticity by performing a comprehensive bifurcation analysis (fixed points, cycles, and their stability) of a human ventricular myocyte model [K. H. W. J. ten Tusscher and A. V. Panfilov, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.AJPHAP0363-613510.1152/ajpheart.00109.2006 291, H1088 (2006)] as a function of three ischemia-relevant parameters [Ko+], IS, and IKatp. In this single-cell model, we found that automatic activity was possible only in the presence of an injury current. Changes in [Ko+] and IKatp significantly altered the bifurcation structure of IS, including the occurrence of early-after depolarization. The results provide a sound basis for studying higher-dimensional tissue structures representing an ischemic heart.

  5. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  6. Single-cell resolution mapping of neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia using thallium autometallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, Franziska; Baldauf, Kathrin; Ziabreva, Iryna; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Neubert, Jenni; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Schröder, Ulrich H; Wunder, Andreas; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal damage shortly after onset or after brief episodes of cerebral ischemia has remained difficult to assess with clinical and preclinical imaging techniques as well as with microscopical methods. We here show, in rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), that neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia can be mapped with single-cell resolution using thallium autometallography (TlAMG), a histochemical technique for the detection of the K(+)-probe thallium (Tl(+)) in the brain. We intravenously injected rats and mice with thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC), a lipophilic chelate complex that releases Tl(+) after crossing the blood-brain barrier. We found, within the territories of the affected arteries, areas of markedly reduced neuronal Tl(+) uptake in all animals at all time points studied ranging from 15 minutes to 24 hours after MCAO. In large lesions at early time points, areas with neuronal and astrocytic Tl(+) uptake below thresholds of detection were surrounded by putative penumbral zones with preserved but diminished Tl(+) uptake. At 24 hours, the areas of reduced Tl(+)uptake matched with areas delineated by established markers of neuronal damage. The results suggest the use of (201)TlDDC for preclinical and clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of hyperacute alterations in brain K(+) metabolism and prediction of tissue viability in cerebral ischemia.

  7. Single-cell resolution mapping of neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia using thallium autometallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, Franziska; Baldauf, Kathrin; Ziabreva, Iryna; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Neubert, Jenni; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Schröder, Ulrich H; Wunder, Andreas; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal damage shortly after onset or after brief episodes of cerebral ischemia has remained difficult to assess with clinical and preclinical imaging techniques as well as with microscopical methods. We here show, in rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), that neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia can be mapped with single-cell resolution using thallium autometallography (TlAMG), a histochemical technique for the detection of the K+-probe thallium (Tl+) in the brain. We intravenously injected rats and mice with thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC), a lipophilic chelate complex that releases Tl+ after crossing the blood–brain barrier. We found, within the territories of the affected arteries, areas of markedly reduced neuronal Tl+ uptake in all animals at all time points studied ranging from 15 minutes to 24 hours after MCAO. In large lesions at early time points, areas with neuronal and astrocytic Tl+ uptake below thresholds of detection were surrounded by putative penumbral zones with preserved but diminished Tl+ uptake. At 24 hours, the areas of reduced Tl+uptake matched with areas delineated by established markers of neuronal damage. The results suggest the use of 201TlDDC for preclinical and clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of hyperacute alterations in brain K+ metabolism and prediction of tissue viability in cerebral ischemia. PMID:24129748

  8. Percutaneous coronary intervention and the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients with von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sulaiman; Deleon, Dexter; Akram, Hafsa; Sane, David; Ball, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Von Willebrand disease (vWD) results from quantitative or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF). The occurrence of myocardial infarction is very rare in patients with vWD. A few case reports of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in vWD patients are present in the literature, but no definite management recommendations are available for such patients. We report a case of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in a 46-year-old woman with type 1 vWD and history of coronary artery disease (CAD). She received periprocedural dual-antiplatelet therapy for 2 weeks and then continued aspirin without any bleeding complications. The optimal management of patients with vWD and ACS is complex and presents a therapeutic challenge. We propose that dual-antiplatelet therapy can be used safely in most vWD patients presenting with ACS as most of them are type 1 vWD. PCI with BMS can be done safely. Long-term management of these patients requires a systemic approach including hematological consultation, ascertaining vWF levels, as well as patient education and close outpatient follow-up.

  9. Clinical outcomes after PCI for acute coronary syndrome in unprotected left main coronary artery disease: insights from the Swiss Acute Left Main Coronary Vessel Percutaneous Management (SALVage) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puricel, Serban; Adorjan, Patrick; Oberhänsli, Markus; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Moschovitis, Aris; Vogel, Rolf; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Müller, Olivier; Eeckhout, Eric; Togni, Mario; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard; Windecker, Stephan; Cook, Stéphane

    2011-10-30

    Unprotected left main (ULM) coronary artery disease is encountered in 3%-10% of coronary angiograms and is associated with high mortality. The survival of patients with ULM disease presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) depends on different variables and is lowest in those with cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of the present study was to estimate the impact of baseline characteristics on the subsequent clinical outcome in patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of ULM for ACS. One hundred and thirty-four patients were retrieved from our database and followed by phone or physician visit. Patients were classified into two groups according to their presentation (CS/STEMI group: patients presenting with CS or ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI/UA group: patients with non-STEMI or unstable angina). Data collected were baseline characteristics, procedural information, and clinical outcome. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 6-month follow-up. The secondary end point was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and any repeat revascularisation, i.e., major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Kaplan-Meier curves were computed for survival. Logistic regression determined that hypercholesterolaemia (OR 6.22, p=0.03), high pre-procedural TIMI score (OR 3.89, p=0.01), preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 1.07, p=0.01) and LM as culprit lesion (OR 8.57, p=0.01) protected against development of CS. Primary outcome occurred in 44% of patients in the CS/STEMI group compared to 6% in the NSTEMI/UA group (p<0.001). MACE were observed in 30 patients (48%) of the CS/STEMI group and in 12 patients (19%) of the NSTEMI/UA group (p=0.001). Acute coronary syndrome due to critical ULM stenosis is associated with high mortality even after successful PCI. Patients presenting with CS or STEMI are at particular risk.

  10. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients Holter recordings varied around 20% ranging between 18 and 27%. Fifty-five of the patients (46%) had TMI on at least 1 of the 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients...... for the presence of TMI. No high-risk group for cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction or coronary revascularization during up to 10 years of follow-up could be identified by the detection of TMI. From these results we conclude that a routine search for TMI on serial Holter monitoring cannot be recommended in male...

  11. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes

  12. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  13. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  14. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J.; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Aims To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. Methods and results All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions—9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Conclusions Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany. PMID:22350716

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression in cardiomyocytes diminishes ex vivo heart functional recovery after acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, Cecilia M; Reichelt, Melissa E; Mutsaers, Steven E; Davies, Marilyn; Delbridge, Lea M; Headrick, John P; Rosenthal, Nadia; Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Grounds, Miranda D

    2012-01-01

    Acute insulin-like growth factor-1 administration has been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiac pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to assess the structural and ex vivo functional impacts of long-term cardiomyocyte-specific insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression in hearts of transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea mice. Performance of isolated transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea and littermate wild-type control hearts was compared under baseline conditions and in response to 20-min ischemic insult. Cardiac desmin and laminin expression patterns were determined histologically, and myocardial hydroxyproline was measured to assess collagen content. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 did not modify expression patterns of desmin or laminin but was associated with a pronounced increase (∼30%) in cardiac collagen content (from ∼3.7 to 4.8 μg/mg). Baseline myocardial contractile function and coronary flow were unaltered by insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression. In contrast to prior evidence of acute cardiac protection, insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression was associated with significant impairment of acute functional response to ischemia-reperfusion. Insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression did not modify ischemic contracture development, but postischemic diastolic dysfunction was aggravated (51±5 vs. 22±6 mmHg in nontransgenic littermates). Compared with wild-type control, recovery of pressure development and relaxation indices relative to baseline performance were significantly reduced in transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea after 60-min reperfusion (34±7% vs. 62±7% recovery of +dP/dt; 35±11% vs. 57±8% recovery of -dP/dt). Chronic insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression is associated with reduced functional recovery after acute ischemic insult. Collagen deposition is elevated in transgenic αMHC-IGF-1 Ea hearts, but there is no change in expression of the myocardial structural proteins desmin and laminin. These findings suggest

  16. Results of fractional flow reserve measurement to evaluate nonculprit coronary artery stenoses in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Palop, Ramón; Carrillo, Pilar; Torres, Francisco; Lozano, Iñigo; Frutos, Araceli; Avanzas, Pablo; Cordero, Alberto; Rondán, Juan

    2012-02-01

    Multivessel disease is usually present in almost half of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Angiography is insufficiently accurate to decide on coronary revascularization in moderate nonculprit lesions. There is some debate about the usefulness of fractional flow reserve assessed by intracoronary pressure wire in acute coronary syndromes. We studied the results of using fractional flow reserve values to decide whether to perform coronary revascularization of nonculprit angiographically moderate lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome and multivessel disease. The fractional flow reserve was used to decide whether to revascularize angiographically moderate nonculprit lesions in a cohort of consecutive patients with acute coronary syndromes recruited in 2 centers. One hundred and seven patients were included. Based on fractional flow reserve values, 81 patients (75.7%) were not revascularized. All lesions studied were revascularized in 26 patients (24.3%). Patient characteristics of the nontreated group and treated group were, respectively, diseased vessels, 1.3 (0.7) vs 1.4 (0.6) (P<.4); fractional flow reserve-studied lesions, 1.2 (0.5) vs 1.1 (0.4) (P=.3); stenosis, 46.1 (8.3)% vs 47.9 (10.3)% (P=.4); fractional flow reserve, 0.86 (0.1) vs 0.70 (0.1) (P<.005). After 1 year of follow-up, no significant differences in major cardiovascular events were observed between groups. There no deaths or nonfatal myocardial infarctions attributable to fractional flow reserve -deferred lesions. Coronary revascularization of the studied lesions was performed in 3 nontreated group patients (3.7%) due to disease progression. Fractional flow reserve assessed by intracoronary pressure wire is useful in deciding whether to revascularize angiographically moderate nonculprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome and multivessel disease. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Agranulocytosis and acute coronary syndrom in apathetic hyperthyreoidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivović Miomira

    2003-01-01

    disorder in hyperthyroidism but paroxysmal tachycardia and atrial fibrillation are not rare. This can be explained by increased heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume, coronary artery flow and peripheral oxygen consumption in thyreotoxicosis [9]. Patients with coronary arteriosclerosis can develop angina pectoris during thyreotoxic stage, which can be explained by imbalance between cardiac demand and supply. Myocardial damage is often in thyrotoxic patients with chronic hart failure, together with myocardial infarction in patients without coronary disease [2,6]. Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation are relatively resistant to digitalis treatment because of high metabolic turn over of medication and excessive myocardial irritability in hyperthyro-idism [6]. Cardiovascular and myopathic manifestations predominate in older hyperthyroid patients (over 60 years and some of them can have only few symptoms of hyperthyroidism [1-3]. Thyrotoxic state characterized by fatigue, apathy, extreme weakness, low-grade fever and sometimes congestive heart failure are designated as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Such patients have small goiters, mild tachycardia and often cool and dry skin with few eye signs [6]. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism are at increased risk for atrial fibrillation [9]. Unstable angina and non-Q myocardial infarction (non ST elevation are acute manifestation of coronary artery disease. The acute coronary syndrome of unstable angina, non-Q myocardial infarction and Q-wave myocardial infarction have atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries as a common pathogenic substrate. Errosions or ruptures of unstable atherosclerotic plaque triggered pathophysiologic processes, resulted in thrombus formation at the site of arterial injury. This leads to abrupt reduction or cessation through the affected vessel. Clinical manifestations of unstable angina and non-Q myocardial infarction are similar and diagnosis of non-Q myocardial infarction is made on

  18. Myocardial oxygenation and transmural lactate metabolism during experimental acute coronary stenosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonschior, P; Gonschior, G M; Conzen, P F; Hobbhahn, J; Goetz, A E; Peter, K; Brendel, W

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of surface tissue pO2 (ptO2) with surface electrodes is increasingly applied in experimental medicine. Its use on the beating heart may seem to be problematic because transmural gradients of tissue pO2 would reduce the validity of pO2 determinations in the epicardial layers. This study attempted to determine whether ptO2 may be a valid and sensitive indicator of transmural myocardial oxygenation. In order to measure ptO2, two eight-channel Clark-type electrodes were placed on a beating porcine left ventricle (n = 13). Measurements were made at different degrees of acute stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). A 24-F cannula was inserted into the great cardiac vein, draining the poststenotic myocardium to obtain coronary venous blood samples. Transmural metabolic changes were detected simultaneously by coronary venous blood gas parameters and lactate levels. Epicardial tissue pO2 was 49 +/- 2 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) before stenosis and decreased to a mean value of 25 +/- 2 mm Hg during stenosis. Different degrees of LAD stenosis (ptO2 range: 12-35 mm Hg) were substantial enough to alter arterio-coronary venous lactate difference (avd lactate) from +0.31 +/- 0.07 mmol/l (control) to -0.62 +/- 0.15 mmol/l (stenosis). A significant linear correlation between changes of ptO2 (delta ptO2) and changes of avd lactate (delta avd lactate) resulted (y = 0.59 + 0.62x; r = 0.86; p less than or equal to 0.001). However, linear regression analysis between delta ptO2 correlated with the corresponding data from coronary venous pO2 (delta pO2cv) oxygen content (delta O2contcv), and oxygen saturation (delta O2satcv) showed no significant correlations. We conclude that measurement of ptO2 is a sensitive and valuable indicator of transmural oxygenation in ischemic myocardium, whereas pO2cv, O2contcv and O2satcv do not seem to be valid predictors of ischemia in myocardial oxygenation.

  19. Acute heart failure with and without concomitant acute coronary syndromes: patient characteristics, management, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Nieminen, Markku S; Siirilä-Waris, Krista; Tolonen, Jukka; Tolppanen, Heli; Lassus, Johan

    2014-10-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) may precipitate up to a third of acute heart failure (AHF) cases. We assessed the characteristics, initial management, and survival of AHF patients with (ACS-AHF) and without (nACS-AHF) concomitant ACS. Data from 620 AHF patients were analyzed in a prospective multicenter study. The ACS-AHF patients (32%) more often presented with de novo AHF (61% vs. 43%; P pulmonary edema were more common manifestations in ACS-AHF (P < .01 for both). Use of intravenous nitrates, furosemide, opioids, inotropes, and vasopressors, as well as noninvasive ventilation and invasive coronary procedures (angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft surgery), were more frequent in ACS-AHF (P < .001 for all). Although 30-day mortality was significantly higher for ACS-AHF (13% vs. 8%; P = .03), survival in the 2 groups at 5 years was similar. Overall, ACS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.79; P = .03). Whereas medical history and the manifestation and initial treatment of AHF between ACS-AHF and nACS-AHF patients differ, long-term survival is similar. ACS is, however, independently associated with increased short-term mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of ornitho-kinin in an anesthetized, open-chest chicken model of acute coronary occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Prezoto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of bradykinin (BK; Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg in blood and kallidin (Lys-BK in tissues by the action of the kallikrein-kinin system has received little attention in non-mammalian vertebrates. In mammals, kallidin can be generated by the coronary endothelium and myocytes in response to ischemia, mediating cardioprotective events. The plasma of birds lacks two key components of the kallikrein-kinin system: the low molecular weight kininogen and a prekallikrein activator analogous to mammalian factor XII, but treatment with bovine plasma kallikrein generates ornitho-kinin [Thr6,Leu8]-BK. The possible cardioprotective effect of ornitho-kinin infusion was investigated in an anesthetized, open-chest chicken model of acute coronary occlusion. A branch of the left main coronary artery was reversibly ligated to produce ischemia followed by reperfusion, after which the degree of myocardial necrosis (infarct size as a percent of area at risk was assessed by tetrazolium staining. The iv injection of a low dose of ornitho-kinin (4 µg/kg reduced mean arterial pressure from 88 ± 12 to 42 ± 7 mmHg and increased heart rate from 335 ± 38 to 402 ± 45 bpm (N = 5. The size of the infarct was reduced by pretreatment with ornitho-kinin (500 µg/kg infused over a period of 5 min from 35 ± 3 to 10 ± 2% of the area at risk. These results suggest that the physiological role of the kallikrein-kinin system is preserved in this animal model in spite of the absence of two key components, i.e., low molecular weight kininogen and factor XII.

  1. SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO DE CAUSA NO ATEROESCLERÓTICA / Acute coronary syndrome of non-atherosclerotic origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Medrano Plana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La embolia coronaria es una causa poco frecuente de síndrome coronario agudo. Dentro de los varios tipos de material embólico se encuentra el de origen tumoral. Estos émbolos pueden ocasionar isquemia miocárdica de intensidad variable, desde angina de pecho hasta infarto agudo de miocardio o incluso, muerte súbita. Se presenta una mujer de 58 años de edad, que presentó episodios de angina inestable con cambios eléctricos sin factores de riesgo y sin antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica, que en la coronariografía se demostró la presencia de arterias coronarias normales. El ecocardiograma transesofágico informó imagen ecogénica polilobulada y pediculada hacia la superficie septal de la aurícula izquierda (posible mixoma, sin observarse trombos en las cavidades cardíacas. La paciente fue operada (exéresis quirúrgica del tumor, evolucionó favorablemente y fue trasladada a su hospital de origen 72 horas después. / Abstract Coronary embolism is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Among the various types of embolic material is that of tumoral origin. These emboli can cause myocardial ischemia of varying intensity, from angina to acute myocardial infarction or even sudden death. The case of a 58-year-old woman who presented unstable angina episodes with electrical changes with no risk factors and no history of ischemic heart disease is presented. By means of coronary angiography, the presence of normal coronary arteries was showed. Transesophageal echocardiography showed the echogenic polylobulated and pedicled image towards the septal surface of the left atrium (possible myxoma; thrombi in the cardiac chambers were not observed. The patient underwent surgery (surgical removal of the tumor, had a good progress and was transferred to her hospital of origin 72 hours later.

  2. Oral contraceptive and acute intestinal ischemia with mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliard, Aude; Verreth, Lucie; Grandjean, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive usage. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contraceptives, and in such cases diagnosis is often delayed. We report the case of a 38-year-old obese female patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. A bowel infection was first diagnosed and treated with antibiotics. Contrast-enhanced tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse ischemia of the small intestine with superior mesenteric thrombosis. Laparotomy with segmental resection of both small and large bowel was performed. No predisposing factor of mesenteric venous thrombosis was demonstrated except association of the combined contraceptive with obesity. This report highlights the need for clinicians to suspect venous mesenteric thrombosis in women of reproductive age with acute abdominal pain and poor physical findings. Detailed personal history including prescriptions should help to quickly and accurately determine the problem.

  3. Rapid Aspirin Challenge in Patients with Aspirin Allergy and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin A; White, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin allergy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome represents one of the more urgent challenges an allergist may face. Adverse reactions to aspirin are reported in 1.5% of patients with coronary artery disease. A history of adverse reaction to aspirin often leads to unnecessary withholding of this medication or use of alternative antiplatelet therapy which may be inferior or more costly. Aspirin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Rapid aspirin challenge/desensitization in the aspirin allergic patient has been consistently shown to be both safe and successful in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  4. Early Referral to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Following Acute Coronary Syndrome, Trends and Outcomes from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempfner, Robert; Barac, Yaron D; Younis, Arwa; Kopel, Eran; Younis, Anan; Ronen, Goldkorn; Maor, Elad; Arbel, Yaron; Rott, David; Goldenberg, Ilan; Aravot, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Limited information exists on whether changes in medical practices over the study decades have affected the outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who undergo early coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) during index hospitalisation. Data on trends for early CABG referral and associated outcomes were obtained among 11,485 ACS patients enrolled in the biennial Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) 2000-2010. Among 11,485 patients, 566 (5%) were referred to early CABG. These patients displayed higher risk characteristics, including Killip class >II, anterior myocardial infarction, greater left ventricular dysfunction, and more frequent use of mechanical ventilation and intra-aortic balloon pump (all ptrend over the study decade (6.7% - 1.7%; p<0.001). One year survival was similar between patients referred to early CABG during the late (years: 2006-2010) vs. early (years: 2000-2005) period (85.7% vs. 90%; log-rank p-value=0.15), whereas, among patients who didn't undergo early CABG, and underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or medical management only, enrolment during the late periods was associated with a significant survival benefit (91.5% vs. 88.1%; log-rank p-value<0.001). Over the study decade there was a significant decline in referral for early CABG, without a difference in the one-year mortality between the early and non-early CABG group. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution of KV7 Channels to Basal Coronary Flow and Active Response to Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanamiri, Saereh; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jepps, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    in the presence of a KV7 inhibitor. The expression levels of KCNQ1-5 and their known accessory KCNE1-5 subunits in coronary arteries were similar in normotensive and hypertensive rats as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. However, KV7.4 protein expression was reduced in hypertensive rats...

  6. ST–Segment elevation: Not always an acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors can be primary or metastatic, the latter being more frequent and usually of pulmonary or hematologic origin. These patients’ clinical signs are non-specific and the electrocardiogram (ECG can assume many patterns, among which, ST-segment elevation. Nevertheless, associated occlusion of the coronary arteries is rare in these situations.We present a 79-year-old woman with a history of pulmonary neoplasia who was admitted to the emergency department due to atypical chest pain, cough and worsening dyspnea in the previous 3 days. The ECG revealed an ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral and inferolateral leads, despite normal blood work, namely normal troponin. Due to the disparity between the patient’s symptoms and the ECG findings, a decision was made not to proceed to primary angioplasty, but to further investigate with echocardiography, which revealed a mass localized in the anterolateral and inferolateral left ventricle walls, confirmed by computed tomography. The patient was admitted in the medical ward for symptomatic management. Her clinical condition gradually deteriorated due to the disease’s natural evolution and she died two weeks later.This case highlights the importance to keep in mind differential diagnoses to acute coronary syndromes, when a ST-segment elevation is encountered on an ECG.

  7. Acute Coronary Syndrome: Emergency Department Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veauthier, Brian; Sievers, Karlynn; Hornecker, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chest pain who present to emergency departments have a significantly higher incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) than patients with chest pain presenting to outpatient settings, so emergency department clinicians should have a lower threshold for considering ACS as an etiology. Evaluating patients with suspected ACS in the emergency department involves obtaining a history, physical examination, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and cardiac troponin measurements in conjunction with risk calculators. These parameters cannot be used individually because, for example, a normal ECG result does not exclude ACS and troponin levels can be elevated in many conditions. All patients with suspected ACS should receive aspirin, if not contraindicated, as soon as possible. Those with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or those without STEMI who are in unstable condition should be triaged to undergo reperfusion therapy, typically via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), within 120 minutes of first medical contact. If that time limit cannot be met because the patient must be transferred to a PCI-capable facility, fibrinolytic therapy should be initiated within 30 minutes of presentation if STEMI is present. (Fibrinolytic therapy is contraindicated for myocardial infarction without STEMI.) Patients also should receive nitroglycerin to relieve angina and beta blockers if not contraindicated. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Lipid Biomarkers for Risk Assessment in Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Donato, Leslie J; Jaffe, Allan S

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize evidence gathered for the prognostic value of routine and novel blood lipids and lipoproteins measured in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Data supports clear association with risk and actionable value for non-high-density lipoprotein (Non-HDL) cholesterol and plasma ceramides in a setting of ACS. The prognostic value and clinical actionability of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in ACS have not been thoroughly tested, while the data for omega-3 fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) are either untested or more varied. Measuring basic lipids, which should include Non-HDL cholesterol, at the time of presentation for ACS is guideline mandated. Plasma ceramides also provide useful information to guide both treatment decisions and follow-up. Additional studies targeting ACS patients are necessary for apoB, Lp(a), omega-3 fatty acids, and Ox-LDL.

  9. The Impact of Hypertension on Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Picariello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial chronic hypertension (HTN is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In order to explain the relation between HTN and acute coronary syndromes the following factors should be considered: (1 risk factors are shared by the diseases, such as genetic risk, insulin resistance, sympathetic hyperactivity, and vasoactive substances (i.e., angiotensin II; (2 hypertension is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (which in turn contributes to progression of myocardial infarction. From all the registries and the data available up to now, hypertensive patients with ACS are more likely to be older, female, of nonwhite ethnicity, and having a higher prevalence of comorbidities. Data on the prognostic role of a preexisting hypertensive state in ACS patients are so far contrasting. The aim of the present paper is to focus on hypertensive patients with ACS, in order to better elucidate whether these patients are at higher risk and deserve a tailored approach for management and followup.

  10. Depression After First Hospital Admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Mårtensson, Solvej; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim

    2016-01-01

    for depression and mortality via linkage to patient, prescription, and cause-of-death registries until the end of 2012. Incidence of depression (as defined by hospital discharge or antidepressant medication use) and the relationship between depression and mortality were examined using time-to-event models......We examined incidence of depression after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and whether the timing of depression onset influenced survival. All first-time hospitalizations for ACS (n = 97,793) identified in the Danish Patient Registry during 2001-2009 and a reference population were followed....... In total, 19,520 (20.0%) ACS patients experienced depression within 2 years after the event. The adjusted rate ratio for depression in ACS patients compared with the reference population was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.30). During 12 years of follow-up, 39,523 (40.4%) ACS patients and 27...

  11. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...... the ischemic insult. This model seems to be suitable for investigations of therapeutic initiatives in diseases involving acute retinal ischemia....

  12. Acute Limb Ischemia-Much More Than Just a Lack of Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Florian; Oberhuber, Alexander; Floros, Nikolaos; Busch, Albert; Wagenhäuser, Markus Udo; Schelzig, Hubert; Duran, Mansur

    2018-01-26

    Acute ischemia of an extremity occurs in several stages, a lack of oxygen being the primary contributor of the event. Although underlying patho-mechanisms are similar, it is important to determine whether it is an acute or chronic event. Healthy tissue does not contain enlarged collaterals, which are formed in chronically malperfused tissue and can maintain a minimum supply despite occlusion. The underlying processes for enhanced collateral blood flow are sprouting vessels from pre-existing vessels (via angiogenesis) and a lumen extension of arterioles (via arteriogenesis). While disturbed flow patterns with associated local low shear stress upregulate angiogenesis promoting genes, elevated shear stress may trigger arteriogenesis due to increased blood volume. In case of an acute ischemia, especially during the reperfusion phase, fluid transfer occurs into the tissue while the vascular bed is simultaneously reduced and no longer reacts to vaso-relaxing factors such as nitric oxide. This process results in an exacerbative cycle, in which increased peripheral resistance leads to an additional lack of oxygen. This whole process is accompanied by an inundation of inflammatory cells, which amplify the inflammatory response by cytokine release. However, an extremity is an individual-specific composition of different tissues, so these processes may vary dramatically between patients. The image is more uniform when broken down to the single cell stage. Because each cell is dependent on energy produced from aerobic respiration, an event of acute hypoxia can be a life-threatening situation. Aerobic processes responsible for yielding adenosine triphosphate (ATP), such as the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, suffer first, thus disrupting the integrity of cellular respiration. One consequence of this is irreparable damage of the cell membrane due to an imbalance of electrolytes. The eventual increase in net fluid influx associated with

  13. Dipyridamole coronary flow reserve stratifies prognosis in acute coronary syndrome patients without left anterior descending disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Luigi; Carlomagno, Guido; Sordelli, Chiara; Iengo, Raffaele; Monda, Vittorio; Severino, Sergio; Merenda, Raffaele; D'Andrea, Antonello; Caso, Pio

    2013-09-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessment by transthoracic ultrasound of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery during dipyridamole stress echocardiography has been shown to predict prognosis in large unselected populations. Low values of CFR are strongly correlated with significant stenosis of the LAD; aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic impact of CFR in patients recovering from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with proven absence of LAD disease. From an overall cohort of 325 patients with ACS who underwent a high-dose dipyridamole stress with combined assessment of CFR in the LAD and wall motion, 152 patients without LAD disease (stenosis <50%) were included in the present analysis; all subjects underwent coronary angiography and were subsequently monitored for the incidence of major cardiac events (MACE). After a median follow-up of 29 months, 22 patients developed MACE. Patients who experienced MACE differed from stable patients in terms of age, prevalence of diabetes, and CFR. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis defined a CFR <2.25 as the optimal cut point for prediction of MACE. Cox multivariable analysis for the prediction of MACE demonstrated independent predictive value only for CFR <2.25, smoking status, and number of stenotic vessels at angiogram. In high-risk patients with ACS, even in the absence of LAD disease, CFR significantly improves prediction of adverse events when added to standard evaluation. This finding supports a role of CFR in the risk stratification early after ACS and is in context with the concept that CFR reflects global atherosclerotic burden, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular damage, more than just mirroring focal LAD disease.

  14. Identifying acute coronary syndrome patients approaching end-of-life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fenning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is common in patients approaching the end-of-life (EoL, but these patients rarely receive palliative care. We compared the utility of a palliative care prognostic tool (Gold Standards Framework (GSF and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE score, to help identify patients approaching EoL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 172 unselected consecutive patients with confirmed ACS admitted over an eight-week period were assessed using prognostic tools and followed up for 12 months. GSF criteria identified 40 (23% patients suitable for EoL care while GRACE identified 32 (19% patients with ≥ 10% risk of death within 6 months. Patients meeting GSF criteria were older (p = 0.006, had more comorbidities (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 1.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.007, more frequent hospitalisations before (p = 0.001 and after (0.0001 their index admission, and were more likely to die during follow-up (GSF+ 20% vs GSF- 7%, p = 0.03. GRACE score was predictive of 12-month mortality (C-statistic 0.75 and this was improved by the addition of previous hospital admissions and previous history of stroke (C-statistic 0.88. CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted a potentially large number of ACS patients eligible for EoL care. GSF or GRACE could be used in the hospital setting to help identify these patients. GSF identifies ACS patients with more comorbidity and at increased risk of hospital readmission.

  15. Novel Risk Stratification Assays for Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Haitham M; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-08-01

    Since identification of aspartate aminotransferase as the first cardiac biomarker in the 1950s, there have been a number of new markers used for myocardial damage detection over the decades. There have also been several generations of troponin assays, each with progressively increasing sensitivity for troponin detection. Accordingly, the "standard of care" for myocardial damage detection continues to change. The purpose of this paper is to review the clinical utility, biological mechanisms, and predictive value of these various biomarkers in contemporary clinical studies. As of this writing, a fifth "next" generation troponin assay has now been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use in the USA for subjects presenting with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Use of these high-sensitivity assays has allowed for earlier detection of myocardial damage as well as greater negative predictive value for infarction after only one or two serial measurements. Recent algorithms utilizing these assays have allowed for more rapid rule-out of myocardial infarction in emergency department settings. In this review, we discuss novel assays available for the risk assessment of subjects presenting with chest pain, including both the "next generation" cardiac troponin assays as well as other novel biomarkers. We review the biological mechanisms for these markers, and explore the positive and negative predictive value of the assays in clinical studies, where reported. We also discuss the potential use of these new markers within the context of future clinical care in the modern era of higher sensitivity troponin testing. Finally, we discuss advances in new platforms (e.g., mass spectrometry) that historically have not been considered for rapid in vitro diagnostic capabilities, but that are taking a larger role in clinical diagnostics, and whose prognostic value and power promise to usher in new markers with potential for future clinical utility in acute coronary

  16. Influence of gender on prognosis of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo-García, José Luis; Pérez-Calvo, Juan I; Zalba-Etayo, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease presents different features in men and women. We analyzed the relation between gender and prognosis in patients who had suffered a high-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This was a prospective analytical cohort study performed at Lozano Blesa University Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain, of 559 patients diagnosed with high-risk ACS with and without ST-segment elevation according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The sample was divided into two groups by gender and differences in epidemiologic, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic variables and treatment were recorded. A Cox's proportional hazard model was applied and 6-month mortality was analyzed as the main variable. The median age was 65.2±12.7 years, and 21.8% were women. Baseline characteristics in women were more unfavorable, with higher GRACE scores, older age, higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and heart failure, lower ejection fraction and more renal dysfunction at admission. Women suffered more adverse cardiovascular events (27.9% vs. 15.8%, p=0.002). Sixty-four patients died, 18.9% of the women vs. 9.4% of the men (p=0.004). After multivariate analysis, female gender did not present an independent relation with mortality. Hemoglobin level, renal function, ejection fraction and Killip class >1 presented significant differences. Acute syndrome coronary in women has a worse prognosis than in men. Their adverse course is due to their baseline characteristics and not to their gender. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Tang, Weifeng; Storey, Robert F; Husted, Steen; Teng, Renli

    2016-09-01

    Ticagrelor is an orally administered antiplatelet agent used to reduce thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Data from two studies in patients with acute coronary syndromes with large amounts of pharmacokinetic (PK) data (phase IIb DISPERSE-2 study (n = 609)); phase III PLATO PK substudy (n = 6,381)), along with non-linear mixed effects modeling software, were used to develop population PK models for ticagrelor and its metabolite, AR-C124910XX, and to evaluate the impact of demographic and clinical factors on the PK of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. 32 covariates relating to disease history, biomarkers, clinical chemistry, and concomitant medications were assessed. A one-compartment model with population mean PK parameters of firstorder absorption rate constant (0.67/h), apparent systemic clearance (14 L/h), and apparent volume of distribution (221 L) was shown to best describe the PK profile of ticagrelor. Patients co-administered moderate CYP3A inducers or inhibitors increased (by 110%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 52 - 192%) or decreased (by 64%, 95% CI, 39 - 73%) apparent ticagrelor clearance, respectively, while habitual smoking decreased apparent ticagrelor clearance by 22% (95% CI, 19 - 25%). Ticagrelor bioavailability was 21% (95% CI, 19 - 22%) lower at treatment initiation (visit 1) versus subsequent visits. Compared with Caucasian patients, ticagrelor bioavailability was 39% (95% CI, 33 - 46%) higher in Asian patients and 18% (95% CI, 6 - 28%) lower in Black patients. In the current analyses, the population PK models developed for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX described the data obtained in the DISPERSE-2 and PLATO studies well, and were consistent with previous phase I PK studies.

  18. Triple vessel coronary artery disease presenting as a markedly positive stress electrocardiographic test and a negative SPECT-TL scintigram: a case of balanced Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Herzog

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of false negative nuclear stress test in the settings of positive electrocardiographic changes is a very unusual phenomenon and is usually secondary to balanced ischemia of the myocardial segments evaluated by SPECT-TL. We present a case of an 81- year old post-menopausal female who presented to her primary care physician for evaluation of a 6-week dyspnea on exertion and was referred to our institution for exercise stress test with Thallium SPECT with the objective of ruling out coronary artery disease and identifying possible areas of myocardial ischemia. The resting electrocardiogram was unremarkable and stress test evaluation was made. The patient was admitted to the cardiac care unit and coronary artery bypass grafting was successfully performed. The presence of false negative nuclear stress test in the settings of positive electrocardiographic changes is a very unusual phenomenon and is usually secondary to balanced ischemia of the myocardial segments evaluated by SPECT-TL. Patients undergoing stress tests with these characteristics should undergo careful evaluation and a high level of suspicion should be adopted for further diagnostic assessment of coronary artery disease.

  19. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in the Setting of Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomb, Ritin; Oliphant, Carrie S; Khouzam, Rami N

    2015-07-01

    After acute coronary syndrome (ACS), dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the standard of care for both invasive management with percutaneous intervention and noninvasive (medical) management. Conversely, studies using dual antiplatelet in the population of patients presenting with ACS who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are conflicting. The appropriate antiplatelet regimen after CABG remains an area of controversy. Plaque stability, prevention of graft closure, and secondary thrombosis form the basis for using a second antiplatelet drug, whereas the additional risk of bleeding and lack of conclusive evidence should also be considered. After an extensive literature search, 12 clinical trials with efficacy outcomes were identified. Most of the studies are retrospective, nonrandomized single-center trials. A few large patient populations have been examined using database information. To date, there is only 1 prospective, multicenter, randomized trial published. Recommendations from national guidelines differ, proposing single antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or DAPT with the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel. The purpose of this report is to review the available clinical trial data and provide guidance to practitioners when caring for this patient population. In conclusion, there is no clear consensus regarding the use of DAPT in patients after CABG. If not contraindicated, it is reasonable to use DAPT, starting in the postoperative period, in patients presenting with ACS. Large, multicenter, randomized clinical trials are needed to definitively investigate the role of DAPT in patients with ACS after CABG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Significance of Unrecognized Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Zach; Leader, Avi; Neuman, Yoram; Shlezinger, Meital; Goldenberg, Ilan; Mosseri, Morris; Pereg, David

    2016-02-01

    Unrecognized renal insufficiency, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of unrecognized renal insufficiency in a large unselected population of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study population consisted of patients with acute coronary syndrome included in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli biennial Surveys during 2000-2013. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: 1) normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rates ≥60 mL/min/1/73 m(2)); 2) unrecognized renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates acute coronary syndrome patients. Unrecognized renal insufficiency was present in 2536 (19.8%). Patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency were older and more frequently females. All-cause mortality rates at 1 year were highest among patients with recognized renal insufficiency, followed by patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency, with the lowest mortality rates observed in patients with normal renal function (19.4%, 9.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, P renal insufficiency were less frequently referred for coronary angiography and were less commonly treated with guideline-based cardiovascular medications. Acute coronary syndrome patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency should be considered as a high-risk population. The question of whether this group would benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach should still be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between the lung-heart ratio assessed from post-exercise thallium-201 myocardial tomograms, myocardial ischemia and the extent of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmer, B.; Reijs, A.E.; Reiber, J.H.; Bakker, W.; Fioretti, P.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of thallium (Tl)-201 in the lungs has been proposed as a measure of left ventricular dysfunction. In this study we were interested in pursuing two goals: (1) to assess possible relationships between the post-exercise Tl-201 lung-heart (LH)-ratio determined from the anterior view during SPECT-acquisition, myocardial ischemia and the extent of coronary artery disease; and (2) to explore the effects of coronary revascularisation procedures on the LH-ratio. The study group consisted of 145 patients with early and late postexercise Tl-201 tomograms, including 32 PTCA-patients with pre- and post-PTCA studies and 20 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with corresponding pre- and post-CABG studies. Ischemia was defined as evoked angina during the exercise test in combination with greater than or equal to 1 mm horizontal or downsloping ST-depression on the ECG. The severity of coronary obstructions was assessed from coronary angiograms with a PC-based digital caliper technique; a stenosis was defined to be significant when its severity exceeded 50% diameter stenosis. The LH-ratio was defined by the ratio of the mean pulmonary counts and the mean myocardial counts assessed from corresponding regions of interest (ROI's) positioned over the left lung and the heart, respectively in the anterior view of a tomographic data acquisition procedure. Our results made clear that the LH-ratio was not significantly different between patients with and without ischemia during exercise, and between patients with single vs. multiple vessel disease

  2. Circadian variation of transient myocardial ischemia in the early out-of-hospital period after first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1991-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in other clinical cardiac dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether a circadian pattern of transient myocardial ischemia exists after first AMI. Prospectively, 24-hour ambulatory ST-segment mo...

  3. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induces upregulation of contractile endothelin ETB receptor in rat coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Sheykhzade, Majid; Trautner, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Objective We have previously shown increased expression of endothelin ETB receptors in coronary arteries of ischemic heart disease patients. ETB receptors are normal physiological conditions primarily situated in the vascular endothelial cells mediating vasodilation, whereas only a limited part...... to the specific ETB receptor agonist Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) (1 pM to 30 nM) was investigated after cumulative additions in a sensitive wire-myograph. LAD segments, situated in the post-ischemic area displayed significantly augmented ETB receptor mediated vasoconstriction (68±3% of maximal contraction, n = 7......) compared to coronary arteries from the non-ischemic area (23±6 % of maximal contraction, n = 8) and sham operated rats (22±5% of maximal contraction, n = 5). Increased density of ETB receptors localized in the vascular smooth muscle layer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in LAD segments from the post...

  4. Cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with acute cardiac injury and unobstructed coronary arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Camastra, Giovanni Salvatore; Sbarbati, Stefano; Danti, Massimiliano; Cacciotti, Luca; Semeraro, Raffaella; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Ansalone, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To define the role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) by analyzing a particular group of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and normal coronary angiogram. METHODS From January 2009 to December 2015, we examined 220 patients with clinical suspicion of ACS, Troponin elevation [the threshold used to define a positive Troponin T test (TnT) was 0.1 ng/mL] and no significant coronary disease at angiography (the patients were considered to have significant angiographic diseas...

  5. Bilateral Persistent Sciatic Arteries Complicated with Acute Left Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Yin Wu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent sciatic artery (PSA is a rare congenital malformation. In the early embryonic stage, the sciatic artery is the major blood supply for the lower limb bulb and is later replaced by the iliofemoral artery as the limb develops. Its failure to regress, sometimes associated with femoral arterial hypoplasia, and therefore becoming the dominant inflow to the lower extremity is called PSA. This anomaly is often associated with a higher rate of aneurysm formation or thromboembolic complications causing lower extremity ischemia. Here, we describe a 79-year-old male patient who presented with acute left lower extremity ischemia. He was treated initially with conventional embolectomy through inguinal and popliteal incisions. The bilateral PSA with thrombosed aneurysms was not identified at first on computed tomographic angiography. It was later diagnosed intraoperatively due to the discontinuity of the superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery found with embolectomy catheter, and was managed successfully with ePTFE graft bypass. Careful interpretation of the imaging study may be helpful in preoperative diagnosis.

  6. The length of necrosis and renal insufficiency predict the outcome of acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyıldız, Hızır Yakup; Sözüer, Erdogan; Uzer, Hasan; Baykan, Mehmet; Oz, Bahadır

    2015-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially life-threatening condition because of its diagnostic difficulty, operative challenges, and comorbidities a patient may have. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with adverse outcomes in patients with AMI. The hospital records and clinical data of all patients with AMI were reviewed for a recent 4-year period. Clinical outcomes and factors influencing mortality were analyzed. Included in the study were 104 patients (46 females and 58 males) with an overall mean age of 66 ± 13.4 years. The cause of AMI was arterial pathology in 74 (71%) patients, venous thrombosis in 15 (14%) patients, and nonocclusive ischemia in 12 (12%) patients. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (97% of patients). The 30-day mortality rate was 66%. Univariate analysis showed that mortality was associated with renal insufficiency (p = 0.004), an age greater than 70 years (p = 0.02), the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.001), a leukocyte count greater than 18,000/mL (p = 0.04), and small bowel necrosis of more than 100 cm (p renal insufficiency are the primary factors that result in a poor outcome in AMI patients. Prompt diagnostic evaluation and early therapeutic interventions may help to prevent the development of these fatal predictors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Clinical significance of troponin elevations in acute decompensated diabetes without clinical acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eubanks Anthony

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevation of cardiac troponin has been documented in multiple settings without acute coronary syndrome. However, its impact on long-term cardiac outcomes in the context of acute decompensated diabetes remains to be explored. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 872 patients admitted to Temple University Hospital from 2004–2009 with DKA or HHS. Patients were included if they had cardiac troponin I (cTnI measured within 24 hours of hospital admission, had no evidence of acute coronary syndrome and had a follow up period of at least 18 months. Of the 264 patients who met the criteria, we reviewed the baseline patient characteristics, admission labs, EKGs and major adverse cardiovascular events during the follow up period. Patients were categorized into two groups with normal and elevated levels of cardiac enzymes. The composite end point of the study was the occurrence of a major cardiovascular event (MACE during the follow up period and was compared between the two groups. Results Of 264 patients, 24 patients were found to have elevated cTnI. Compared to patients with normal cardiac enzymes, there was a significant increase in incidence of MACE in patients with elevated cTnI. In a regression analysis, which included prior history of CAD, HTN and ESRD, the only variable that independently predicted MACE was an elevation in cTnI (p = 0.044. Patients with elevated CK-MB had increased lengths of hospitalization compared to the other group (p  Conclusions Elevated cardiac troponin I in patients admitted with decompensated diabetes and without evidence of acute coronary syndrome, strongly correlate with a later major cardiovascular event. Thus, elevated troponin I during metabolic abnormalities identify a group of patients at an increased risk for poor long-term outcomes. Whether these patients may benefit from early detection, risk stratification and preventive interventions remains to be investigated.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery plaque burden, and conventional exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as predictors of coronary artery disease prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery (BA, which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima-media thickness (IMT in the carotid artery are correlated with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD, it is not clear which modality is a better predictor of CAD. Furthermore, it has not been fully determined whether either of these modalities is superior to conventional ST-segment depression on exercise stress electrocardiogram (ECG as a predictor. Thus, the goal of the present study was to compare the predictive value of FMD, IMT, and stress ECG for CAD prognosis. Methods and Results A total of 103 consecutive patients (62 ± 9 years old, 79 men with clinically suspected CAD had FMD and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NTG-D in the BA, carotid artery IMT measurement using high-resolution ultrasound, and exercise treadmill testing. The 73 CAD patients and 30 normal coronary patients were followed for 50 ± 15 months. Fifteen patients had coronary events during this period (1 cardiac death, 2 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 3 acute heart failures, and 9 unstable anginas. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, only FMD and stress ECG were significant predictors for cardiac events. Conclusion Brachial endothelial function as reflected by FMD and conventional exercise stress testing has comparable prognostic value, whereas carotid artery plaque burden appears to be less powerful for predicting future cardiac events.

  9. Unilateral Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion as a Robust Model for Acute to Chronic Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Clef

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is an underestimated, yet important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Even after initial total recovery of renal function, some patients develop progressive and persistent deterioration of renal function and these patients are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Animal models are indispensable for unravelling the mechanisms underlying this progression towards CKD and ESRD and for the development of new therapeutic strategies in its prevention or treatment. Ischemia (i.e. hypoperfusion after surgery, bleeding, dehydration, shock, or sepsis is a major aetiology in human AKI, yet unilateral ischemia-reperfusion is a rarely used animal model for research on CKD and fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate in C57Bl/6J mice, by both histology and gene expression, that unilateral ischemia-reperfusion without contralateral nephrectomy is a very robust model to study the progression from acute renal injury to long-term tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, i.e. the histopathological hallmark of CKD. Furthermore, we report that the extent of renal fibrosis, in terms of Col I, TGFβ, CCN2 and CCN3 expression and collagen I immunostaining, increases with increasing body temperature during ischemia and ischemia-time. Thus, varying these two main determinants of ischemic injury allows tuning the extent of the long-term fibrotic outcome in this model. Finally, in order to cover the whole practical finesse of ischemia-reperfusion and allow model and data transfer, we provide a referenced overview on crucial technical issues (incl. anaesthesia, analgesia, and pre- and post-operative care with the specific aim of putting starters in the right direction of implementing ischemia in their research and stimulate them, as well as the community, to have a critical view on ischemic literature data.

  10. [Treatment of acute coronary dissection by angioplasty during diagnostic catheterization by the Sones' technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G A; Cavalcanti, R C; Livera, J R; Mota, F B; de Oliveira, N S; Yaktine, H; Cano, M; Sousa, A G; Sousa, J E

    1991-12-01

    Male, 50 year-old, white, who underwent coronary arteriography and exhibited proximal dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery induced by the Sones catheter with subsequent acute vessel occlusion. The patient was immediately treated by balloon angioplasty with excellent outcome.

  11. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Hout, B.A. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg

  12. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also resulted in lung injury in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NAC decreased the levels of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP, as well as lung MPO and cytokines. In summary, the concentrations of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP predicted intestinal ischemia prior to pathological evidence of ischemia and I-FABP directly correlated with resultant lung injury. The antioxidant NAC reduced intestinal and lung injury induced by AMI, suggesting a role for oxidants in the mechanism for distant organ injury. I-FABP and α-defensins are promising biomarkers, and may guide the treatment with antioxidant in early intestinal and distal organ injury.

  13. Delayed percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weiming; Tian Fang; Shi Li; Lan Xi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effects, safeness and prognosis of delayed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for infarct related artery (IRA) in post-infarct patients. Methods: In total 53 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) underwent delayed PCI within 5-15 days after the acute event. Conventional treatment (including thrombolytic therapy) was given in all patients as they were admitted. Results: Intervention was performed in 68 branches of IRA were, including 64 cases of PTCA followed by stent implantation and 4 cases of direct stent implantation. In total 68 stents were implanted. The TIMI classification was improved from the pre-PCI 0-2 to post-PCI 3. No patient died during the treatment. No repeated AMI, post-infarct angina and repeated recanalization happened in the hospitalization. A 5-48 month follow up showed there was 1 death (1.9%), 1 case of repeated myocardial infarction (1.9%), 3 cases of unstable angina (5.7%), 2 cases of repeated PCI and 1 case of CABG. The rate of repeated recanalization was 5.7%. Seven patients (13.2%) were admitted for the second time, who survived 6-48 months after the intervention. Conclusion: Delayed PCT can obviously improve the short and long term prognosis as well as the life quality of patients with AMI, which is a safe interventional procedure

  14. Diagnostic Utility of Neuregulin for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Yaa A. B. Yiadom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of serum neuregulin-1β (NRG-1β for the detection of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We recruited emergency department patients presenting with signs and symptoms prompting an evaluation for ACS. Serum troponin and neuregulin-1β levels were compared between those who had a final discharge diagnosis of myocardial infarction (STEMI and NSTEMI and those who did not, as well as those who more broadly had a final discharge diagnosis of ACS (STEMI, NSTEMI, and unstable angina. Of 319 study participants, 11% had evidence of myocardial infarction, and 19.7% had a final diagnosis of ACS. Patients with MI had median neuregulin levels of 0.16 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–24.54]. Compared to the median of those without MI, 1.46 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–15.02], there was no significant difference in the distribution of results (P=0.63. Median neuregulin levels for patients with ACS were 0.65 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–24.54]. There was no statistical significance compared to those without ACS who had a median of 1.40 ng/mL (IQR [0.16–14.19] (P=0.95. Neuregulin did not perform successfully as a biomarker for acute MI or ACS in the emergency department.

  15. REPERFUSION THERAPY IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH ST SEGMENT ELEVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Alyavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effect of percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PCA and a systemic thrombolysis (STL on the central and intracardiac hemodynamics in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS with ST segment elevation.Material and methods. 80 patients with ACS with ST segment elevation were included in the study. Patients were split into 2 groups depending on reperfusion strategy. PCA was performed in 55 patients (first group. 25 patients of the second group had STL with Streptokinase, i/v, 1 500 000 units per hour. Echocardiography was performed in all patients at admission and after 3 and 7 days of treatment to evaluate intracardiac hemodynamics.Results. Both reperfusion methods significantly increase of ejection fraction (EF and maximal output speed of left ventricle (LV. Increase of LV EF in patients after PCA was higher than this in patients after STL. PCA improved LV diastolic function; STL did not change this characteristic. After PCA working diagnosis of ACS was transformed to the following final diagnosis: acute myocardial infarction (AMI with Q, AMI without Q and unstable angina in 37,5, 30,4 and 32,1% of patients, respectively. After STL diagnosis of AMI with Q was defined in all patients.Conclusion. PCA in patients with ACS with ST segment elevation results in fast improvement of global systolic and diastolic LV function. Besides, PCA prevents AMI with Q in a half of these patients.

  16. Oxygen uptake kinetics during and after exercise are useful markers of coronary artery disease in patients with exercise electrocardiography suggesting myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Akihiko; Ohkoshi, Nobuyuki; Kawara, Tokuhiro; Aizawa, Tadanori; Itoh, Haruki; Maeda, Tomoko; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Wasserman, K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine if the slowed exercise oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) kinetics, which is developed by myocardial ischemia, would be accompanied by delayed recovery VO 2 kinetics in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-seven patients with significant ST depression during treadmill exercise underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with cycle ergometer. Measurements performed are the ratios of change in increase in oxygen (O 2 ) uptake relative to increase in work rate (ΔVO 2 /ΔWR) across anaerobic threshold (AT) and 1 mm ST depression point (ST-dep), the time constants of VO 2 during recovery (T 1/2 VO 2 ), stress radio-isotope scintigraphy and coronary angiography. Patients were divided into CAD positive (CAD+) and CAD negative (CAD-) groups, based on coronary angiography. In CAD+, ΔVO 2 /ΔWR decreased above AT and ST-dep, in contrast to CAD- patients. The T 1/2 VO 2 in CAD+ (103.1±13.0 s) was greater than that of CAD- (76.5±8.7 s) and showed negative correlations to the ratios of ΔVO 2 /ΔWR across AT and ST-dep. These parameters improved in the patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery. Exercise and recovery VO 2 kinetics were slowed when myocardial ischemia was provoked by exercise. Measurement of exercise and recovery VO 2 kinetics improve the accuracy of the exercise electrocardiogram diagnosis of CAD. (author)

  17. Clinical implementation of an emergency department coronary computed tomographic angiography protocol for triage of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Vadvala, Harshna; Kim, Phillip; Meyersohn, Nandini M.; Janjua, Sumbal A.; Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Takx, Richard A.P. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Neilan, Tomas G.; Francis, Sanjeev [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Bittner, Daniel [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Medicine 2 - Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Mayrhofer, Thomas [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stralsund University of Applied Sciences, School of Business Studies, Stralsund (Germany); Greenwald, Jeffrey L. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Truong, Quyhn A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Weill Cornell College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Abbara, Suhny [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department Cardiothoracic Imaging, Dallas, TX (United States); Brown, David F.M.; Nagurney, John T. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Januzzi, James L. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Collaboration: MGH Emergency Cardiac CTA Program Contributors

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of emergency department (ED) coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) during a 3-year clinical experience. Single-center registry of coronary CTA in consecutive ED patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The primary outcome was efficiency of coronary CTA defined as the length of hospitalization. Secondary endpoints of safety were defined as the rate of downstream testing, normalcy rates of invasive coronary angiography (ICA), absence of missed ACS, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during follow-up, and index radiation exposure. One thousand twenty two consecutive patients were referred for clinical coronary CTA with suspicion of ACS. Overall, median time to discharge home was 10.5 (5.7-24.1) hours. Patient disposition was 42.7 % direct discharge from the ED, 43.2 % discharge from emergency unit, and 14.1 % hospital admission. ACS rate during index hospitalization was 9.1 %. One hundred ninety two patients underwent additional diagnostic imaging and 77 underwent ICA. The positive predictive value of CTA compared to ICA was 78.9 % (95 %-CI 68.1-87.5 %). Median CT radiation exposure was 4.0 (2.5-5.8) mSv. No ACS was missed; MACE at follow-up after negative CTA was 0.2 %. Coronary CTA in an experienced tertiary care setting allows for efficient and safe management of patients with suspicion for ACS. (orig.)

  18. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain?Barre Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan?Barre Syndrome, hence reported.

  19. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan-Barre Syndrome, hence reported.

  20. TETANIC CRISIS IN EMERGENCY CARDIOLOGY — DIFFICULTIES DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rezvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents a case of tetanic crisis in a patient with postoperative parathyroid insufficiency after strumectomy that emergency doctors were interpreted as an acute coronary syndrome with collapse.

  1. The impact of self-care education on life expectancy in acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Choobdari

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Hospitalized acute coronary syndrome patients have a lower levels of life expectancy. Their life expectancy can increase through providing them with self-care education, which will lead to their independence promotion and self-esteem.

  2. Is prolonged cold ischemia a contraindication to using kidneys from acute kidney injury donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Gautreaux, Michael D; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Stratta, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) on the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) renal grafts, we therefore performed a single-center retrospective analysis in adult patients receiving kidney transplantation (KT) from AKI donors. Outcomes were stratified according to duration of CIT. A total of 118 patients receiving AKI grafts were enrolled. Based on CIT, patients were stratified as follows: (i) 20 hours (P = NS). In the nine patients with CIT >40 hours, the 4-year DCGS rate was 100%. We conclude that prolonged CIT in AKI grafts may not adversely influence outcomes and so discard of AKI kidneys because of projected long CIT is not warranted when donors are wisely triaged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Endovascular Solution of Acute Limb Ischemia Engendered by Persistent Sciatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm due to Stent Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Adamo, Alessandro; Sirignano, Pasqualino; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Mansour, Wassim; Montelione, Nunzio; Cirelli, Carlo; Capoccia, Laura; Speziale, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    We report a case of acute limb ischemia (ALI) due to a thromboembolism from a persistent sciatic artery (PSA) pseudoaneurysm precipitated by a fractured stent. Patient, previously treated for ALI by fibrinolysis and stent implantation, presented with a PSA pseudoaneurysm (undetected during first hospitalization), stent fracture (SF), and occlusion of vessels below the knee. Fibrinolysis was performed, restoring direct flow to the foot. A week later, an endovascular procedure was attempted to reline SF and exclude the PSA pseudoaneurysm by deployment of two 13 × 100-mm peripheral endografts (Viabahn; W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). At 1-year follow-up, patient was asymptomatic without further clinical events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Natriuretic peptide infusion reduces myocardial injury during acute ischemia/reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Birgitte S.; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Bisgaard, Line Stattau

    2012-01-01

    in the ischemic left ventricular region (Pinjury in acute ischemia–reperfusion, possibly through indirect mechanisms (e.g. increased diuresis and vasodilation). The results suggest a role for natriuretic peptide therapy......Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a natriuretic peptide infusion during reperfusion can reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia–reperfusion damage. Materials and methods: The effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity was assessed in vitro and in vivo: the cellular effect...... was determined by assessment of intracellular caspase activity and troponin T release from cultured HL-1 cells subjected to short-term hypoxia–reperfusion. Cardiac effects were further examined in pigs (n=25) that had been subjected to 1 h of regional cardiac ischemia, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Results: HL...

  5. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yüksel

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. Methods: The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1 and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2. Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  6. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Hyder O; Elnour, Mohammed A; Taha, Akasha M; Elbadawi, Abdulateef S

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P 0.05). Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications.

  7. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder O Mirghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P 0.05. Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications.

  8. Study of the Association between H. pylori Infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fouladi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection.   Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software.   Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3% in control group and 122 patients (40.6% in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group.   Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

  9. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lijuan [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wang, Yingjie [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shuguang Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Pan, Yaohua; Zhang, Lan [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shen, Chengxing [Department of Cardiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Qin, Gangjian [Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Ashraf, Muhammad [Pathology and Lab Med, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Weintraub, Neal [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ma, Genshan, E-mail: magenshan@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yaoliang, E-mail: tangyg@ucmail.uc.edu [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease.

  10. Early percutaneous coronary intervention, platelet inhibition with eptifibatide, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. PURSUIT Investigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Kleiman (Neal); D.V. Cokkinos (Dennis); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); R.A. Harrington (Robert Alex); R.M. Califf (Robert); E.J. Topol (Eric); A.M. Lincoff (Michael); G.C. Flaker; K.S. Pieper (Karen); R.G. Wilcox (Robert); L.G. Berdan (Lisa); T.J. Lorenz; H. Boersma (Eric)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists prevent the composite end point of death or myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with acute coronary syndromes. There is uncertainty about whether this effect is confined to patients who have percutaneous

  11. Zotarolimus-eluting vs. sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, Troels; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne Kjer

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012 ABSTRACT: Objectives:  To compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in the SORT OUT III trial. Background:  Currently, only limited data allow direct comparison of clinical outcomes...

  12. S3226, a novel NHE3 inhibitor, attenuates ischemia-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hropot, M; Juretschke, H P; Langer, K H; Schwark, J R

    2001-12-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains a major problem in clinical nephrology characterized by sudden loss of the kidney function due to ischemia, trauma, and/or nephrotoxic drugs. The current therapy of ARF is symptomatic with mortality rates exceeding 50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intravenous infusion of S3226 (3-[2-(3-guanidino-2-methyl-3-oxopropenyl)-5-methyl-phenyl]-N-isopropylidene-2-methyl-acrylamide dihydrochloride), a selective Na+/H+ exchange subtype 3 (NHE3) blocker, in ischemia-induced ARF in rats. In a second series of experiments cytosolic pH (pHi) changes in the kidney during ARF were continuously measured by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ARF was induced by bilateral occlusion of renal arteries for 40 minutes in three groups of anaesthetized Wistar rats. Control rats (N = 12) were infused with saline (6.25 mL/kg over 30 min) before occlusion and the compound groups (each N = 12) were infused with S3226 at a dose of 20 mg/kg over 30 minutes either before initiation of ischemia or immediately after release of clamps. Plasma creatinine (PCr), creatinine clearance (CCr), urine volume, sodium, and potassium excretion were determined up to seven days after release of clamps. In the second series of experiments in anaesthetized rats the left kidney was exposed by flank incision and fixed in a non-magnetic device. An inflatable cuff was positioned around the pedicle to induce ischemia without removing animals from the magnet. A double-tuned 1H-31P home-built surface coil was placed above the exposed kidney for the detection of pHi. At day 1 after ischemia CCr in the control group was significantly lower as compared to S3226-treated animals (control 0.30 +/- 0.05 vs. before 0.90 +/- 0.26 and reperfusion 0.83 +/- 0.15 mL/min/kg, respectively). PCr increased from 18 +/- 0.1 micromol/L before occlusion to 245 +/- 7 micromol/L in the control. The increase in PCr was significantly lower in the S3226 treated

  13. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  14. Fulminant myocarditis mimicking acute coronary syndrome = Miocarditis fulminante, simuladora de síndrome coronario agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senior, Juan Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fulminant myocarditis mimicking acute coronary syndrome We report the case of a 48 year-old man with chest pain and history of coronary and autoimmune diseases, who developed acute heart failure and hemodynamic collapse. We present his clinical evolution and the tests that allowed the diagnosis of fulminant myocarditis secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus. A review of the most important aspects of this disease is also included.

  15. A Case with Repeated Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome due to Pseudoephedrine Use: Kounis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çeliker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic reaction-associated acute coronary syndrome picture is defined as Kounis syndrome. Although drug use is the most common cause of allergic reaction, foods and environmental factors may also play a role in the etiology. Herein, a case with acute coronary syndrome that developed two times at 8-month interval due to pseudoephedrine use for upper respiratory tract infection is presented.

  16. Predictors and outcome of grade 3 ischemia in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Heestermans, T.; Berg, J.W. Ten; Werkum, J.W. van; Suryapranata, H.; Birnbaum, Y.; Hamm, C.W.; Hof, A.W. van 't

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Grade 3 ischemia (G3I: distortion of the terminal portion of the QRS complex) is a predictor of serious complications after acute myocardial infarction. However, less is known about which patients are more prone to present with G3I. METHODS: Patients who were enrolled in the Ongoing

  17. Autonomic and Hemodynamic Correlates of Daily Life Activity and Ambulatory Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quigley, John

    2003-01-01

    ...) could identify CAD patients at-risk for ambulatory myocardial ischemia; or (3) were related to changes in physical exertion and heart rate levels before the onset of ambulatory myocardial ischemia...

  18. The risk of acute coronary syndrome in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriha Belguith, Asma; Baccouche, Houda; Grissa, Mohamed Habib; Boubaker, Hamdi; Bouida, Wahid; Beltaief, Kaouthar; Sekma, Adel; Fredj, Nizar; Bzeouiche, Nasri; Zina, Zied; Boukef, Riadh; Soltani, Mohamed; Nouira, Semir

    2016-10-01

    Data on the effect of fasting on coronary disease are rare and controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Ramadan on the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome among chest pain patients in the emergency department of Monastir. It was a prospective study, performed in the emergency department of Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital of Monastir, during the 3 months before, during and after Ramadan from 2012 to 2014. We included all patients with non-traumatic chest pain during the study period. Data were collected using a standardized form. The uniformity chi 2 test, ANOVA test, Kruskal-Wallis test were performed at the 5% level. Binary logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The SCA prevalence was 17% a month before Ramadan, 22% during Ramadan and 28% one month after Ramadan (p = 0.007). According to the results of the multivariate analysis, the period of Ramadan is not associated with increase of risk of SCA whereas the risk doubles after Ramadan in all group (p = 0.001). In subgroups analysis, the period of R was associated with an amplification of risk in men aged more than 55 years and women older than 65 years (OR: 2.1; p = 0.020) and among subjects with hypertension (OR: 2.4, p = 0.007). Ramadan and Shawwal were not associated with an increase of risk among subjects without CVX risk factor. We have demonstrated that the risk of SCA has increased in Ramadan only among the elderly and patient with hypertension. The increased risk in Shawwal can be explained by the lifting of dietary restriction.

  19. The impact of infection on mortality in octogenarians who were admitted due to acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Sığırcı, Serhat; Yıldız, Süleyman Sezai; Çetin, Şükrü; Gürdal, Ahmet; Kocaş, Betül Balaban; Kılıçkesmez, Kadriye Orta

    The prevalence of coronary artery disease is on the rise as the life expectancy of the population increases. However, treatment of acute coronary syndrome in the elderly patients has its own problems that have not been thoroughly addressed in the clinical trials. Since these patients are generally fragile and have multiple co-morbidities, the course of acute coronary syndrome can frequently be complicated. Infection, which co-exists either at the initial presentation or is acquired during the hospital stay, is a condition about which there is little published data. Therefore, in our study, we wanted to assess the impact of infection on mortality in octogenarians who have acute coronary syndrome METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 174 octogenarians who had been admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome. All-cause mortality was defined as the primary endpoint of the study. Overall 53 octogenarian patients (30.5%) had an infection along with acute coronary syndrome. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 months (1-25 months). Both in-hospital and long-term mortality were higher in these patients (18.9% vs 6.6%, p = 0.01; 52.8% vs 27.5%, p < 0.01; respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis also showed lower cumulative survival. (p [log-rank] = 0.002). In multivariate Cox regression analysis; undergoing coronary angiography, infection (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.15-3.34, p = 0.01), left ventricular ejection fraction and maximum C reactive protein levels were found as independent predictors of long-term survival. Infection in octogenarians who were admitted due to acute coronary syndrome was frequent and increased their mortality substantially. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Application of continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower extremity ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Wang, Tengke; Zhang, Jinglan

    2014-09-16

    To summarize the experiences of using continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower limb ischemia. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed acute lower limb ischemia with surgical treatment between January 2008 and December 2013, among which 22 patients with myonephropathic metabolic syndrome received continuous renal replacement therapy. Summarize the change tendency of myoglobin, urine volume and serum creatinine levels during treatment and analysis the condition changes and prognosis of the patients. Among them, 2 patients were amputated and two died after surgery. The major causes of death were acute renal failure, metabolic acidosis, circulation failure and liver failure, etc. Myoglobin was significantly higher at Day 1 after surgery than that was before surgery (P metabolic syndrome, early targeted continuous renal replacement therapy may decrease the serum concentrations of myoglobin and CK, improve urine volume, maintain homeostasis, prevent renal function deterioration and improve the prognosis of patients. And it is highly recommended.

  1. The cost of inpatient death associated with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page II RL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Page II,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,2 Jill Van Den Bos,3 Travis J Gray,3 Greta L Hoetzer,4 Durgesh Bhandary,4 Kavita V Nair1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3Milliman, Inc, Denver, CO, 4AstraZeneca, US Medical Affairs, Wilmington, DE, USA Background: No studies have addressed the cost of inpatient mortality during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS admission. Objective: Compare ACS-related length of stay (LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by day of discharge/death for patients who died during an inpatient admission with a matched cohort discharged alive following an ACS-related inpatient stay. Methods: Medical and pharmacy claims (2009–2012 were used to identify admissions with a primary diagnosis of ACS from patients with at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to an ACS admission. Patients who died during their ACS admission (deceased cohort were matched (one-to-one to those who survived (survived cohort on age, sex, year of admission, Chronic Condition Index score, and prior revascularization. Mean LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by the day of discharge/death for the deceased cohort were compared with the survived cohort. A generalized linear model with log transformation was used to estimate the differences in the total expected incremental cost of an ACS admission and by the day of discharge/death between cohorts. A negative binomial model was used to estimate differences in the LOS between the two cohorts. Costs were inflated to 2013 dollars. Results: A total of 1,320 ACS claims from patients who died (n=1,320 were identified and matched to 1,319 claims from the survived patients (n=1,319. The majority were men (68% and mean age was 56.7±6.4 years. The LOS per claim for the deceased cohort was

  2. IMPACT OF HAEMOGLOBIN LEVELS ON OUTCOMES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrirang Kishor Bhurchandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is observed that anaemia is a common problem in patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes. There have been reports in worldwide studies of an association between anaemia and poor prognosis in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS All consecutive patients having ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina who were admitted in medicine ward, Medicine Intensive Care Unit (MICU, Cardiology Department (CRD, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (CVTS Department and incidentally found in other departments of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital admitted from 1st November 2014 to 31st December 2015 at AVBRH. Total 200 patients were included in the study. RESULTS Our study showed an association between haemoglobin levels and mean age (p=0.0001, gender (p=0.0001, risk factors like smoking (p=0.035, tobacco (p=0.001 and Killip’s class I (p=0.0001, III (p=0.0001 and IV (p=0.0001. On distribution of the MACE’s during hospital stay stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. On distribution of the MACE’s during follow up on 30th day and on 180th day stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION To conclude our study results, it was found during the study that anaemia as an important risk factor was strongly associated with major adverse outcomes in patients with ACS. Our study suggested that there was a statistically significant correlation between the low Hb levels and MACE’s (post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart

  3. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Assessment of Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeres, Carlos Eduardo Elias dos; Cury, Roberto Caldeira; Carneiro, Adriano Camargo de Castro; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The coronary computed tomography angiography has recently emerged as an accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, providing diagnostic and prognostic data that correlate directly with the data provided by invasive coronary angiography. The association of recent technological developments has allowed improved temporal resolution and better spatial coverage of the cardiac volume with significant reduction in radiation dose, and with the crucial need for more effective protocols of risk stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, recent evaluation of the computed tomography coronary angiography has been performed in the setting of acute chest pain, as about two thirds of invasive coronary angiographies show no significantly obstructive coronary artery disease. In daily practice, without the use of more efficient technologies, such as coronary angiography by computed tomography, safe and efficient stratification of patients with acute chest pain remains a challenge to the medical team in the emergency room. Recently, several studies, including three randomized trials, showed favorable results with the use of this technology in the emergency department for patients with low to intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease. In this review, we show data resulting from coronary angiography by computed tomography in risk stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, its diagnostic value, prognosis and cost-effectiveness and a critical analysis of recently published multicenter studies

  4. Cytomegalovirus localization in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with acute coronary syndromes: report of 105 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Fazel, Mozhgan; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Nasseri, Mohammad Hassan; Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Dabiri, Hossein; Aryan, Reza Safi; Esfahani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Ali; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Kalantar-Motamed, Mohammad Hassan; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that cytomegalovirus (CMV) is present in coronary atherosclerotic plaques, but the clinical relevance of this presence remains to be elucidated. In this study we sought to examine CMV infection in atherosclerosis patients defined by different methods and to identify the clinical significance of CMV replication in the atherosclerotic plaques. The study included 105 consecutive patients who were admitted to our department and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgical interventions. Coronary atherosclerotic specimens as well as 53 specimens from the mamillary artery of these same patients were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used for evaluations. The CMV PCR test result was positive for 28 (26.7%) of patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis. After adjusting for other risk factors, coronary artery disease patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome were more likely to be positive for CMV PCR test (P=0.027; odds ratio: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.18-15.0). They were also more likely to have a positive family history for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study confirms previous evidence about the replication of CMV virus in the atherosclerotic plaques of coronary arteries and brings clinical significance to this observation by showing a higher prevalence of acute coronary syndromes in those patients with CMV-infected plaques. Our study also suggests a familial vulnerability to CMV replication in the coronary artery walls.

  5. A Novel Scoring System for Diagnosing Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in the Emergency Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Jin-Lu; Tian, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) based on clinical judgment has been proved to be too difficult. Therefore, it is important for identifying clinical parameters that can differentiate AMI from other acute abdomen upon presentation. We analyzed a database of 106 consecutive patients admitted to the emergency ward for suspected AMI in whom diagnosis of AMI was confirmed by laparotomy, CT angiography or mesenteric angiography. The patients' demographics, previous history, clinical signs, results of laboratory investigations and ultrasonography were collected. Diagnostic cutoff value of quantitative indexes was derived from the receiver operating curve. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for AMI and formulated these risk factors into a scoring system. A total of 45 patients (42.5%) were confirmed to have AMI. Compared with other acute abdomen, AMI had significantly increased level of white blood cell (Odds ratio (OR) 16.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-235.34), red cell distribution width (OR 27.65, 95% CI 1.53-501.02), mean platelet volume (OR 16.06, 95% CI 1.48-174.50) and D-dimer (OR 42.91, 95% CI 2.56-718.09). A diagnostic score was calculated by adding points assigned to the four parameters, and a cutoff score of four best identified patients with AMI, with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 97.8, 91.8, 89.8 and 98.2%, respectively. This scoring system based on easily available parameters could be used as a useful tool for differentiating AMI from other acute abdomen in the emergency ward. Prospective studies with large sample remain needed for validating the results.

  6. An Unusual Case of Recurrent Hypersensitivity Reaction Associated with Kounis-Like Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Kundumadam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been multiple reports of allergic reactions associated with acute coronary syndromes. This has been classically described as Kounis syndrome. We present an unusual case of 70-year-old male with multiple prior hypersensitivity reactions and history of coronary artery bypass grafting who presented recurrent episode of severe angioedema and anaphylaxis. He responded to epinephrine but subsequently developed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with worsening heart failure. Our case is unique in that, unlike classic Kounis syndrome, the acute coronary event in this case did not present concurrently with the allergic reaction; rather it took nearly 48 hours to present. Subsequent angiogram revealed patent grafts and significant decline in the left ventricular systolic function as compared to his own ECHO a year ago. We postulate that slow mediators of inflammation may play a role in delayed development of acute coronary events with associated LV dysfunction following episodes of angioedema and anaphylaxis.

  7. Drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents for acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Greenhalgh, Janette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.7 million people died from acute coronary syndrome worldwide in 2012. Acute coronary syndrome, also known as myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris, is caused by a sudden blockage of the blood supplied to the heart muscle. Percutaneous coronary intervention...... CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents for acute coronary syndrome. We included trials irrespective of publication type, status, date, or language. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed our published protocol and the methodological......-eluting stents group compared with 6.63% in the bare-metal stents group based on the RR of 0.96 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.11, 10,939 participants, 19 trials/20 comparisons, very low-quality evidence). The results of Trial Sequential Analysis showed that we did not have sufficient information to confirm or reject our...

  8. Pharmacologicalmodification of thegabaergicsystem as a potentialvariant of cerebral protection in acute cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Володимирович Тихоновський

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the possible impact of some derivatives of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, piracetam, picamilon and Krebs cycle intermediates - succinate (as sodium salt on the pathobiochemical changes in the central nervous system, that occur under experimental playing of acute ischemic tissue damage of the cerebrum.Research methods: The study was conducted in 96 rats Wistar, who were on a standardized vivarium diet. Cerebral ischemia was caused by bond of the unilateral common carotid artery. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days after modeling of an acute cerebral ischemia after which animals were withdrawn from experiment. In the brain tissues concentrations of pyruvic, izocitric, dairy and apple acids were determined. The activity of antioxidant enzymes: catalase and superoxide dysmutaza. In addition, the brain tissues the contents of lipid peroxidation products were evaluated – diene conjugates and malonic dialdehyde. Level of brain energy production was judged by the content of the adenylic nucleotide and also phosphocreatine . The degree of destruction of the brain cells was assessed by activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in the blood and brain fraction of the creatine phosphokinase.Research results: As a result of studies, on the 4th day of ischemia a significant carbohydrate metabolism is detected, which is reflected in the sharp strengthening of anaerobic glycolysis and reduced activity of the Krebs cycle reactions, as evidenced by a significant increase in quantity of lactate and decrease in quantity of malate, isocitrate and pyruvate.A sharp strengthening of anaerobic glycolysis results in the accumulation of oxidized products and intermediates especially the latter product – lactic acid. Metabolic acidosis develops against the background of energy failure, which leads to activation of lipid peroxidation reactions. Courses appointment of the cyclic derivatives of GABA piracetam

  9. Oral contraceptive and acute intestinal ischemia with mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béliard A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aude Béliard,1 Lucie Verreth,2 Pascale Grandjean2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier du Bois de l’Abbaye (CHBA, Liege, Belgium; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier Régional (CHR Mons Hainaut, Mons, Belgium Background: Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive usage. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contraceptives, and in such cases diagnosis is often delayed.Case presentation: We report the case of a 38-year-old obese female patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. A bowel infection was first diagnosed and treated with antibiotics. Contrast-enhanced tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse ischemia of the small ­intestine with superior mesenteric thrombosis. Laparotomy with segmental resection of both small and large bowel was performed. No predisposing factor of mesenteric venous thrombosis was demonstrated except association of the combined contraceptive with obesity.Conclusion: This report highlights the need for clinicians to suspect venous mesenteric thrombosis in women of reproductive age with acute abdominal pain and poor physical ­findings. Detailed personal history including prescriptions should help to quickly and accurately ­determine the problem. Keywords: hormonal contraceptive, deep venous thrombosis, superior mesenteric vein, obesity, bowel infection

  10. Value of multislice computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yikilmaz, Ali, E-mail: dryikilmaz@yahoo.com [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Gevher Nesibe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Talas Yolu, 38038 Melikgazi, Kayseri (Turkey); Karahan, Okkes Ibrahim; Senol, Serkan; Tuna, Ibrahim Sacit [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Gevher Nesibe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Talas Yolu, 38038 Melikgazi, Kayseri (Turkey); Akyildiz, Hizir Yakup [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Gevher Nesibe Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Talas Yolu, 38038 Melikgazi, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To define the value of multislice computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). Materials and methods: Two hundred patients (age range: 20-92 years) who were referred to the emergency CT department with a clinical suspicion of AMI were prospectively included in the study. CT examinations were performed with a multislice (16) CT scanner and the protocol included pre-contrast, arterial and venous phase acquisitions. Images were evaluated by using multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection and volume-rendering techniques at the CT workstation. Results: Ninety-four patients (47%) underwent surgery for AMI or for other causes of acute abdominal pain. One hundred-six patients (53%) were followed conservatively according to clinical, radiologic and laboratory findings. Of the 94 patients who underwent surgery, 49 (25%) were found to have AMI. All of these 49 patients with a proven AMI diagnosis were diagnosed with CT. In the other 45 patients who underwent surgery, CT findings were negative for AMI. None of the patients, who were followed conservatively, were eventually diagnosed as having AMI except 1 patient. This patient was unfit for surgery although his clinical and radiologic findings were consistent with AMI and died in 3 days. The sensitivity and specificity values of CT for the detection of AMI were calculated to be 100% for each. Conclusions: Multislice CT is an effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of AMI with excellent sensitivity and specificity values.

  11. Acute coronary syndromes occurring while driving: frequency and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Miyatake, Satoru; Yagi, Takashi; Noma, Shigetaka

    2017-12-20

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may occur during any human activity, including driving. The objectives of this study were to report the frequency of ACS occurring while driving, clarify patient characteristics, and analyze the behavioral patterns of drivers who sustained ACS. A single-center, retrospective observational study was conducted using prospectively acquired data. Among 1605 ACS patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2016, 65 (60 men/5 women) patients who sustained ACS while driving were identified. Clinical variables were compared between these 65 patients and 1540 patients who sustained ACS while performing other activities. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify variables associated with ACS. The frequency of ACS occurring while driving was 4.0% (65/1605). Compared with patients who sustained ACS while performing other activities, those who sustained ACS while driving were significantly younger (66.2 ± 13.0 vs. 57.5 ± 12.2 years, p current smoking (OR 1.978; 95% CI 1.145-3.417) were associated with ACS. While 55 drivers (85%) who remained conscious after ACS could seek medical attention without causing accidents, the other 10 (15%) who sustained cardiac arrest caused accidents. The association between current smoking and ACS occurring while driving suggests that smoking cessation is advised for smokers who drive from the standpoint of driving safety. We expect that prospective studies be conducted to verify our findings and identify individuals at risk for ACS while driving.

  12. Clinical correlates of insomnia in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Virginia T; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Hirt, Kellie; Quain, Angela; Marine, Joseph E; Smith, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the prevalence of insomnia and its association with depression, anxiety, and medical comorbidities in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Insomnia increases risk of recurrent cardiac events in ACS patients, but little is known about the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in this setting. Patients (n = 102, 58.3 ± 10.6 years-old) admitted for ACS to a cardiology service at an urban academic medical center completed the Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and measures of depression and anxiety. A subset (n = 20) completed ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) in their homes several weeks after discharge. Moderate or severe insomnia was reported by 37% of patients during hospitalization and was associated with 76 minutes more wake after sleep onset measured by home PSG. Although depression and insomnia were strongly associated, about 1 in 4 patients with insomnia did not report significant depressive symptoms. Sleep apnea was documented in 80% of patients on PSG, but insomnia was not associated with sleep apnea, periodic limb movements, demographic factors, or medical conditions other than liver disease. Insomnia is present in over one-third of ACS patients during hospitalization, but at-risk patients could not be readily identified by demographic or medical factors or by depression symptoms.

  13. The Immune Response to Acute Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Associated Post-stroke Immunodepression: A Focused Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famakin, Bolanle M

    2014-10-01

    It is currently well established that the immune system is activated in response to transient or focal cerebral ischemia. This acute immune activation occurs in response to damage, and injury, to components of the neurovascular unit and is mediated by the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The initial immune activation is rapid, occurs via the innate immune response and leads to inflammation. The inflammatory mediators produced during the innate immune response in turn lead to recruitment of inflammatory cells and the production of more inflammatory mediators that result in activation of the adaptive immune response. Under ideal conditions, this inflammation gives way to tissue repair and attempts at regeneration. However, for reasons that are just being understood, immunosuppression occurs following acute stroke leading to post-stroke immunodepression. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge regarding innate and adaptive immune activation in response to focal cerebral ischemia as well as the immunodepression that can occur following stroke. A better understanding of the intricate and complex events that take place following immune response activation, to acute cerebral ischemia, is imperative for the development of effective novel immunomodulatory therapies for the treatment of acute stroke.

  14. Role of TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Lan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 -positive sensory nerves are widely distributed in the kidney, suggesting that TRPV1-mediated action may participate in the regulation of renal function under pathophysiological conditions. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels protects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI. However, it is unknown whether inhibition of these channels is detrimental in AKI or not. We tested the role of TRPV1 channels in I/R-induced AKI by modulating these channels with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist and using Trpv1-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 25 min of renal ischemia and 24 hrs of reperfusion. Mice were pretreated with capsaicin (0.3 mg/kg body weight or capsazepine (50 mg/kg body weight. Capsaicin ameliorated the outcome of AKI, as measured by serum creatinine levels, tubular damage,neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL abundance and Ly-6B.2 positive polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells in injured kidneys. Neither capsazepine nor deficiency of TRPV1 did deteriorate renal function or histology after AKI. Measurements of endovanilloids in kidney tissue indicate that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs are unlikely involved in the beneficial effects of capsaicin on I/R-induced AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of TRPV1 channels ameliorates I/R-induced AKI, but inhibition of these channels does not affect the outcome of AKI. Our results may have clinical implications for long-term safety of renal denervation to treat resistant hypertension in man, with respect to the function of primary sensory nerves in the response of the kidney to ischemic stimuli.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor attenuates ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury.

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    Chou-Chin Lan

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury (ALI is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI. This study was undertaken to define the effect of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZA, in IR-induced ALI, that was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung with 30 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group: sham, sham + AZA 200 mg/kg body weight (BW, IR, IR + AZA 100 mg/kg BW, IR + AZA 200 mg/kg BW and IR+ AZA 400 mg/kg BW. IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, neutrophilic sequestration, and an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increases in carbonic anhydrase expression and perfusate pCO2 levels were noted, while decreased Na-K-ATPase expression was noted after IR. Administration of 200mg/kg BW and 400mg/kg BW AZA significantly suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-17 and attenuated IR-induced lung injury, represented by decreases in pulmonary hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension and neutrophilic sequestration. AZA attenuated IR-induced lung injury, associated with decreases in carbonic anhydrase expression and pCO2 levels, as well as restoration of Na-K-ATPase expression.

  16. Dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant APAC prevents experimental ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuminen, Raimo; Jouppila, Annukka; Salvail, Dan; Laurent, Charles-E; Benoit, Marie-Claude; Syrjälä, Simo; Helin, Heikki; Lemström, Karl; Lassila, Riitta

    2017-06-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion predisposes to acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality. APAC, mast cell heparin proteoglycan mimetic is a potent dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant inhibiting thrombosis in several vascular models. Clinically relevant (0.06 and 0.13 mg/kg) and high (0.32 and 7.3 mg/kg) heparin doses of APAC and unfractionated heparin (UFH) were administered i.v. in pharmacological studies. Antithrombotic action of APAC and UFH was assessed with platelet aggregation to collagen, activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) and prothrombin (PT) times. Pharmacodynamics of [ 64 Cu]-APAC or -UFH were monitored by PET/CT. Next, APAC and UFH doses (0.06 and 0.13 mg/kg) were i.v. administered 10 min prior to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. APAC in contrast to UFH inhibited platelet aggregation. During 0.06 and 0.13 mg/kg dose regimens APTT and PT remained at baseline, but at the high APTT prolonged fourfold to sixfold. Overall bio-distribution and clearance of APAC and UFH were similar. After bilateral 30-min renal artery clamping, creatinine, urea nitrogen and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations and histopathology indicated faster renal recovery by APAC (0.13 mg/kg). APAC, unlike UFH, prevented expression of innate immune ligand hyaluronan and tubulointerstitial injury marker Kim-1. Moreover, in severe bilateral 1-h renal artery clamping, APAC (0.13 mg/kg) prevented AKI, as demonstrated both by biomarkers and survival. Compatible with kidney protection APAC reduced the circulating levels of vascular destabilizing and pro-inflammatory angiopoietin-2 and syndecan-1. No tissue bleeding ensued. APAC and UFH were similarly eliminated via kidneys and liver. In contrast to UFH, APAC (0.13 mg/kg) was reno-protective in moderate and even severe IRI by attenuating vascular injury and innate immune activation.

  17. Initial and Secondary ST-T Alternans During Acute Myocardial Ischemia in the In-Situ Pig Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ichiro; Gettes, Leonard S

    2016-05-25

    The factors responsible for the ST-T wave alternans (STTA) and associated arrhythmias during acute ischemia have not been clarified.In acutely ischemic porcine myocardium, we recorded transmural unipolar and bipolar electrocardiograms and mid-myocardial extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]e) from the center of the ischemic zone during 8-minute episodes of ischemia. Two different STTAs occurred. The initial STTA, which occurred at 4 minutes 15 seconds ± 12 seconds of ischemia during sinus rhythm, was most prominent in the subendocardium, independent of [K(+)]e and activation block, and heart rate dependent. It occurred in 13/19 (68%) occlusions at heart rates ≤ 100 bpm and in 22/23 (96%) at > 100 bpm. The second STTA was more obvious and greatest in the subepicardium. It began in the later phase of ischemia and was also heart rate dependent (5/19 [26%] occlusions at heart rates ≤ 100 bpm and 10/23 [44%] at > 100 bpm). This STTA was consistently associated with 2:1 change in the bipolar electrogram morphology, possibly due to 2:1 conduction block. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurred only at > 100 bpm.The initial STTA may be independent of conduction abnormalities and represent primary repolarization alternans. The second STTA may be secondary to and indicative of 2:1 activation block or marked alternans of the action potential amplitude/duration. The associated VF most likely reflects the underlying conduction abnormality.

  18. Anti-inflammatory treatment and risk of depression in 91,842 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 91,860 individuals without acute coronary syndrome in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined if treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), or statins after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are associated with decreased risk of depression. Method This register-based cohort study included all individuals with a first...

  19. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ACCELERATED DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL USE IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Baturina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern accelerated diagnostic protocols in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome is discussed. Evidence base that can give occasion to selection of acceptable accelerated diagnostic protocol for safe exclusion of acute myocardial infarction early after seeking medical attention is presented. Advantages and disadvantages of certain protocols are discussed.

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylome alterations in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Yunlong; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Jia; Chen, Qingwen; Song, Jiaxi; Wang, Junjun

    2018-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a common disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. The methylation status of blood DNA may serve as a potential early diagnosis and prevention biomarker for numerous diseases. The present study was designed to explore novel genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation patterns associated with ACS. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 assay was used to examine genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 3 pairs of ACS and control group samples. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation, genomic distribution, Gene Ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed. The results were confirmed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and Sequenom MassARRAY analyses in ACS, stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) and control samples. A total of 11,342 differentially methylated (DM) 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) sites were identified, including 8,865 hypomethylated and 2,477 hypermethylated CpG sites in the ACS group compared with the control samples. They varied in frequency across genomic compartments, but were particularly notable in gene bodies and shores. The results of GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that the methylated genes were associated with certain biological processes and pathways. Despite the considerable variability in methylation data, the candidate selected possessed significant methylation alteration in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) transcription start site 155 (Chr1:67356838-Chr1:67356942). MSP analysis from 81 ACS samples, 74 SCAD samples and 53 healthy samples, and Sequenom MassARRAY analysis, confirmed that differential CpG methylation of SMAD3 was significantly corrected with the reference results of the HumanMethylation450 array. The data identified an ACS-specific DNA methylation profile with a large number of novel DM CpG sites, some of which may serve as candidate markers for the early diagnosis of ACS.

  1. Frequency and Predictors of Urgent Coronary Angiography in Patients With Acute Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Adam C.; Olalla-Gómez, Cristina; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Bell, Malcolm R.; Ting, Henry H.; Casaclang-Verzosa, Grace; Oh, Jae K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of urgent coronary angiography in patients with acute pericarditis and to examine clinical characteristics associated with coronary angiography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of all incident cases of acute viral or idiopathic pericarditis evaluated at Mayo Clinic's site in Rochester, MN, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006. The main outcome measures were use of urgent coronary angiography and rate of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients with pericarditis. RESULTS: There were 238 patients with a final diagnosis of acute pericarditis (mean age, 47.7±17.9 years; 157 [66.0%] were male). On the initial electrocardiogram, 146 patients (61.3%) had ST-segment elevation, and 92 (38.7%) had no ST-segment elevation. Coronary angiography was performed in 40 patients (16.8% of all patients); the frequency was 5-fold higher among those with ST-segment elevation (24.7% vs 4.3%; Ppericarditis, particularly those with ST-segment elevation, typical myocardial infarction symptoms, and elevated troponin T values. Coronary artery disease was present angiographically in one-third of patients undergoing the procedure. Although patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction must receive prompt reperfusion, clinicians must also consider the diagnosis of pericarditis to avoid unneeded coronary angiography. PMID:19121248

  2. [Clinical and pathogenetic features of recurrent and acute peptic ulcer in acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, V V; Osadchiĭ, V A

    2003-01-01

    Clinico-pathogenetic characteristics of recurrent ulcer disease and acute ulcers were studied in 84 patients with unstable coronary heart disease (CHD). It was found that a relapse of ulcer disease (UD) in CHD presents with moderate abdominal pain without a typical circadian rhythm and with dyspepsia registered, as a rule, for 2 weeks. Acute ulcers often manifested with weak epigastric pain and symptoms of gastric dyspepsia observed usually for several days of hospital treatment. Gastroduodenal bleeding had obscure clinical picture but complicated recurrent UD and acute ulcers in 29.4 and 50% cases, respectively. The recurrence of UD in CHD developed in the presence of focal thrombohemorrhagic disorders of microcirculation in the tissues of gastroduodenal zone, high activity of the acid-peptic factor, low mucus production, hypomotor gastric dyskinesia, detection of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Acute ulcers are most frequently associated with focal thromboischemic disorders of end blood flow, minor changes in pepsin and mucoprotein production, prominent hypomotor gastric dyskinesia and, in 10% cases, HP.

  3. HELICOBACTER PYLORI-ASSOCIATED INFLAMMATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

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    O. N. Pavlov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – assessment of the prevalence of seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori infection and laboratory comparative study of the peripheralblood in patients depending on the course of coronary heart disease (CHD.Materials and methods. Observation of 100 patients with coronary artery disease and 40 control patients is presented. Investigation indicatorsof clinical blood tests, biochemical blood analysis and determination of immunoglobulin antibody titer against Helicobacter pylori.Results. In patients with coronary artery disease signs of systemic inflammation associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome are marked with increased antibody titers to infection Helicobacter pylori.Conclusion. A history of coronary artery disease in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal pathology should be considered as a factor that increases the likelihood of unstable coronary desease course. Detected in patients with coronary artery disease signs of systemic inflammation with an increase in titer of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori infection associated with development of acute coronary syndrome.

  4. The Role of Echocardiography in Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Maleki, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which provides information regarding cardiac function and hemodynamics. It is the most frequently used cardiovascular diagnostic test after electrocardiography and chest X-ray. However, in a patient with acute chest pain, Transthoracic Echocardiography is essential both for diagnosing acute coronary syndrome, zeroing on the evaluation of ventricular function and the presence of regional wall motion abnormalities, and for ruling out other etiologies of acute chest pain or dyspnea, including aortic dissection and pericardial effusion. Echocardiography is a versatile imaging modality for the management of patients with chest pain and assessment of left ventricular systolic function, diastolic function, and even myocardial and coronary perfusion and is, therefore, useful in the diagnosis and triage of patients with acute chest pain or dyspnea. This review has focused on the current applications of echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. PMID:23646042

  5. No prognostic significance of chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in acute coronary syndromes: insights from the Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries IV Acute Coronary Syndromes trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhout, Cynthia M; Gnarpe, Judy; Chang, Wei-Ching

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although relationships between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and the risk of coronary events in stable coronary artery disease patients have been reported, a similar link in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has not been consistently observed. METHODS: In a nested ...

  6. [Vital exhaustion is significantly linked to acute coronary events in Argentine population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, José; Mautner, Branco; Kerbage, Soraya; Bonet, María F; Pérez Lloret, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    To determine the strength of the association between the Vital exhaustion syndrome (VES) and acute coronary ischemic events in hospitalized Argentinean sample. VES was measured in 180 patients of both sexes, 90 admitted due to an acute coronary ischemic syndrome (AMI or unstable angina) and a control group of 90 admitted due to an acute non-coronary cardiac event. VES was evaluated with the Maastricht questionnaire during the first week of hospitalization. Dividing the sample in two categories: exhausted and non-exhausted, 57 (63,33%) of the coronary were exhausted, while among the non coronary group, 33 were exhausted (36,66%)(OR=3.1 (1.7-5.8)). The exhaustion score was: control mean score: 17,1 (sd 8,96); case mean score: 21,1 (sd10,60) p: 0.006. Dislipemia was another factor with a significant difference: control 27 (30%) case 44 (62%) OR= 2.2 (1.2-4.1) p=0.01. Logistic regression was performed, including an interaction model between DLP and exhaustion, and it did not show a significant effect. Our results indicate that in Argentina, among other countries as reported in the literature, VES is a psychological condition that is strongly and independent associated to acute coronary events.

  7. Characteristics of contemporary patients discharged from the hospital after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert J; Saczynski, Jane S; McManus, David D; Waring, Molly E; McManus, Richard; Allison, Jeroan; Parish, David C; Lessard, Darleen; Person, Sharina; Gore, Joel M; Kiefe, Catarina I

    2015-10-01

    Limited contemporary data compare the clinical and psychosocial characteristics and acute management of patients hospitalized with an initial vs a recurrent episode of acute coronary disease. We describe these factors in a cohort of patients recruited from 6 hospitals in Massachusetts and Georgia after an acute coronary syndrome. We performed structured baseline in-person interviews and medical record abstractions for 2174 eligible and consenting patients surviving hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome between April 2011 and May 2013. The average patient age was 61 years, 64% were men, and 47% had a high school education or less; 29% had a low general quality of life, and 1 in 5 were cognitively impaired. Patients with a recurrent coronary episode had a greater burden of previously diagnosed comorbidities. Overall, psychosocial burden was high, and more so in those with a recurrent vs those with an initial episode. Patients with an initial coronary episode were as likely to have been treated with all 4 effective cardiac medications (51.6%) as patients with a recurrent episode (52.3%), but were significantly more likely to have undergone cardiac catheterization (97.9% vs 92.9%) and a percutaneous coronary intervention (73.7% vs 60.9%) (P < .001) during their index hospitalization. Patients with a first episode of acute coronary artery disease have a more favorable psychosocial profile, less comorbidity, and receive more invasive procedures but similar medical management, than patients with previously diagnosed coronary disease. Implications of the high psychosocial burden on various patient-related outcomes require investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intermittent peripheral tissue ischemia during coronary ischemia reduces myocardial infarction through a KATP-dependent mechanism: first demonstration of remote ischemic perconditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; Smerup, M; Konstantinov, I E

    2006-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces myocardial infarction (MI) in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that the systemic protection thus induced is effective when ischemic preconditioning is administered during ischemia (PerC) and before reperfusion and examined the role of the K(+)-depend...

  9. Acute Upper Limb Ischemia due to Cardiac Origin Thromboembolism: the Usefulness of Percutaneous Aspiration Thromboembolectomy via a Transbrachial Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kwan; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyoung Ho; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous aspiration thromboembolectomy (PAT) via a transbrachial approach in patients with acute upper limb ischemia. From July 2004 to March 2008, eleven patients with acute upper limb ischemia were enrolled in this study. They were initially treated with thrombolysis (n = 1), PAT (n = 6), or both (n = 4) via a femoral artery approach. However, all of the patients had residual thrombus in the brachial artery, which was subsequently managed by PAT via the transbrachial approach for removal of residual emboli. Successful re-canalization after PAT via a transbrachial approach was achieved in all patients. Two patients experienced early complications: one experienced a massive hematoma of the upper arm due to incomplete compression and was treated by stent deployment. The other patient experienced a re-occlusion of the brachial artery the day after the procedure due to excessive manual compression of the puncture site, but did not show recurrence of ischemic symptoms in the artery of the upper arm. Clinical success with complete resolution of ischemic symptoms was achieved in all patients. PAT via a transbrachial approach is a safe and effective treatment for patients with acute upper limb ischemia.

  10. Acute coronary syndrome in women of reproductive age

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    Idris N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nazimah Idris1, Sharifah Sulaiha Aznal1, Sze-Piaw Chin1, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad2, Azhari Rosman3, Sinnadurai Jeyaindran4, Omar Ismail5, Robaayah Zambahari3, Kui Huan Sim6 1International Medical University, Seremban; 2University Malaya Medical Centre, PJ; 3Institut Jantung Negara, KL; 4Hospital Kuala Lumpur, KL; 5Hospital Pulau Pinang; 6Hospital Umum Sarawak, Malaysia Background: There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known. Objective: To analyze factors associated with ACS in women of reproductive age in comparison with older women and men of a similar age group. Methodology: A total of 9702 cases of acute coronary syndrome over a 3-year period (2006–2008 from the National Cardiovascular Disease database were analyzed, with focus on women of reproductive age (20–<40 years, looking into association with ethnicity, comorbid illness, and the ACS stratum. Comparison with older women (40–<60 years; Control 1 and men of similar age group (Control 2 was made and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test when necessary. Results: From a total of 9702 cases, 2344 (24.2% were women. Of these, 45 (1.9% were women between 20 and <40 years, which is significantly lower than the two controls (older women 30.8%, and men of same age 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001. The distribution of ethnicity shows a similar pattern between the study group and the controls, but patients of Indian ethnicity were over-represented when compared with the Malaysian demographics of general population (31.3% versus 7.1%; P < 0.0001. ACS in women of reproductive age was associated with diabetes mellitus in 37.8%, hypertension in 40.0%, and dyslipidemia in 24.4% of cases, similar to men of the same age but significantly lower than the older women (P < 0.0001. Smoking

  11. Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropp, J.; Joergens, M.; Glaenzer, K.P.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p[I-123]iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue. During maximal symptom limited exercise 5 mCi (200 MBq) of BMIPP were injected followed by two SPECT studies within three hours. After another 30 min, with the patient at rest a third SPECT was performed after reinjection of 3 mCi (100 MBq) BMIPP. Visual inspection of the short and long axis slices and quantitative comparison of the short axis slices of the tomograms were performed to grade BMIPP uptake and refill and detect turnover abnormalities. These were addressed either as scar or as ischemia and compared to CA and a graded score of regional wall motion by LVCV which provided values for sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) to detect CAD. Fifteen infarctions had corresponded clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic findings in 93%.

  12. Recent temporal trends in the presentation, management, and outcome of women hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Matetzky, Shlomi; Gottlieb, Shmuel; Fefer, Paul; Kohanov, Orly; Atar, Shaul; Zahger, Doron; Porter, Avital; Koifman, Bella; Goldenberg, Ilan; Segev, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Few data exist on the recent trends in the outcome of women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. We examined temporal trends in the hospital management and outcomes of women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome in a real-world setting. We evaluated time-dependent changes in the clinical characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of women enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) between 2000 and 2010. Periods were categorized as early (2000-2004) and late (2006-2010). Among 11,536 patients enrolled in ACSIS, 2710 (24%) were women. Frequency of women presenting with acute coronary syndrome had declined from 25% in 2000 to 22% in 2010 (P for trend = .002). Women presented less frequently with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and more frequently with associated comorbidities (P change in time to admission among women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome, temporal change in management strategies over the last decade may have contributed to improved outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ACUTE ATORVASTATIN RECAPTURE THERAPY IN CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING

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    A. V. Panov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the safety of the application of high-dose atorvastatin and its effect on metabolic parameters, such as the total level of nitric oxide and homocysteine in the blood plasma in patients with ischemic heart disease during a coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG.Material and methods. The study included 42 patients with stable effort angina II-IV functional class. A special criterion for selection was the taking atorvastatin at a dose of 20 mg/day for at least 30 days before patient was directed to surgical revascularization of the myocardium. Immediately before the intervention, the dose of atorvastatin was increased to the maximum allowed with subsequent taking of 40 mg/day. Complications after CABG, indicators of lipid metabolism and biochemical safety of statin use were analyzed. The duration of observation of results of the acute atorvastatin recapture therapy was 3 weeks during hospital period. We used modern enzymatic method for nitrogen oxides determination with the application of nitrate reductase. Determination of total homocysteine was performed by high performance liquid chromatography.Results. It was found that atorvastatin 80 mg for 12 hours and 2 hours before CABG in patients previously treated with atorvastatin 20 mg/day is well tolerated and leads to decrease in total levels of nitric oxide by 1.6 (0.18-10.8 μmol/l and homocysteine by 0.9 (0.17-2.69 μmol/l (p< 0.05 for bothConclusion. It is assumed that the metabolic effects of high-dose therapy with atorvastatin may have a positive influence on the immediate postoperative period.

  14. Satisfaction of inpatients with acute coronary syndrome in Bulgaria

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    Geraedts Max

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient satisfaction constitutes an important indicator for the quality of care. During the last years, Bulgaria changed its socialist health care system to a market-driven system. Despite the fact that the improvement of health care quality and patient satisfaction were put on top of the list of goals for the health care reforms, no studies of patient satisfaction with inpatient care have been conducted so far. Since cardiovascular diseases are amongst the major causes of death in Bulgaria, and strenuous efforts have been made to improve the quality of medical care of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS during the last years, patient satisfaction in this group can be seen as an important example of the Bulgarian reforms. This study therefore investigates patient satisfaction of inpatients with ACS. Methods We performed structured face-to-face interviews with all patients with ACS, residing in a representative Bulgarian region who were discharged from hospitals in this region between September 1st and December 31st, 2004. We surveyed their socio-demographic status, overall satisfaction, change in complaints, self-perceived health status, functional possibilities in activities of daily living, satisfaction with life and self-reported condition at admission. We used descriptive methods as well as t-tests, chi-square tests, and logit models for data analysis. Results Face-to-face interviews were carried out in 394 cases, of which 53.6% were men and 46.4% were women. 24% of the patients were satisfied with inhospital treatment, 62% were satisfied to some extent, and 14% were unsatisfied. The overall satisfaction of patients with ACS was significantly associated (p Conclusion ACS patient satisfaction with inhospital treatment in Bulgaria shows much room for improvement. Information obtained from satisfaction studies could be used at decision-making and hospital-management levels for improving new strategies and structural

  15. Acute coronary syndrome in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mark Y; Du, Xin; Eccleston, David; Ma, Changsheng; Mohanan, Padinhare P; Ogita, Manabu; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Yan, Bryan P; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    More than 4.2 billion inhabitants populate the Asia-Pacific region. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is now a major cause of death and disability in this region with in-hospital mortality typically exceeding 5%. Yet, the region still lacks consensus on the best approach to overcoming its specific challenges in reducing mortality from ACS. The Asia-Pacific Real world evIdenCe on Outcome and Treatment of ACS (APRICOT) project reviewed current published and unpublished registry data, unmet needs in ACS management and possible approaches towards improving ACS-related mortality in the region. There was striking heterogeneity in the use of invasive procedures, pharmacologic practice (hospitalization/post-discharge), and in short- and long-term clinical outcomes across healthcare systems; this heterogeneity was perceived to be far greater than in Western Europe or the United States. 'Benchmark' short-term clinical outcomes are preferred over long-term outcomes due to difficulties in follow-up, recording and maintenance of medication adherence in a geographically large and culturally diverse region. Key 'barriers' towards improving outcomes include patient education (pain awareness, consequences of missing medication and secondary prevention), geographical landscape (urban vs. metropolitan), limited long-term adherence to guideline-based management and widespread adoption of cost-based rather than value-based healthcare systems. Initiatives to overcome these barriers should include implementation of pre-hospital management strategies, toolkits to aid in-hospital treatment, greater community outreach with online patient/physician education and telemedicine, sustainable economic models to improve accessibility to effective pharmacotherapies and the acquisition of high-quality 'real-world' regional data to tailor secondary prevention initiatives that meet the unique needs of countries in this region. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  16. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2018-01-01

    Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p definition, only diabetes (adjHR 1.48, p metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.

  17. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo Acute ischemia of lower limbs secondary to ergotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco J Vallejo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasodilatadores y calcio-antagonistas, que resolvió los síntomas en su totalidad.21 years old female patient admitted for progressive and intense pain in lower limbs, that narrated a recent history of ergot ingestion. On physical examination there was absence of pulses in both lower limbs. Severe, generalized and bilateral decrease of caliber of arterial vessels of the lower limbs was documented by angiotomography. Acute arterial ischemia of lower limbs secondary to ergotism was diagnosed and treatment with vasodilators and calcium antagonists was initiated, resolving entirely the symptoms.

  18. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M., E-mail: jkarkkai@gmail.com [Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center (Finland); Lehtimäki, Tiina T., E-mail: tiina.lehtimaki@kuh.fi; Saari, Petri, E-mail: petri.saari@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (Finland); Hartikainen, Juha, E-mail: juha.hartikainen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center (Finland); Rantanen, Tuomo, E-mail: tuomo.rantanen@kuh.fi; Paajanen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.paajanen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Finland); Manninen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.manninen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate.

  19. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M.; Lehtimäki, Tiina T.; Saari, Petri; Hartikainen, Juha; Rantanen, Tuomo; Paajanen, Hannu; Manninen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate

  20. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury following Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Critical Issue for Clinicians and Forensic Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Margherita; Pascale, Natascha; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Reperfusion strategies are the current standard therapy for AMI. However, they may result in paradoxical cardiomyocyte dysfunction, known as ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Different forms of IRI are recognized, of which only the first two are reversible: reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular obstruction, and lethal myocardial reperfusion injury. Sudden death is the most common pattern for ischemia-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias during AMI. The exact mechanisms of IRI are not fully known. Molecular, cellular, and tissue alterations such as cell death, inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and oxidative stress are considered to be of paramount importance in IRI. However, comprehension of the exact pathophysiological mechanisms remains a challenge for clinicians. Furthermore, myocardial IRI is a critical issue also for forensic pathologists since sudden death may occur despite timely reperfusion following AMI, that is one of the most frequently litigated areas of cardiology practice. In this paper we explore the literature regarding the pathophysiology of myocardial IRI, focusing on the possible role of the calpain system, oxidative-nitrosative stress, and matrix metalloproteinases and aiming to foster knowledge of IRI pathophysiology also in terms of medicolegal understanding of sudden deaths following AMI. PMID:28286377

  1. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia after Cardiac Surgery: An Analysis of 52 Patients

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    Cuneyt Eris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a rare but serious complication after cardiac surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence, outcome, and perioperative risk factors of AMI in the patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods. From January 2005 to May 2013, all patients who underwent cardiac surgery were screened for participation, and patients with registered gastrointestinal complications were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed. Results. The study included 6013 patients, of which 52 (0.86% patients suffered from AMI, 35 (67% of whom died. The control group (150 patients was randomly chosen from among cases undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Preoperative parameters including age (, renal insufficiency (, peripheral vascular disease (, preoperative inotropic support (, poor left ventricular ejection fraction (, cardiogenic shock (, and preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP support ( revealed significantly higher levels in the AMI group. Among intra- and postoperative parameters, CPB time (, dialysis (, inotropic support (, prolonged ventilator time (, and IABP support ( appeared significantly higher in the AMI group than the control group. Conclusions. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment should be initiated as early as possible in any patient suspected of AMI, leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate.

  2. The use of intraperitoneal xenon for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; Zuidema, G.D.; O'Mara, C.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the technique of intraperitoneal use of xenon Xe 133, previously described for the diagnosis of early intestinal strangulation obstruction in rats and dogs, for the recognition of acute mesenteric vascular occlusion in these animals. 133 Xe was injected intraperitoneally into five groups of six rats: control, sham operation, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation, superior mesenteric vein ligation, and portal vein ligation. Residual gamma-activity was monitored by external counting and camera imaging. At 30 minutes after injection, the activity was significantly higher in the rats from the three groups with vascular ligation than in the control and sham operation animals (P less than 0.001). gamma-Camera images reflected these findings, with positive images only in the rats that underwent vascular ligation. ''Blinded'' readings of the 30 sets of scans confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the images. Results were essentially the same in a second series of experiments in eight control dogs and six dogs with balloon occlusion of the SMA. Concentrations of isotope in ischemic intestine ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) times the levels in adjacent normal bowel. These levels and the positive images appeared early, prior to the development of tissue necrosis. The intraperitoneal use of 133 Xe therefore continues to show promise for the recognition of patients with early intestinal ischemia

  3. The use of intraperitoneal xenon for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; Zuidema, G.D.; O' Mara, C.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-04-01

    We evaluated the technique of intraperitoneal use of xenon Xe 133, previously described for the diagnosis of early intestinal strangulation obstruction in rats and dogs, for the recognition of acute mesenteric vascular occlusion in these animals. /sup 133/Xe was injected intraperitoneally into five groups of six rats: control, sham operation, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation, superior mesenteric vein ligation, and portal vein ligation. Residual gamma-activity was monitored by external counting and camera imaging. At 30 minutes after injection, the activity was significantly higher in the rats from the three groups with vascular ligation than in the control and sham operation animals (P less than 0.001). gamma-Camera images reflected these findings, with positive images only in the rats that underwent vascular ligation. ''Blinded'' readings of the 30 sets of scans confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the images. Results were essentially the same in a second series of experiments in eight control dogs and six dogs with balloon occlusion of the SMA. Concentrations of isotope in ischemic intestine ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) times the levels in adjacent normal bowel. These levels and the positive images appeared early, prior to the development of tissue necrosis. The intraperitoneal use of /sup 133/Xe therefore continues to show promise for the recognition of patients with early intestinal ischemia.

  4. Association between short sleep and body mass index, hypertension among acute coronary syndrome patients in coronary care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Elham; Jalali, Rostam; Mirzaei, Maryam; Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh

    2014-11-26

    Patients with coronary diseases admitted to special care unit often suffer from sleep disorders, which may cause physiological changes and adversely affect patient's health. The relationship between sleep disorders and obesity is an important factor in studies on sleep disorders and other chronic diseases in all groups, including cardiovascular diseases. Understanding this relationship may increase the chance of progress in effective medical interventions in sleep disorders and obesity. This study was designed to evaluate the association between short sleep and Body Mass Index (BMI), hypertension among acute coronary syndrome patients. In this descriptive analytical study, 221 coronary patients admitted to coronary care unit and general wards were investigated. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software. A total of 221 patients with acute coronary diseases (including myocardial infarction and angina pectoris) with a mean age of 61.27 years were studied, of whom 61.5% were male and 38.5% were female. A significant association was observed between short sleep and higher BMI (P=0.000). About half the patients (49.3%) had a history of hypertension, and sleep disorders were also significantly related to hypertension (P=0.006). In this study, sleep disorders were patients' main complaint. Researchers found that patients with less than 5 hours or more than 9 hours sleep at night were more likely to have hypertension compared to patients that slept 7-8 hours. Lack of sleep affects metabolism, and daily energy expenditure reduces with increased immobility. In this study, a significant relationship was observed between BMI and sleep duration among hospitalized patients in coronary care unit (P=0.000), and sleep disorders increased with higher BMI. Short of sleep increases sympathetic tonus, cortisol level, and activation of inflammatory pathways, impairing glucose

  5. Incremental prognostic value of cardiac function assessed by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT for the prediction of future acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Sato, Yuichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The prognostic value of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated rest 201 T1/stress 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography for the prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS: myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina (UA)) and the implications of ejection fraction (EF) has not yet been defined in Japanese. The 1,895 patients were followed up for the occurrence ACS. The mean follow-up interval was 26.9±15.5 months. The 142 patients with revascularization within 60 days were censored. Summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS) were calculated. The 19 MI and 29 UA occurred (1.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Univariate Cox analysis showed that hypertension (Wald 5.09, p<0.05), poststress EF (Wald 10.9, p<0.01), SSS (Wald 12.4, p<0.001) and SDS (Wald 18.7, p<0.001) were significant predictors of ACS. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that hypertension (Wald 4.27, p<0.05) and SDS (Wald 8.59, p<0.01) were independent predictors. When multiple clinical risk factors (number of coronary risk factors ≥2), significant ischemia (SDS≥4) and low EF (EF<45%) were applied to multivariate Cox analysis, the combination of significant ischemia and low EF showed the highest predictive value (Wald 11.9; p<0.001) for future ACS. Poststress EF added incremental prognostic value for the prediction of ACS. (author)

  6. CASE OF EFFECTIVE REPERFUSION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT AND ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Currently, acute cerebrovascular accident is an extremely important medical and social issue. Stroke is a major cause of disability in the population and takes a leading place among the causes of death.Modern high­tech endovascular treatment of the ischemic stroke (IS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS includes effective methods of reperfusion of the brain and myocardium within first hours of the disease.In this paper, we report two clinical examples of high­tech reperfusion endovascular treatment in the same patient at an intervals of 1 year and 6 months in the development of clinical picture of the stroke and ACS in Regional Clinical hospital № 1 n.a. Prof. S.V. Ochapovsky.In the first case, intra­aortic TLT of two cerebral arteries (ACA and MCA was performed simultaneously with delayed recanalization and complete regression of focal neurological symptoms. And in the second case, selective thrombolytic therapy was performed in the acute phase of stroke, which developed few hours after PTCA RCA in ACS, with a good clinical effect. 

  7. Emergency coronary artery bypass surgery for failed percutaneous coronary angioplasty. A 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, J M; Weintraub, W S; Jones, E L; Guyton, R A; Hatcher, C R

    1992-01-01

    Six hundred ninety-nine patients have required emergency coronary artery bypass after failed elective percutaneous coronary angioplasty during the decade September 1980 through December 1990. This represents 4% of 9860 patients having 12,146 elective percutaneous coronary angioplasty procedures during this interval. Emergency coronary artery bypass was required for acute refractory myocardial ischemia in 82%. Hospital mortality rate for all patients was 3.1%; 3.7% in patients with refractory myocardial ischemia but 0.8% in patients without refractory myocardial ischemia, p = 0.08. Postprocedural Q-wave myocardial infarctions were observed in 21% versus 2.4%, p less than 0.0001, and intra-aortic balloon pumping was required in 19% with versus 0.8% without refractory myocardial ischemia, p less than 0.0001. Multivessel disease, p = 0.004, age older than 65 years, p = 0.005, and refractory myocardial ischemia, p = 0.08, interacted to produce the highest risk of in-hospital death. Follow-up shows that there have been 28 additional late deaths, including 23 of cardiac causes for a 91% survival at 5 years. Freedom from both late death and Q-wave myocardial infarction at 5 years was 61%. In the group going to emergency coronary artery bypass with refractory myocardial ischemia, the late cardiac survival was 90%, and in those without ischemia, 92% at 5 years, p = not significant. The MI--free survival in the group with refractory ischemia, however, was 56% versus 83% in the group without ischemia, p less than 0.0001. Multivariate analysis showed the highest late event rates for patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction at the initial emergency coronary artery bypass, age older than 65 years, angina class III or IV, and prior coronary bypass surgery. In spite of a continuing high incidence of early acute myocardial infarction and an increasing operative mortality rate (7%) in the latest 3 years cohort of patients, excellent late survival and low subsequent cardiac event

  8. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  9. Dexamethasone Protects Against Tourniquet-Induced Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mouse Hindlimb

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    Ryan M. Corrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremity injuries with hemorrhage have been a significant cause of death in civilian medicine and on the battlefield. The use of a tourniquet as an intervention is necessary for treatment to an injured limb; however, the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in the skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Much evidence demonstrates that inflammation is an important factor to cause acute IR injury. To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for 24 h to induce IR. Three hours of tourniquet and 24 h of release (24-h IR caused gastrocnemius muscle injuries including rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and necrosis (42.8 ± 2.3% for infarct size of the gastrocnemius muscle. In the NMJ, motor nerve terminals disappeared, and endplate potentials were undetectable in 24-h IR mice. There was no gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. Western blot data showed that inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β were increased in the gastrocnemius muscle after 24-h IR. Treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion (1 mg/kg, i.p. significantly inhibited expression of TNFα and IL-1β, reduced rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and infarct size (24.8 ± 2.0%, and improved direct muscle stimulation-induced gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. However, this anti-inflammatory drug did not improve NMJ morphology and function, and sciatic nerve-stimulated skeletal muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. The data suggest that one-time treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion only reduced structural and functional impairments of the skeletal muscle but not the

  10. Role of coronary collaterals in off-pump and on-pump coronary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nathoe, H.M.; Buskens, Erik; Jansen, E.W.L.; Suyker, W.J.L.; Stella, P.R.; Lahpor, J.R.; van Boven, W.J.; van Dijk, D.; Diephuis, J.C.; Borst, C.; Moons, K.G.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; de Jaegere, P.P.T.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Collaterals limit infarct size, preserve viability, and reduce mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In patients with stable coronary disease, collaterals are associated with less angina and ischemia during angioplasty and fewer ischemic events during follow-up. The

  11. Coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma

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    Tønnessen Theis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blunt chest trauma might lead to cardiac injury ranging from simple arrhythmias to lethal conditions such as cardiac rupture. We experienced a case of initially overlooked traumatic coronary artery dissection which resulted in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose this condition. Based on our case, we will give an overview of relevant literature on this topic. ECG, echocardiography, coronary angiography and cardiac enzymes are valuable tools in diagnosing this rare condition. The time span from coronary artery occlusion to revascularisation must be short if AMI is to be avoided.

  12. Therapeutic Effect of Low Doses of Acenocoumarol in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Sendur, Paweł; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Dembiński, Marcin; Sendur, Ryszard; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Tomasz, Kaczmarzyk; Tomaszewska, Romana; Dembiński, Artur

    2017-04-21

    Intravascular activation of coagulation is observed in acute pancreatitis and is related to the severity of this inflammation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of acenocoumarol therapy on the course of acute pancreatitis induced in male rats by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. Acenocoumarol at a dose of 50, 100, or 150 µg/kg/dose was administered intragastrically once a day, starting the first dose 24 h after the initiation of pancreatic reperfusion. Histological examination showed that treatment with acenocoumarol reduces pancreatic edema, necrosis, and hemorrhages in rats with pancreatitis. Moreover, the administration of acenocoumarol decreased pancreatic inflammatory infiltration and vacuolization of pancreatic acinar cells. These findings were accompanied with a reduction in the serum activity of lipase and amylase, concentration of interleukin-1β, and plasma d-Dimer concentration. Moreover, the administration of acenocoumarol improved pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. Acenocoumarol given at a dose of 150 µg/kg/dose was the most effective in the treatment of early phase acute pancreatitis. However later, acenocoumarol given at the highest dose failed to exhibit any therapeutic effect; whereas lower doses of acenocoumarol were still effective in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Treatment with acenocoumarol accelerates the recovery of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

  13. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hansen, Jane L; Grønbaek, Morten; Vogel, Ulla; Tjønneland, Anne; Joensen, Albert Marni; Overvad, Kim

    2010-07-01

    The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls). Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited.

  14. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia: Multidetector CT and CT angiographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Amin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: MDCT and CTA are fast, safe, accurate and non-invasive imaging modalities of choice in patients with suspected mesenteric ischemia which are able to evaluate not only mesenteric vascular structures but also evaluate bowel wall changes and adjacent mesentery, thus detecting the primary cause of mesenteric ischemia that can lead to earlier diagnosis and intervention.

  15. Ultrasonic tissue characterization with integrated backscatter. Acute myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and stunned myocardium in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milunski, M.R.; Mohr, G.A.; Perez, J.E.; Vered, Z.; Wear, K.A.; Gessler, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Miller, J.G.; Wickline, S.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We have previously shown in studies of experimental animals that myocardium exhibits a cardiac cycle-dependent variation of integrated backscatter that reflects regional myocardial contractile performance and that is blunted promptly after arterial occlusion and recovers after reperfusion. To define the clinical utility of ultrasonic tissue characterization with integrated backscatter for detection of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion, 21 patients (14 men and seven women) were studied in the cardiac care unit within the first 24 hours (mean time, 11.3 hours; range, 3.5-23.8 hours) after the onset of symptoms indicative of acute myocardial infarction with conventional two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography and with analysis of integrated backscatter. The magnitude of cyclic variation of integrated backscatter was measured from several sites within acute infarct regions and normal regions remote from the infarct zone for each patient. The average magnitude of cyclic variation among all patients (n = 21) was 4.8 +/- 0.5 dB in normal regions compared with 0.8 +/- 0.3 dB in infarct regions (p less than 0.05) within the first 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. Among the patients who had two studies, 15 (mean, 7.1 days; range, 2-31 days for second study) underwent coronary arteriography to define vessel patency. In patients with vessels with documented patency (n = 10), the magnitude of cyclic variation in infarct regions increased over time from 1.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.5 +/- 0.5 dB from the initial to final study (p less than 0.05). Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (n = 5) exhibited no significant recovery of cyclic variation (0.3 +/- 0.3-0.6 +/- 0.3 dB). A blinded analysis of standard two-dimensional echocardiographic images revealed no significant recovery of wall thickening in either group over the same time intervals.

  16. Audit of health care quality for patients with essential hypertension, chronic coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, acute coronary syndrome: principles of organization, algorithm of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridnev V.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents principal stages of audit of healthcare quality delivered to patients with cardiovascular diseases. The schedule of measures related to every audit stage is presented. Usefulness of the registry of patients with arterial hypertension, chronic coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure and the registry of acute coronary syndrome for purposes of clinical audit in medical practice is considered.

  17. Expertise and infrastructure capacity impacts acute coronary syndrome outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Carolyn M; Ranasinghe, Isuru; Brieger, David; Ellis, Chris J; Redfern, Julie; Briffa, Tom; Aliprandi-Costa, Bernadette; Howell, Tegwen; Bloomer, Stephen G; Gamble, Greg; Driscoll, Andrea; Hyun, Karice K; Hammett, Chris J; Chew, Derek P

    2017-04-20

    Objective Effective translation of evidence to practice may depend on systems of care characteristics within the health service. The present study evaluated associations between hospital expertise and infrastructure capacity and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) care as part of the SNAPSHOT ACS registry. Methods A survey collected hospital systems and process data and our analysis developed a score to assess hospital infrastructure and expertise capacity. Patient-level data from a registry of 4387 suspected ACS patients enrolled over a 2-week period were used and associations with guideline care and in-hospital and 6-, 12- and 18-month outcomes were measured. Results Of 375 participating hospitals, 348 (92.8%) were included in the analysis. Higher expertise was associated with increased coronary angiograms (440/1329; 33.1%), 580/1656 (35.0%) and 609/1402 (43.4%) for low, intermediate and high expertise capacity respectively; Pcapacity respectively; P=0.056), but not rehabilitation (474/1329 (35.7%), 603/1656 (36.4%) and 535/1402 (38.2%) for low, intermediate and high expertise capacity respectively; P=0.377). Higher expertise capacity was associated with a lower incidence of major adverse events (152/1329 (11.4%), 142/1656 (8.6%) and 149/149 (10.6%) for low, intermediate and high expertise capacity respectively; P=0.026), as well as adjusted mortality within 18 months (low vs intermediate expertise capacity: odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.08, P=0.153; intermediate vs high expertise capacity: OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.86, P=0.003). Conclusions Both higher-level expertise in decision making and infrastructure capacity are associated with improved evidence translation and survival over 18 months of an ACS event and have clear healthcare design and policy implications. What is known about the topic? There are comprehensive guidelines for treating ACS patients, but Australia and New Zealand registry data reveal substantial gaps in delivery of best

  18. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...

  19. Evaluation of the association between chronic periodontitis and acute coronary syndrome: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products and the systemic challenge with these agents also induce a major vascular response. Although many studies have found a correlation between chronic periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases, the role of infection in acute coronary syndrome is disputed. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between chronic periodontitis and acute coronary syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients, ages ranging from 30 -80. 15 patients from A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences and 15 patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit of Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital Deralakatte Mangalore were included in the study. Variables age more than 40 and gender were also analyzed. Results: Of the 30 patients analyzed in this study, periodontitis was recognized in 11 patients of the acute coronary syndrome group and 10 patients in the healthy group. Fisher′s exact test yielded a p value of 0.4539 with an odds ratio of 0.727(95% confidence interval 0.151 to 3.493. Conclusion: No significant association was found between periodontal disease and acute coronary syndrome. Periodontitis may contribute to cardiovascular disease and stroke in susceptible subjects. Properly powered longitudinal case control and intervention trials are needed to identify how periodontitis and periodontal interventions may have an impact on cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Prehospital electrocardiographic acuteness score of ischemia is inversely associated with neurohormonal activation in STEMI patients with severe ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Sejersten-Ripa, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We hypothesized that decreasing acuteness-score (based on the electrocardiographic score by Anderson-Wilkins acu...

  1. Dynamics of markers of markers of acute kidney injury when using epidural block during resection under warm ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the time course of changes in the early biomarkers of acute kidney injury in patients with clinically localized cancer during partial nephrectomy, as electively indicated, under thermal ischemia with prior epidural block.Materials and methods. To analyze the nephroprotective effect of an epidural block in kidney resection with warm ischemia, markers of acute kidney injury (cystatin C, interleukin 18, NGAL, L-FABP and KIM-1 were studied by ELISA in the blood and urine of 35 patients with local cancer with an epidural block (main group and 37 patients with local cancer without an epidural block (control group before surgery and 40 min after its beginning and on days 1 and 3 of the postoperative period. All patients were divided into 2 groups by the levels of cystatin C in the blood serum: 1000 ng/ml and lower, and over 1000 ng/ml.Results. Epidural block during the perioperative period in kidney resection with warm ischemia for patients with local cancer had an obvious nephroprotective effect allowing maintaining the initial renal functional parameters, in contrast to the standard disease management.

  2. Fractional Flow Reserve-guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Standing the Test of Time

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    Frederik M. Zimmermann, MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI improves symptoms and prognosis in ischemia-inducing, functionally significant, coronary lesions. Use of fractional flow reserve allows physicians to investigate the ischemia-inducing potential of a specific lesion and can be used to guide coronary revascularization, especially in multivessel coronary artery disease. Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI has been extensively investigated. Results show that deferral of stenting in non-significant lesions is safe, whereas deferral of stenting in functionally significant lesions worsens outcome. FFR-guided PCI improves outcome in multivessel disease over angiography-guided PCI. Until recently, there was little known about the long-term outcome of FFR-guided revascularization and its validity in acute coronary syndromes. This review aims to address the new evidence regarding long-term appropriateness of FFR-guided PCI, the need for hyperemia to evaluate functional severity, and the use of FFR in acute coronary syndromes.

  3. Effects of escitalopram in prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (DECARD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba Hedegaard; Hanash, Jamal Abed; Rasmussen, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major problem in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with negative impact on survival and quality of life. No studies have examined prevention of post-ACS depression. We examined whether treatment with escitalopram can prevent post-ACS depression.......Depression is a major problem in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with negative impact on survival and quality of life. No studies have examined prevention of post-ACS depression. We examined whether treatment with escitalopram can prevent post-ACS depression....

  4. Predictive Factors of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Denise Meira; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-12-01

    To identify the predictive factors of anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted with 120 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. Factors interfering with anxiety and depression were assessed. Anxiety was related to sex, stress, years of education, and depression, while depression was related to sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, years of education, and trait-anxiety. Obesity and anxiety were considered predictive factors for depression, while depression and fewer years of education were considered predictive factors for anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

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    Moshe Y. Flugelman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years.

  6. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  7. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  8. Single coronary artery; extremely rare coronary anomaly successfully treated surgically in young adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, A R

    2010-05-01

    Single coronary artery arising from aortic root, is a rare congenital anomaly. A 30-year-old male presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complaining of chest pain and raised troponin levels. Emergency angiography showed no coronary lesions but both left and right coronary arteries arising from single ostium. Patient was operated electively and perioperative findings confirmed the diagnosis of single coronary artery, as left coronary artery after taking origin from right sinus of valsalva runs through the septum, before dividing into left anterior descending and circumflex branches. The single coronary ostium opened with a slit like incision over the course of left main coronary, making the size of ostium three to four times bigger than the native one. In addition left internal mammary artery was harvested and grafted to the left anterior descending branch distally. Patient made successful recovery. Four months follow up dobutamine stress echo showed no inducible ischemia.

  9. Subanalysis of the CONFIRM Registries: Acute Procedural Outcomes in Claudicant and Critical Limb Ischemia Patients With Varying Levels of Calcification Treated for Peripheral Arterial Disease With Orbital Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George L; Das, Tony; Lee, Michael S; Beasley, Robert; Mustapha, Jihad

    2015-11-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be classified into groups based upon the severity of the disease using the Rutherford classification system. This analysis compares the procedural outcomes of PAD patients treated with orbital atherectomy stratified by Rutherford class (1-3 = intermittent claudication; 4-6 = critical limb ischemia [CLI]), and acute angiographic outcomes of these patients stratified by degree of lesion calcification. The CONFIRM registry series was analyzed and included 1697 patients with intermittent claudication (Rutherford class 1-3) and 1320 patients with CLI (Rutherford class 4-6) treated with orbital atherectomy. The composite rate of dissection, perforation, slow-flow, vessel closure, spasm, embolism, and thrombus formation was compared between claudicants and CLI patients with varying degrees of lesion calcification. Patients with CLI were older and had a higher prevalence of diabetes, coronary artery disease, and renal disease (P<.001). Claudicants with moderately/severely calcified lesions had a lower rate of dissection (both non-flow limiting and flow-limiting) than claudicants with mildly/minimally calcified lesions. CLI patients with mildly/minimally calcified lesions had higher rates of embolism and thrombus than CLI patients with moderately/severely calcified lesions. Plaque modification with orbital atherectomy resulted in similar low procedural complication rates in the CLI group compared with the claudicant group. These results suggest that orbital atherectomy is safe and effective for treating calcified lesions in high-risk patients with varying severity of PAD symptoms.

  10. Serum and saliva levels of cathepsin L in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Riahi, Esmail

    2011-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of death nearly all over the world, and accurate and rapid diagnosis of CAD is of major medical and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum and saliva levels of cathepsin L in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In a cross-sectional study, 39 patients with ACS and 28 with controls were recruited to the study, and cathepsin L levels were measured in serum, resting saliva, and stimulated saliva obtained 12 and 24 h after the onset of ACS by ELISA method. Statistical analyses of Fisher's exact test, the Student's t-test or Kruskal-Wallis test were performed. Stimulated saliva cathepsin L levels in patients with ACS 12 hours but not 24 hours after admission showed significant decrease compared with that in control subjects. However, there were no significant differences in serum and unstimulated saliva cathepsin L levels between groups. Serum and saliva levels of cathepsin L remain unchanged in patients with ACS and hence may not be a promising factor in CAD risk assessment. It seems that serum and saliva cathepsin L may not be a good biomarker for CHD. CAD: Coronary artery disease, ACS: Acute coronary syndrome, CHD: Coronary heart disease, EU: Emergency unit, MI: Myocardial infarction. Cathepsin L, Acute coronary syndrome, Resting saliva, Stimulated saliva. How to cite this article: Mirzaii-Dizgah I, Riahi E. Serum and Saliva Levels of Cathepsin L in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):114-119.

  11. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N.; Hyhlik-Duerr, A.; Weber, M.-A.; Boeckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  12. Gender disparities in the presentation, management and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome patients: data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Abdulla; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; AlHabib, Khalid F; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Almahmeed, Wael; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Hersi, Ahmad; Al Faleh, Hussam; Asaad, Nidal; Al Saif, Shukri; Amin, Haitham

    2013-01-01

    Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients. Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008-2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; Pmanagement differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities. Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.

  13. Immediate/Early vs. Delayed Invasive Strategy for Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanda Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive coronary revascularization has been shown to improve prognoses in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS, but the optimal timing of intervention remains unclear. This meta-analysis is to evaluate the outcomes in immediate (<2 h, early (<24 h, and delayed invasive group and find out which is the optimal timing of intervention in NSTE-ACS patients. Studies were identified through electronic literature search of Medline, PubMed Central, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CNKI. Data were extracted for populations, interventions, outcomes, and risk of bias. All-cause mortality was the pre-specified primary end point. The longest follow-up available in each study was chosen. The odds ratio (OR with 95% CI was the effect measure. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected based on the heterogeneity test among studies. In the comparison between early and delayed intervention, we found that early intervention led to a statistical significant decrease in mortality rate (n = 6,624; OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61–0.99 and refractory ischemia (n = 6,127; OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.40–0.62 and a non-significant decrease in myocardial infarction (MI, major bleeding and revascularization. In the analysis comparing immediate and delayed invasive approach, we found that immediate intervention significantly reduced major bleeding (n = 1,217; OR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23–0.93 but led to a non-significant decrease in mortality rate, refractory ischemia and revascularization and a non-significant increase in MI. In conclusion, early invasive strategy may lead to a lower mortality rate and reduce the risk of refractory ischemia, while immediate invasive therapy shows a benefit in reducing the risk of major bleeding.

  14. Effects of PEMF on microcirculation and angiogenesis in a model of acute hindlimb ischemia in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunhu; Dong, Yushu; Hou, Wugang; Ji, Zhiyu; Zhi, Kailin; Yin, Zhongmin; Wen, Hua; Chen, Yitan

    2013-04-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is a major complication of diabetic patients due to poor neovascularization. Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can promote angiogenesis in ischemic lesions. However, the efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of PEMF in diabetes-related hindlimb ischemia are unclear. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozocin to induce diabetes, and 10 weeks later diabetic rats were subjected to surgical induction of acute hindlimb ischemia. The rats were randomized and treated with PEMF, and the blood perfusion of individual rats was determined longitudinally by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI). The neovascular density was examined using immunofluorescent analysis of CD31 expression and alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining. The levels of VEGF, VEGFR, FGF-2, and FGFR1 expression, and ERK 1/2 and P38 phosphorylation in the muscles were characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot assays. The values of LDPI in the PEMF-treated rats at 14 and 28 days post surgery were significantly greater than those in the controls, accompanied by significantly elevated levels of anti-CD31 and AP staining. The relative levels of FGF-2 and FGFR1, but not VEGF and VEGFR expression, and ERK1/2, but not P38 phosphorylation, in the muscles of the PEMF-treated rats were significantly higher than those in the controls. Our data indicated that PEMF enhanced acute hindlimb ischemia-related perfusion and angiogenesis, associated with up-regulating FGF-2 expression and activating the ERK1/2 pathway in diabetic rats. Therefore, PEMF may be valuable for the treatment of diabetic patients with ischemic injury. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Acute phase reactants in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madak, Nihat; Nazlı, Yunus; Mergen, Haluk; Aysel, Süleyman; Kandaz, Muhammet; Yanık, Ekrem; Cekdemir, Demet; Tavlı, Talat

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocyte, thyroid hormone and fibrinogen levels in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP). A total of 82 patients with angiographically proven normal coronary arteries and slow coronary flow in all three coronary vessels (45 males and 37 females, mean age 59±11 years) and 34 patients with normal coronary arteries and normal coronary flow (19 males and 15 females, mean age 56±10 years) with similar risk profiles were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Coronary flow rates of all patients and control subjects were documented by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count, serum level of Hs-CRP, NT proBNP, sedimentation, leukocyte, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and fibrinogen levels were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using t test for independent samples, Chi-square test and Pearson correlation analysis. Hs-CRP (0.88±0.86 vs 0.36±0.35 mg/L, p=0.001) and NT proBNP (117.83±163.2 vs 47.33±30.6 ng/ml, p=0.01) were found to be significantly higher in patients with coronary slow flow compared with normal control group. There were no significant differences regarding thyroid hormones, fibrinogen, sedimentation rate and leukocyte count between two groups. The mean TIMI frame counts were positively correlated (r=0.454, p=0.001 and r=0.554, p=0.001, respectively) with plasma Hs-CRP levels and NT-proBNP levels. Hs-CRP and NT proBNP are significantly higher in patients with coronary slow flow compared with normal control group. Their increased levels are positively correlated with TIMI frame count.

  16. Planned second-look laparoscopy in the management of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanar, Hakan; Taviloglu, Korhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Ozcinar, Beyza; Yanar, Fatih; Guloglu, Recep; Kurtoglu, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of second-look laparoscopy in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). METHODS: Between January 2000 and November 2005, 71 patients were operated for the treatment of AMI. The indications for a second-look were low flow state, bowel resection and anastomosis or mesenteric thromboembolectomy performed during the first operation. Regardless of the clinical course of patients, the second-look laparoscopic examination was performed 72 h post-operatively at the bed side in the ICU or operating room. RESULTS: The average time of admission to the hospital after the initiation of symptoms was 3 d (range, 5 h-9 d). In 14 patients, laparotomy was performed. In 11 patients, small and/or large bowel necrosis was detected and initial resection and anastomosis were conducted. A low flow state was observed in two patients and superior mesenteric artery thromboembolectomy with small bowel resection was performed in one patient. In 13 patients, a second-look laparoscopic examination revealed normal bowel viability, but in one patient, intestinal necrosis was detected. In two of the patients, a third operation was necessary to correct anastomotic leakage. The overall complication rate was 42.8%, and in-hospital mortality rate was 57.1% (n = 6). CONCLUSION: Second-look laparoscopy is a minimally invasive, technically simple procedure that is performed for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. The simplicity and ease of this method may encourage wider application to benefit more patients. However, the timing of a second-look procedure is unclear particularly in a patient with anastomosis. PMID:17659674

  17. Physiologic Cryoamputation in Managing Critically Ill Patients with Septic, Advanced Acute Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Samuel L; Kuo, Isabella J; Kabutey, Nii-Kabu; Fujitani, Roy M

    2017-07-01

    Certain critically ill patients with advanced acute limb ischemia with a nonviable extremity may be unsuitable for transport to the operating room to undergo definitive amputation. In these unstable patients, rapid regional cryotherapy allows for prompt infectious source control and correction of hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities, thereby lessening the risk associated with definitive surgical amputation. We describe our refined technique for lower extremity physiologic cryoamputation and review our institutional experience. After adequate analgesia is administered to the patient, a heating pad is secured circumferentially at the proximal amputation margin and the affected extremity is placed in a customized Styrofoam cooler. A circumferential seal is secured at the proximal chill zone without use of a tourniquet and dry ice is placed into the cooler to surround the entire affected leg. Delayed definitive lower extremity amputation is later performed when hemodynamic and metabolic derangements are corrected. We reviewed 5 patients who underwent lower extremity cryoamputation with this technique identified at our institution between 2005 and 2015. Age ranged from 31 to 79 years old. All presented with severe foot infection and septic shock requiring vasopressor support. All 5 patients stabilized hemodynamically following the initial cryoamputation and later underwent definitive lower extremity amputation, with a median time of 3 days following initial cryoamputation. Lower extremity physiologic cryoamputation is an effective, immediate bedside procedure that can provide local source control and the opportunity for correction of metabolic derangements in initially unstable patients to lessen the risk for definitive major lower extremity amputation. Refinement of the cryoamputation technique, as described in this report, allows for a predictable and reproducible physiologic amputation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome Score for the Prediction of In-hospital and 30-Day Mortality of Patients With an Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Notara, Venetia; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2015-01-01

    Risk evaluation of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may contribute to their short-term prognosis improvement. The aim of this work was to develop a prediction index (score) for the risk assessment of 30-day death of ACS patients, using clinical and biological measurements at hospital admission. A sample of 6 Greek hospitals was selected, and almost all consecutive 2172 ACS patients from October 2003 to September 2004 were enrolled. Sociodemographic, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Using as components age, systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, creatine kinase-MB, and creatinine levels at the time of admission and the time between the onset of symptoms and presentation at hospital, a risk score (Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome score; range, 6-36) was developed and tested against in-hospital and 30-day outcome of the patients. The Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome score showed strong discriminating ability for in-hospital mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.812; 95% confidence interval, 0.750-0.874; P period.

  19. Acute coronary syndrome in a patient with Marfan syndrome following emergent surgical repair of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolato, Francesca Elisa; Isabella, Giambattista; Rampazzo, Debora; Guglielmi, Cosimo; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino; Bilato, Claudio

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of acute coronary syndrome in a patient with suspect Marfan syndrome, 25 days after emergent modified Bentall-De Bono intervention for acute type I peripartum aortic dissection. She was admitted to our intensive care unit because of unstable angina, caused by critical blood flow reduction in a large portion of the myocardium, according to the severity of the symptoms and the electrocardiographic alterations. Coronary angiography showed a sub-occlusive stenosis of the left main coronary artery as a result of the dissection extension to the coronary ostium. Because of the high risk related to heart surgery, the patient was successfully treated by unprotected angioplasty and drug-eluting stent positioning. Short- and mid-term outcomes were favourable. Subsequent tests confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. After 2 years of follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic and in good health. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful percutaneous intervention of the left main coronary artery in a patient with Marfan syndrome who had already undergone ascending aortic root and valve replacement by the Bentall-De Bono procedure for acute dissection.

  20. Evaluating for acute mesenteric ischemia in critically ill patients: diagnostic peritoneal lavage is associated with reduced operative intervention and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J; Sperry, Jason L; Rosengart, Matthew Randall

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia among intensive care unit (ICU) patients continues to be difficult and carries high mortality, and yet, it is essential that it be made expeditiously such that lifesaving operative intervention can be offered. A recent study suggested that computed tomography (CT) scan delays operative intervention. Thus, we hypothesized that diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), a rapidly performed bedside procedure of established high sensitivity, is associated with reduced operative intervention, time to operative intervention, and mortality. We performed a single-institution, retrospective study of 120 patients admitted to an ICU at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's Presbyterian Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2010, who were diagnosed with acute mesenteric ischemia. We defined a DPL of greater than 500 cells per cubic millimeter as diagnostic of intra-abdominal pathology. CT scan results were categorized as (1) diagnostic of mesenteric ischemia, (2) abnormal, or (3) normal. We performed multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for difference in case mix, to determine whether DPL is associated with the outcomes of mortality and operative intervention. The cohort was severely ill, with a mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of 21.7 (range, 0-48), and 51 patients (42.5%) died. The distribution of preoperative evaluation is as follows: CT, 67; DPL, 11; both modalities, 18; and no preoperative evaluation, 24. Those undergoing DPL were more severely ill, as evidenced by significantly higher APACHE II scores. By comparison with CT, DPL was associated with a reduced risk for operation intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.32; p = 0.002) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.62; p = 0.02). DPL is associated with reduced operative intervention yet improved survival, when compared with patients evaluated with

  1. Incremental diagnostic value of ultrasonographic assessment of coronary flow reserve with high-dose dipyridamole in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Luigi; De Michele, Mario; Accadia, Maria; Granata, Gianluca; Sacra, Cosimo; D'Andrea, Antonello; Guarini, Pasquale; Tuccillo, Bernardino

    2006-01-26

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessment by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography has been found to be useful in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease. An important clinical question is whether such technique can be successfully applied in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with an acute coronary syndrome to detect a significant left anterior descending (LAD) disease. One hundred fifty-nine patients with acute coronary syndrome (93 patients with unstable angina, 66 with acute inferior or lateral myocardial infarction) were included in the present analysis. Patients underwent a high-dose dipyridamole stress (0.84 mg/kg) with combined assessment of CFR in the LAD and regional wall motion. Blood flow velocities were recorded in the mid-distal portion of the LAD using a digital ultrasonographic system and CFR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemia-induced peak diastolic velocity to resting peak diastolic flow velocity. All patients underwent coronary angiography and a significant LAD stenosis was classified for lumen narrowing > or = 70%. Adequate Doppler recordings in the LAD were obtained in 92% of patients. A contrast agent was used in the 39% of examinations. No major adverse reaction occurred in any patient. A receiving operating characteristic curve showed that a CFR value or = 70%. Early assessment of CFR by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is feasible and safe and provides additional information to identify subjects with acute coronary syndrome and significant LAD stenosis.

  2. Serum insulin levels in non-obese, non-diabetic Asian Indians with acute coronary and non-coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Shukla, P; Reddy, K S; Lall, S B; Peshin, S S; Pandey, R M

    2000-01-01

    Significant insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia has been observed to be associated with coronary heart disease in epidemiological studies, particularly so in Asian Indians. This study attempted to investigate if hyperinsulinemia accompanies acute cardiovascular events in Asian Indians, and that it is not a metabolic response to acute stress alone. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital in northern India. Group I (n = 19), consisting of non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese patients presenting with first episode of acute coronary event (first episode of angina or myocardial infarction) were compared with non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese patients of group II (n = 21) presenting with non-cardiovascular emergencies (severe abdominal pain e.g. uncomplicated ureteric colic or non-specific intestinal colic. Blood was analysed for glycosylated haemoglobin, fructosamine and insulin levels within 24 hours of the acute event. Elevated serum fructosamine was observed in 11 (57.8%) subjects in group I and 9 (42.9%) in group II (p = NS). Glycosylated haemoglobin was 6.8 +/- 0.1 percent in group I versus 5.9 +/- 0.04 percent in group II (p < 0.01). Three out of 11 subjects in group I and 1/9 subjects in group II having elevated serum fructosamine level also had increased glycosylated haemoglobin level. Five (26.3%) subjects in group I and 2 (9.5%) in group II with elevated glycosylated haemoglobin level were excluded from the analysis as these patients might have been diabetic. Mean serum insulin values were significantly higher in group I (161.3 +/- 8.15 micro IU/mL and 17.5 +/- 1.9 micro IU/mL in groups I and II, respectively; p < 0.001). Eleven (57.8%) subjects in group I had insulin values above 100 uIU/ml. The present study indicates that significant hyperinsulinemia accompanies acute cardiovascular events and it is not an acute response to pain or stress hyperglycemia. Markedly high insulin levels

  3. Does it require to exclude cardiobiliary reflex in every acute coronary syndrome follow up patient with bedside ultrasound on emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolatkale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In emergency department, physicians can diagnose pulseless electrical activity, asystole, pericardial effusions, ischemic heart disease, wall motion abnormalities, valvular cardiac disease volume status or global cardiac function evaluating with electrocardiographic findings or using bedside cardiac ultrasonography. But these two methods are not always sufficient to explain the underlying another pathologies such as pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis which can mimick acute cardiac events. Patients who are followed up with a preliminary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department, might have underlying biliary or pancreatic pathologies, or even more, these might be the sole reason of the clinical picture. So bedside abdomen ultrasonography and liver enzymes may be requested in all patients with suspected cardiac pathology with a normal cardiac ultrasonography when a patient presented with acute chest or abdominal pain. Physicians must be aware for coexisting pathophysiologies and take into account the differential diagnosis of all life-threatening causes such as cardiac ischemia or acute abdominal situations. So the diagnostic tests for gallbladder pathology could be added to cardiac ultrasonography

  4. Acute myocardial infarction with multiple coronary thromboses in a young addict of amphetamines and benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al Shehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man of average build and a smoker, with a background of a psychiatric disorder, was brought by his neighbor to the emergency department after an hour of severe chest pain. Upon arrival at the hospital he had cardiac arrest, was resuscitated, and moved to the catheterization laboratory with inferior, posterior, and lateral myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed an unusual thrombosis in multiple coronary branches. Toxicology report showed high levels of amphetamines and benzodiazepines in the patient’s original blood sample. The patient was kept under ventilation for 18 days, with difficult recovery due to severe withdrawal manifestations, ventilation acquired pneumonia, and rhabdomyolysis inducing acute renal failure. The patient regained near normal left ventricular function after baseline severe regional and global dysfunction. We postulate a relationship between the use of amphetamines, potentiated by benzodiazepines, and occurrence of acute thrombosis of multiple major coronary arteries.

  5. Left Circumflexus Coronary Artery Total Occlusion with Clinical Presentation as NSTEMI and Acute Pulmonary Oedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yuli Setianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines for the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs focus on the electrocardiogram to divide patients into ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI or non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI/unstable angina (UA. Patients with STEMI in the earliest time will receive reperfusion therapy to destruct occlusive thrombus. An ST segment elevation is the ‘sine qua non’ for diagnosing acute total coronary occlusion causing transmural myocardial infarction. Left circumflex coronary artery (LCx occlusion is often categorized as NSTEMI because of the absence of significant ST-elevation on the 12 lead standard electrocardiogram. An ST segment elevation is presented in fewer than 50% of patients with LCx total occlusion, such that the reperfusion therapy is delayed. We reported a 77 years old woman whom being diagnosed with NSTEMI because a 12 lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment depression in lead V2-V5. On coronary angiography, we found a total occlusion in the LCx artery as the culprit lession.

  6. Cardiovascular Safety of One-Year Escitalopram Therapy in Clinically Nondepressed Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanash, Jamal A; Hansen, Baiba H; Hansen, Jørgen F

    2012-01-01

    : Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used for treatment of depression in patients with cardiac diseases. However, evidence of cardiovascular (CV) safety from randomized trials is based on studies of no longer than 6-month duration. We examined the CV safety of 1-year treatment w...... with Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram compared with placebo in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS)....

  7. Acute Fulminant Uremic Neuropathy Following Coronary Angiography Mimicking Guillain–Barre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old diabetic woman suffered a posterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She developed contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Acute fulminant uremic neuropathy was precipitated which initially mimicked Guillan–Barre Syndrome, hence reported. PMID:28706599

  8. Are international differences in the outcomes of acute coronary syndromes apparent or real? A multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C. Chang; W.K. Midodzi; C.M. Westerhout (Cynthia); J. Cooper (Judith); E.S. Barnathan (Elliot); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); E.M. Ohman (Magnus); P.W. Armstrong (Paul); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: International variation in the outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has been well reported. The relative contributions of patient, hospital, and country level factors on clinical outcomes, however, remain unclear, and thus, was the objective of this

  9. Effectiveness of recommended drug classes in secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezin, Julien; Groenwold, Rolf; Ali, Sanni; Lassalle, Régis; De Boer, Anthonius; Moore, Nicholas; Klungel, Olaf; Pariente, Antoine

    Background: Guidelines for cardiovascular secondary prevention are based on evidence from relatively old clinical trials and need to be evaluated in daily clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate effectiveness of the recommended drug classes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for secondary

  10. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: Data from the Rijnmond Collective Cardiology Research (CCR) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Yetgin; M.M.J.M. van der Linden (Mark); A.G. de Vries (A.); P.C. Smits (Pieter); R. van Mechelen; S-C. Yap (Sing-Chien); H. Boersma (Eric); F. Zijlstra (Felix); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Medical discharge management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains suboptimal outside randomised trials and constitutes an essential quality benchmark for ACS. We sought to evaluate the rates of key guideline-recommended pharmacological agents after ACS and characteristics

  11. Associated Factors of Anxiety among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Kelantan and Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adnan Wan-Nor-Asyikeen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that anxiety had myriad effects on cardiovascular physiology, which plays an important role in the increased incidence of ischemic events in patients. A screening tool should be created to refine and identify the psychological status of acute coronary syndrome patients, so that early treatment could be given.

  12. [The role of county health center in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmar, Nevenka; Pristas, Ivan; Stevanović, Ranko

    2009-02-01

    Health emergency service teams play an important role in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. They have to be educated, equipped, skilful and supported by the entire health care system. The role of county health center in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome is illustrated in the article, based on the experience acquired at Medimurje County Health Center from Cakovec. The reformed Health Center activities including organization, coordination and linking of teams, population health monitoring at the local level, epidemiologic surveillance, education (active and passive, on both sides of college chair), joint diagnostic and other services, and quality control are discussed in detail. In contrast to a bureaucratic and formal one, a real and innovative reform should take account of necessary changes in the management and organization, not just in standards, rights and obligations. The management protocol for acute coronary syndrome patients is described: setting the main objective (acute coronary disease morbidity and mortality reduction), setting short-term and long-term specific goals, adoption of strategy based on the main objective (education, completion and particular programs pursuit, connecting, collaboration, quality assurance through clinical guidelines and protocols) and other elements, including dignity, leadership, teamwork, adoption and implementation of patient management protocols.

  13. Lixisenatide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Marc A; Claggett, Brian; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    was placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome, the addition of lixisenatide to usual care did not significantly alter the rate of major cardiovascular events or other serious adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi; ELIXA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01147250.)....

  14. Survival in patients without acute ST elevation after cardiac arrest and association with early coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankiewicz, J; Nielsen, N; Annborn, M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether early coronary angiography (CAG) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of a presumed cardiac cause is associated with improved outcomes in patients without acute ST elevation. METHODS: The target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM) tria...

  15. Samara region experience in organization of emergency care system for patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplyakov D.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general features of healthcare program for patients with acute coronary syndrome which started in Samara region in 2007. Some results and perspectives of future development of Samara “myocardial infarction network” are elucidated.

  16. Predictive value of acute coronary syndrome discharge diagnoses in the Danish national patioent registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Albert Marni; Jensen, Majken K.; Overvad, Kim

    Background: Updated data on the predictive value of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnoses, including unstable angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest, in hospital discharge registries are sparse. Design: Validation study. Methods: All first-time ACS diagnoses in the Danish...

  17. Treatment of depression in acute coronary syndromes with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melle, Joost P.; de Jonge, Peter; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Pot, Harm J.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    Depression in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is common and associated with impaired cardiovascular prognosis in terms of cardiac mortality and new cardiovascular events. It remains unclear whether antidepressant treatment may reverse these effects. In this review, the literature is

  18. In-Hospital Death Prediction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monhart, Z.; Reissigová, Jindra; Zvárová, Jana; Grünfeldová, H.; Janský, P.; Vojáček, J.; Widimský, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 52-52 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : acute coronary syndrome * in-hospital death * prediction * multilevel logistic regression * non-PCI hospital Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Networks for improving care in patients with acute coronary syndrome: A framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, Peter W.; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kolh, Philippe; Annemans, Lieven; Postma, Maarten J.; Ardissino, Diego; Kristensen, Steen D.; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Morais, João; Tuñón, José; Halcox, Julian

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that the level of guideline adherence in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is highly correlated with patient outcomes. Unfortunately, guideline adherence is low in some geographic areas and especially in those patients at high-risk.

  20. In-hospital Death Prediction by Multilevel Logistic Regressin in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reissigová, Jindra; Monhart, Z.; Zvárová, Jana; Hanzlíček, Petr; Grünfeldová, H.; Janský, P.; Vojáček, J.; Widimský, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 11-17 ISSN 1801-5603 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multilevel logistic regression * acute coronary syndromes * risk factors * in-hospital death Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Reissigova_en.pdf

  1. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  2. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Ripa, R.S.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. YKL-40 is involved in remodelling and angiogenesis in non-cardiac inflammatory diseases. Aim was to quantitate plasma YKL-40 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or stable chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and YKL-40 gene activation in human myocardium....... Methods and results. We included 73 patients: I) 20 patients with STEMI; II) 28 patients with stable CAD; III) 15 CAD patients referred for coronary by-pass surgery. YKL-40 mRNA expression was measured in myocardium subtended by stenotic or occluded arteries and areas with no apparent disease; and IV) 10...

  3. Acute coronary syndrome and acute kidney injury: role of inflammation in worsening renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Jorge; Springall, Rashidi; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Arana-Martinez, Julio-C; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Bojalil, Rafael

    2017-07-26

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), a common complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stays. The role of cytokines and other mediators is unknown in AKI induced by an ACS (ACS-AKI), leading to several unanswered questions. The worsening of renal function is usually seen as a dichotomous phenomenon instead of a dynamic change, so evaluating changes of the renal function in time may provide valuable information in the ACS-AKI setting. The aim of this study was to explore inflammatory factors associated to de novo kidney injury induced by de novo cardiac injury secondary to ACS. One hundred four consecutive patients with ACS were initially included on the time of admission to the Coronary Unit of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología in Mexico City, from February to May 2016, before any invasive procedure, imaging study, diuretic or anti-platelet therapy. White blood count, hemoglobin, NT-ProBNP, troponin I, C-reactive protein, albumin, glucose, Na + , K + , blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, creatinine (Cr), endothelin-1 (ET-1), leukotriene-B4, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, resolvin-D1 (RvD1), lipoxin-A4 (LXA4), interleukin-1β, -6, -8, and -10 were measured. We finally enrolled 78 patients, and subsequently we identified 15 patients with ACS-AKI. Correlations were obtained by a Spearman rank test. Low-rank regression, splines regressions, and also protein-protein/chemical interactions and pathways analyses networks were performed. Positive correlations of ΔCr were found with BUN, admission Cr, GRACE score, IL-1β, IL-6, NT-ProBNP and age, and negative correlations with systolic blood pressure, mean-BP, diastolic-BP and LxA4. In the regression analyses IL-10 and RvD1 had positive non-linear associations with ΔCr. ET-1 had also a positive association. Significant non-linear associations were seen with NT-proBNP, admission Cr, BUN

  4. Baseline disease is a more important predictor of intestinal necrosis than CT findings in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Toshihisa; Hara, Masahiko; Yunoki, Keiji; Urashima, Masaki; Harano, Masao; Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kouji; Shintani, Ayumi

    2016-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially fatal vascular emergency, and several computed tomographic (CT) findings have been introduced to determine the presence of intestinal ischemia or necrosis, although the most useful finding is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed data of 43 consecutive patients with AMI who were treated during the period from 2006 to 2015. Study patients included both superior mesenteric artery dissection (n = 29) and thrombosis (SMAT, n = 14). Epidemiological data, CT findings, and the primary end point defined as the composite of intestinal ischemia or necrosis based on surgical finding and in-hospital mortality were investigated. The classification and regression tree was used to assess determinants of the primary end point, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics was used to evaluate discriminating accuracy. In total, the primary end point occurred in 27.9% (0.0% in superior mesenteric artery dissection and 85.7% in SMAT). Classification and regression tree demonstrated that the baseline disease was the only and strong determinant of the primary outcome (P< .001), which was also confirmed by the highest area under the curve of 0.968 (95% confidence interval, 0.924-1.000). The baseline disease rather than CT findings is the most important determinant of the primary end point. In patients with AMI, SMAT should undergo exploratory surgery and subsequent surgical treatment without delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Myocardial CT perfusion imaging for ischemia detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capunay, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) plays an important role in many specific scenarios such as in symptomatic patients with intermediate pretest of coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as in the triage of patients with acute chest pain with TIMI risk ≤2. However, it cannot detect the presence of associated ischemia, which is critical for clinical decision making among patients with moderate to severe stenosis. Although functional information can be obtained with different non-invasive tools, cardiac CT is the unique modality that can perform a comprehensive evaluation of coronary anatomy plus the functional significance of lesions. Myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) can be performed with different approaches such as static and dynamic CTP. In addition, static CTP can be performed using single energy CT (SECT) or dual energy CT (DECT). In this review, we will discuss the technical parameters and the available clinical evidence of static CTP using both SECT and DECT. PMID:28540208

  6. Excess psychosocial burden in women with diabetes and premature acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T M; Pelletier, R; Behlouli, H; Rossi, A M; Pilote, L

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes is a stronger risk factor for acute coronary syndrome for women than men. We investigate whether behavioural and psychosocial factors contribute to the disparity in acute coronary syndrome risk and outcomes among women with diabetes relative to women without diabetes and men. Among 939 participants in the GENESIS-PRAXY cohort study of premature acute coronary syndrome (age ≤ 55 years), we compared the prevalence of traditional and non-traditional factors by sex and Type 2 diabetes status. In a case-only analysis, we used generalized logit models to investigate the influence of traditional and non-traditional factors on the interaction of sex and diabetes. In 287 women (14.3% with diabetes) and 652 men (10.4% with diabetes), women and men with diabetes showed a heavier burden of traditional cardiac risk factors compared with individuals without diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely to be the primary earner and have more anxiety relative to women without diabetes, and reported worse perceived health compared with women without diabetes and men with diabetes. The interaction term for sex and diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 0.83-2.36) was diminished after additional adjustment for non-traditional factors (OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.54-2.32), but not traditional factors alone (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.84-2.36). We observed trends toward a more adverse psychosocial profile among women with diabetes and incident acute coronary syndrome compared with women without diabetes and men with diabetes, which may explain the increased risk of acute coronary syndrome in women with diabetes and may also contribute to worse outcomes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  7. Predicting In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yong; Du, Xin; Rogers, Kris D; Wu, Yangfeng; Gao, Runlin; Patel, Anushka

    2017-10-01

    Currently available risk scores (RSs) were derived from populations with very few participants from China. We aimed to develop an RS based on data from patients with acute coronary syndrome in China and to compare its performance with the commonly promoted Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) RS. Clinical Pathways for Acute Coronary Syndromes-Phase 2 was a trial of a quality improvement intervention in China. Patients recruited from 75 hospitals from October 2007 to August 2010 were divided into training and validation sets based on immediate or delayed implementation. A Clinical Pathways for Acute Coronary Syndromes (CPACS) RS for in-hospital mortality was developed separately by gender, using the training set (6,790 patients). Discrimination and calibration of the CPACS RS and GRACE RS were compared on the validation set (3,801 patients). Although discrimination of the GRACE RS was acceptable, this was improved with the CPACS RS (c-statistic 0.82 vs 0.87, p = 0.012 for men; c-statistic 0.78 vs 0.85, p = 0.006 for women). The absolute bias was significantly lower with CPACS RS for both genders (7.6% vs 97.5% in men and 21.5% vs 77.2% in women), compared with the GRACE RS, which systematically overestimated risk. The CPACS RS underestimated risk in women, but only in those already above threshold levels currently used to define a clinical high-risk population. In conclusion, the GRACE RS substantially overestimates the risk of in-hospital death in patients presenting to the hospital with a suspected acute coronary syndrome in China. We have developed and independently validated a new RS utilizing data from Chinese patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PROLONGED MULTIPLE SPASMS OF SMOOTH CORONARY ARTERIES PRESENTING AS ACUTE MIOCARDIAL INFARCTION, COMPLETE AV BLOCK AND SYNCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Cesar

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. A variant form of angina pectoris (VAP is caused by coronary vessel spasm and occures in patients with and without varying degrees of obstructive coronary artery disease. Although the prognosis of VAP without significant organic stenosis is generally good, multivessel spasm is associated with a high risk of life-threatening abnormalities of rhythm and conduction.Patient and methods. We describe a patient who presented with prolonged chest pain, associated with hypotension, lost of consciousness, complete AV block and widespread ST segment elevations consistent with inferoanterior acute myocardial infarction. Urgent selective coronary angiography revealed spasms in right coronary artery and in left circumflex artery that were relieved by intracoronary injection of nitroglycerin. All coronary arteries were otherwise patient, without signs of atherosclerosis. The patient was treated with diltiazem and nitrates. She made a complete recovery and resumed her normal activities.Conclusions. Simultaneous multiple spasms of native coronary arteries represent a rare syndrome characterized by significantly higher incidence of potentially life-threatening arrhythmia. Less commonly, prolonged coronary spasm may mimic acute myocardial infarction. Modern management of acute coronary syndromes, including urgent coronarography, enables a prompt differentiation between prolonged coronary spasm and atherosclerotic coronary disease, warranting different treatment strategies. Medical treatment with nitrates and calcium channel blockers in most cases prevents recurrence of vasospasms and arrhythmias.

  9. Plaque disruption by coronary computed tomographic angiography in stable patients vs. acute coronary syndrome: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilolikar, Abhay N; Goldstein, James A; Madder, Ryan D; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to determine whether coronary CT angiography (CTA) can detect features of plaque disruption in clinically stable patients and to compare lesion prevalence and features between stable patients and those with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We retrospectively identified patients undergoing CTA, followed by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within 60 days. Quantitative 3-vessel CTA lesion analysis was performed on all plaques ≥25% stenosis to assess total plaque volume, low attenuation plaque (LAP, disruption, including ulceration and intra-plaque dye penetration (IDP). ICA was employed as a reference standard for disruption. A total of 145 (94 ACS and 51 stable) patients were identified. By CTA, plaque disruption was evident in 77.7% of ACS cases. Although more common among those with ACS, CTA also detected plaque disruption in 37.3% of clinically stable patients (P disruption as determined by CTA. Though the prevalence of plaque disruption is less than patients with ACS, these findings support the concept that some clinically stable patients may harbour 'silent' disrupted plaques. These findings may have implications for detection of 'at risk' plaques and patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein and male gender are independently related to the severity of coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and an acute coronary event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high-risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the major determinants of coronary disease severity, including those coronary risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, during the early period after an acute coronary episode. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory markers, especially highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, are related to coronary atherosclerosis, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Subjects of both genders aged 30 to 75 years (N = 116 were prospectively included if they had suffered a recent acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and if they had metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were submitted to a coronary angiography and the burden of atherosclerosis was estimated by the Gensini score. The severity of coronary disease was correlated (Spearman’s or Pearson’s coefficient with gender (r = 0.291, P = 0.008, age (r = 0.218, P = 0.048, hsCRP (r = 0.256, P = 0.020, ApoB/ApoA ratio (r = 0.233, P = 0.041, and carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.236, P = 0.041. After multiple linear regression, only male gender (P = 0.046 and hsCRP (P = 0.012 remained independently associated with the Gensini score. In this high-risk population, male gender and high levels of hsCRP, two variables that can be easily obtained, were associated with more extensive coronary disease, identifying patients with the highest potential of developing new coronary events.

  11. Characteristics and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal or non-significant coronary artery disease: results from Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minha, Sa'ar; Gottlieb, Shmuel; Magalhaes, Marco A; Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Krakover, Rikardo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Vered, Zvi; Blatt, Alex

    2014-08-01

    An important subset of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are found to have either normal coronaries (NCs) or non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD; lumen diameter narrowing characteristics and management strategies in this population in a real-world setting. The Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) database was utilized to compare the characteristics and therapeutic approach for patients who underwent angiography for ACS and had either NC (n = 84; 2%), NOCAD (n = 79; 2%), or obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD; n = 3523; 96%). Baseline characteristics were comparable, save for a younger age and a higher proportion of females in the NC group (P<.001 for both). Prior to admission, chronic anticoagulant therapy was more frequently used in the NC vs. the OCAD group (4.8% vs. 1.6%, respectively; P=.02). Recommended ACS evidence-based medications, both in-hospital and at discharge, were less frequently prescribed to patients with NC or NOCAD. In a real-world practice of ACS, underutilization of evidence-based medications in patients with NC or NOCAD was observed. Nonetheless, its prognostic significance is still unknown and must be explored in larger patient cohorts.

  12. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid usage associated with acute coronary syndrome in bodybuilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Sonmez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been argued in current studies that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are misused by a great number of bodybuilders and athletes. However, there is diverse and often conflicting scientific data on the cardiac and metabolic complications caused by the misuse of AAS. There may be various reasons for myocardial infarction (MI with normal coronary arteries. However, for the majority of patients, the exact cause is still unknown. Case report: A 32 year-old male who was complaining about severe chest pain was admitted to our emergency department. He had been taking methenolone acetate 200 mg weekly for a period of three years for body building. His cardiac markers were significantly elevated and electrocardiogram (ECG showed peaked T waves in all derivations, which did not show ST elevation or depression. Both right and left coronary artery systems were found to be completely normal as a result of the angiogram. Conclusion: The purpose of this study is to show that AAS induced MI can be encountered with normal coronary arteries during acute coronary syndrome. Keywords: Bodybuilder, Anabolic steroids, Methenolone acetate, Acute coronary syndrome

  13. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita Pedata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes. Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.

  14. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: challenges of coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleid, Mackram F; Tweet, Marysia S; Young, Phillip M; Williamson, Eric; Hayes, Sharonne N; Gulati, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the role of cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for assessment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). In this report we describe the diagnostic utility of CCTA in three young women presenting with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia who were eventually diagnosed with SCAD. None of the women had traditional atherosclerotic risk factors. SCAD was not initially identified on CCTA in any of the three women, but was visualized during retrospective analysis in two patients after invasive coronary angiography. In two patients follow-up CCTA imaging was used successfully for subsequent management. In patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute coronary syndrome, SCAD may be missed or not detectable on CCTA. A negative CCTA should not exclude a diagnosis of SCAD, and invasive coronary angiography should be considered for further evaluation.

  15. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junying; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Litovsky, Silvio H; Powell, Pamela C; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  16. Spontaneous coronary thrombosis following thrombolytic therapy for acute cardiovascular accident and stroke: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Eric L; Smyth, Susan S

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac complications following stroke or acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) are common; however, many of these complications are asymptomatic and do not cause adverse cardiac effects. Symptomatic events (such as acute myocardial infarction after CVA) rarely occur and are often the result of an underlying cardiac embolic source, such as a left ventricular thrombus. We report a case of spontaneous coronary thrombosis following thrombolytic therapy for acute CVA, and discuss the implication that an underlying systemic pro-thrombotic state may predispose individuals to thrombosis in disparate vascular beds.

  17. Differentiation of acute total occlusion of coronary artery from chronic total occlusion in coronary computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    To compare the features of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) imaging of the patients with acute total occlusion (ATO) of coronary artery with those of chronic total occlusion (CTO). CCTA of 26 patients with complete interruption of the coronary artery in CCTA and occlusion in conventional coronary angiography, were retrospectively analyzed. Discrimination between the ATO group (n = 11, patients with non ST elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina) and the CTO group (n = 15, patients with stable angina or nonspecific symptom) was arbitrarily determined by clinical diagnosis. Lesion length, remodeling index (RI), plaque density measured by Hounsfield units (HU), plaque composition, percentage attenuation drop across the lesion, and presence of myocardial thinning were evaluated. Comparisons between the ATO and CTO groups revealed significantly shorter lesion length in the ATO group (0.40 cm vs. 1.87 cm, respectively; p = 0.001), and significantly higher RI (1.56 vs. 1.10, respectively; p = 0.004). Plaque density of the ATO group was lower (37.0 HU vs. 104.7 HU, respectively; p < 0.001) and non calcified plaque was frequently seen in the ATO group (72.7% vs. 26.7%, respectively; p = 0.02). Percentage attenuation drop across the lesion was lower for the ATO group (10.92% vs. 25.44%, respectively; p = 0.005). Myocardial thinning was exclusively observed in the CTO group (seven of 15 patients, p = 0.01). CCTA shows various statistically significant differences between the ATO and CTO groups.

  18. The Influence of findings of coronary artery on myocardial salvage in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Midoriko; Naruse, Hitoshi; Morita, Masato; Kawamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    201 Tl stress myocardial scintigraphy was performed in convalescent patients with acute myocardial infarction, to evaluate the influence of stenosis and collateral circulation of coronary artery in acute phase, on myocardial salvage in chronic phase. In 14 cases of unsuccessful coronary revascularization (complete occlusion), a complete defect of thallium imaging in chronic phase was seen in only one case of four cases with good collateral circulation, while eight of 10 cases with poor collateral circulation. In 16 cases with collateral circulation, six cases showed a complete defect, although the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. However, in cases of good collateral circulation, no case showed a complete defect when the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. The myocardial salvage is quite possible (p<0.05), when the coronary angiography in acute phase showed the forward flow (99% or 90% of stenosis) before coronary revascularization and/or good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2deg or 3deg). (author)

  19. Electrocardiography changes in acute aortic dissection-association with troponin leak, coronary anatomy, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourafkari, Leili; Tajlil, Arezou; Ghaffari, Samad; Chavoshi, Mohammadreza; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Parvizi, Rezayat; Parizad, Raziyeh; Nader, Nader D

    2016-08-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) offers some information that may be used to prognosticate acute type A aortic dissection (AAOD) for short- and long-term mortality. We retrospectively analyzed the electrocardiograms of patients with AAOD admitted from March 2004 to March 2015. The frequency of ECG findings and their prognostic value on hospital and follow-up mortality were investigated. Findings pertaining to coronary involvement and troponin level were also examined. A total of 120 men and 64 women were admitted. Acute ischemic changes were reported in 38.0%, whereas T inversion was the most common recorded abnormality, which occurred in 38.6%. Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was detected in 16.3%. Troponin increased in 36.6%; 21.9% of the patients underwent coronary angiography among which 70% were normal. Coronary involvement or troponin increase was not different in patients with acute ECG changes. During hospitalization, 45.7% of the patients died. In multivariate analyses, ST elevation in lead aVR was associated with higher hospital death (odds ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-25.73; P = .038), whereas QRS greater than 120 milliseconds was associated with long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.76; P = .006). Acute ischemic ECG changes are common in AAOD, and a completely normal ECG is infrequently encountered. Acute ECG changes were not associated with the increased troponin or the presence of coronary lesions in angiography. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking during Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in the Detection of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Valtteri; Luotolahti, Matti; Pietilä, Mikko; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Hartiala, Jaakko; Saraste, Markku; Knuuti, Juhani; Saraste, Antti

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional speckle-tracking applied to dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) may aid in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine the value of strain, strain rate, and postsystolic strain index (PSI) measured by speckle-tracking during DSE in the evaluation of the presence, extent, and severity of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients 63 ± 7 years of age with intermediate probability of CAD were prospectively recruited. All patients underwent DSE, quantitative positron emission tomographic perfusion imaging, and invasive angiography. Regional peak systolic longitudinal strain, strain rate, and PSI were measured at rest, at a dobutamine dose of 20 μg/kg/min, at peak stress, and at early recovery (1 min after stress). Obstructive CAD was defined as >75% stenosis or 40% to 75% stenosis combined with either fractional flow reserve Strain analyses showed the highest reproducibility at rest, at a dobutamine dose of 20 μg/kg/min, and at early recovery. Increased PSI and reduced strain during early recovery were the strongest predictors of obstructive CAD and were associated with the extent, localization, and depth of myocardial ischemia by positron emission tomography. On vessel-based analysis, strain, PSI, and visual analysis of wall motion provided comparable diagnostic accuracy, whereas the combination of strain or PSI with visual analysis provided incremental value over visual analysis alone. Assessment of systolic or postsystolic strain by speckle-tracking echocardiography during early recovery after DSE can help in the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis compared with visual wall motion analysis alone. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Home medicines reviews following acute coronary syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Daniel DL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continual improvements in the management of acute coronary syndromes, adherence to guideline-based medications remains suboptimal. We aim to improve adherence with guideline-based therapy following acute coronary syndrome using an existing service that is provided by specifically trained pharmacists, called a Home Medicines Review. We have made two minor adjustments to target the focus of the existing service including an acute coronary syndrome specific referral letter and a training package for the pharmacists providing the service. Methods/Design We will be conducting a randomized controlled trial to compare the directed home medicines review service to usual care following acute coronary syndromes. All patients aged 18 to 80 years and with a working diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, who are admitted to two public, acute care hospitals, will be screened for enrolment into the trial. Exclusion criteria will include: not being discharged home, documented cognitive decline, non-Medicare eligibility, and presence of a terminal malignancy. Randomization concealment and sequence generation will occur through a centrally-monitored computer program. Patients randomized to the control group will receive usual post-discharge care. Patients randomized to receive the intervention will be offered usual post-discharge care and a directed home medicines review at two months post-discharge. The study endpoints will be six and twelve months post-discharge. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients who are adherent to a complete, guideline-based medication regimen. Secondary outcomes will include hospital readmission rates, length of hospital stays, changes in quality of life, smoking cessation rates, cardiac rehabilitation completion rates, and mortality. Discussion As the trial is closely based on an existing service, any improvements observed should be highly translatable into regular practice. Possible

  2. Comparison of Functional Capacity using Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Pharmacological Therapy on ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Nurkusuma Wardhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is a shift manifestations pattern of ischemic myocardium. Revascularization either with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or pharmacological therapy is an optional treatment for ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (STEACS patients. The aim of the study was to compare the functional capacity using six-minute walking test on STEACS patients who underwent Primary PCI or pharmacological therapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from September to October 2012 to 35 STEACS patients who were treated after two years. The samples were obtained from the list of patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients diagnosed as STEACS, cooperative and not experiencing cognitive disturbance. The exclusion criteria were STEACS patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarct in the last month, stable exertional angina, and pregnant women. The patients underwent 6 minutes walking test,VO2max was measured using theCalahin and Cooper formula, then Metabolic Equation Task (METs was calculated. Data were analyzed by unpaired T-test. Results: There were 19 Primary PCI and 16 pharmacological therapy patients. The average of age between the two groups was distributed evenly. Most of the STEACS patients were male, had a college/academic degree and were retired. Patients treated with pharmacological therapy had higher average of VO2 max and METs than patients with Primary PCI. There was no significantly differences of METs between those groups (p>0.05 Conclusions: There were no significantly differences of functional capacity in STEACS patients treated with Primary PCI or Pharmacological therapy.

  3. Coronary ostial involvement in acute aortic dissection: detection with 64-slice cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, E Ronan

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old man collapsed after lifting weights at a gym. Following admission to the emergency department, a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CT) revealed a Stanford Type A aortic dissection arising from a previous coarctation repair. Multiphasic reconstructions demonstrated an unstable, highly mobile aortic dissection flap that extended proximally to involve the right coronary artery ostium. Our case is an example of the application of electrocardiogram-gated cardiac CT in directly visualizing involvement of the coronary ostia in acute aortic dissection, which may influence surgical management.

  4. [Myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: definitions, classification, and diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Mishnev, O D; Kakturskiĭ, L V

    2014-01-01

    The review gives the definitions and classification of and diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in accordance with the "The third universal definition of myocardial infarction" adopted in 2012 (Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, 2012). It also discusses the clinical and morphological comparisons of and the problems in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a nosological entity within coronary heart disease with other coronarogenic and non-coronarogenic necroses of the myocardium.

  5. Management of acute coronary syndromes in Maghreb countries: The ACCESS (ACute Coronary Events - a multinational Survey of current management Strategies) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaghfir, Abdelhamid; Haddak, Mohand; Mechmeche, Rachid

    2012-11-01

    The burden of cardiovascular diseases is anticipated to rise in developing countries. We sought to describe the epidemiology, management, and clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in three countries in western North Africa. Adult patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of ACS were enrolled in the prospective ACute Coronary Events - a multinational Survey of current management Strategies (ACCESS) registry over a 13-month period (January 2007 to January 2008). We report on patients enrolled at sites in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. A standardized form was used to collect data on patient characteristics, treatments and outcomes. A total of 1687 patients with confirmed ACS were enrolled (median age 59 [interquartile range 52, 68] years; 76% men), 59% with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 41% with non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). During hospitalization, most patients received aspirin (96%) and a statin (90%), 83% received a beta-blocker and 74% an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Among eligible STEMI patients, 42% (419/989) did not receive fibrinolysis or undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. All-cause death at 12 months was 8.1% and did not differ significantly between patients with STEMI or NSTE-ACS (8.3% vs 7.7%, respectively; Log-rank test P=0.82). Clinical factors associated with higher risk of death at 12 months included cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, bleeding episodes and diabetes, while percutaneous coronary intervention and male sex were associated with lower risk. In this observational study of ACS patients from three Maghreb countries, the use of evidence-based pharmacological therapies for ACS was quite high; however, 42% of the patients with STEMI were not given any form of reperfusion therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Infection in the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Awadalla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A potential link between infectious agents and atherosclerosis has been suggested. Data obtained from several seroepidemiological studies have suggested that infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and Cytomegalovirus can initiate or maintain the atherosclerotic process. Aim of this study is to evaluate the probable relationship between serum titers of some various infectious agents and the development of acute coronary syndrome and to investigate the relationship between these infectious agents and other risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of CVD. METHOD: This is a hospital based case- control study was conducted on two groups: patients group included 86 patients, cases were collected from patients admitted to Cardiac Care Unit (CCU of Cleopatra hospital, and Ain Shams University hospital with acute myocardial infarction between January 2010 and June 2010 and control group included 86 apparently healthy individuals. A questionnaire was designed to determine conventional coronary artery risk factors. The sero-prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori IgG antibodies were evaluated using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The results showed that there was an increased level of serum IgG antibodies of C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori among patients with acute coronary syndrome compared to control subjects CONCLUSION: C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori were expected to be predictors for the development of coronary artery disease, as there was significant elevation of the serum level of IgG antibodies against them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 715-722

  7. Acute High-Intensity Intermittent Aerobic Exercise Reduces Plasma Angiopoietin-Like 2 in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Jean-François; Yu, Carol; Luo, Xiaoyan; Farhat, Nada; Guiraud, Thibaut; Lalongé, Julie; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Lambert, Jean; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Thorin, Eric; Nigam, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Circulating levels of angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2), a proinflammatory and proatherogenic protein, are elevated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE), known to be beneficial in patients with CAD, would reduce circulating ANGPTL2 levels. Plasma levels of ANGPTL2 were measured before and 20 minutes, 24 hours, and 72 hours after an acute exercise session in a crossover study comparing HIIE to moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in 14 patients with CAD and 20 age-matched and 20 young healthy controls. Pre-exercise ANGPTL2 levels were 3-fold higher in patients with CAD than in age-matched controls (P < 0.05) and correlated negatively with Vo2max/lean body mass (P < 0.0001). In healthy controls, ANGPTL2 levels were low and not affected by HIIE or MICE. In patients with CAD, ANGPTL2 levels decreased significantly by 41% after 20 minutes of HIIE, a reduction that was maintained after 24 and 72 hours (P < 0.05). In contrast, although ANGPTL2 levels decreased by 47% after 20 minutes of MICE, they increased by 104% after 24 hours and returned to baseline values after 72 hours (P < 0.05). A negative correlation was observed between this increase in ANGPTL2 levels and the mean rate-pressure product (heart rate × systolic blood pressure; index of myocardial O2 consumption) measured during MICE, suggesting that subclinical ischemia might promote ANGPTL2 expression. In patients with CAD, circulating ANGPTL2 levels are acutely reduced after HIIE and transiently increased after MICE. A sustained reduction in circulating ANGPTL2 levels could contribute to the chronic beneficial cardiometabolic effects of HIIE in patients with CAD. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical applications of non-invasive imaging techniques in suspected coronary artery disease and in acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Nucifora, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities play a crucial role in the diagnostic process and clinical management of patients without known coronary artery disease and patients with acute myocardial infarction. The first part of the thesis discusses the use of non-invasive imaging modalities (including coronary artery calcium scoring, multi-slice computed tomography coronary angiography, conventional two-dimensional echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography) for the diagnosis and ris...

  9. Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Treatment versus Conventional Treatment Alone in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (5C Trial): An Open-Label Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Li; Wang, Cheng-Long; Wang, Pei-Li; Xu, Hao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Du, Jian-Peng; Zhang, Da-Wu; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Chang-Geng; Lü, Shu-Zheng; You, Shi-Jie; Ge, Jun-Bo; Li, Tian-Chang; Wang, Xian; Yang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Hong-Xu; Mao, Jing-Yuan; Li, Rui-Jie; Chen, Li-Dian; Lu, Shu; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Chen, Ke-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plus conventional treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results. Participants (n = 808) with ACS who underwent PCI from thirteen hospitals of mainland China were randomized into two groups: CHMs plus conventional treatment group (treatment group) or conventional treatment alone group (control group). All participants received conventional treatment, and participants in treatment group additionally received CHMs for six months. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent MI, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Secondary endpoint was the composite of readmission for ACS, stroke, or congestive heart failure. The safety endpoint involved occurrence of major bleeding events. The incidence of primary endpoint was 2.7% in treatment group versus 6.2% in control group (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.87; P = 0.015). The incidence of secondary endpoint was 3.5% in treatment group versus 8.7% in control group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.72; P = 0.002). No major bleeding events were observed in any participant. Conclusion. Treatment with CHMs plus conventional treatment further reduced the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with ACS after PCI without increasing risk of major bleeding.

  10. [Life Threatening Complications in Patients With ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome-Dependence on Reperfusion Interventions (Data of Federal Register of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshchepkova, E V; Dmitriev, V V

    2016-04-01

    to study rate and type of life-threatening complications (LC) in patients with ST-Elevation (STE) Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and their relation to implementation of reperfusion measures. Database of the Federal Register of patients with ACS (FRACS) which functioned from 01/01/2009 to 01/01/2014 contains information on 212304 patients with verified diagnosis of ACS. From this pool using random number generator we selected a cohort comprising 10348 patients with STEACS (60% men, mean age 63.5+/-0.1 clinical systolic and diastolic arterial pressure [AP] 135.2+/-0.3 and 81.9+/-0.2 mm Hg, respectively). Killip class was used for determination of degree of acute heart failure. Most frequent forms of LC were heart rhythm disturbances (6.2%) and cardiogenic shock (5.4%). Patients subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) including those in whom pharmacoinvasive approach was used had less LC and lower hospital mortality than patients who received only thrombolytic therapy (TLT). Reperfusion measures were administered mostly to patients with class I-II acute heart failure. Hospital mortality was highest (9.47%) among patients not subjected to reperfusion measures and lowest (1.09%) among patients treated with PCI+TLT. FRACS assesses LC in patients with STEACS in the context of implemented reperfusion measures. Data of FRACS can be used by the health service authorities for improvement of medical aid to patients with STEACS.

  11. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  12. Prevalence and management of hypertension in patients with acute coronary syndrome vary with gender: Observations from the Chinese registry of acute coronary events (CRACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun; Pan, Weiqi; Ning, Shangqiu; Song, Xiantao; Jin, Zening; Lv, Shuzheng

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension affects one billion people worldwide and is an independent risk factor for death after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and medical treatment of hypertension among 1,301 ACS patients enrolled into the Chinese registry of acute coronary events (CRACE) trial. Analyses were performed by gender, with both genders combined and according to international practice. Multivariable models identified factors associated with use of different classes of antihypertensive medication, and examined the correlation between hypertension and gender with mortality. The use of angiotensin‑converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), β-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics increased in both genders during management of presenting ACS. Hypertensive men were more likely to have been receiving β-blockers when they were discharged (77.2%) than women (69.2%). Hypertensive women were more likely to have received diuretics when they were discharged (28.4%) than men (22%). ACEI use increased by ~60% (absolute increase) in both women and men as a result of ACS treatment, but remained similar between the genders, and the same phenomenon was observed in the use of CCBs. Moreover, hypertensive women were less likely to receive evidence‑based medication to treat their acute coronary event than men (for women and men, respectively: β-blocker, 69.2 vs. 77.2%; ACEI, 85.8 vs. 87.5%). Hypertension is more prevalent in women than in men with ACS, and its medical management varies with gender, but it has a similar association with mortality in both genders. Opportunities exist to improve medical therapy and outcomes for women with hypertension.

  13. Early Invasive Versus Selective Strategy for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: The ICTUS Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaker, N.P.G.; Damman, P.; Woudstra, P.; Hirsch, A.; Windhausen, F.; Tijssen, J.G.; Winter, R.J. de; Verheugt, F.W.A.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes) trial compared early invasive strategy with a selective invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an elevated cardiac troponin T. No long-term

  14. Early Invasive Versus Selective Strategy for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: The ICTUS Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaker, Niels P. G.; Damman, Peter; Woudstra, Pier; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Peters, R. J. G.; Dunselman, P. H. J. M.; Verheugt, F. W. A.; Janus, C. L.; Umans, V.; Bendermacher, P. E. F.; Michels, H. R.; Sadé e, A.; Hertzberger, D.; de Miliano, P. A. R. M.; Liem, A. H.; Tjon Joe Gin, R.; van der Linde, M.; Lok, D.; Hoedemaker, G.; Pieterse, M.; van den Merkhof, L.; Danië ls, M.; van Hessen, M.; Hermans, W.; Schotborgh, C. E.; de Zwaan, C.; Bredero, A.; de Jaegere, P.; Janssen, M.; Louwerenburg, J.; Veerhoek, M.; Schalij, M.; de Porto, A.; Zijlstra, F.; Winter, J.; de Feyter, P.; Robles de Medina, R.; Withagen, P.; Sedney, M.; Thijssen, H.; van Rees, C.; van den Bergh, P.; de Cock, C.; van 't Hof, A.; Suttorp, M. J.; Windhausen, F.; Cornel, J. H.; de Feyter, P. J.; Dü ren, D.; Liem, K.; Sanders, G. T. B.; Fischer, J.; van Straalen, J.

    2017-01-01

    The ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes) trial compared early invasive strategy with a selective invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an elevated cardiac troponin T. No long-term benefit of an

  15. Tolerance to acute ischemia in adult male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bešík, J.; Szárszoi, Ondrej; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Netuka, I.; Malý, J.; Kolář, František; Pirk, J.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2007), s. 267-274 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA MZd ND7607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cardiac tolerance * ischemia injury * gender differences Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  16. Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Suspected Poststroke Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Marie Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS can complicate acute ischemic stroke, causing significant morbidity and mortality. To date, literatures that describe poststroke acute coronary syndrome and its morbidity and mortality burden are lacking. Methods. This is a single center, retrospective study where clinical characteristics, cardiac evaluation, and management of patients with suspected poststroke ACS were compared and analyzed for their association with inpatient mortality and 1-year all-cause mortality. Results. Of the 82 patients, 32% had chest pain and 88% had ischemic ECG changes; mean peak troponin level was 18, and mean ejection fraction was 40%. The medical management group had older individuals (73 versus 67 years, p<0.05, lower mean peak troponin levels (12 versus 49, p<0.05, and lower mean length of stay (12 versus 25 days, p<0.05 compared to those who underwent stent or CABG. Troponin levels were significantly associated with 1-year all-cause mortality. Conclusion. Age and troponin level appear to play a role in the current clinical decision making for patient with suspected poststroke ACS. Troponin level appears to significantly correlate with 1-year all-cause mortality. In the management of poststroke acute coronary syndrome, optimal medical therapy had similar inpatient and all-cause mortality compared to PCI and/or CABG.

  17. Markedly Elevated Troponin in Diabetic Ketoacidosis without Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Menekşe Gerede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Troponin gives excellent accuracy in the identification of myocardial necrosis, however, it may elevate also in a series of non-atherosclerotic heart diseases. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. She had markedly increased levels (90 fold of cardiac biomarkers (troponin I and CK-MB and initial electrocardiography changes compatible with myocardial infarction. She had normal a coronary angiogram. This case shows that nonspecific myocardial injury may occur in DKA with the findings mimicking myocardial infarction including increased level of cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiography changes.

  18. [Intelligent systems tools in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes: A systemic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprockel, John; Tejeda, Miguel; Yate, José; Diaztagle, Juan; González, Enrique

    2017-03-27

    Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of non-communicable deaths worldwide. Its diagnosis is a highly complex task, for which modelling through automated methods has been attempted. A systematic review of the literature was performed on diagnostic tests that applied intelligent systems tools in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. A systematic review of the literature is presented using Medline, Embase, Scopus, IEEE/IET Electronic Library, ISI Web of Science, Latindex and LILACS databases for articles that include the diagnostic evaluation of acute coronary syndromes using intelligent systems. The review process was conducted independently by 2 reviewers, and discrepancies were resolved through the participation of a third person. The operational characteristics of the studied tools were extracted. A total of 35 references met the inclusion criteria. In 22 (62.8%) cases, neural networks were used. In five studies, the performances of several intelligent systems tools were compared. Thirteen studies sought to perform diagnoses of all acute coronary syndromes, and in 22, only infarctions were studied. In 21 cases, clinical and electrocardiographic aspects were used as input data, and in 10, only electrocardiographic data were used. Most intelligent systems use the clinical context as a reference standard. High rates of diagnostic accuracy were found with better performance using neural networks and support vector machines, compared with statistical tools of pattern recognition and decision trees. Extensive evidence was found that shows that using intelligent systems tools achieves a greater degree of accuracy than some clinical algorithms or scales and, thus, should be considered appropriate tools for supporting diagnostic decisions of acute coronary syndromes. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Atypical Presentation of Acute Coronary Syndrome-Not ST Elevation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Vitulano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the unexpected case of a 70-year-old man, with medical history of ischemic heart disease and surgery for aneurysm of abdominal aorta, who comes to the emergency department complaining of low-back pain without other symptoms or signs of organic failure. After a few hours we see a deterioration of physical conditions with pulmonary oedema, increase of blood pressure, changing in the ECG pattern, and worsening of left ventricular function with progressive increase of biomarkers for myocardial necrosis. So this pain has revealed the premature symptom of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. After a short time a subsequent cardiac arrest complicates the clinical situation. After resuscitation, the patient undergoes successfully to coronary angiography and performed a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA.

  20. A Rare Case of Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Patient With Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemaloglu, Tugba; Ozer, Nihat; Fikri Yapici, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    In Turner syndrome, cardiovascular complications are the most important causes of early mortality. Congenital cardiovascular abnormalities are found in approximately one third of Turner syndrome patients. Developments in diagnosis and treatment have decreased the rate of mortality related to these abnormalities. In recent years, many papers have mentioned that coronary artery disease developing at early ages in patients with Turner syndrome causes sudden deaths. The patient, a 27-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room with chest pain at rest. She was diagnosed with Turner Syndrome in her teenage years due to amenorrhea. Patients with ECG changes and cardiac enzyme elevations were treated with acute coronary syndrome. The young woman with Turner Syndrome have several risk factors for early Coronary Artery Disease development. In such cases, dramatic results like sudden death or heart attack at an early age may occur in cases of insufficient follow-up and treatment.

  1. Apixaban Plus Mono Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Insights From the APPRAISE-2 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, C.N.; James, S.; Lopes, R.D.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Neely, M.L.; Liaw, D.; Hagstrom, E.; Bhatt, D.L.; Husted, S.; Goodman, S.G.; Lewis, B.S.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Caterina, R. De; Ogawa, H.; Wallentin, L.; Alexander, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bleeding limits anticoagulant treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether background concomitant antiplatelet therapy influences the effects of apixaban after ACS. METHODS: This study examined high-risk ACS patients who were treated with

  2. Psychometric properties of health related quality of life measures in acute coronary syndrome patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Virginia; Oliveira, Gabriela; Moraes, Katarinne Lima

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of patient-reported outcome measures that assess health-related quality of life in patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

  3. Timing of Hormone Therapy, Type of Menopause, and Coronary Disease in Women: Data from the NHLBI-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Johnson, B. Delia; Berga, Sarah L.; Braunstein, Glenn D.; Reis, Steven E.; Bittner, Vera; Yang, YuChing; Pepine, Carl J.; Sharaf, Barry L.; Sopko, George; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of timing of hormone therapy (HT) use with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in women with natural versus surgical menopause. Methods We studied 654 postmenopausal women undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected ischemia. Timing and type of menopause, HT use, and quantitative angiographic evaluations were obtained at baseline, and the women were followed for a median of 6 years for CVD events. Results Ever users of HT had a significantly lower prevalence of obstructive CAD compared to never users (age-adjusted OR=0.41 [0.28, 0.60]). Naturally menopausal women initiating HT at age menopause group (HR [95%CI] = 0.60[0.41, 0.88], p=0.009) but became non-significant when adjusting for presence or severity of obstructive CAD. Conclusions Using quantitative measurements of timing and type of menopause and HT use, earlier initiation of HT was associated with less angiographic CAD in women with natural but not surgical menopause. Our data suggest that the effect of HT use on reduced cardiovascular event rates is mediated by the presence or absence of angiographic obstructive atherosclerosis. PMID:21532511

  4. Timing of hormone therapy, type of menopause, and coronary disease in women: data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra L; Johnson, B Delia; Berga, Sarah L; Braunstein, Glenn D; Reis, Steven E; Bittner, Vera; Yang, YuChing; Pepine, Carl J; Sharaf, Barry L; Sopko, George; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the timing of hormone therapy (HT) use with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in women with natural versus surgical menopause. We studied 654 postmenopausal women undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of suspected ischemia. Timing and type of menopause, HT use, and quantitative angiographic evaluations were obtained at baseline, and the women were followed for a median of 6 years for CVD events. Ever users of HT had a significantly lower prevalence of obstructive CAD compared with never users (age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.41 [0.28-0.60]). Women with natural menopause initiating HT before age 55 years had lower CAD severity compared with never users (age-adjusted β [SE] = -6.23 [1.50], P menopause group (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.60 [0.41-0.88]; P = 0.009) but became nonsignificant when adjusted for the presence or severity of obstructive CAD. Using the quantitative measurements of the timing and type of menopause and HT use, earlier initiation of HT was associated with less angiographic CAD in women with natural but not surgical menopause. Our data suggest that the effect of HT use on reduced cardiovascular event rates is mediated by the presence or absence of angiographic obstructive atherosclerosis.

  5. Physiological assessment of myocardial perfusion using nuclear cardiology would enhance coronary artery disease patient care. Which imaging modality is best for evaluation of myocardial ischemia? (SPECT-side)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has played an important role in both diagnosis and risk assessments of coronary artery disease since early 1970. Among the non-invasive diagnostic tests, the great advantage of nuclear imaging is that this technique can obtain physiological information, such as myocardial perfusion, which is difficult to obtain by other techniques. When patients have inducible myocardial ischemia and sufficient viable myocardium, coronary revascularization treatment should be performed. Both stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability imaging provide important information. Another important aspect of stress perfusion imaging is that normal stress perfusion is associated with low risk for future cardiac events. Therefore, stress MPI plays an important role in the selection of an invasive therapeutic regime and also in avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. As is the case for other imaging techniques, there have been many technical and instrumental developments in recent years in nuclear cardiology imaging, including new single-photon-emission computed tomography tracers, new pharmacological stress agents, a new generation of γ camera, and positron emission tomography. This review will address the advantages of nuclear cardiology in the clinical setting and recent developments in nuclear cardiology. (author)

  6. Frequency of significant three vessel coronary artery disease and left main stem disease in acute coronary syndrome patients having high LDL cholesterol level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.; Achakzai, A.S.; Zeb, J.; Zeb, R.; Adil, M.; Jan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the frequency of significant three-vessel coronary artery and left main stem disease in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome having high LDL cholesterol level. Methodology: This observational study was performed in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from June 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. All consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography admitted with acute coronary syndrome within past 30 days and having LDL cholesterol more than 130mg/dl were included in the study. Demographic data was noted. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 16. Results: A total number of 206 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 51.25+-8.4 years. Of them, 139(67.5%) were male and 67(32.5%) female. Hypertension was found in 87(42.2%) patients, diabetes was found in 71(34.5%) patients, 56(27.2%) were smokers, family history of CAD was present in 39(18.9%) patients. The incidence of significant three vessel coronary artery disease was 52(25.2%) and left main stem disease were present in 15(7.2%). Out of 67(32.4%) with severe triple vessel and Left main stem disease, males were 51(76.1%) and females were 16(23.9%). Patients with significant three vessel and left main stem disease were more frequently males and younger. Conclusion: Patients having acute coronary syndrome with High LDL levels are more frequently have significant three vessel and Left main stem disease.

  7. Clinical study of the hypothesis of endogenous collateral wind on acute coronary syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Zhang, Cong; Yang, Ran; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhao, Huaibing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), is a serious threat to people's health, and life, and in recent years, the incidence has increased yearly. This study was to propose the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" based on the patho-mechanism of thrombogenesis complicated by ruptured plaque on ACS, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Through successful coronary angiography (CAG), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), patients with coronary artery disease were made the differential diagnosis such as blood stasis, blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction, and endogenous collateral wind. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were measured to study on the characteristics of "endogenous collateral wind". Luo heng dripping pills with promoting blood circulation to expel wind-evil, and remove wetness were made based on the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on ACS. Patients with unstable angina were randomly divided into 3, groups based on therapeutic methods: conventional therapy group, Luo Heng dripping pills group and Tongxinluo caps. Differences among groups were compared. There were great changes in number and degree of coronary arteriostenosis confirmed by CAG, the types of ACC/AHA lesion and Levin lesion confirmed by CAG, remodeling index, positive or negative remodeling percentage measured by IVUS, the plasma levels of plasma inflammatory marker measured by ELLSA in the patients with endogenous collateral wind, compared with patients with blood stasis and blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction. The total effective rate of improved angina in Luo Heng dripping pills group was significantly higher than those in other two groups. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were significantly lower in Luo Heng dripping pills group. There were some pathological basis which were found about the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on acute coronary syndrome. It provided evidences for patients with coronary artery disease treated by medicines with

  8. Head-to-head comparison of dipyridamole, dobutamine and pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia in an animal model of coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available To compare the sensitivity of dipyridamole, dobutamine and pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia we produced a physiologically significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery of 14 open-chest dogs (range: 50 to 89% reduction in luminal diameter. In each study, dobutamine (5 to 40 µg kg-1 min-1 in 3-min stages and pacing (20 bpm increments, each 2 min, up to 260 bpm were performed randomly, and then followed by dipyridamole (up to 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min. The positivity of stress echocardiography tests was quantitatively determined by a significant (P<0.05 reduction of or failure to increase absolute and percent systolic wall thickening in the stenotic artery supplied wall, as compared to the opposite wall (areas related to the left anterior descending artery. Systolic and diastolic frozen images were analyzed off-line by two blinded observers in the control and stress conditions. The results showed that 1 the sensitivity of dobutamine, dipyridamole and pacing stress tests was 57, 57 and 36%, respectively; 2 in animals with positive tests, the mean percent change of wall thickening in left ventricular ischemic segments was larger in the pacing (-19 ± 11% and dipyridamole (-18 ± 16% tests as compared to dobutamine (-9 ± 6% (P = 0.05, but a similar mean reduction of wall thickening was observed when this variable was normalized to a control left ventricular segment (area related to the left anterior descending artery (pacing: -16 ± 7%; dipyridamole: -25 ± 16%; dobutamine: -26 ± 10%; not significant, and 3 a significant correlation was observed between magnitude of coronary stenosis and left ventricular segmental dysfunction induced by ischemia in dogs submitted to positive stress tests. We conclude that the dobutamine and dipyridamole stress tests showed identical sensitivities for the detection of myocardial ischemia in this one-vessel disease animal model with a wide range of left circumflex artery

  9. Myocardial infarction associated with pseudoephedrine use and acute streptococcal infection in a boy with normal coronary arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Biyik, Ismail; Ergene, Oktay

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with chest pain. He had no history of other health problems and did not smoke. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in an adolescent boy with normal coronary arteries, associated with pseudoephedrine use and acute streptococcal infection, is reported. The diagnosis of AMI was based on typical electrocardiographic signs, enzyme changes and echocardiographic evaluation. Coronary vasospasm associated with pseudoephedrine use, endothelial dysfu...

  10. [Depression in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Application of the Beck Depression Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Jimmy J; Soto, Karen A; Caamaño, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    Depression has been related to the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and also appears to increase the risk of death from coronary artery disease. The presence of depression after the occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its relationship with socioeconomic factors has not been studied in Colombia. To describe the frequency of depression and associated factors in patients hospitalized with an ACS. A cross-sectional study was carried out between April and May 2008 in three coronary care units in Santa Marta, Colombia. The presence of depression was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Depression was considered to be present if BDI was equal or greater than 10. The relationship between the presence of depression and demographic, clinic and laboratory characteristics was analyzed. A BDI score ≥10 (any degree of depression) was seen in 21 (63.64%) of the patients. In 9 out of 10 (91.66%) patients without stable income had depression in contrast to 12 out of 23 (57.14%) with stable income (P=.037). Depression was found in in 8 of the 8 (100%) patients with electrocardiographic pathological T wave inversion, in contrast to 13 out of the 25 (52%) without changes in T wave (P=.014). Depression was detected in 17 of 22 (77.27%) patients who smoked cigarettes versus 4 of 11 (36.36%) of patients who have never smoked (P=.021). Depressive symptoms are significantly present in patients suffering an acute coronary syndrome. Unemployment, pathological T wave inversion, and smoking seem to be associated with the presence of depressive symptoms after an acute coronary event. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Anginal symptoms, coronary artery disease, and adverse outcomes in Black and White women: the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Johnson, B Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S; Krantz, David S; Cornell, Carol E; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2013-09-01

    Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30 vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25 vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women.

  12. Differences in the mode of presentation for acute coronary syndrome by pre-hospitalization medication, in relation to coronary risk factors, East-Osaka acute coronary syndrome (EACS) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Shiro; Yuasa, Fumio; Lim, Young-Jae; Kijima, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaka, Junji; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2011-11-01

    Pre-hospitalization medication such as aspirin and nitrates has been shown to affect the mode of presentation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, it is not formally assessed whether other cardiovascular medications may be contributed to the differences in the mode of presentation, especially in relation to coronary risk factors. We conducted a registration study of patients (M/F 850/323) with either ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA), and examined the differences in the mode of presentation, pre-hospitalization medication, and coronary risk factors. The ratio of the incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI/UA was significantly reduced in patients having pre-hospitalization medication with aspirin, nitrates or statins, but not with other medications such as beta-blockers in multivariate analysis. Pre-hospitalization medication with aspirin and nitrates was significantly associated with the same reduction of the ratio in patients with male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a history of coronary artery disease. However, in patients who smoked, were obese and hypercholesterolemic, pre-hospitalization medication with nitrates was significantly associated with the reduced ratio. The ratio was significantly low in patients with males and hypercholesterolemia treated with statins before admission. Depending on their coronary risk factors, pre-hospitalization medication with aspirin, nitrates or statins was associated with a different presentation and evolution of ACS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non invasive evaluation of the coronary atherosclerosis illness in patients with silent ischemia: utility of the SPECT of myocardial perfusion. Electric, angiographic and image correlation; Valoracion no invasiva de la enfermedad ateroesclerosa coronaria en pacientes con isquemia silente: utilidad del SPECT de perfusion miocardica. Correlacion electrica, angiografica y de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente B, A.; Roffe G, F.; Aceves C, J.; Gomez A, E. [Hospital Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the work was to determine the utility of the SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) of myocardial perfusion for the ischemia detection in asymptomatic patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis Illness. It was concluded that the SPECT of myocardial perfusion has a high sensitivity (97%) for the silent ischemia diagnosis.

  14. Prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (DECARD) randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Hansen, Baiba Hedegaard; Hanash, Jamal Abed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Escitalopram may prevent depression following acute coronary syndrome. We sought to estimate the effects of escitalopram on self-reported health and to identify subgroups with higher efficacy. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a 12-month double-blind clinical trial randomizing non......-depressed acute coronary syndrome patients to escitalopram (n = 120) or matching placebo (n = 120). The main outcomes were mean scores on Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) domains, and diagnosis of depression was adjusted for baseline SF-36 scores. RESULTS: Escitalopram did not yield different SF-36...... trajectories on any scale compared with placebo (P > 0.28). Efficacy of escitalopram may have been better among those scoring at least the normative score on general health perceptions (hazard ratio (HR) for depression 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.02-1.42) ) or social functioning (HR = 0.12 (0...

  15. Survival following an acute coronary syndrome: a pet theory put to the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G B; Gayed, A; Owen, C A; Hyett, M P; Hilton, T M; Heruc, G A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to revisit findings from previous studies reporting that pet ownership improves outcome following an admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Four hundred and twenty-four patients admitted to a cardiac unit with an ACS completed questions regarding pet ownership in hospital. Rates of cardiac death and readmission were assessed 1 year following hospitalization. Pet owners were more likely to experience a death or readmission following their hospitalization, after controlling for key psychosocial and medical covariates. When dog and cat owners were considered separately, cat ownership was significantly associated with increased risk of death or readmission. In this independent study, pet ownership at baseline, and cat ownership in particular, was associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in the year following an admission for an acute coronary syndrome, a finding contrary to previous reports.

  16. Drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for hospitalized elderly with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Aparecido Maschio de Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the rate of potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for elderly diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome in a teaching hospital. This is an exploratory, descriptive study that analyzed 607 prescriptions through databases to identify and classify the interactions based on intensity (major, moderate or minor, the mechanism (pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics and documentation relevance. We detected 10,162 drug-drug interactions, distributed in 554 types of different combinations within the prescribed drugs, and 99% of prescriptions presented at least one and a maximum of 53 interactions; highlighting the prevalence of major and moderates ones. There was a correlation between the number of drug-drug interactions and the number of prescribed drugs and the hospitalization time. This study contributes for the delimitation of a prevalence pattern in drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for Acute Coronary Syndrome, besides subsidizing the importance of the effective implementation of the Clinical Pharmacy in teaching hospitals.

  17. Patients and acute coronary syndrome - Prehospital delay and mental and emotional delaying responses - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    to identify and discuss patient’s mental and emotional responses, including interpretations and delaying strategies concerning Acute Coronary Syndrome symptoms, with a view to elucidating patterns in the pre-hospital decision-making process of female and male persons to contact medical services....... A phenomenological design inspired by Steinar Kvale provided the methodological foundation. 15 women and 15 men with a first-time diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome were interviewed 48-72 hours after admission. On symptom debut, the participants’ strategies were to «wait and see» and «let me be». Chest pains were...... cardinal. Male participants often used expletives and expressed symptoms in concrete terms. Women expressed symptoms in vaguer terms. Both genders used linguistic metaphors. The implications for nursing emphasised the impact of prodromal symptoms, mental and emotional withdrawal, and linguistic...

  18. Effects of Acute Systemic Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on Brain Damage in a Rat Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchao Yang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypercapnia has the potential for neuroprotection after global cerebral ischemia. Here we further investigated the effects of different degrees of acute systemic hypoxia in combination with hypercapnia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia and ischemia. Adult wistar rats underwent unilateral common carotid artery (CCA ligation for 60 min followed by ventilation with normoxic or systemic hypoxic gas containing 11%O2,13%O2,15%O2 and 18%O2 (targeted to PaO2 30-39 mmHg, 40-49 mmHg, 50-59 mmHg, and 60-69 mmHg, respectively or systemic hypoxic gas containing 8% carbon dioxide (targeted to PaCO2 60-80 mmHg for 180 min. The mean artery pressure (MAP, blood gas, and cerebral blood flow (CBF were evaluated. The cortical vascular permeability and brain edema were examined. The ipsilateral cortex damage and the percentage of hippocampal apoptotic neurons were evaluated by Nissl staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL assay as well as flow cytometry, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to determine aquaporin-4 (AQP4 expression. In rats treated with severe hypoxia (PaO2 50 mmHg, hypercapnia protected against these pathophysiological changes. Moreover, hypercapnia treatment significantly reduced brain damage in the ischemic ipsilateral cortex and decreased the percentage of apoptotic neurons in the hippocampus after the CCA ligated rats were exposed to mild or moderate hypoxemia (PaO2 > 50 mmHg; especially under mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 60 mmHg, hypercapnia significantly attenuated the expression of AQP4 protein with brain edema (p < 0.05. Hypercapnia exerts beneficial effects under mild to moderate hypoxemia and augments detrimental effects under severe hypoxemia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

  19. Treatment of acute gout in patients with coronary artery disease

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    Chan CW

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Case ScenarioMr. L, aged 63 years, was recently diagnosed to have with acute gouty arthritis. He had an acute gout flare last month and was given diclofenac injection by a private general practitioner. He comes to you for advice whether he should take the injection if he has another flare. Mr. L has been on treatment for his chronic essential hypertension and dyslipidaemia for the past 10 years. He also had two previous episodes of myocardial infarction in year 2005 and 2010, and he had angioplasty done twice. He stopped smoking and consuming alcohol three months ago.

  20. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients...

  1. Scavenging reactive oxygen species using tempol in the acute phase of renal ischemia/reperfusion and its effects on kidney oxygenation and nitric oxide levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksu, Ugur; Ergin, Bulent; Bezemer, Rick; Kandil, Asli; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan; Ince, Can

    2015-01-01

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is commonly seen in kidney transplantation and affects the allograft survival rates. We aimed to test our hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol would protect renal oxygenation and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the acute phase of

  2. Evidence that estrogen receptors play a limited role in mediating enhanced recovery of bile flow in female rats in the acute phase of liver ischemia reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Heleen A. H.; Ponds, Fraukje A. M.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Morphett, Arthur; Padbury, Robert T. A.; Barritt, Greg J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Female patients exhibit better survival and less hepatic damage from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury following surgery. However, the effects of sex and estrogens on liver function in the acute phase of IR are not well understood. Objective. The aim was to investigate this question.

  3. Comparison of the TIMI and the GRACE risk scores with the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, M.; Achakzai, A.S.; Akhtar, P.; Zaman, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Methods: The cross-sectional study comprising 406 consecutive patients was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from August 2010 to March 2011. For all patients, the GRACE and TIMI RS's relevant scores on the two indices were calculated on admission using specified variables. The patients underwent coronary angiography to determine the extent of the disease. A significant level was defined as >70% stenosis in any major epicardial artery or >50% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Both the indices showed good predictive value in identifying the extent of the disease. A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score >4 and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score >133 was significantly associated with 3vessel disease and left main disease, while for the former score <4 and latter score <133 was associated with normal or non-obstructive coronary disease (p<0.01). On comparison of the two risk scores, the discriminatory accuracy of the latter was significantly superior to the former in predicting 2vessel, 3vessel and left main diseases (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although both the indices were helpful in predicting the extent of the disease, the Global Registry showed better performance and was more strongly associated with multi-vessel and left main coronary artery disease. (author)

  4. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  5. IN SEARCH OF THE MISSING LINK: SERUM LIPID PROFILE, TROPONIN T AND ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME.

    OpenAIRE

    Basabdatta Samanta; Bharti Kawatra; Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide , hyperlipidemias being a major predisposing factor. Cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) is one of the most sensitive and specific biomarkers of myocardial injury. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship among TnT levels and lipid profiles of different age groups of patients with ACS , and to determine if any the association of age with lipid profile and TnT levels. The ...

  6. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis, i...... for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited....

  7. Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Diverticular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diverticular disease and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are common disorders that share several risk factors. Few researchers have evaluated the association between diverticular disease and ACS. We aimed to assess the risk of ACS in patients with diverticular disease. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All patients aged ?20 years with a diagnosis of diverticular disease from January 1,...

  8. Acute Simultaneous Thrombotic Occlusion of Multiple Coronary Arteries in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Daei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Simultaneous multiple coronary artery thrombosis is a rare finding in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, and has a high mortality rate. Case Presentation We report a case of myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, left bundle branch block, and multiple ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram and thrombotic occlusion of the left circumflex, optus marginal, and left anterior descending arteries on emergency coronary angiography. Thrombus aspiration was performed at left circumflex, optus marginal, and left anterior descending arteries. Conclusions In patients with STEMI, multiple coronary thrombosis is unusual and associated with high patient mortality.

  9. Prospective study one-year clinical outcomes of the Calypso coronary stent in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome

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    В. Л. Воробьев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stent use Calypso Angiolain Russia with primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA.Methods. The study prospectively included 150 patients who underwent PTCA in acute coronary syndrome (ACS for the period from January to December 2015. During the one-year follow-up period were evaluated indicators insolvency target lesion (cardiac death, myocardial infarction in the pool target artery, target lesion revascularization when clinically indicated, major adverse cardiac events (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization as clinically indicated. Results. In one year, the incidence of target lesion failure was 6.66% for cardiac death rate of 1.33%, myocardial infarction in the target artery 3.33% and target lesion revascularization at 5.3%. The frequency of cardiac major adverse cardiac events was 12% at mortality 2.66%, myocardial infarction 4% and revascularization when clinically indicated 8.66%. Conclusion. The use of stents in primary PTCA Calypso is possible, the percentage of cardiovascular complications is comparable with the data of clinical trials.Received 31 January 2017. Accepted 17 March 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  10. Different patients, different outcomes: A case-control study of spontaneous coronary artery dissection versus acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Heath; Paratz, Elizabeth; Somaratne, Jithendra; Layland, Jamie; Burns, Andrew; Palmer, Sonny; MacIsaac, Andrew; Whitbourn, Robert

    2018-02-01

    There is progressive interest worldwide in spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). To identify a SCAD cohort and compare risk factors, presentation, and management outcomes compared to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) matched controls. Retrospective analysis was performed from 2000 to 2015. Clinical data included a neuropsychiatric history, with management and clinical outcomes assessed at 12 months. Patients were matched on a 1:3 case-control basis according to type of ACS. Twenty-two SCAD patients were matched to 66 controls by ACS type (ST-elevation myocardial infarction 45%, Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction 41%, unstable angina 14%). The SCAD group were more likely female (77.3% vs 19.7%, P SCAD patients had a high prevalence of anxiety, depression or previous neuropsychiatric history (52.4% SCAD vs 1.5% ACS, P SCAD patients (13.6% SCAD vs 83.3% ACS, P SCAD vs 27.3% ACS P = NS). SCAD affects young females with a paucity of cardiovascular risk factors. The major risk factor for SCAD was a history of anxiety, depression, or neuropsychiatric illness. A conservative approach to SCAD revascularization led to similar MACCE when compared to ACS controls undergoing guideline revascularization at 12 months. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Successful treatment of cardiogenic shock by stenting of the left main coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Božidarka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS are sometimes severely hemodynamicly compromised. Urgent coronary angiography should be performed in these patients in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI centers according to the ESC NSTE-ACS guidelines to determine suitabilty for percutaneous or surgical revascularization. Case report. We reported a 62-year-old male with chest pain admitted to the Coronary Care Unit. ST segment depression of 2 mm in leads I, L and V4-6 was revealed at electrocardiogram. After following 6 hours the patient had chest pain and signs of cardiogenic shock despite of the therapy. Chest x-ray showed pulmonary edema. Echocardiographic examination showed dyskinetic medium and apical segments of septum. The patient underwent coronary angiography immediately which revealed 75% stenosis of the left main coronary artery with thrombus. The use of a GPIIb/III inhibitor-tirofiban and stent implantation resulted in TIMI III flow. After that the patient had no chest pain and acute heart failure subsided in the following days Echocardiography done at the fourth day from PCI showed only hypokinesis medium and apical segment of septum. The patient was discharged at day 11 from admission in a stable condition. Conclusion. Stenting of left main coronary artery stenosis in patients with cardiogenic shock and non- ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes may be a life saving procedure.

  12. The impact of combined warm ischemia time on development of acute kidney injury in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation: Stay within the golden hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisvaart, Marit; Schlegel, Andrea; Umbro, Ilaria; de Haan, Jubi E; Scalera, Irene; Polak, Wojciech G; IJzermans, Jan Nm; Mirza, Darius F; Perera, M Thamara Pr; Isaac, John I; Ferguson, James; Mitterhofer, Anna Paola; de Jonge, Jeroen; Muiesan, Paolo

    2018-01-11

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after liver transplantation and more frequently observed when high-risk grafts, such as DCD grafts are used. Our aim was to investigate the impact of the ischemia periods on development of AKI in DCD liver transplantation. We performed a 2-center retrospective study with 368 DCD graft-recipients. Donor warm ischemia time (DWIT) was divided into agonal phase (withdrawal of life-support - cardiac arrest) and asystolic phase (cardiac arrest - start cold perfusion). We introduced a new period of warm ischemia: the combined warm ischemia time (combined WIT), that was defined as the sum of DWIT and recipient warm ischemia time (RWIT). AKI was observed in 65% of the recipients and severe AKI in 41% (KDIGO stage 2/3). The length of combined WIT increased significantly with AKI severity: 61 minutes in recipients without AKI up to 69 minutes in recipients with the most severe form of AKI (pperiod of warm ischemia in DCD liver transplantation. Length of combined WIT is associated with severity of postoperative AKI and should ideally not exceed 60 minutes.

  13. INTERACTION OF CYTOKINE CASCADE WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shalenkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The role of immune factors in development of atherosclerotic process and anxiety-depressive disorders is of utmost importance. Serum levels of IL-6 and -10 were studied in forty-nine patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as their interactions with psychological state of the patients. Serum concentrations of the cytokines proved to be higher in unstable angina. A correlation was confirmed between the cytokine levels and co-morbidity with affective disorders in acute ischaemic heart disease.

  14. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, William B; Cannon, Christopher P; Heller, Simon R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess potentially elevated cardiovascular risk related to new antihyperglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes, regulatory agencies require a comprehensive evaluation of the cardiovascular safety profile of new antidiabetic therapies. We assessed cardiovascular outcomes...... with alogliptin, a new inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and either an acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring...

  15. Trends in pharmacological therapy following an acute coronary syndrome in Portugal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Lopes-Conceição, Luisa; Bennett, Kathleen; Dias, Paula; Laszczynska, Olga; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2016-09-01

    To assess time trends in the use of main drug classes for secondary prevention, during hospitalization and at hospital discharge, following an acute coronary syndrome, in Portugal, using a systematic review. We searched PubMed, from inception until 2012, to identify studies reporting the proportion of acute coronary syndrome patients treated with main pharmacological therapy. We used linear regression to quantify the annual variation in use of drugs, adjusting for the proportion of men in the sample and patients' mean age, and including a quadratic term of data collection year when relevant. In 25 eligible studies, including patients treated from 1993 to 2009, we observed an increase in the prescription of pharmacological treatments at hospital discharge. Extrapolating from these data, and assuming a mean patient age of 65 years and 70% of men, we estimate that in 2008, 95% of patients would have been discharged with aspirin, 92% with clopidogrel, 82% with β-blockers, 80% with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and 91% with statins. Treatment during hospitalization followed a similar pattern, except for a steeper increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors use, which was initially lower, but reached similar levels to those at discharge in recent years. In Portugal, there was an increase in the use of recommended pharmacological therapy for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome over the last 15 years, during hospitalization and at hospital discharge.

  16. Prospective evaluation of the development of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing rotational coronary angiography vs. conventional coronary angiography: CINERAMA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernández-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: Rotational coronary angiography (RCA requires less contrast to be administered and can prevent the onset of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN during invasive coronary procedures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of RCA on CIN (increase in serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% after an acute coronary syndrome. Methods: From April to September 2016, patients suffering acute coronary syndromes who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography, with the possibility of ad hoc coronary angioplasty, were prospectively enrolled. At the operator's discretion, patients underwent RCA or conventional coronary angiography (CCA. CIN (primary endpoint, as well as analytical, angiographic and clinical endpoints, were compared between groups. Results: Of the 235 patients enrolled, 116 patients received RCA and 119 patients received CCA. The RCA group was composed of older patients (64.0 ± 11.8 years vs. 59.7 ± 12.1 years; p = 0.006, a higher proportion of women (44.8 vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001, patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (76 ± 25 vs. 86 ± 27 ml/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.001, and patients who underwent fewer coronary angioplasties (p < 0.001 compared with the CCA group. Furthermore, the RCA group, received less contrast (113 ± 92 vs. 169 ± 103 ml; p < 0.001, including in diagnostic procedures (54 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 56 ml; p < 0.001 and diagnostic-therapeutic procedures (174 ± 64 vs. 205 ± 98 ml; p = 0.049 compared with the CCA group. The RCA group presented less CIN (4.3 vs. 22.7%; p < 0.001 compared to the CCA group, and this finding was maintained in the regression analysis (Adjusted relative risk: 0.868; 95% CI: 0.794–0.949; p = 0.002. There were no differences in clinical endpoints between the groups. Conclusions: RCA was associated

  17. Design and baseline characteristics of a coronary heart disease prospective cohort: two-year experience from the strategy of registry of acute coronary syndrome study (ERICO study

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    Alessandra C. Goulart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the ERICO study (Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome, a prospective cohort to investigate the epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: The ERICO study, which is being performed at a secondary general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, is enrolling consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients who are 35 years old or older. The sociodemographic information, medical assessments, treatment data and blood samples are collected at admission. After 30 days, the medical history is updated, and additional blood and urinary samples are collected. In addition, a retinography, carotid intima-media thickness, heart rate variability and pulse-wave velocity are performed. Questionnaires about food frequency, physical activity, sleep apnea and depression are also applied. At six months and annually after an acute event, information is collected by telephone. RESULTS: From February 2009 to September 2011, 738 patients with a diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. Of these, 208 (28.2% had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 288 (39.0% had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and 242 (32.8% had unstable angina (UA. The mean age was 62.7 years, 58.5% were men and 77.4% had 8 years or less of education. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension (76% and sedentarism (73.4%. Only 29.2% had a prior history of coronary heart disease. Compared with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, the unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients had higher frequencies of hypertension, diabetes, prior coronary heart disease (p<0.001 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.03. Smoking was more frequent in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other hospital registries, our findings revealed a higher burden of CV risk factors and less frequent prior CHD history.

  18. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p stress induced by ES and AMS, AMS resulted in significantly less ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia than ES. Differences in induction of ischemia by mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus on cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease without ischemia on stress thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography after percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takao; Ohashi, Yoshitaka; Ejiri, Junya; Takatsuki, Kiyonobu; Ichikawa, Shinobu; Awano, Kojiro

    2005-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) is a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, the significance of metabolic syndrome for cardiovascular events has been not clarified in Japan. The impact of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus on cardiovascular events was investigated, especially in the high risk group after percutaneous coronary intervention. We studied 456 patients (mean age 63±10 years, range 36-88 years) without ischemia on stress thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography after percutaneous coronary intervention. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Cardiovascular events were examined for mean 3.7±1.8 years (range 2.0-8.7 years). There were 196 patients without diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome (Group D-M-), 89 patients without diabetes mellitus but with metabolic syndrome (Group D-M+), 61 patients with diabetes mellitus but without metabolic syndrome (Group D+M-), and 110 patients with both diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (Group D+M+). The event-free survival curve in Group D-M+ was significantly lower than that in Group D-M- (p<0.05), but not different from that in Group D+M-. The survival curve was markedly lower in Group D+M+ than that in Group D-M+ (p<0.005). The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were independent significant risk factors for events. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was helpful for identification of patients with high cardiovascular event rate even in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention. The combination of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus markedly increases the risk for cardiovascular events. (author)

  20. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Fang, E-mail: fhua2@emory.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  1. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of κB kinase complex-ε (IKKε), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-κB activity or p-IκBα induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-κB signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  2. [Acute cerebral ischemia in patients under 45 years of age: a study in a series of 68 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, J C; Aladro-Benito, Y; Cubero-González, A

    1998-10-01

    To study acute cerebrovascular ischemia in young persons in our environment. A retrospective study was made of 68 patients, aged between 15 and 45, with transient ischemic accidents (TIA) or cerebral infarcts. Etiological factors, clinical features, diagnostic groups according to the TOAST classification and prognosis were analyzed. In our series there was a ratio of 1.26 in favor of the women. TIAs made up 29.4% of the cases. The most commonly affected territory was that of the carotid artery. In persons over the age of 30 there was greater prevalence of this pathology and of the risk factors diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipaemia. There was a significant association with migraine in those aged under 30. The biggest diagnostic group was that of infarct of unknown origin (39.7%), probably because of the specificity of the classification. The functional condition on follow-up was good: only 4.4% of the patients had a score greater than 3 on the Rankin scale. There were no deaths either during the acute phase or subsequently. Recurrences were seen in 10.2% of the patients. The results obtained in our series are similar to those published in the literature. In acute cerebrovascular ischaemia in young persons, full diagnostic investigations should be carried out in order to give suitable treatment.

  3. Post-procedural hemodiafiltration in acute coronary syndrome patients with associated renal and cardiac dysfunction undergoing urgent and emergency coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mazzotta, Gianfranco; Londrino, Francesco; Gistri, Roberto; Moltrasio, Marco; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rombolà, Giuseppe

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the use of a 3-hr treatment with hemodiafiltration, initiated soon after emergency or urgent coronary angiography in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with associated severe renal and cardiac dysfunction. Patients with ACS and severe combined renal and cardiac dysfunction have a particularly high mortality risk. In them, the ideal strategy to both optimize treatment of coronary disease and minimize renal injury risk is currently unknown. This was an interventional study. ACS patients (STEMI and NSTEMI) with associated severe renal (eGFR ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) and cardiac (LVEF ≤40%) dysfunction, admitted at La Spezia Hospital renal replacement therapy during hospitalization (7% vs. 27%; P = 0.04). Our pilot study suggests that, in ACS patients with severe renal and cardiac insufficiency, treatment with an aggressive prophylactic hemodiafiltration session after urgent or emergency coronary angiography seems to be associated with a relevant improvement in survival. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Incidence and characteristics of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khalid; Boateng, Stephen; Sangodkar, Sandeep; Mahmood, Shad; Whitney, Hannah; Wang, Chihsiung E; Racsa, Patrick; Sanborn, Timothy A

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the etiologies of patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) and found to have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) and compare risk factors and in-hospital mortality to those with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients presenting with an MI are often found to have NOCAD defined as less than 50% luminal diameter reduction by visual estimation on coronary angiography. This study is a retrospective analysis of a total of 2,038 patients that presented to NorthShore University HealthSystem with MI and underwent coronary angiography from 2010 to 2013. 1,822 patients (89%) had CAD and 216 (11%) had NOCAD. Of the NOCAD patients, the most common etiologies were Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (28%), no alternative explanation (26%), demand ischemia (21%), myopericarditis (7%), coronary artery vasospasm (5%), and coronary artery dissection (3%). NOCAD patients were more likely to be younger and female. There was no significant difference between NOCAD and CAD patients in terms of in-hospital mortality (3.7% vs. 4.0% respectively, OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.3, P = 0.83 by univariate logistic regression, OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-3.1, P = 0.74 by multivariable analysis). CAD patients were more likely to have traditional risk factors of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, previous MI, previous revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients presenting with MI and NOCAD were found to have several different etiologies on coronary angiography with the most common being Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A new threshold of apparent diffusion coefficient values in white matter after successful tissue plasminogen activator treatment for acute brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Yusaku; Koyama, Junichi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is effective for the treatment of acute brain ischemia, but may trigger fatal brain edema or hemorrhage if the brain ischemia results in a large infarct. Herein, we attempted to predict the extent of infarcts by determining the optimal threshold of ADC values on DWI that predictively distinguishes between infarct and reversible areas, and by reconstructing color-coded images based on this threshold. The study subjects consisted of 36 patients with acute brain ischemia in whom MRA had confirmed reopening of the occluded arteries in a short time (mean: 99min) after tPA treatment. We measured the apparetnt diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in several small regions of interest over the white matter within high-intensity areas on the initial diffusion weighted image (DWI); then, by comparing the findings to the follow-up images, we obtained the optimal threshold of ADC values using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The threshold obtained (583×10 -6 m 2 /s) was lower than those previously reported; this threshold could distinguish between infarct and reversible areas with considerable accuracy (sensitivity: 0.87, specificity: 0.94). The threshold obtained and the reconstructed images were predictive of the final radiological result of tPA treatment, and this threshold may be helpful in determining the appropriate management of patients with acute brain ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  7. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes — results from the BASKET PROVE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik

    2013-01-01

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST...

  8. Mannose-binding lectin as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Erkki; Hallman, Mikko; Sarna, Seppo; Andsberg, Eva; Haataja, Ritva; Meri, Seppo; Persson, Kenneth; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Ohlin, Hans; Truedsson, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a multifunctional protein involved in innate immunity. We tested whether MBL and elevated viral and bacterial antibodies were risk factors for acute coronary events. Controlled cohort study. A total of 354 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UA) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were compared with 334 paired controls. Enterovirus titres were associated with increased risk of UA (odds ratio 10.04, P<0.001) and AMI (odds ratio 3.18, P=0.003), but titres did not correlate with either MBL concentration or genotype. Chlamydia pneumoniae heat shock protein 60 IgG concentrations were also associated with increased risk of UA (odds ratio 1.63, P=0.049). Compared to asymptomatic controls, patients had lower complement C3 serum concentrations (P<0.001), higher MBL serum concentration, and more frequently had MBL genotypes that determined high MBL levels (P<0.001). High MBL genotypes had odds ratios of 1.16 (P=0.010) for UA and 1.12 (P=0.007) for AMI. The elevation of MBL concentrations in the acute phase correlated with MBL concentrations after recovery (r=0.85, P<0.001). Elevated microbial titres, indicating an on-going inflammation, were associated with cardiovascular events. MBL might have a dual role both decreasing susceptibility to infections and increasing the risk of acute coronary syndromes.

  9. Television viewing, leisure-time exercise and acute coronary syndrome in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Goda, Artan; Kark, Jeremy D

    2008-07-01

    To assess the association of leisure-time exercise and television (TV) viewing, a sedentary marker, with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Albania, a transitional country in Southeast Europe. A population-based case-control study was conducted among Tirana residents in 2003-2006. Information on leisure-time exercise (transformed into kilocalories of energy expenditure) and daily hours of TV viewing was obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. 460 non-fatal ACS patients (368 men, 92 women) and 628 coronary heart disease-free controls (413 men, 215 women) were studied. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, conventional coronary risk factors and leisure-time exercise, TV viewing was associated with ACS in women (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.12-2.46 per hour/day viewing), but not in men (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.81-1.07; P for sex-interaction=0.02). A low level of leisure-time exercise (adjusted also for TV viewing) was associated with ACS similarly in men and women (pooled sexes OR=2.03, 95%CI=1.29-3.22 for bottom vs top tertile of energy expenditure). Leisure-time inactivity is confirmed as an important risk factor for ACS also in Southeastern Europe. TV viewing may be an informative coronary risk marker in transitional societies, especially in women.

  10. Coronary flow reserve in the remote myocardium predicts left ventricular remodeling following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongchao; Wei, Guoqian; Yu, Longhao; Su, Zhendong; Wei, Li; Bai, Xiuping; Tian, Jiawei; Li, Xueqi

    2014-07-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the non-infarcted myocardium is often impaired following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the clinical significance of CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to assess whether a relationship exists between CFR and left ventricular remodeling following AMI. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention. Heart function was analyzed using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography at one week and six months after coronary angioplasty. Ten subjects were enrolled as the control group and were examined using the same method at the same time to assess CFR. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were routinely analyzed to estimate peak concentration. CFR was 1.55±0.11 in the infarcted zone and 2.05±0.31 in the remote zone (p2.05). The levels of cTnI were higher in Group I compared to Group II on admission (36.40 vs. 21.38, p<0.05). Furthermore, left ventricular end diastolic volume was higher in Group I compared to Group II at six months following coronary angioplasty. Microvascular dysfunction is commonly observed in the remote myocardium. The CFR value accurately predicts adverse ventricular remodeling following AMI.

  11. Long-Term Clinical Impact of Coronary CT Angiography in Patients With Recent Acute-Onset Chest Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jesper J; Hove, Jens D; Sørgaard, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    . BACKGROUND: The prognostic implications of a coronary CTA-guided treatment strategy have not been compared in a randomized fashion to standard care in patients referred for acute-onset chest pain. METHODS: Patients with acute chest pain but normal electrocardiograms and troponin values were randomized......) in the standard care group (p = 0.04; HR: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.16 to 0.95]). Differences in cardiac death and MI (8 vs. 2) were insignificant (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: A coronary CTA-guided treatment strategy appears to improve clinical outcome in patients with recent acute-onset chest pain and normal...

  12. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Mi, Lan; Liu, Xiaojun; Pan, Shuo; Xu, Jiaojiao; Xia, Dongyu; Liu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yong; Xiang, Yu; Yuan, Zuyi; Guan, Gongchang; Wang, Junkui

    2015-01-01

    Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months, 70 (14.58%) patients experienced MACEs. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the baseline RDW content (11.30-12.90, 13.00-13.50, 13.60-16.40). GRACE score was positively correlated with RDW content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and RDW content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024-1.055; p risk of MACEs increased with increasing RDW content (p value of combining RDW content and GRACE risk score was significantly improved, also shown by the net reclassification improvement (NRI = 0.352, p value of RDW and GRACE risk score yielded a more accurate predictive value for long-term cardiovascular events in ACS patients who underwent PCI as compared to each measure alone.

  13. Kruppel-Like Factor 2 Regulates Dendritic Cell Activation in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Fang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dendritic cells (DCs activation is important in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms regulating activation of dendritic cells remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2 in the proinflammatory activation of DCs in acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results: In this study, the expression of CD80 and KLF2 was detected in DCs in normal health controls, patients with stable angina (SA, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Our study found that compared with normal control and SA, KLF2 expression in DCs is reduced in patients with ACS. Moreover, the surface expression of CD80 was increased in ACS. In vitro experiment, we found that ox-LDL could increase CD80 expression and decrease KLF2 expression. Furthermore, down-regulated KLF2 could in turn increase CD80 expression via NF-κB pathway. Conclusions: These observations identify KLF2 as a novel negative regulator of DC function and it may play an essential role in DC activation in ACS.

  14. Documentation of person-centred health plans for patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Inger; Fors, Andreas; Ekman, Inger; Ulin, Kerstin

    2018-02-01

    Personalised care planning is argued for but there is a need to know more about what the plans actually contain. To describe the content of person-centred health, plans documented at three healthcare levels for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Patients with acute coronary syndrome aged under 75 years and admitted to two coronary care units at a university hospital were enrolled in the study. This retrospective descriptive study documented 89 person-centred health plans at three healthcare levels: hospital, outpatient and primary care. In total, 267 health plans were reviewed and a quantitative content analysis conducted. The health plans included commonly formulated goals, patients' own resources and support needed. The health plan goals were divided into three categories: lifestyle changes, illness management and relational activities. The most frequently reported goal for better health was increased physical activity, followed by social life/leisure activities and return to paid professional work. In order to reach the goals, patients identified three ways: own resources, family and social support and healthcare system, in total three categories. The most frequently reported own capability was self-motivation. Spouses and children were important sources of family and social support. The most frequently reported healthcare support was cardiac rehabilitation. In traditional care and treatment plans devised by health professionals, patient goals often comprise behavioural changes. When patients identify their own goals and resources with the help of professionals, they include maintaining social relations and being able to return to important activities such as work.

  15. Diagnostic value of mean platelet volume (MPV) to troponin T inpatients with acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, D.; Isnanta, R.; Safri, Z.; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is used to describe the spectrum of coronary