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Sample records for acute complex type

  1. Three Types of Network Complexity Pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong; LIU; Qiang

    2012-01-01

    <正>Exploring the complexity and diversity of complex networks have been very challenging issues in network science and engineering. Among them exploring the network complexity pyramids (NCP) are one of important expressions in network complexity. So far as we have proposed the three types of the network complexity pyramid (NCP). The first type of NCP is the network model complexity pyramid with

  2. Contemporary Management of Acute Type B Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A J; Bicknell, C D

    2016-03-01

    Growing confidence in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for the management of acute type B aortic dissection has resulted in controversies regarding optimum patient selection and the timing of intervention. In this review a clinical vignette to present a practical perspective on the contemporary management of acute type B dissection (ABAD) in a specialist vascular centre with particular focus on areas of debate is used. This is a narrative clinical review. Aggressive anti-impulse therapy is the cornerstone of management of all patients with ABAD. However, 20-30% of patients develop complicated ABAD defined by the presence of malperfusion syndromes, acute aortic dilatation, dissection extension, or persistent pain and hypotension. These complicated patients typically require intervention, and non-randomised series suggest TEVAR to be an effective alternative to open repair with a lower morbidity. There is considerable interest and controversy surrounding the use of TEVAR in uncomplicated ABAD patients for whom the intervention-free survival at 6 years is less than 50% for patients managed with anti-impulse therapy. Data regarding this question are sparse, but two randomised trials (ADSORB and INSTEAD) both demonstrated a higher rate of favourable aortic remodelling in patients managed with TEVAR than medical therapy alone. However, it is unclear whether this positive remodelling translates into a reduction in long-term mortality sufficient to balance the early perioperative hazards of endografting. Despite increasing adeptness at endovascular stenting, the long-term outcomes of patients with ABAD leave significant room for improvement. In particular, the optimum management of patients with uncomplicated disease is unclear and guidance from trials powered for long-term mortality is awaited. Until then, the principals of management of ABAD remain aggressive medical therapy for all patients, with TEVAR primarily reserved for those who develop complications

  3. [Some aspects of the complex treatment of acute suppurative perionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, M M; Roĭ, V P; Zaritskiĭ, I; Konovalenko, V V; Mellin, V M

    1976-10-01

    The authors present an analysis of the results of complex treatment in 4318 patients operated upon for acute peritonitis, caused by acute appendicitis, perforating gastric and duodenal ulcers, acute cholecystitis, ruptures and perforations of the intestine and other surgical and gynecological diseases. Patients with diffuse purulent peritonitis showed marked disorders in protein-aminoacid, nitrogen, and water electrolyte metabolism, acid-base balance, a reduced nonspecific immune responsiveness of the organism. Therpeutic tactics was delineated taking into account the revealed changes.

  4. Complex endoscopic treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding of ulcer origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Izbitsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB is determined in 20-30% of patients with peptic ulcer disease. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is on the first place as the main cause of deaths from peptic ulcer ahead of the other complications. Rebleeding occurs in 30-38% of patients. Materials and Methods For getting of the objective endoscopic picture in patients with bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers we used the classification of J.A. Forrest in our study: Type I - active bleeding: • I a - pulsating jet; • I b - stream. Type II - signs of recent bleeding: • II a - visible (non-bleeding visible vessel; • II b - fixed thrombus - a clot; • II c - flat black spot (black bottom ulcers. Type III - ulcer with a clean (white down. Integrated endoscopic hemostasis included: irrigation of ulcer defect and area around it with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution in a volume of 10 - 30ml; Injection of 2-4 mL of diluted epinephrine (1:10000 for hemostasis; use of Argon plasma coagulation. Results and Discussion Integrated endoscopic stop of bleeding was performed in 57 patients who were examined and treated at the Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2012. In 16 patients bleeding was caused by gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer type I localization according to classification (HD Johnson, 1965 was determined in 9 patients, type II - in 2 patients, type III – in 5 patients. In 31 patients bleeding was caused by duodenal peptic ulcer, in 4 patients - erosive gastritis, 1 - erosive esophagitis, and in 5 patients - gastroenteroanastomosis area peptic ulcer. Final hemostasis was achieved in 55 (96.5% patients. In 50 (87.7% patients it was sufficient to conduct a single session of complex endoscopic treatment. In 5 (8.8% patients – it was done two times. In 2 (3.5% cases operation was performed due to the recurrent bleeding. The source of major bleeding in these patients was: chronic, duodenal ulcer penetrating into the head of the pancreas in one case complicated by subcompensated

  5. [Potentials of phytotherapy in the complex treatment of acute pyelonephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neĭmark, A I; Kablova, I V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the effectiveness of treatment of patients with acute pyelonephritis by incorporating of phytopreparation "Prolit Super Septo" in complex therapy. The study included 38 patients with acute primary pyelonephritis. All patients have received standard medical therapy, 21 of them (Group 2) have additionally received "Prolit Super Septo" 2 capsules 2 times a day for 1 month. Outcome measures included basic laboratory parameters, and results of bacteriological examination and immunological assessment of patients 12-14 and 28-30 days after initiation of therapy. Against the background of the therapy, positive dynamics of the level of leukocyturia and bacteriuria was detected in both groups; therapeutic effect, however, was more pronounced in the Group 2 treated with complex therapy: after the end of treatment, the proportion of sterile cultures was 85.7%, whereas in Group 1--70.6%. In addition, complex treatment had a positive effect on the immune status of patients, as evidenced by normalization of blood immunoglobulins, circulating immune complexes and C-reactive protein. The inclusion of "Prolit Super Septo" in the complex conservative treatment of patients with acute pyelonephritis promotes the development of an adequate immune response and the rapid elimination of the pathogens, thus preventing the development of purulent forms of the disease, or chronization of process.

  6. Efficacy of a homeopathic complex on acute viral tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapane, Eunice; Solomon, Elizabeth M; Pellow, Janice

    2014-11-01

    Acute viral tonsillitis is an upper respiratory tract infection prevalent in school-aged children. Because this condition is self-limiting, conventional treatment options are usually palliative. Homeopathic remedies are a useful alternative to conventional medications in acute uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections in children, offering earlier symptom resolution, cost-effectiveness, and fewer adverse effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a homeopathic complex on the symptoms of acute viral tonsillitis in African children in South Africa. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-day pilot study. Thirty children, age 6 to 12 years, with acute viral tonsillitis were recruited from a primary school in Gauteng, South Africa. Participants took two tablets of the medication four times daily. The treatment group received lactose tablets medicated with the homeopathic complex (Atropa belladonna D4, Calcarea phosphoricum D4, Hepar sulphuris D4, Kalium bichromat D4, Kalium muriaticum D4, Mercurius protoiodid D10, and Mercurius biniodid D10). The placebo consisted of the unmedicated vehicle only. The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale measured pain intensity, and a Symptom Grading Scale assessed changes in tonsillitis signs and symptoms. The treatment group had a statistically significant improvement in the following symptoms compared with the placebo group: pain associated with tonsillitis, pain on swallowing, erythema and inflammation of the pharynx, and tonsil size. The homeopathic complex used in this study exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving qualities in children with acute viral tonsillitis. No patients reported any adverse effects. These preliminary findings are promising; however, the sample size was small and therefore a definitive conclusion cannot be reached. A larger, more inclusive research study should be undertaken to verify the findings of this study.

  7. Acute type B aortic dissection:update on proper management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios Geropapas; George Galyfos; Ioannis Stefanidis; Ioannis Stamatatos; Stavros Kerasidis; Sotirios Giannakakis; Georgios Kastrisios; Gerasimos Papacharalampous; Chrisostomos Maltezos

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to collect and present all current literature data on the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute typeB aortic dissection.It includes a comprehensive literature search utilizing the following keywords:‘acute aortic dissection’,‘typeB aortic dissection’,‘conservative management’,‘endovascular repair’,‘open surgery’ and‘diagnosis’.Uncomplicated acute type B aortic dissection can be effectively managed using conservative management, although open repair is indicated only for complicated cases.Endovascular repair shows promising results in selected patients with increased perioperative risk and without contraindications.Recent evidence supports endovascular repair even in uncomplicated cases, although more data on long-term outcomes are needed.Early risk stratification and evaluation of the patient is crucial for selection of optimal management.

  8. Specific circulating immune complexes in acute chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corral

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of circulating immune complexes formed by IgM and IgG (CIC-IgM and CIC-IgG was investigated, using antigen-specific enzyme-immunoassays (ELISA, in 30 patients with acute Chagas' disease who showed parasitemia and inoculation chagoma. Control population consisted of patients with chronic T. cruzi infection (30, acute toxoplasmosis 10, leishmaniasis (8, rheumatoid arthritis (3 and healthy individuals with negative serology for Chagas* disease (30. Acute chagasic patients were 100% CIC-IgG and 96.66% CIC-IgM positive whereas immunofluorescence tests yielded 90% and 86.66% of positivity for specific IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Chronic patients were 68% CIC-IgG and 0% CIC-IgM positive. The 30 negative and the 21 cross-reaction controls proved negative for ELISA (CIC-IgM and CIC-IgG. The high sensitivity of ELISA assays would allow early immunologic diagnosis, as well as prompt treatment, of acute T. cruzi infection, thus eliminating the problem of the false-positive and false-negative results which affects traditional methods for detection of circulating antibodies.

  9. Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS type 1 validating case histories

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    P. Berger

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS type 1 is challenging and unpredictable as the condition presents with vascular and neuropathic symptoms after nil or even minor injury to a peripheral nerve. The condition is one of a pain and motor dysfunction. The pathophysiology is not well understood and the relief of symptoms may change from being sympathetically mediated to sympathetically independent during  the course of the disease. At any stage physiotherapy has been advocated as the corner stone and most important aspect of treatment in the rehabilitation of these individuals but unfortunately it has been difficult to execute when pain is exacerbated due to allodynia (unbearable to touch or move and hyperalgesia. Best results have been obtained if the patients are recognised and treated in the early or acute phase and it has been found that through careful assessment and analysis these patients can be recognised by previous events that have occurred in their initial case history. The treatment in the acute stage with physiotherapy modalities such as electrical stimulation and acupuncture will produce an early cessation of the symptoms and prevention of the disease developing into the fully blown CRPS type 1 with irreversible and possibly atrophic consequences. Case histories have been presented that illustrate these important aspects and demonstrate  the value of early and the appropriate physiotherapy that may be more successful than other pharmacological and physical interventions in this disease.

  10. Acute myonecrosis in horse caused by Clostridium novyi type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Luana D'avila; Azevedo, Marcos Da Silva; Trost, Maria Elisa; De La Côrte, Flávio Desessards; Irigoyen, Luiz Francisco; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the first report involving a case of equine acute myonecrosis caused by C. novyi type A with an emphasis on clinical signs, the pathological and bacteriological analysis, and molecular identification of the microorganisms as the key of the definitive diagnosis.

  11. Acute type II cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis mimicking atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, A

    2012-01-31

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease is a common presenting cause for digital ischaemia in life long smokers. Acute severe Type II Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a rare yet important cause, which may present with similar clinical features and which if undiagnosed may be rapidly fatal. Following the instigation of therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide this patient made an excellent recovery.

  12. Acute myonecrosis in horse caused by Clostridium novyi type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana D'avila Farias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the first report involving a case of equine acute myonecrosis caused by C. novyi type A with an emphasis on clinical signs, the pathological and bacteriological analysis, and molecular identification of the microorganisms as the key of the definitive diagnosis.

  13. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214

  14. Type 2 Gaucher Disease (Acute Infantile Gaucher Disease or Neuropathic Type

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    Mohammad Mehdi TAGHDIRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Taghdiri MM. Type 2 Gaucher Disease (Acute Infantile Gaucher Disease or Neuropathic Type. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6:4 (suppl. 1:12. Pls see PDF. 

  15. [Stanford type a acute aortic dissection with pectus excavatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Hirotsugu; Yoshitatsu, Masao; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Shibasaki, Ikuko; Inoue, Yuho; Hori, Takayuki; Ogawa, Hironaga; Tsuchiya, Go; Shimizu, Riha; Takei, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    Pectus excavatum is generally an isolated abnormality of the chest wall. However, some patients have a concomitant pectus deformity and cardiac & aortic disease. Decisions must be made regarding the operative approach and whether the pectus excavatum should be corrected during the same session. We report 2 patients with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection and pectus excavatum who underwent emergency operation. In case 1, median sternotomy is an unsuitable approach for open heart surgery, since the heart and great vessels are displace into the left hemithorax. But combined sternotomy and left anterior thoracotomy provided excellent surgical exposure. In case 2, we proceeded with a leftsided costotomy of four ribs and place a normal chest retractor providing as excellent exposure as combined sternotomy and left anterior thoracotomy. A left-sided costotomy of four ribs can be performed safely, eliminating the risks of median sternotomy in acute stanford type A aortic dissection with pectus excavatum.

  16. High affinity complexes of pannexin channels and L-type calcium channel splice-variants in human lung: Possible role in clevidipine-induced dyspnea relief in acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard P. Dahl

    2016-08-01

    Research in Context: Clevidipine lowers blood pressure by inhibiting calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle. In patients with acute heart failure, clevidipine was shown to relieve breathing problems. This was only partially related to the blood pressure lowering actions of clevidipine and not conferred by another calcium channel inhibitor. We here found calcium channel variants in human lung that are more selectively inhibited by clevidipine, especially when associated with pannexin channels. This study gives a possible mechanism for clevidipine's relief of breathing problems and supports future clinical trials testing the role of clevidipine in the treatment of acute heart failure.

  17. Acute leukaemia: making sense of a complex blood cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meenaghan, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Acute leukaemia represents a diverse group of blood cancers that affect both children and adults. Treatment schedules for these haematology cancers are often prolonged, with many associated side effects and complications. Nurses caring for patients with acute leukaemia require an anticipatory approach, where care is aimed at minimizing the side effects of treatment and being constantly vigilant for any impending adverse effects. Moreover, patients require support for the psychosocial issues that can arise for patients during their illness. This article provides an overview of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Nursing considerations in the care of patients being treated for acute leukaemia are also explored.

  18. Acute diaphragmatic rupture following open type IV paraesophageal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2011-06-01

    Open primary transthoracic repair is a well established treatment for large paraesophageal hernias. The rate of major post-operative complications has been reported to be low, and no cases of acute diaphragmatic injury have previously been reported. Here we present a case of open primary transthoracic repair of a type IV paraesophageal hernia that was complicated by rupture of the left diaphragm in the immediate post-operative period, and was successfully repaired with Gore DualMesh® (W.L Gore and Assoc. Flagstaff, AZ). © JSCR.

  19. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David [Department of Radiology, St Francis X Cabrini, Wattletree Rd, 3144, Malvern, Victoria (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  20. Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Type and Coronary Arteriography of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian(王显); LIN Zhong-xiang(林钟香); GE Jun-bo(葛均波); ZHANG Zhen-xian(张振贤); SHEN Lin(沈琳)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Syndrome type and coronary arteriography (CAG) with respect to the number and degree of stenosed branches of coronary artery (CA) and ACC/AHA stage of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), to provide an objective evidence for TCM Syndrome typing on ACS.Methods: Ninety patients of ACS with their TCM Syndrome typing and CAG successfully conducted were enrolled in this study. They were classified into 3 Syndrome types, the blood stasis type (typeⅠ), the phlegm stagnant with blood stasis type (typeⅡ), and the endogenous collateral Wind type (typeⅢ). The scores of the number and severity of the stenosis branch of CA and ACC/AHA lesion stage in different Syndrome types were calculated respectively and analysed statistically by Ridit analysis.Results: The number of stenosed branches increased gradually with the Syndrome type changing from Ⅰ→Ⅱ→Ⅲ, compared the type Ⅲ with the other two types(P<0.01). The severity of stenosis in typeⅠ and Ⅱ were similar, but that of Type Ⅲ, much aggravated was significantly different from that in the former two (P<0.01). The ACC/AHA stage of coronary lesion tended to be more complex as the Syndrome type changed, patients of TCM typeⅠ and Ⅱ had mostly lesion of stage A or B1 , while lesion in majority of patients of type Ⅲ belonged to stage B2 or C, comparison between the three types showed significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: Most ACS patients of TCM Syndrome type Ⅲ with tri-branch, severe stenosed coronary arteries, belong to the complex ACC/AHA stage of B2 and C.

  1. Endovascular treatment of acute type B dissection complicating aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Abbasi, Kyomars; Mousavi, Mehdi; Sahebjam, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment poses a high risk to patients with concomitant aortic coarctation and dissection, and an interventional approach could be an alternative. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man with a long history of untreated hypertension and aortic coarctation who emergently presented at our institution with an acute Stanford type B dissection. The patient's elevated serum creatinine level, perfusion deficit in the right lower limb, and hypertension did not respond to medical therapy, and he did not consent to surgery. By endovascular means, we used a self-expandable stent-graft to cover the entry point of the dissection; then, we deployed a balloon-expandable bare-metal stent to correct residual stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the endovascular treatment of aortic coarctation complicated by type B dissection.

  2. Principles for Management of Intraoperative Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukop, Philemon; Chandrasekaran, Vankatachalam

    2015-12-01

    Intraoperative Type A aortic dissection is a rare pathology with incidence of 0.06-0.32%. It is associated with a high mortality between 30-50%. Some associated risk factors, including hypertension, enlarged aorta, peripheral vascular disease, advanced age, atheroma, and high arterial pressure on cardiopulmonary bypass, have been identified. Modification of these risk factors could reduce the incidence of this event. Prompt diagnosis and management, with the aid of intraoperative trans-esophageal echocardiography and/or epi-aortic ultrasound has been shown to reduce the mortality to 17%. We illustrate the principles of management of this pathology with the case of a 62-year-old female who developed acute Type A aortic dissection while undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair.

  3. Rhodium olefin complexes of diiminate type ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Sander Theodorus Hermanus

    2003-01-01

    The mono-anionic beta-diiminate ligand (ArNC(CH3)CHC(CH3)NAr) on several previous occasions proved useful in stabilising low coordination numbers for both early and late transition metals. In this thesis the reactivity of the rhodium olefin complexes of one of these beta-diiminate ligands (Ar = 2,6-

  4. New light on Bergman complexes by decomposing matroid types

    CERN Document Server

    Dlugosch, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bergman complexes are polyhedral complexes associated to matroids. Faces of these complexes are certain matroids, called matroid types, too. In order to understand the structure of these faces we decompose matroid types into direct summands. Ardila/Klivans proved that the Bergman Complex of a matroid can be subdivided into the order complex of the proper part of its lattice of flats. Beyond that Feichtner/Sturmfels showed that the Bergman complex can even be subdivided to the even coarser nested set complex. We will give a much shorter and more general proof of this fact. Generalizing formulas proposed by Ardila/Klivans and Feichtner/Sturmfels for special cases, we present a decomposition into direct sums working for faces of any of these complexes. Additionally we show that it is the finest possible decomposition for faces of the Bergman complex.

  5. Successful acute lymphoblastic leukemia-type therapy in two children with mixed-phenotype acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Keisuke; Yabe, Miharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Fukumura, Akiko; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masahiko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare type of leukemia expressing both myeloid and lymphoid markers. There is limited information, especially on pediatric cases. Therefore, the optimal therapeutic approach to pediatric MPAL has not been defined. Here, we report two pediatric cases of MPAL. According to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL) criteria, patient 1 was diagnosed with overt MPAL positive for the myeloid marker myeloperoxidase (MPO), and B-lymphoid markers. Patient 2 was diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) using EGIL criteria. According to the 2008 WHO classification, however, patient 2 was diagnosed with overt MPAL positive for CD3, T-lymphoid markers and MPO. We chose an ALL-type therapy consisting of both lymphoid- and myeloid-directed agents; these patients have maintained complete remission following treatment. Further information on pediatric MPAL is needed to establish an appropriate therapeutic strategy including stem cell transplantation for this rare condition. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. The complex treatment of acute pancreatitis using miniinvasive surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Ohrimenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays methods used in acute pancreatitis diagnostic do not allow to find the most optimal indications, terms of surgical drainage approaches in surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis. Aim. In order to develop optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithm 316 patients took part in the study. Methods and results. Surgery outcomes were assessed by the next methods: ultrasound, computed tomography. We determined that destructive changes in pancreas in group of sterile pancreatic necrosis were limited. In cases of infected pancreatic necrosis the damage was spread and the disease course was septic. That’s why the operative treatment in cases of sterile pancreatitis has to be used with strict indications such as fermentative peritonitis, acute liquid formations, acute pseudocysts. Conclusion. In such cases miniinvasive surgery is mainly used while in the cases of infected pancreatic necrosis we ought to choose open surgery treatment.

  7. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  8. Acute, 28days sub acute and genotoxic profiling of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Sandur, Rajendra; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Roy, Souvik; Janadri, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin-Magnesium complex is one of the youngest alkaline rare earth metal (Magnesium) complexes with flavonoids (Quercetin) in organo-metalic family. Earlier studies describe the details of the complex formation, characterization and antioxidant study of the complex but toxicity profile is still under darkness. The present study was taken up to investigate the oral acute toxicity, 28days repeated oral sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice. Quercetin-Magnesium complex showed mortality at a dose of 185mg/kg in the Swiss albino mice. In 28days repeated oral toxicity study, Quercetin-Magnesium complex was administered to both sex of Swiss albino mice at dose levels of 150, 130 and 100mg/kg body weight respectively. Where 150mg/kg dose shows increased levels of white blood cells and changes in total protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histopathological study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex shows minor structural alteration in kidney at 150mg/kg dose. No observed toxic level found in 130mg/kg or below doses. No genotoxic effect found in any doses of the complex. Therefore 130mg/kg or below dose level could be better for further study.

  9. c-fms expression in acute leukemias with complex phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrès, H; Dubreuil, P; Falzetti, F; Courcoul, M A; Lopez, M; Falcinelli, F; Birg, F; Tabilio, A; Mannoni, P

    1990-10-01

    The c-fms proto-oncogene product, which is the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor CSF-1, is always found expressed in acute myeloid leukemia cells, irrespective of their stage of differentiation according to the FAB classification (Dubreuil P, Torrès H, Courcoul M, Birg F, Mannoni P. Blood 1988;72:1081-1085). We have extended this study and looked for c-fms expression in poorly differentiated myeloid leukemias, in a series of acute leukemias of either T or B origin and in biphenotypic leukemias. We now report that expression of c-fms is still related to the myeloid origin of the leukemic proliferation, but that it can also be found in some acute leukemias presenting clonal rearrangements of the T cell receptor gene. Thus expression of the c-fms/CSF-1 receptor may not be exclusively a marker for myeloid proliferations.

  10. [Complex etiology of acute renal failure in a newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grazyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Bieroza, Iwona; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF), which is diagnosed in 3.4-20% of newborns, is polyetiological in most cases. We present a newborn with non-oliguric ARF diagnosed in the first day of life, and caused by asphixia, intrauterine infection (IUI) and nephrotoxic effects of metotrexate treatment during pregnancy. Antibiotics, including netilmicin and vankomycin, were given because of IUI and infected central venous catheter. Dosage of drugs was adjusted to renal failure parameters, but monitoring of their serum levels was not available. It could cause augmented acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Analysis of ARF risk factors in newborns helps in early diagnosis of renal damage and in prompt implementation of therapy.

  11. Shoulder arthroplasty in complex acute and chronic proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Søjbjerg, J.O.; Sneppen, O.

    1991-01-01

    From 1983 to 1988, 42 shoulder arthroplasties were performed on comminuted acute or chronic proximal humeral fractures. Patients were categorized according to the post-fracture operative delay; there were 15 four-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 13 days (range: 7 to 21), and 27...... chronic fractures, including 11 four-part fractures, 9 three-part fractures, and 7 two-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 14 months (range: 4 to 72). Follow up was approximately 2 years in both groups (range: 1 to 5). All patients were evaluated according to a modified Neer score...... to a good result obtained by 6 patients (22%) in the chronic group. Two patients (13%) in the acute group and 11 patients (40%) in the chronic group had a poor result. There were no statistical differences between two-part, three-part, or four-part fractures in the chronic group. Five cases of persistent...

  12. Complexity on Acute Myeloid Leukemia mRNA Transcript Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sequence analysis of acute myeloid leukemia mRNA. Six transcript variants of mlf1 mRNA, with more than 2000 bps, are analyzed by focusing on the autocorrelation of each distribution. Through the correlation matrix, some patches and similarities are singled out and commented, with respect to similar distributions. The comparison of Kolmogorov fractal dimension will be also given in order to classify the six variants. The existence of a fractal shape, patterns, and symmetries are discussed as well.

  13. Surgical repair for acute type A aortic dissection in octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed Ahmad, Ali; Papadopoulos, Nestoras; Detho, Faisal; Srndic, Edin; Risteski, Petar; Moritz, Anton; Zierer, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Despite limited data, the necessity for immediate surgical intervention in octogenarians with acute type A aortic dissection (AAD) has recently been questioned because the surgical risk may outweigh its potential benefits. At the same time, evolving stent graft technologies are pushing in the market for pathology within the ascending aorta, even for treatment of AAD. Against this background, we analyzed our institutional experience in this patient cohort during the last 8 years. Between October 2005 and October 2013, 39 patients aged older than 80 years (82 ± 2 years) underwent surgical repair for AAD, of which 29 patients (74%) were men. Owing to patient age and comorbidities, we aimed to limit the operation to supracoronary hemiarch replacement whenever possible. Clinical data were prospectively entered into our institutional database. Late follow-up was 3.6 ± 2.8 years and was 100% complete. Hemiarch replacement was performed in 32 patients (82%), and full arch replacement was necessary in the remaining 7. In 31 patients (79%), the aortic root could be glued and reconstructed or remained untouched. The remaining 8 patients (21%) underwent the bio-Bentall procedure. Mean ventilation time was 46 ± 23 hours, and the intensive care unit stay was 5 ± 9 days. We observed new postoperative permanent neurologic deficits in 2 patients (5%) and transient neurologic deficits in 3 (8%). The 30-day mortality was 26% (n = 10). Kaplan-Meier estimates for late survival were 46% ± 16% at 5 years. Given the guidelines regarding the predicted risk of death in patients with untreated AAD, current data suggest a survival benefit with immediate open surgical intervention even in octogenarians. Similarly to the early days of transcatheter-based aortic valve implantation, open surgical reference data are warranted to set the bar for upcoming endovascular treatment of AAD in octogenarians. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Acute resistance exercise reduces heart rate complexity and increases QTc interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, K S; Sosnoff, J J; Jae, S Y; Gates, G J; Fernhall, B

    2008-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise (RE) has been shown to reduce cardiac vagal control. Whether this would in turn affect QTc interval (an index of ventricular depolarization/repolarization) or heart rate complexity is not known. Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate complexity (SampEn), and QT interval (rate corrected using Bazett, Fridericia, Hodges, and Framingham) were measured before and 5 min after an acute RE bout in twelve healthy young men. Normalized high frequency power of HRV (an index of cardiac parasympathetic modulation; HF (nu)), and SampEn were reduced following RE (p heart rate complexity and increased QTc length. Thus, during recovery from acute RE, there is prolongation of depolarization and repolarization of the ventricles concomitant with reduced cardiac irregularity, and this may be related to a reduction in cardiac vagal control.

  15. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...... concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum...

  16. Increased plasma N-glycome complexity is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Toma; Gornik, Ivan; Vučković, Frano; Selak, Najda; Pavić, Tamara; Lukić, Edita; Gudelj, Ivan; Gašparović, Hrvoje; Biočina, Bojan; Tilin, Therese; Wennerström, Annika; Männistö, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Wang, Wei; Wilson, James F; Charutvedi, Nishi; Perola, Markus; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan; Gornik, Olga

    2017-09-13

    Better understanding of type 2 diabetes and its prevention is a pressing need. Changes in human plasma N-glycome are associated with many diseases and represent promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Variations in glucose metabolism directly affect glycosylation through the hexosamine pathway but studies of plasma glycome in type 2 diabetes are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma protein N-glycome is changed in individuals who are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Using a chromatographic approach, we analysed N-linked glycans from plasma proteins in two populations comprising individuals with registered hyperglycaemia during critical illness (increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes) and individuals who stayed normoglycaemic during the same condition: AcuteInflammation (59 cases vs 49 controls) and AcuteInflammation Replication (52 cases vs 14 controls) populations. N-glycome was also studied in individuals from FinRisk (37 incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline vs 37 controls), Orkney Complex Disease Study (ORCADES; 94 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 658 controls) and Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) cohort studies (307 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 307 controls). Individuals with increased risk for diabetes type 2 development (AcuteInflammation and AcuteInflammation Replication populations), incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline (FinRisk population) and individuals with elevated HbA1c (ORCADES and SABRE populations) all presented with increased branching, galactosylation and sialylation of plasma protein N-glycans and these changes were of similar magnitude. Increased complexity of plasma N-glycan structures is associated with higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and poorer regulation of blood glucose levels. Although further research is needed, this finding could offer a potential new approach for improvement in prevention

  17. Clinical results of the complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the surgical gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study the results of the complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis in the surgical gastroenterology. Material and methods. 2968 patients with various disorders of the digestive system were operated. Empirical preventing of the acute postoperative pancreatitis was used in the control group. Complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis in the main group of patients included the use of Dalargin, intravenous infusion of Octreotide, duodenal trypsin enzyme inhibition; intraduodenal reversal of pancreatic secret; intraductal injection of Lidocaine and external transnasal drainage of the pancreatic and biliary ducts. Results. The frequency of acute postoperative pancreatitis was 12.2% in the main group. The frequency of acute postoperative pancreatitis was 36.9% in the control group. Increased frequency of a mild form of the acute postoperative pancreatitis observed in the main group compared with the control. At the same time reducing the frequency of the moderate severity and severity forms of the acute postoperative pancreatitis observed in the main group compared with the control. Reduction of the morbidity (13.6% vs. 25.1%, hospital mortality (1.6% vs. 3.5%, the duration of the postoperative hospital bed-day (12.1±0.4 vs. 16.7±0.6 were identified in the main group patients compared with the control group. Conclusion. The use of the given scheme for the complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis allowed significantly reduce the frequency and severity of illness, morbidity, reduce the duration of postoperative hospital bed-day and hospital mortality, as well as the frequency of both mild and severity, and fatal postoperative complications in all investigated groups of patients.

  18. Metformin-associated risk of acute dialysis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidelines governing anti-diabetic medications increasingly advocate metformin as first-line therapy in all patients with type 2 diabetes. However, metformin could be associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute dialysis, and lactate acidosis in marginal patients. In ...

  19. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Roberto S.; Zollinger, Paul E.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Thomassen-Hilgersom, Ilona L.; Zuurmond, Wouter W.; Rosenbrand, Kitty C. J.; Geertzen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according

  20. Halide exchanged Hoveyda-type complexes in olefin metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wappel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this contribution are to present a straightforward synthesis of 2nd generation Hoveyda-type olefin metathesis catalysts bearing bromo and iodo ligands, and to disclose the subtle influence of the different anionic co-ligands on the catalytic performance of the complexes in ring opening metathesis polymerisation, ring closing metathesis, enyne cycloisomerisation and cross metathesis reactions.

  1. Halide exchanged Hoveyda-type complexes in olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappel, Julia; Urbina-Blanco, César A; Abbas, Mudassar; Albering, Jörg H; Saf, Robert; Nolan, Steven P

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aims of this contribution are to present a straightforward synthesis of 2nd generation Hoveyda-type olefin metathesis catalysts bearing bromo and iodo ligands, and to disclose the subtle influence of the different anionic co-ligands on the catalytic performance of the complexes in ring opening metathesis polymerisation, ring closing metathesis, enyne cycloisomerisation and cross metathesis reactions. PMID:21160566

  2. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  3. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  4. Changing Interdigestive Migrating Motor Complex in Rats under Acute Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility disorder is a major clinical manifestation of acute liver injury, and interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC is an important indicator. We investigated the changes and characteristics of MMC in rats with acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was created by D-galactosamine, and we recorded the interdigestive MMC using a multichannel physiological recorder and compared the indexes of interdigestive MMC. Compared with normal controls, antral MMC Phase I duration was significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The duodenal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The jejunal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury compared with normal controls. Compared with the normal controls, rats with acute liver injury had a significantly prolonged interdigestive MMC cycle, related mainly to longer MMC Phases I and IV, shortened MMC Phase III, and MMC Phase II characterized by increased migrating clustered contractions, which were probably major contributors to the gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  5. PNP-Pincer-Type Phosphaalkene Complexes of Late Transition Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Fumiyuki; Nakajima, Yumiko

    2016-10-01

    This account summarizes our recent studies on PNP-pincer-type phosphaalkene complexes. Phosphaalkenes with a P=C bond possess an extremely low-lying π* orbital and have a marked tendency to engage in strong π back-bonding with transition metals. This particular ligand property provides PNP-pincer complexes with unique structures and reactivities. 2,6-Bis(phosphaethenyl)pyridine leads to the isolation of coordinatively unsaturated complexes of Fe(I) and Cu(I); the former adopts a trigonal monopyramidal configuration, whereas the latter has a strong affinity for PF6- and SbF6- as non-coordinating anions. Unsymmetrical PNP-pincer-type phosphaalkene complexes of Ir(I) bearing a dearomatized pyridine unit instantly cleave the N-H bond of NH3 and the C-H bond of MeCN at room temperature. The dearomatized iridium complexes catalyze the dehydrative coupling of amines with alcohols to afford N-alkylated amines and imines in high yields.

  6. Decreased neuroautonomic complexity in men during an acute major depressive episode: analysis of heart rate dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leistedt, S J-J; Linkowski, P.; Lanquart, J-P; Mietus, J E; Davis, Roger B.; Goldberger, Ary Louis; Costa, Madalena Damasio

    2011-01-01

    Major depression affects multiple physiologic systems. Therefore, analysis of signals that reflect integrated function may be useful in probing dynamical changes in this syndrome. Increasing evidence supports the conceptual framework that complex variability is a marker of healthy, adaptive control mechanisms and that dynamical complexity decreases with aging and disease. We tested the hypothesis that heart rate (HR) dynamics in non-medicated, young to middle-aged males during an acute major ...

  7. Statin use after acute myocardial infarction by patient complexity: Are the rates right?

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, JM; Cook, E; Chapman, CG; Schroeder, MC; Chrischilles, EA; Schneider, KM; Kulchaitanaroaj, P; Robinson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Reprinted with permission of the publisher. Background: Guidelines suggest statin use after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) should be close to universal in patients without safety concerns yet rates are much lower than recommended, decline with patient complexity, and display substantial geographic variation. Trial exclusions have resulted in little evidence to guide statin prescribing for complex patients. Objective: Assess the benefits and risks associated with higher rates of sta...

  8. Injury patterns of the acromioclavicular ligament complex in acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations: a cross-sectional, fundamental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Dirk; Jaeger, Martin; Reising, Kilian; Feucht, Matthias J; Südkamp, Norbert P; Izadpanah, Kaywan

    2016-09-06

    Horizontal instability impairs clinical outcome following acute acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) reconstruction and may be caused by insufficient healing of the superior acromioclavicular ligament complex (ACLC). However, characteristics of acute ACLC injuries are poorly understood so far. Purposes of this study were to identify different ACLC tear types, assess type-specific prevalence and determine influencing cofactors. This prospective, cross-sectional study comprised 65 patients with acute-traumatic Rockwood-5 (n = 57) and Rockwood-4 (n = 8) injuries treated operatively by means of mini-open ACJ reduction and hook plate stabilization. Mean age at surgery was 38.2 years (range, 19-57 years). Standardized pre- and intraoperative evaluation included assessment of ACLC tear patterns and cofactors related to the articular disc, the deltoid-trapezoidal (DT) fascia and bony ACJ morphology. Articular disc size was quantified as 0 = absent, 1 = remnant, 2 = meniscoid and 3 = complete. All patients showed complete ruptures of the superior ACLC, which could be assigned to four different tear patterns. Clavicular-sided (AC-1) tears were observed in 46/65 (70.8 %), oblique (AC-2) tears in 12/65 (18.5 %), midportion (AC-3) tears in 3/65 (4.6 %) and acromial-sided (AC-4) tears in 4/65 (6.1 %) of cases. Articular disc size manifestation was significantly (P < .001) more pronounced in patients with AC-1 tears (1.89 ± 0.57) compared to patients with AC-2 tears (0.67 ± 0.89). Other cofactors did not influence ACLC tear patterns. ACLC dislocation with incarceration caused mechanical impediment to anatomical ACJ reduction in 14/65 (21.5 %) of cases including all Rockwood-4 dislocations. Avulsion "in continuity" was a consistent mode of failure of the DT fascia. Type-specific operative strategies enabled anatomical ACLC repair of all observed tear types. Acute ACLC injuries follow distinct tear patterns. There exist clavicular-sided (AC-1

  9. Acute calcific prevertebral tendonitis mimicking tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yukihiro; Hori, Yuzo; Kondoh, Yayoi; Asano, Tomoshige; Yamada, Akira; Yamashita, Masanori; Nagatomi, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to severe nuchal pain and occipitalgia. Neurological examination found neck stiffness but no throat pain or dysphagia. Blood examination showed slight elevation of white blood cell count, but C-reactive protein level was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid examination found no abnormalities. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated no abnormalities in the brain. Cervical CT showed a small calcification in front of the C1 body. Cervical T(2)-weighted MR imaging showed a high intensity area in front of the upper cervical vertebral body from C1 to C4, suggesting inflammation of the longus colli muscles. We diagnosed acute calcific prevertebral tendonitis. She was administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Her symptoms gradually improved and she was discharged without neurological deficit 8 days after admission. It is important to be aware of the possibility of this rare disease in a patient with severe occipitalgia but no sign of intracerebral lesion.

  10. Calcific tendinitis of the biceps-labral complex: a rare cause of acute shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2008-06-01

    Calcific tendinitis most commonly affects the rotator cuff and has not been previously reported affecting the biceps-labral complex. We report a case of calcific tendinitis of the biceps-labral complex attachment, a rare cause of acute, severe shoulder pain. Clinically, it can be misdiagnosed as supraspinatus tendinitis or septic arthritis of the shoulder joint. Non-operative treatment failed to resolve the symptoms. Arthroscopic debridement of the calcific deposit resulted in resolution of symptoms. Knowledge of this clinical condition and its imaging features is crucial for a correct diagnosis of this uncommon cause of shoulder pain.

  11. Differential role of lipocalin-2 during immune-complex mediated acute and chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Machiah, Deepa; Aitken, Jesse D; Putty, Kalyani; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Chassaing, Benoit; Parkos, Charles A; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an innate immune protein expressed by a variety of cells and is highly upregulated during several pathological conditions including immune-complex (IC) mediated inflammatory/autoimmune disorders. However, the function of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation is largely unknown. Therefore our objective was to investigate the role of Lcn2 in IC-mediated diseases. Methods The upregulation of Lcn2 was determined by ELISA in three different mouse models of IC-mediated autoimmune disease: systemic lupus erythematosus, collagen-induced arthritis and serum-induced arthritis. The in vivo role of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation was investigated using Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. Results Lcn2 levels were significantly elevated in all the three autoimmune disease models. Further, in an acute skin inflammation model, Lcn2KO mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in inflammation with histopathological analysis revealing strikingly reduced immune cell infiltration compared to WT mice. Administration of recombinant Lcn2 to Lcn2KO mice restored inflammation to levels observed in WT mice. Neutralization of Lcn2 using a monoclonal antibody significantly reduced inflammation in WT mice. In contrast, Lcn2KO mice developed more severe serum-induced arthritis compared to WT mice. Histological analysis revealed extensive tissue and bone destruction with significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration but considerably more macrophage migration in Lcn2KO mice when compared to WT. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Lcn2 may regulate immune cell recruitment to the site of inflammation, a process essential for the controlled initiation, perpetuation and resolution of inflammatory processes. Thus, Lcn2 may present a promising target in the treatment of IC-mediated inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. PMID:23280250

  12. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  13. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aron Frederik; Baryalei, Mersa Mohammed; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Hinz, Jose; Wiese, Christoph Hermann; Raab, Björn; Kolat, Philipp; Schoendube, Friedrich Albert; Seipelt, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago. PMID:19121214

  14. Decreased sleep stage transition pattern complexity in narcolepsy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the complexity of the nocturnal sleep stage sequence in central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH), with the hypothesis that narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) might exhibit distinctive sleep stage sequence organization and complexity. Seventy-nine NT1 patients, 22 narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), 22 idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), and 52 patients with subjective hypersomnolence (sHS) were recruited and their nocturnal sleep was polysomnographically recorded and scored. Group between-stage transition probability matrices were obtained and compared. Patients with NT1 differed significantly from all the other patient groups, the latter, in turn, were not different between each other. The individual probability of the R-to-N2 transition was found to be the parameter showing the difference of highest significance between the groups (lowest in NT1) and classified patients with or without NT1 with an accuracy of 78.9% (sensitivity 78.5% and specificity 79.2%), by applying a cut-off value of 0.15. The main result of this study is that the structure of the sleep stage transition pattern of hypocretin-deficient NT1 patients is significantly different from that of other forms of CDH and sHS, with normal hypocretin levels. The lower probability of R-to-N2 transition occurrence in NT1 appears to be a reliable polysomnographic feature with potential application at the individual level, for supportive diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors and in-hospital outcomes of preoperative acute kidney injury in patients with type A acute aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Ren, Hong-Mei; Hu, Chun-Yan; Que, Bin; Ai, Hui; Wang, Chun-Mei; Sun, Li-Zhong; Nie, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after surgery for acute aortic dissection (AAD) and increases in-hospital and long-term mortality. However, few data exist on the clinical and prognostic relevance of early preoperative AKI in patients with type A AAD. We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of preoperative AKI and the impact of AKI on in-hospital outcomes in patients with type A AAD. Methods From May 2009 to June 2014, we retrospectively enrolled 178 patients admitted to our hospital within 48 h from symptom onset and receiving open surgery for type A AAD. The patients were divided into no AKI and AKI groups and staged with AKI severity according to the KDIGO criteria before surgery. Results AKI occurred in 41 patients (23.0%). The incidence of in-hospital complications was significantly higher in patients with preoperative AKI compared to no AKI (41.5% vs. 9.5%, P < 0.001), including renal infarction (7.3% vs. 0, P = 0.012), and it increased with AKI severity (Ptrend < 0.001). Patients with AKI had higher in-hospital mortality compared with patients without AKI, although no significant difference was found (14.6% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.079). Multivariate analysis indicated that male gender, diastolic blood pressure on admission and bilateral renal artery involvement were independent predictors of preoperative AKI in patients with type A AAD. Conclusions Early AKI before surgery was common in patients with type A AAD, and was associated with increased in-hospital complications. Male gender, diastolic blood pressure on admission and bilateral renal artery involvement were major predictors for preoperative AKI. PMID:27781058

  16. Statin use after acute myocardial infarction by patient complexity: are the rates right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M; Cook, Elizabeth; Chapman, Cole G; Schroeder, Mary C; A Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Schneider, Kathleen M; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Robinson, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Guidelines suggest statin use after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) should be close to universal in patients without safety concerns yet rates are much lower than recommended, decline with patient complexity, and display substantial geographic variation. Trial exclusions have resulted in little evidence to guide statin prescribing for complex patients. To assess the benefits and risks associated with higher rates of statin use after AMI by baseline patient complexity. Sample includes Medicare fee-for-service patients with AMIs in 2008-2009. Instrumental variable estimators using variation in local area prescribing patterns by statin intensity as instruments were used to assess the association of higher statin prescribing rates by statin intensity on 1-year survival, adverse events, and cost by patient complexity. Providers seem to have individualized statin use across patients based on potential risks. Higher statin rates for noncomplex AMI patients were associated with increased survival rates with little added adverse event risk. Higher statin rates for complex AMI patients were associated with tradeoffs between higher survival rates and higher rates of adverse events. Higher rates of statin use for noncomplex AMI patients are associated with outcome rate changes similar to existing evidence. For the complex patients in our study, who were least represented in existing trials, higher statin-use rates were associated with survival gains and higher adverse event risks not previously documented. Policy interventions promoting higher statin-use rates for complex patients may need to be reevaluated taking careful consideration of these tradeoffs.

  17. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M;

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24...

  18. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma osteoprotegerin with diminished effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gitte Maria; Vind, Birgitte; Nybo, Mads;

    2009-01-01

    the acute effects of insulin on plasma OPG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obese individuals compared with lean controls. DESIGN: The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic, ten obese subjects, and ten lean subjects with no family history of diabetes. METHODS: All subjects...... infusion decreased plasma OPG concentrations in all groups (Pobese and type 2 diabetic individuals (P=0.007). Baseline OPG correlated with fasting insulin, baseline lactate, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic group, and with baseline FFA...... in the lean group. The relative change of OPG in response to insulin correlated inversely with HbA1c and baseline FFA in the lean group. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma OPG, but with diminished effect in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Increased levels of OPG in arteries...

  19. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Botha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and can follow a minor injury. A 12-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the feet and could not walk or stand weight bearing. Normal X-rays showed osteopenic changes and radiolucent lines, which appeared to be stress fractures. Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed no uptake in the left lower leg on the blood pool phase or on the immediate or delayed images. This indicated typical CPRS type 1 in children. The uptake in the right foot was increased and the stress fracture and other illness could not be differentiated. Computed tomography was done to exclude stress fractures. Only osteopenic changes in both calcaneus bones were found and there was no evidence of cortical stress fractures. Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the calcaneus and talus bones of both feet. The patient received epidural narcotic infusion with sympathetic blockage for 1 week combined with extensive physiotherapy. The blood pool phase of the bone scan became normal within 2 weeks, and increased uptake in both feet was noticed. The patient was followed up with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months.

  20. Complex Type-II Interband Cascade MQW Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-quantum-well (MQW) photodetectors of a proposed type would contain active regions comprising multiple superlattice subregions. These devices would have complex structures: The superlattice of each subregion would be designed for enhanced absorption of photons in a desired wavelength band (typically in the infrared) and multiple subregions of different design would be cascaded for multicolor operation. The designs of these photodetectors would take advantage of the characteristic alignment of the edges of the electron-energy bands in type-II quantum-well structures: Within each finite superlattice, interband transitions would be used for detecting photons, and between finite superlattices, intraband relaxation and interband tunneling would be used for transport of charge carriers, all such as to enable detection of normally incident photons. Absorption of photons in the active region of a photodetector according to the proposal could be significantly enhanced by designing the superlattice/MQW structures to contain closely spaced energy states. The photodetector could be operated with a small bias to facilitate transport of charge carriers. The superlattices could be somewhat chirped, with a preferred transport direction.

  1. Predicting complex acute wound healing in patients from a wound expertise centre registry: a prognostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbink, Dirk T; Lindeboom, Robert; Eskes, Anne M; Brull, Huub; Legemate, Dink A; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-10-01

    It is important for caregivers and patients to know which wounds are at risk of prolonged wound healing to enable timely communication and treatment. Available prognostic models predict wound healing in chronic ulcers, but not in acute wounds, that is, originating after trauma or surgery. We developed a model to detect which factors can predict (prolonged) healing of complex acute wounds in patients treated in a large wound expertise centre (WEC). Using Cox and linear regression analyses, we determined which patient- and wound-related characteristics best predict time to complete wound healing and derived a prediction formula to estimate how long this may take. We selected 563 patients with acute wounds, documented in the WEC registry between 2007 and 2012. Wounds had existed for a median of 19 days (range 6-46 days). The majority of these were located on the leg (52%). Five significant independent predictors of prolonged wound healing were identified: wound location on the trunk [hazard ratio (HR) 0·565, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·405-0·788; P = 0·001], wound infection (HR 0·728, 95% CI 0·534-0·991; P = 0·044), wound size (HR 0·993, 95% CI 0·988-0·997; P = 0·001), wound duration (HR 0·998, 95% CI 0·996-0·999; P = 0·005) and patient's age (HR 1·009, 95% CI 1·001-1·018; P = 0·020), but not diabetes. Awareness of the five factors predicting the healing of complex acute wounds, particularly wound infection and location on the trunk, may help caregivers to predict wound healing time and to detect, refer and focus on patients who need additional attention.

  2. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  3. Importance of refractory pain and hypertension in acute type B aortic dissection: insights from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimarchi, Santi; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Pyeritz, Reed E; Jonker, Frederik H W; Suzuki, Toru; O'Gara, Patrick T; Hutchinson, Stuart J; Rampoldi, Vincenzo; Grassi, Viviana; Bossone, Eduardo; Muhs, Bart E; Evangelista, Arturo; Tsai, Thomas T; Froehlich, Jim B; Cooper, Jeanna V; Montgomery, Dan; Meinhardt, Gabriel; Myrmel, Truls; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Sundt, Thoralf M; Isselbacher, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    In patients with acute type B aortic dissection, presence of recurrent or refractory pain and/or refractory hypertension on medical therapy is sometimes used as an indication for invasive treatment...

  4. The use of optical microscope equipped with multispectral detector to distinguish different types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronichev, A. N.; Polyakov, E. V.; Tupitsyn, N. N.; Frenkel, M. A.; Mozhenkova, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the use of a computer optical microscopy with multispectral camera to characterize the texture of blasts bone marrow of patients with different variants of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: B- and T- types. Specific characteristics of the chromatin of the nuclei of blasts for different types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were obtained.

  5. Lixisenatide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Marc A; Claggett, Brian; Diaz, Rafael;

    2015-01-01

    outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary event. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a myocardial infarction or who had been hospitalized for unstable angina within the previous 180 days to receive lixisenatide or placebo in addition...... was placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome, the addition of lixisenatide to usual care did not significantly alter the rate of major cardiovascular events or other serious adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi; ELIXA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01147250.)....... to locally determined standards of care. The trial was designed with adequate statistical power to assess whether lixisenatide was noninferior as well as superior to placebo, as defined by an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio of less than 1.3 and 1.0, respectively...

  6. Glutaric Aciduria type I and acute renal failure — Coincidence or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Pode-Shakked

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I is a rare organic acidemia, caused by mutations in the GCDH gene, and characterized by encephalopathic crises with neurological sequelae. We report herein a patient with GA-I who presented with severe acute renal failure requiring dialysis, following an acute diarrheal illness. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated acute tubular necrosis, and molecular diagnosis revealed the patient to be homozygous for a previously unreported mutation, p.E64D. As renal impairment is not part of the clinical spectrum typical to GA-I, possible associations of renal failure and the underlying inborn error of metabolism are discussed, including recent advancements made in the understanding of the renal transport of glutaric acid and its derivatives during metabolic disturbance in GA-I.

  7. Ibuprofen for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    2015. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers' websites. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, placebo-controlled studies (parallel-group or cross-over) using oral ibuprofen for symptomatic relief of an acute......BACKGROUND: Tension-type headache (TTH) affects about one person in five worldwide. It is divided into infrequent episodic TTH (fewer than one headache per month), frequent episodic TTH (1 to 14 headaches per month), and chronic TTH (15 headaches a month or more). Ibuprofen is one of a number...... of analgesics suggested for acute treatment of headaches in frequent episodic TTH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen for treatment of acute episodic TTH in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and our own in-house database to January...

  8. Association Between Absolute Eosinophil Count and Complex Aortic Arch Plaque in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Takaya; Nezu, Tomohisa; Shiromoto, Takashi; Kubo, Satoshi; Uemura, Jyunichi; Wada, Yuko; Yagita, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    Eosinophil counts are thought to be associated with atherosclerosis and aortic arch plaques. However, whether these associations exist among patients with acute ischemic stroke remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between absolute eosinophil count (AEC) and aortic arch plaques among these patients. Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography were retrospectively analyzed. Complex aortic arch plaques (CAPs) were defined as plaques ≥4 mm in thickness, with ulcer, or with mobile component. A total of 430 patients (289 male, mean age 69.8±11.4 years) were enrolled. Patients with CAPs (n=169) showed higher mean AEC than those without (167±174/µL versus 127±127/µL; P=0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that increased AEC was independently associated with the presence of CAPs (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.65). Among patients with acute ischemic stroke, increased AEC was independently associated with the presence of CAPs. Our results suggest that AEC may be a useful predictor for the presence of CAPs in these patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  10. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ∼92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ∼7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  11. A clinical study of bilateral non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis with acute kidney injury in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadla, Manjusha; Parvithina, Sriramnaveen; Chennu, Krishna Kishore; Reddy, Sandeep; Sridhar, A V S S N; Vijayalakshmi, B; Lakshmi, A Y; Kalawat, Tek Chand; Sivakumar, V

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our study was to study the clinical profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) due to bilateral acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis. The bilateral involvement was identified on various imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear scintigrapy). All the patients had AKI. Those with severe AKI underwent hemodialysis. The factors associated with the severity of illness were identified. Twenty-five patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted with the diagnosis of AKI due to bilateral acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis were identified. On ultrasound, bilateral involvement was found in 12 patients and in 17 patients on computed tomography and eight patients on nuclear scintigraphy. Fourteen of them needed dialysis support. Bilateral acute pyelonephritis needs to be considered while evaluating the AKI in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Evolution of surgical therapy for Stanford acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Peter; Miller, D Craig

    2016-07-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection (AcA-AoD) is a surgical emergency associated with very high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the early outcome of emergency surgical repair has not improved substantially over the last 20 years. Many of the same debates occur repeatedly regarding operative extent and optimal conduct of the operation. The question remains: are patients suffering from too large an operation or too small? The pendulum favoring routine aortic valve resuspension, when feasible, has swung towards frequent aortic root replacement. This already aggressive approach is now being challenged with the even more extensive valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) in selected patients. Distally, open replacement of most of the transverse arch is best in most patients. The need for late aortic re-intervention has not been shown to be affected by more extensive distal operative procedures, but the contemporary enthusiasm for a distal frozen elephant trunk (FET) only seems to build. It must be remembered that the first and foremost goal of the operation is to have an operative survivor; additional measures to reduce late morbidity are secondary aspirations. With increasing experience, true contraindications to emergency surgical operation have dwindled, but patients with advanced age, multiple comorbidities, and major neurological deficits do not fare well. The endovascular revolution, moreover, has spawned innovative options for modern practice, including ascending stent graft and adaptations of the old flap fenestration technique. Despite the increasingly complex operations and ever expanding therapies, this life-threatening disease remains a stubborn challenge for all cardiovascular surgeons. Development of specialized thoracic aortic teams and regionalization of care for patients with AcA-AoD offers the most promise to improve overall results.

  13. [Intervention priorities in the acute stage of complex emergencies drafted by nine humanitarian aid agencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Jaimes, Carmen Sofía; Arcos González, Pedro Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Complex Emergencies are an international Public Health problem currently becoming increasingly more frequent and of growing proportions which lead to major death and disease rates, especially during the acute stage thereof. This study is aimed at identifying and analyzing the top-priority areas of intervention in the acute stage of a complex emergency drafted in the operating manuals of the main aid agencies, as well as the degree of development and structuring of the activities proposed in each area on which priority has been placed. The intervention manuals drafted by nine major aid agencies were used as study material. A quantitative analysis was then made of the 16 intervention priorities set out, as well as of the degree to which each priority was defined based on the development of 73 variables of aspects of the proposals set out in the manuals. The ACNUR manual includes 90% of the 73 variables for further expansion upon the priorities, the UN Humanitarian Affaire Coordination Office manual including 35% of the 73 variables. ACNUR better expands upon the non-healthcare variables, followed by MSF and USAID. Doctors without borders shows a 97.3% degree of expansion of the healthcare variables) followed by ACNUR (94.7%), USAID (92.1%). ACNUR has been found to have the most integral proposal, the UN Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office having the most discreet. There is a general trend towad further expanding upon and unifying the health indicators, whilst other aspects are not further expanded upon.

  14. Experiences of parenting a child with medical complexity in need of acute hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Monica; Ehnfors, Margareta; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children with medical complexity have described being responsible for providing advanced care for the child. When the child is acutely ill, they must rely on the health-care services during short or long periods of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to describe parental experiences of caring for their child with medical complexity during hospitalization for acute deterioration, specifically focussing on parental needs and their experiences of the attitudes of staff. Data were gathered through individual interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The care period can be interpreted as a balancing act between acting as a caregiver and being in need of care. The parents needed skilled staff who could relieve them of medical responsibility, but they wanted to be involved in the care and in the decisions taken. They needed support, including relief, in order to meet their own needs and to be able to take care of their children. It was important that the child was treated with respect in order for the parent to trust the staff. An approach where staff view parents and children as a single unit, as recipients of care, would probably make the situation easier for these parents and children.

  15. Acute coronary syndrome in diclofenac sodium-induced type I hypersensitivity reaction : Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gluvic, Zoran M.; Putnikovic, Biljana; Panic, Milos; Stojkovic, Aleksandra; Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Jankovic-Gavrilovic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Drug-induced type I hypersensitivity reactions are frequent. Sometimes, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be registered in such patients, which may have a serious impact on the course and management of the allergic reaction. Because of potentially atypical ACS clinical presentations, the ECG is an obligatory diagnostic tool in any allergic reaction. Coronary artery spasm is the pathophysiological basis of ACS, triggered by the action of potent vasoactive mediators (histamine, neutral protease...

  16. Acute liver failure in a pediatric patient with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I treated with deferasirox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital dyserythropoietic anemias (CDA represent a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by morphological abnormalities of erythroid precursor cells and various degrees of hemolysis. Iron overload is a result of continuous hemolysis and recurrent transfusions. It is treated with iron chelators, including deferasirox. We present here a case of acute liver failure in a 12 years old girl with CDA type I treated with deferasirox and discuss the approach to treatment.

  17. [Human herpes virus type 6, etiology of an acute encephalitis in childhood: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenjar, A; Rodriguez, D; Rozenberg, F; Dorison, N; Guët, A; Mignot, C; Doummar, D; Billette de Villemeur, T; Ponsot, G

    2007-05-01

    Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) causes the classical roseola infantum. Otherwise the infection is clinically silent but it may sometimes be responsible for central nervous system involvement. In order to illustrate such a type of lesions, we report on a 16-month-old girl with acute leucoencephalitis. The disease started with pyrexia 40 degrees C, followed by an episode of seizure, erythematous rash on the trunk and then coma. Brain MRI showed wide lesions on white matter. HHV-6 DNA was detected by PCR in the CSF and serum at the acute stage, and tests for HHV-6 antibody showed a significant increase of IgG antibody titre between acute and convalescent sera. One month later complete clinical recovery was observed while the MRI showed a partial disappearance of the lesions. The sero-conversion associated with the detection of the viral DNA in the serum identified a primary HHV-6 infection and the detection of viral nucleic acid in CSF gives arguments for the responsibility of the virus in the pathogenesis. When facing an acute leuco-encephalitis in infants, it is important to perform exhaustive virology investigations to rule out the implication of HHV-6 as well as other commonly incriminated pathogens (EBV, CMV, mycoplasma, enterovirus) to avoid accusing wrongly the vaccines.

  18. Alcohol acutely increases vascular reactivity together with insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Kretschmer, S; Gouya, G; Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Riedl, M; Wagner, O; Pacini, G; Wolzt, M; Ludvik, B

    2010-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that this relates to a direct effect of alcohol and therefore investigated whether acute alcohol intake altered insulin sensitivity or endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. In an open-label two period design, the effect of a single oral dose of 40 g of alcohol (168 ml 40% vodka) on an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) and on endothelium-dependent (flow mediated, FMD) or endothelium-independent (glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced) vasodilation of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound was studied. Experiments were carried out in twelve male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (64+/-6 years, body mass index 28.4+/-5.7 kg/m (2)). Baseline insulin sensitivity index (S (I)) was 1.10+/-0.34 min (-1).microU (-1).ml, baseline FMD was +4.1+/-3.0%, and GTN-induced vasodilation +7.4+/-2.3% from resting brachial artery diameter. Acute alcohol intake increased alcohol plasma levels to 0.33+/-0.04 per thousand, S (I) to 1.86+/-0.45 min (-1).microU (-1).ml (p<0.05), and FMD to +8.2+/-2.8% (p<0.05), while GTN-induced dilation remained unchanged. No relationship was detectable between the observed changes. We conclude that alcohol intake acutely increases endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes together with insulin sensitivity. This acute effect might explain some beneficial effects of low alcohol consumption in epidemiological observations.

  19. Cell differentiation defines acute and chronic infection cell types in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Betancur, Juan-Carlos; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Horger, Thomas; Schott, Melanie; Sharan, Malvika; Eikmeier, Julian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Zernecke, Alma; Ohlsen, Knut; Kuttler, Christina; Lopez, Daniel

    2017-09-12

    A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia. We identified a bimodal switch in the agr quorum sensing system that antagonistically regulates the differentiation of these two physiologically distinct cell types. We found that extracellular signals affect the behavior of the agr bimodal switch and modify the size of the specialized subpopulations in specific colonization niches. For instance, magnesium-enriched colonization niches causes magnesium binding to S. aureusteichoic acids and increases bacterial cell wall rigidity. This signal triggers a genetic program that ultimately downregulates the agr bimodal switch. Colonization niches with different magnesium concentrations influence the bimodal system activity, which defines a distinct ratio between these subpopulations; this in turn leads to distinct infection outcomes in vitro and in an in vivo murine infection model. Cell differentiation generates physiological heterogeneity in clonal bacterial infections and helps to determine the distinct infection types.

  20. Cell differentiation defines acute and chronic infection cell types in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Betancur, Juan-Carlos; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Horger, Thomas; Schott, Melanie; Sharan, Malvika; Eikmeier, Julian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Zernecke, Alma; Ohlsen, Knut; Kuttler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia. We identified a bimodal switch in the agr quorum sensing system that antagonistically regulates the differentiation of these two physiologically distinct cell types. We found that extracellular signals affect the behavior of the agr bimodal switch and modify the size of the specialized subpopulations in specific colonization niches. For instance, magnesium-enriched colonization niches causes magnesium binding to S. aureusteichoic acids and increases bacterial cell wall rigidity. This signal triggers a genetic program that ultimately downregulates the agr bimodal switch. Colonization niches with different magnesium concentrations influence the bimodal system activity, which defines a distinct ratio between these subpopulations; this in turn leads to distinct infection outcomes in vitro and in an in vivo murine infection model. Cell differentiation generates physiological heterogeneity in clonal bacterial infections and helps to determine the distinct infection types. PMID:28893374

  1. Does HIPE data capture the complexity of stroke patients in an acute hospital setting?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, B

    2010-01-01

    The Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE) system is currently used as a principle source of national data on discharges from acute hospitals. The Casemix Programme is used to calculate funding for patient care (HIPE activity and Specialty Costs Returns). Th coding is usually undertaken by clerical personnel. We were concerned that the medical complexity of our stroke patients was not captured by the process. The aims of this study were to compare activity coded by HIPE coding staff and medical staff in consecutive stroke patients discharged from the hospital. One hundred consecutive discharged patients with stroke as primary diagnosis were coded by clerical staff [usual practice] and by medical staff. We compared the coding and any differences. We calculated the financial comparison of subsequent differences in Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) and Relative Values (RVs). Clinician coded DRGs resulted in a higher assigned RV in 45 cases. The total RV value for HIPE using clerical coding was 595,268.94 euros and using medical coding was 725,252.16 euros. We conclude that medical input is useful in detailing the complications arising in stroke patients. We suggest that physicians should assist in the HIPE coding process in order to capture clinical complexity, so that funding can be appropriately assigned to manage these complex patients.

  2. Acute renal failure unmasking Lesch-Nyhan disease in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumfart, Julia; Weschke, Bernhard; Ringe, Hannelore; Weinhold, Natalie; Müller, Dominik

    2016-07-01

    We report on a male patient with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), which was prenatally diagnosed. At the age of 3 months the patient developed acute renal failure with excessive hyperuricemia. Kidney function improved after rehydration and application of rasburicase, however without full recovery. Due to the inappropriate high levels of uric acid compared to kidney function, screening of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) related diseases was initiated. Mutation analysis revealed a deletion of exon 2 and 3 of the HPRT gene confirming the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND). After initiation of allopurinol therapy renal function further improved. In the following months the patient developed clinically a typical neurological phenotype of LND and TSC with seizures, severe dystonia and developmental delay. Acute renal failure is a rare complication of HPRT related diseases. Combination of two inherited diseases may lead to a delayed diagnosis due to a mixed and maybe misleading phenotype. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  4. Bacterial pathogens of acute sinusitis in the osteomeatal complex during common colds and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joseph K; Hendley, J Owen; Winther, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have been cultured from the osteomeatal complex (OMC) in one-third of adults with apparent acute bacterial sinusitis; however, it is not known whether bacteria are present in the OMC during uncomplicated viral colds in adults. Adult volunteers were recruited for a study during wellness and at the time of acute common cold. Swab cultures were obtained from the OMC and from the nasopharynx by 2 routes (through the nose and through the mouth). Swab eluates were inoculated on selective agars to detect S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. Bacterial pathogens were detected in the OMC more frequently during common colds than during wellness (31% vs 8%, p OMC were always present in the nasopharynx of the subject. Bacterial pathogens are present in the OMC in a subgroup of adult patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory illness/common cold. The nasopharynx appears to be the reservoir for bacterial pathogens in the OMC. Copyright © 2011 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  5. First report of leprosy presenting as acute polyarthritis in the setting of type I downgrading lepra reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Raqum, Haneen Adel; Uppal, S S; El Abdalghani, Rana Abdul Rahman; Lasheen, Ibrahim

    2006-02-01

    Leprosy is a rare cause of acute polyarthritis. We describe the occurrence of oedema of the hands and feet and acute polyarthritis in the setting of type I (downgrading) lepra reaction in an untreated patient with borderline leprosy. This case report further expands the range of articular manifestations that can occur in leprosy.

  6. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  7. Preparation of the Inclusion Complex-Type Nonlinear Optical Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the inclusion complex method to import nonlinear optical (NLO chromophores, disperse red1 (DR1, and spiropyran (SP, into the γ-CD cavity of the γ-cyclodextrin polymer (γ-CDP to prepare orderly aligned nonphotocontrollable and photocontrollable nonlinear optical polymers. Calculations support the ultraviolet/visible analyses and suggest the formation of the 1 : 2 DR1/γ-CDP and 1 : 2 SP/γ-CDP inclusion complexes. Upon complexation, the DR1 and SP molecules are free to align themselves along an applied electric field and show high order parameters of approximately 0.48 and 0.20, respectively. Reversible photochromic reactions exhibit that the SP/γ-CDP complex still retains the photochromic properties following corona poling.

  8. A Case of Acute Aortic Dissection Type B Associated with Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramala, Luigi; Cotesta, Dario; Sapienza, Paolo; Zinnamosca, Laura; Moroni, Enrico; di Marzio, Luca; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old man, with a previous history of hypertension and glucose intolerance associated troncular obesity that was emergently admitted to our Institution for evaluation of a severe, constant posterior chest pain which radiated anteriorly and dyspnoea with a suspected diagnosis of acute aortic dissection. A CT scan of thorax and abdomen demonstrated a dissection starting just below left succlavian artery and extending downward to the left renal artery, involving the celiac tripod and superior mesenteric artery. The dissection was classified as Stanford B, De Bakey III. Moreover, CT scan of abdomen revealed incidentally a left adrenal tumor of 25 mm of diameter. An emergent prosthetic graft was placed just below the origin of the left succlavian artery up-to the diaphragmatic hiatus. Furthermore, a diagnostic evaluation of the mass revealed an increase of cortisol production, and a diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome was done and the patient underwent an adrenalectomy via laparotomic approach. We report an association of acute aortic dissection of acute aortic dissection type B associated to Cushing's syndrome. Keywords Cushing's syndrome; Adrenocortical adenoma; Aortic dissection type B PMID:22505966

  9. Ansa Pancreatica Type of Ductal Anatomy in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Bhasin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Context :Ansa pancreatica is a type of pancreatic ductal variation. The exact clinical significance of this ductal variation is not clear. Case report :We report the case of a 21-yearold male with acute idiopathic severe pancreatitis and extensive parenchymal necrosis who later developed a large pancreatic abscess. Subsequently, transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic abscess was attempted and on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, disruption in the mid-body of the pancreas and the ansa pancreatica type of ductal anatomy was noted. A 7 Fr nasopancreatic catheter was placed across the disruption. However, due to the development of a new abscess, surgical drainage was performed. The patient has since been asymptomatic over a one-year follow up period. Conclusion :A pancreatic ductal variation such as ansa pancreatica may be a finding in severe acute pancreatitis; it is not clear if the presence of these two conditions is coincidental or if ansa pancreatica causes acute pancreatitis. Further studies are needed to clarify these points.

  10. Styrene Oxidation by Copper(II) Complexes Salen-Type Encapsulated into Nay Zeolite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I. Kuźniarska-Biernacka; M.A. Carvalho; I. Correia Neves; A. M. Fonseca; A. Lisińska-Czekaj; D. Czekaj

    2013-01-01

    The copper(II) complex with a Schiff-base salen-type ligand has been encapsulated in the nanopores of a NaY zeolite by using two different methodologies, the flexible ligand and in situ complex preparation methods...

  11. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  12. The acute effects of conventional, complex, and contrast protocols on lower-body power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott W; Young, Warren B; Saunders, Natalie

    2014-02-01

    This study compared conventional, complex, and contrast protocols on peak power (PP) output. Static vs. dynamic contractions were also manipulated to determine the effect of these confounding variables. Eighteen recreationally trained men [age, 21.1 ± 3.3 years; body mass, 81.7 ± 15.9 kg; height, 182.8 ± 6.2 cm; 5 repetition maximum (5RM) half back squat, 119.2 ± 25.4 kg; 5RM/BW, 1.5 ± 0.2 kg] involved in sports including Australian Rules football, basketball, soccer, and rugby participated in this investigation. Five protocols were executed in a randomized order, a conventional protocol in which 3 sets of 4 countermovement jumps (CMJs) were performed 2 minutes apart. Contrast protocols using a heavy resistance conditioning action of either 4 repetitions with a 5RM load or a 5-second static back squat were alternated with sets of 4 CMJs. Complex conditions with 3 sets of 4 repetitions of a 5RM back squat or a 5-second static back squat were performed before the 3 sets of CMJs. In all conditions, 4 minutes of rest followed sets of heavy resistance exercises and 2 minutes of rest followed each set of CMJs. Individual set means and a total session mean were calculated from each CMJ performed during the session. Results showed that the conventional protocol produced significantly greater PP than all conditions except for the dynamic complex and the static contrast. Results suggest that the use of the complex and contrast protocols used in this investigation should not be used for acute increases in lower-body PP in recreationally trained individuals.

  13. Minimally invasive reconstruction of acute type IV and Type V acromioclavicular separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenis, Dimitris L; Stamoulis, Dimitris; Begkas, Dimitris; Tsamados, Stamatis

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the midterm radiologic, clinical, and functional results of the early reconstruction of the severe acromioclavicular joint dislocation using the flipptack fixation button technique. Between December 2006 and December 2009, one hundred thirty-five consecutive patients with acromioclavicular joint separations were admitted to the authors' institution. Fifty patients were included in the study. According to Rockwood classification, 29 (58%) dislocations were type IV and 21 (42%) were type V. Surgery was performed at an average of 4.2 days (range, 0-12 days) after dislocation. All dislocations were treated with the flipptack fixation button technique. All patients were evaluated at a final postoperative follow-up of 42 months (range, 36-49 months). The clinical outcome was assessed using the Constant score. The functional limitation was assessed using the bother index of the short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment. Radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the final follow-up assessed acromioclavicular joint reduction, coracoclavicular distance, and joint arthrosis. At the final follow-up, mean Constant score was 93.04 (range, 84-100). The average (±SD) short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment bother index was 20.88±8.95 (range, 2.0-49). No statistically significant difference was found between the acromioclavicular joint dislocation type and the clinical result (P=.227; chi-square, 6.910, Kruskal Wallis test). The regression of the coracoclavicular distance at final follow-up was not statistically significant (P=.276; chi-square, 6.319, Kruskal Wallis test). The flipptack fixation button technique is an effective alternative for the treatment of severe acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Because all objectives of the treatment were obtained, the results do not deteriorate over time. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Gerard J; Randall, Gemma; Wikman, Anna; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with coronary heart disease. The study design was prospective and observational. Type D personality, self-efficacy for illness management behaviors, and medication adherence were measured 3 weeks after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome in 165 patients (mean [standard deviation] age = 61.62 [10.61] years, 16% women). Self-reported medication adherence was measured 6 months later in 118 of these patients. Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were used to address the study research questions. Using the original categorical classification, 30% of patients with acute coronary syndrome were classified as having Type D personality. Categorically defined patients with Type D personality had significantly poorer medication adherence at 6 months (r = -0.29, p social inhibition (r = -0.19, p = .04), the components of Type D personality, were associated with medication adherence 6 months after discharge in bivariate analyses. There was no evidence for the interaction of NA and social inhibition, that is, Type D personality, in the prediction of medication adherence 6 months after discharge in multivariate analysis. The observed association between NA and medication adherence 6 months after discharge could be partly explained by indirect effects through self-efficacy in mediation analysis (coefficient = -0.012; 95% bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = -0.036 to -0.001). The present data suggest the primacy of NA over the Type D personality construct in predicting medication adherence. Lower levels of self-efficacy may be a mediator between higher levels of NA and poor adherence to medication in patients with coronary heart disease.

  15. Clathrate type complexation of cephalosporin antibiotics : function, design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Gerardus Johannes

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selective complexation of the Ø-lactam antibiotics Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefaclor and Cefadroxil. These life-saving antibiotics belong to the class of the cephalosporins and are already on the market for approximately 25 years. An important driving force behind innovations o

  16. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    (CPRS), type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and ... Computed tomography was done to exclude stress ... Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the ... with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow .... spinal cord.

  17. Acute and chronic administration of cannabidiol increases mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase activity in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira S. Valvassori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD on mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase (CK activity in the rat brain using spectrophotometry. Method: Male adult Wistar rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle or CBD (15, 30, or 60 mg/kg in an acute (single dose or chronic (once daily for 14 consecutive days regimen. The activities of mitochondrial complexes and CK were measured in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. Results: Both acute and chronic injection of CBD increased the activity of the mitochondrial complexes (I, II, II-III, and IV and CK in the rat brain. Conclusions: Considering that metabolism impairment is certainly involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, the modulation of energy metabolism (e.g., by increased mitochondrial complex and CK activity by CBD could be an important mechanism implicated in the action of CBD.

  18. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Guo, Jie; Meng, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhijun; Yao, Yang; Yang, Jiajia; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution. PMID:27403202

  19. Are there differences in acute phase inflammation markers regarding the type of heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Agüero-Ramón-Llin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if there are differences in inflammatory markers in the acute phase between systolic heart failure and heart failure with preserved systolic function. One hundred and thirty-one patients with acute heart failure were recruited consecutively. At admission, plasma fibrinogen, Creactive protein, sialic acid, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6 and NTproBNP were all evaluated. If the ejection fraction was 45% or over patients were included in the HF-PSF group; the remaining patients were included in the SHF group. The HF-PSF patients were older (72±10 vs 63±12 years, P<0.001, presented a higher rate of atrial fibrillation (56.1 vs 21.3%, P<0.001, and had a lower rate of hemoglobin (12.2±2 vs 13.3±2.1 g/dL, P<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the inflammation markers analyzed among SHF and HFPSF groups. In the acute phase of heart failure there is a marked elevation of inflammatory markers but there are no differences in the inflammatory markers analyzed between the two different types of heart failure

  20. Hereditary angioedema type 2 presented as an orbital complication of acute rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Göktas, Göksel; Özer, Samet; Sapmaz, Emrah; Bas, Yalcın

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant and life-threatening disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of non-pitting edema affecting the skin, respiratory system and digestive tracts and caused by a congenital deficiency or function defect of the C1 esterase inhibitor. Preseptal cellulitis is defined as an infection of the tissues of the anterior orbital septum. It is generally caused by complications from an upper respiratory tract infection, dacryocystitis, dermal infection, and, rarely, sinusitis. The disease presents with orbital pain, edema on the eyelids, erythema, and fever. In this case, a child with hereditary angioedema type 2 who presented as mimicking a complication of acute sinusitis is discussed.

  1. Acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease resembling type II (atypical adult) pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjana, Devita; Robertson, Ivan; Kennedy, Glen; James, Daniel; Weedon, David

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of cutaneous acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) with confluent erythematous perifollicular hyperkeratosis and ichthyosiform scale in the clinical pattern of type II (atypical adult) pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), which developed 26 days after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Skin histology confirmed features of both aGVHD and PRP. The skin lesions were refractory to oral prednisolone and cyclosporine and only partially responsive to a combination of i.v. methylprednisolone, oral tacrolimus, oral mycophenolate mofetil, and infusions of anti-thymocyte globulin and the tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor, etanercept. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Evidence for effects on thermoregulation after acute oral exposure to type I and type II pyrethroids in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardullas, Ulises; Sosa-Holt, Carla Solange; Pato, Alejandro Martín; Nemirovsky, Sergio Iván; Wolansky, Marcelo Javier

    2015-01-01

    Most pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides may be classified either as type-I compounds, which produce whole body tremors and hyperthermia, or type-II compounds, which produce salivation, choreoathetosis, and hypothermia (i.e., producing T and CS neurobehavioral syndromes, respectively). This classification is based on clinical observations in adult rats and mice after intracerebroventricular or intravascular administration of highly effective acute (bolus) doses. PYR neurotoxicity in infant animals is not characterized as much as in adult animals. Endpoints informing on vital determinants of mammal's maturation, such as body temperature may help recognizing age-related differences in susceptibility to PYRs. In this work, body temperature (Tb) was monitored at 30-min intervals after acute oral exposure to T-syndrome PYR bifenthrin (BIF), CS-syndrome PYR cypermethrin (CYPM), and a BIF–CYPM mixture in weanling rats by using a subcutaneous temperature monitoring system. In both single-compound assays, a time- and dose-related decline of Tb was the most evident impact on thermoregulation observed starting at ~2–3 h after dosing.Moreover, 15–18 mg/kg BIF induced a mild increase in Tb before the hypothermic action was apparent. The lowest effective dose for temperature perturbation was 15mg/kg for BIF and 10mg/kg for CYPM, and moderate neurobehavioral alterations were evident at 12 and 10mg/kg, respectively. When low effective doses of BIF and CYPM were co-administered mild behavioral effects and a transient increase in Tb (p=0.02) were observed at 1–2 h, and no Tb decline was apparent afterwards compared to control animals. Noteworthy, the hypothermic action of BIF in infant rats was quite different from the hyperthermia consistently reported in studies using mature animals. Our results suggest that body temperature monitoring may be useful as a complementary assessment to reveal qualitative age-specific pesticide effects in rats.

  3. The Relationship between Clinical Feature, Complex Immunophenotype, Chromosome Karyotype, and Outcome of Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL is a complex entity expressing both lymphoid and myeloid immunophenotyping. In the present study, 47 MPAL, 60 lymphoid antigen-positive acute myeloid leukemia (Ly+AML, and 90 acute myeloid leukemia with common myeloid immunophenotype (Ly−AML patients were investigated. We found that, in MPAL patients, there were high proportions of blast cells in bone marrow and incidence of hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and Philadelphia chromosome. The overall survival (OS and relapse-free survival (RFS in MPAL patients were significantly shorter than those in Ly+AML and Ly−AML. With regard to the patients with normal karyotype only, the OS and RFS of MPAL were significantly lower than those of the Ly+AML and Ly−AML; but there were no significant differences in OS and RFS among the patients with complex karyotype. The OS rates of 3 groups with complex karyotype were lower than those of patients with normal karyotype. In Cox multivariate analysis, complex karyotype was an independent pejorative factor for both OS and RFS. Therefore, MPAL is confirmed to be a poor-risk disease while Ly+AML does not impact prognosis. Complex karyotype is an unfavorable prognosis factor in AML patients with different immunophenotype. Mixed immunophenotype and complex karyotype increase the adverse risk when they coexist.

  4. Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2017-09-04

    The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of (1)H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrachanges as part of complex chromosome-type exchange aberrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boei, JJWA; Vermeulen, S; Moser, J; Mullenders, LHF; Natarajan, AT

    2002-01-01

    The chromosome-type exchange aberrations induced by ionizing radiation during the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle are believed to be the result of illegitimate rejoining of chromosome breaks. From numerous studies using chromosome painting, it has emerged that even after a moderate dose of

  6. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P Pettit

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  7. Complex Dynamics of an Adnascent-Type Game Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a nonlinear discrete game model for two oligopolistic firms whose products are adnascent. (In biology, the term adnascent has only one sense, “growing to or on something else,” e.g., “moss is an adnascent plant.” See Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary published in 1913 by C. & G. Merriam Co., edited by Noah Porter. The bifurcation of its Nash equilibrium is analyzed with Schwarzian derivative and normal form theory. Its complex dynamics is demonstrated by means of the largest Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, bifurcation diagrams, and phase portraits. At last, bifurcation and chaos anticontrol of this system are studied.

  8. Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru; Uchida, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-29

    FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar base, but the details are unknown. Here we report the structure of the homodimer of a C-terminal fragment of FliH (FliHC2) in complex with FliI. FliHC2 shows an unusually asymmetric homodimeric structure that markedly resembles the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPases. The FliHC2-FliI hexamer model reveals that the C-terminal domains of the FliI ATPase face the cell membrane in a way similar to the F/A/V-type ATPases. We discuss the mechanism of flagellar ATPase complex formation and a common origin shared by the type III secretion system and the F/A/V-type ATPases.

  9. Manipulating Cognitive Complexity across Task Types and Its Impact on Learners' Interaction during Oral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert, Roger; Baron, Julia; Llanes, Angels

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of manipulating the cognitive complexity of three different types of oral tasks on interaction. The study first considers the concepts of task complexity and interaction and then examines the specific studies that have looked at the effects of increasing task complexity on conversational…

  10. Pathogenesis of Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure : Workgroup Statements from the Eleventh Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Michael; Mueller, Christian; Damman, Kevin; Murray, Patrick T.; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio; McCullough, Peter A.; McCullough, PA; Kellum, JA; Mehta, RL; Murray, PT; Ronco, C

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) types 1-5 are still sparsely characterized. In an attempt to address this issue, a consensus conference on CRS was held in Venice, Italy, in November 2012 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). Working group 1

  11. Alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences after acute LSD in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin

    2017-05-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. Acute effects of LSD were assessed using the 5 Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) scale after both doses and the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) after 200 μg. On the MEQ, 200 μg LSD induced mystical experiences that were comparable to those in patients who underwent LSD-assisted psychotherapy but were fewer than those reported for psilocybin in healthy subjects or patients. On the 5D-ASC scale, LSD produced higher ratings of blissful state, insightfulness, and changed meaning of percepts after 200 μg compared with 100 μg. Plasma levels of LSD were not positively correlated with its effects, with the exception of ego dissolution at 100 μg. Mystical-type experiences were infrequent after LSD, possibly because of the set and setting used in the present study. LSD may produce greater or different alterations of consciousness at 200 μg (i.e., a dose that is currently used in psychotherapy in Switzerland) compared with 100 μg (i.e., a dose used in imaging studies). Ego dissolution may reflect plasma levels of LSD, whereas more robustly induced effects of LSD may not result in such associations.

  12. Endovascular repair or medical treatment of acute type B aortic dissection? A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemelli-Steingruber, I. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Chemelli, A. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)], E-mail: andreas.chemelli@i-med.ac.at; Strasak, A. [Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hugl, B. [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hiemetzberger, R. [Department of Cardiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Jaschke, W.; Glodny, B.; Czermak, B.V. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to that of medical therapy in patients with acute type B aortic dissection (TBD). Materials and methods: From July 1996 to April 2008, 88 patients presenting with acute TBD underwent either TEVAR (group A, n = 38) or medical therapy (group B, n = 50). Indications for TEVAR were intractable pain, aortic branch compromise resulting in end-organ ischemia, rapid aortic dilatation and rupture. Follow-up was performed postinterventionally, at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter and included clinical examinations and computed tomography (CT), as well as aortic diameter measurements and assessment of thrombosis. Results: Mean follow-up was 33 months in group A and 36 months in group B. The overall mortality rate was 23.7% in group A and 24% in group B, where 4 patients died of late aortic rupture. In group A, complications included 9 endoleaks and 4 retrograde type A dissections, 3 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 needed secondary intervention. None of the patients developed paraplegia. In group B, 4 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 to TEVAR. The maximal aortic diameter increased in both groups. Regarding the extent of thrombosis, our analyses showed slightly better overall results after TEVAR, but they also showed a tendency towards approximation between the two groups during follow-up. Conclusion: TEVAR is a feasible treatment option in acute TBD. However, several serious complications may occur during and after TEVAR and it should therefore be reserved to patients with life-threatening symptoms.

  13. Aortic diameter >or = 5.5 cm is not a good predictor of type A aortic dissection: observations from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pape, Linda A; Tsai, Thomas T; Isselbacher, Eric M; Oh, Jae K; O'gara, Patrick T; Evangelista, Arturo; Fattori, Rossella; Meinhardt, Gabriel; Trimarchi, Santi; Bossone, Eduardo; Suzuki, Toru; Cooper, Jeanna V; Froehlich, James B; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A

    2007-01-01

    .... However, few studies of acute aortic dissection patients and aortic size exist. We used data from our registry of acute aortic dissection patients to better understand the relationship between aortic diameter and type A dissection...

  14. Value of Plasmatic Membrane Attack Complex as a Marker of Severity in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if complement pathway is activated in AKI; for this purpose, we measured, through ELISA sandwich, the terminal lytic fraction of the complement system, called membrane attack complex (C5b-C9, in AKI patients compared with patients with similar clinical conditions but normal renal function. Our data showed that complement system is activated in AKI. Plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in AKI patients than in those with normal renal function; this difference is maintained independently of the AKI etiology and is proportional to the severity of AKI, measured by ADQI classification. In addition, we found that plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in patients who did not recover renal function at time of hospitalization discharge, in patients who died during the acute process, and in patients who need renal replacement therapy during hospitalization, but in this last group, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, plasmatic MAC concentration seems valuable as a marker of AKI severity.

  15. Value of plasmatic membrane attack complex as a marker of severity in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Riera, Marta; Barrios, Clara; Pascual, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if complement pathway is activated in AKI; for this purpose, we measured, through ELISA sandwich, the terminal lytic fraction of the complement system, called membrane attack complex (C5b-C9), in AKI patients compared with patients with similar clinical conditions but normal renal function. Our data showed that complement system is activated in AKI. Plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in AKI patients than in those with normal renal function; this difference is maintained independently of the AKI etiology and is proportional to the severity of AKI, measured by ADQI classification. In addition, we found that plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in patients who did not recover renal function at time of hospitalization discharge, in patients who died during the acute process, and in patients who need renal replacement therapy during hospitalization, but in this last group, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, plasmatic MAC concentration seems valuable as a marker of AKI severity.

  16. The complexity of interpreting genomic data in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazha, A; Zarzour, A; Al-Issa, K; Radivoyevitch, T; Carraway, H E; Hirsch, C M; Przychodzen, B; Patel, B J; Clemente, M; Sanikommu, S R; Kalaycio, M; Maciejewski, J P; Sekeres, M A

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous neoplasm characterized by the accumulation of complex genetic alterations responsible for the initiation and progression of the disease. Translating genomic information into clinical practice remained challenging with conflicting results regarding the impact of certain mutations on disease phenotype and overall survival (OS) especially when clinical variables are controlled for when interpreting the result. We sequenced the coding region for 62 genes in 468 patients with secondary AML (sAML) and primary AML (pAML). Overall, mutations in FLT3, DNMT3A, NPM1 and IDH2 were more specific for pAML whereas UTAF1, STAG2, BCORL1, BCOR, EZH2, JAK2, CBL, PRPF8, SF3B1, ASXL1 and DHX29 were more specific for sAML. However, in multivariate analysis that included clinical variables, only FLT3 and DNMT3A remained specific for pAML and EZH2, BCOR, SF3B1 and ASXL1 for sAML. When the impact of mutations on OS was evaluated in the entire cohort, mutations in DNMT3A, PRPF8, ASXL1, CBL EZH2 and TP53 had a negative impact on OS; no mutation impacted OS favorably; however, in a cox multivariate analysis that included clinical data, mutations in DNMT3A, ASXL1, CBL, EZH2 and TP53 became significant. Thus, controlling for clinical variables is important when interpreting genomic data in AML. PMID:27983727

  17. The Relationship between Dyslipidemia and Acute Axonal Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwai, Natalie C G; Nigole, William; Poynten, Ann M; Brown, Christopher; Krishnan, Arun V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus. Treatment largely consists of symptom alleviation and there is a need to identify therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of DPN. The objective of this study was to utilise novel neurophysiological techniques to investigate axonal function in patients with type 2 diabetes and to prospectively determine their relationship to serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients. Seventy-one patients with type 2 diabetes were consecutively recruited and tested. All patients underwent thorough clinical neurological assessments including nerve conduction studies, and median motor axonal excitability studies. Studies were also undertaken in age matched normal control subjects(n = 42). Biochemical studies, including serum lipid levels were obtained in all patients. Patient excitability data was compared to control data and linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between serum triglycerides and low density lipoproteins and excitability parameters typically abnormal in type 2 diabetic patients. Patient mean age was 64.2±2.3 years, mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c%) was 7.8±0.3%, mean triglyceride concentration was 1.6±0.1 mmol/L and mean cholesterol concentration was 4.1±0.2mmol/L. Compared to age matched controls, median motor axonal excitability studies indicated axonal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients as a whole (T2DM) and in a subgroup of the patients without DPN (T2DM-NN). These included reduced percentage threshold change during threshold electrotonus at 10-20ms depolarising currents (TEd10-20ms)(controls 68.4±0.8, T2DM63.9±0.8, T2DM-NN64.8±1.6%,Plipoprotein concentration when adjusted for renal function, a separate risk factor for neuropathy development. Our findings indicate that acutely, serum lipids do not exert an acute effect on axonal function in type 2 diabetic patients: TEd(10-20ms)(1.2(-1.4,3.8);P = 0.4) and

  18. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients after an acute coronary event : The Diacourse-ACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to define the clinical profile and difficulties encountered by type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event (ACE), to develop and evaluate a tailored supportive intervention for type 2 diabetes patients with a first ACE and to examine diabetes-related

  19. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients after an acute coronary event : The Diacourse-ACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to define the clinical profile and difficulties encountered by type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event (ACE), to develop and evaluate a tailored supportive intervention for type 2 diabetes patients with a first ACE and to examine diabetes-related

  20. Complexity and Intensionality in a Type-1 Framework for Computable Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a type-1 framework for computable analysis designed to facilitate efficient implementations and discusses properties that have not been well studied before for type-1 approaches: the introduction of complexity measures for type-1 representations of real functions, and ways...

  1. Complex Dynamic Scene Perception: Effects of Attentional Set on Perceiving Single and Multiple Event Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments measured the efficiency of monitoring complex scenes composed of changing objects, or events. All events lasted about 4 s, but in a given block of trials, could be of a single type (single task) or of multiple types (multitask, with a total of four event types). Overall accuracy of detecting target events amid distractors was…

  2. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. Results: A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Conclusion: Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing

  3. Acute effects of physical exercise in type 2 diabetes: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo; Yukio; Asano; Marcelo; Magalhes; Sales; Rodrigo; Alberto; Vieira; Browne; José; Fernando; Vila; Nova; Moraes; Hélio; José; Coelho; Júnior; Milton; Rocha; Moraes; Hebert; Gustavo; Simoes

    2014-01-01

    The literature has shown the efficiency of exercise in the control of type 2 diabetes(T2D), being suggested as one of the best kinds of non-pharmacological treatments for its population. Thus, the scientific production related to this phenomenon has growing exponentially. However, despite its advances, still there is a lack of studies that have carried out a review on the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in individuals with T2 D, not to mention that in a related way, these themes have been very little studied today. Therefore, the aim of this study was to organize and analyze the current scientific production about the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in T2 D individuals. For such, a research with the following keywords was performed:-exercise; diabetes and post-exercise hypotension; diabetes and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption; diabetes and acute effects in PUBMED, SCIELO and HIGHWIRE databases. From the analyzed studies, it is possible to conclude that, a single exercise session can promote an increase in the bioavailability of nitric oxide and elicit decreases in postexercise blood pressure. Furthermore, the metabolic stress from physical exercise can increase the oxidation of carbohydrate during the exercise and keep it, in high levels, the post exercise consumption of O2, this phenomenon increases the rate of fat oxidation during recovery periods after exercise, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduces glycemia between 2-72 h, which seems to be dependent on the exercise intensity and duration of the effort.

  4. Sandwich Technique for Endovascular Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Zeng, Qian; Lin, Fangming; Ge, Xiaohu

    2017-07-01

    To describe a new endovascular procedure for acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD) repair. Between 2013 and 2016, 12 patients (average age 54±9.6 years; 10 men) with acute TAAD (mean EURO score 11.4%±3.2%, range 5-17) and unfit for surgery underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with 2 periscope grafts to preserve blood supply to supra-aortic branches plus bypass grafting as needed. If the ascending aorta was dilated to >40 mm, sternotomy was performed to wrap the ascending aorta and reduce its diameter to accommodate the aortic stent-grafts. All patients were successfully treated. Seven patients required bypass grafting, and most of the patients had periscope grafts to the innominate/right common carotid artery and left common carotid artery; only 3 patients had the left subclavian artery preserved. All patients exhibited good hemodynamics and normal pressures after the procedure. The mean procedure time and blood loss were 4.5±1.0 hours and 217±111.5 mL, respectively. Two patients treated emergently died shortly after surgery from multiorgan failure. The average follow-up duration was 17±14.5 months (range 2-42) in the 10 survivors. The remaining patients recovered and none experienced stent-graft thrombosis, stroke, or peripheral artery embolism during follow-up. A procedure that combines sandwich/periscope grafting with TEVAR, wrapping of the aorta, and supra-arch bypass grafting can be used to treat patients with acute TAAD.

  5. Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Lluís; Grønskov, Karen; Wei, Ai-Hua; Martínez-García, Mónica; Fernández, Almudena; Arveiler, Benoît; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Riazuddin, Saima; Suzuki, Tamio; Ahmed, Zubair M; Rosenberg, Thomas; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Albinism is a rare genetic condition globally characterized by a number of specific deficits in the visual system, resulting in poor vision, in association with a variable hypopigmentation phenotype. This lack or reduction in pigment might affect the eyes, skin, and hair (oculocutaneous albinism, OCA), or only the eyes (ocular albinism, OA). In addition, there are several syndromic forms of albinism (e.g. Hermansky-Pudlak and Chediak-Higashi syndromes, HPS and CHS, respectively) in which the described hypopigmented and visual phenotypes coexist with more severe pathological alterations. Recently, a locus has been mapped to the 4q24 human chromosomal region and thus represents an additional genetic cause of OCA, termed OCA5, while the gene is eventually identified. In addition, two new genes have been identified as causing OCA when mutated: SLC24A5 and C10orf11, and hence designated as OCA6 and OCA7, respectively. This consensus review, involving all laboratories that have reported these new genes, aims to update and agree upon the current gene nomenclature and types of albinism, while providing additional insights from the function of these new genes in pigment cells.

  6. Detection of mixed populations of wild-type and YMDD hepatitis B variants by pyrosequencing in acutely and chronically infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Francisco C A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lamivudine (LAM is associated with the highest known rate of resistance mutations among nucleotide analogs used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Despite this, LAM continues in widespread use, especially in combination therapies. The primary LAM resistance mutation (rtM204V/I occurs in the YMDD motif of HBV polymerase. The aim of this study was to characterize Brazilian HBV isolates from acute and chronic cases by direct sequencing, and to identify HBV quasispecies in the YMDD motif using a pyrosequencing method capable of detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms. HBV DNA from serum samples of 20 individuals with acute HBV infection and 44 with chronic infection undergoing antiviral therapies containing LAM were analyzed by direct sequencing and pyrosequencing methods. Results Phylogenic analyses of direct-sequenced isolates showed the expected genotypes (A, D and F for the Brazilian population in both acute and chronic infections. However, within genotype A isolates, subgenotype A2 was more frequently detected in acute cases than in chronic cases (P = 0.012. As expected, none of the individuals with acute hepatitis B had LAM-resistant isolates as a dominant virus population, whether detected by direct sequencing or pyrosequencing. However, pyrosequencing analyses showed that 45% of isolates (9/20 had minor subpopulations (4-17% of LAM-resistant isolates. Among chronic patients undergoing LAM treatment, YMDD mutants were frequently found as a dominant virus population. In cases where wild-type virus was the dominant population, subpopulations of YMDD variants were usually found, demonstrating the complexity of HBV quasispecies. Conclusions YMDD variants were frequently detected as a minor population in acute HBV infection. The occurrence of pre-existing variants may lead to a high frequency of resistant mutants during antiviral therapy in the chronic phase. In chronic infection, detection of YMDD

  7. Clinical evaluation of oxidative stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type II: Impact of acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exercise is a well recognized model of oxidative stress and, also, an important tool in diabetes management. The aim of our study was to evaluate oxidative stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and to determine influence of acute exercise training on the investigated parameters. Methods. To evaluate oxidative stress in the patients, we determinated following parameters: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, oxidized LDL cholesterol (Ox LDL, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI which were measured at rest and immediately after the acute bout of cardiopulmonary exercise cycle-ergometer test. Results. In basal condition, diabetic patients compared to controls have significant higher values of TG (3.12 ± 1.09 vs 1.74 ± 0.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, Ox LDL (84.73 ± 16.90 vs 79.00 ± 29.26 mmol/L, p < 0.05 and SOD enzyme activity (913.38 ± 120.36 vs 877.14 ± 153.18 U/g Hb, p < 0.05. During the acute exercise test, there was significant increase of Ox LDL in both the study patients (from 84.73 ± 16.90 to 92.33 ± 23.29 mmol/L, p < 0.05 and in the control group (from 79.00 ± 29.26 to 89.30 ± 29.07 mmol/L, p < 0.05. SOD activity was significantly increased in both groups during exercise, in diabetic patients from 913.38 ± 120.36 to 921.50 ± 130.03 U/gHb, p < 0.05, and in the controls from 877.14 ± 153.18 to 895.00 ± 193.49, U/gHb, p < 0.05. GSH-Px activity was significantly increased only in the diabetic patients after the acute exercise (from 45.04 ± 11.19 to 51.81 ± 15.07 U/gHb, p < 0.01, but not in the controls (from 44.63 ± 13.73 to 43.97 ± 25.97 U/gHb, p = ns. PAI significantly decreased during the exercise test, only in the healthy subjects (from 2.60 ± 0.35 to 2.22 ± 0.65, p < 0.05. Type 2 diabetic patients with complications had only significant increase in GSH-Px activity (from 47.10 ± 7.37 to 54.52 ± 11.97 U

  8. Inter ventional therapy of diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage by using dexmedetomidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of dexmedetomidine on cerebral injury, inflammation, oxidative stress and renal function of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 98 cases who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage and treated with interventional therapy in Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from September 2014 January 2016 were chosen to be our study subjects. Among them, 50 cases given dexmedetomidine treatment in the process of anesthesia were included in the dexmedetomidine group (Group A, while the other 48 cases treated with equal amount of normal saline were considered as the negative control group. The postoperative cerebral injury indexes and the serum biochemical indexes were detected after 24 h. Results: The contents of serum S100b [(2.1 ± 0.2 mg/L] and neuron-specific enolase (NSE [(14.2 ± 1.3 mg/mL] in Group A were all significantly lower than serum S100b [(2.9 ± 0.3 mg/L] and NSE [(16.6 ± 1.7 mg/mL] of patients in negative control group. The contents of cerebrospinal fluid S100b [(0.9 ± 0.1 mg/L] and NSE [(10.7 ± 1.3 mg/ mL] in Group A were all significantly lower than cerebrospinal fluid S100b [(1.3 ± 0.2 mg/L] and NSE [(15.3 ± 1.7 mg/mL] of patients in negative control group. The contents of erythrocyte sedimentation rate [(11.7 ± 2.5 mm/h], c-reactive protein [(2.3 ± 0.4 mg/L], urea nitrogen [(10.7 ± 1.2 mmol/L] and serum creatinine [(151.6 ± 14.9] mmol/L in Group A were all significantly lower than erythrocyte sedimentation rate [(23.6 ± 3.8 mm/h], c-reactive protein [(6.9 ± 1.1 mg/L], urea nitrogen [(16.7 ± 1.7 mmol/L] and serum creatinine [(192.5 ± 18.3] mmol/L of patients in negative control group. Conclusions: The application of dexmedetomidine in the interventional therapy of diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage could

  9. Interventional therapy of diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage by using dexmedetomidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Shan Zheng; Xin-Ye Qian; Si-Yuan Li; Xuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of dexmedetomidine on cerebral injury, inflammation, oxidative stress and renal function of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 98 cases who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage and treated with interventional therapy in Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from September 2014 January 2016 were chosen to be our study subjects. Among them, 50 cases given dexmedetomidine treatment in the process of anesthesia were included in the dexmedetomidine group (Group A), while the other 48 cases treated with equal amount of normal saline were considered as the negative control group. The postoperative cerebral injury indexes and the serum biochemical indexes were detected after 24 h. Results: The contents of serum S100b [(2.1 ± 0.2) mg/L] and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) [(14.2 ± 1.3) mg/mL] in Group A were all significantly lower than serum S100b [(2.9 ± 0.3) mg/L] and NSE [(16.6 ± 1.7) mg/mL] of patients in negative control group. The contents of cerebrospinal fluid S100b [(0.9 ± 0.1) mg/L] and NSE [(10.7 ± 1.3) mg/mL] in Group A were all significantly lower than cerebrospinal fluid S100b [(1.3 ± 0.2) mg/L] and NSE [(15.3 ± 1.7) mg/mL] of patients in negative control group. The contents of erythrocyte sedimentation rate [(11.7 ± 2.5) mm/h], c-reactive protein [(2.3 ± 0.4) mg/L], urea nitrogen [(10.7 ± 1.2) mmol/L] and serum creatinine [(151.6 ± 14.9)] mmol/L in Group A were all significantly lower than erythrocyte sedi-mentation rate [(23.6 ± 3.8) mm/h], c-reactive protein [(6.9 ± 1.1) mg/L], urea nitrogen [(16.7 ± 1.7) mmol/L] and serum creatinine [(192.5 ± 18.3)] mmol/L of patients in negative control group. Conclusions: The application of dexmedetomidine in the interventional therapy of diabetes mellitus type 2 complicated with acute cerebral hemorrhage could

  10. [Early rehabilitation program in uncomplicated Stanford type B acute aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takehiko; Ichihara, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Hidehito; Kanamori, Taro

    2014-08-01

    Between December 2009 and August 2011, 120 patients with uncomplicated Stanford type B acute aortic dissection( UBAD) received medical treatment. In October 2010, we initiated an early rehabilitation program for UBAD patients in an acute phase. This early rehabilitation program, which was aimed at enabling the patient to walk around the ward within 2 days, was conducted for 87 consecutive patients;the remaining 33 were subjected to the conventional rehabilitation program. Mortality was not significantly different between the 2 groups. The incidence of atelectasis, need for mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit syndrome during medical treatment occurred in 48% (16/33), 15% ( 5/33), and 30% ( 10/33), respectively, of the conventional group and in 3.4% ( 3/87), 1.1% (1/87), and 3.4% ( 3/87), respectively, of the early rehabilitation group. The outer diameter of the aorta was dilated after 4 weeks' rehabilitation in smaller percentage of patients in the early rehabilitation group than the conventional one. Thus, the early rehabilitation program was more effective for patients with UBAD than the conventional one.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic physical exercise and stress on different types of memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Pâmela Billig; Benetti, Fernando; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2008-06-01

    Here we study the effect of acute and chronic physical exercise in a treadmill and of daily stress (because forced exercise involves a degree of stress) during 2 or 8 weeks on different types of memory in male Wistar rats. The memory tests employed were: habituation in an open field, object recognition and spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Daily foot-shock stress enhanced habituation learning after 2 but not after 8 weeks; it hindered both short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) of the recognition task at 2 weeks but only STM after 8 weeks and had no effect on spatial learning after either 2 or 8 weeks. Acute but not chronic exercise also enhanced habituation in the open field and hindered STM and LTM in the recognition task. Chronic exercise enhanced one important measure of spatial learning (latency to escape) but not others. Our findings indicate that some care must be taken when interpreting effects of forced exercise on brain parameters since at least part of them may be due to the stress inherent to the training procedure.

  12. Gastroprotection studies of Schiff base zinc (II derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Golbabapour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v, orally. Ethanol (95% v/v was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10(-5 M/kg was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II complex (2.181×10(-5 and 4.362×10(-5 M/kg protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10(-5 M/kg. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism.

  13. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Flindtgaard, Mads; Skriver, Kasper Christen

    2017-01-01

    d. The results demonstrate that high-intensity, acute exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off...... following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill......-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed....

  14. A Feasibility Study of Off-the-Shelf Scalloped Stent-Grafts in Acute Type B Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Emma; Bakker, Olaf J; Kamman, Arnoud V; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Trimarchi, Santi; Vos, Jan Albert; Heijmen, Robin H

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the applicability of an off-the-shelf scalloped stent-graft to preserve left subclavian artery (LSA) flow in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for acute type B aortic dissection. The computed tomography angiograms (CTA) of 70 consecutive patients (median age 64 years; 44 men) with acute Stanford type B aortic dissection were retrospectively analyzed to identify patients in whom a short proximal landing zone (shelf scalloped stent-graft would have been applicable in 23 (41%) patients. In the latter group, the median aortic diameter was 31 mm (range 26-37), the median length of the LSA ostium was 13 mm (range 10-20), and the median width of the LSA ostium was 15 mm (range 11-24). Three differently sized off-the-shelf stent-grafts with the largest scallop possible could have adequately treated 20 (36%) of the 56 patients in the acute phase. In this single-center imaging-based study, involvement of the LSA in the setting of acute type B aortic dissection was seen in 80% of patients treated with TEVAR. Three off-the-shelf stent-grafts would suffice to treat one-third of these acute type B aortic dissections and may offer a relatively simple solution to preserve LSA flow, thereby lowering the risk of malperfusion of the (posterior) cerebrum, spinal cord, and left arm in an urgent/emergent setting.

  15. Characterization of cryptic rearrangements, deletion, complex variants of PML, RARA in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Kadam Amare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is characterized by a reciprocal translocation t(15;17(q22;q21 leading to the disruption of Promyelocytic leukemia (PML and Retionic Acid Receptor Alpha (RARA followed by reciprocal PML-RARA fusion in 90% of the cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has overcome the hurdles of unavailability of abnormal and/or lack of metaphase cells, and detection of cryptic, submicroscopic rearrangements. In the present study, besides diagnostic approach we sought to analyze these cases for identification and characterization of cryptic rearrangements, deletion variants and unknown RARA translocation variants by application of D-FISH and RARA break-apart probe strategy on interphase and metaphase cells in a large series of 200 cases of APL. Forty cases (20% had atypical PML-RARA and/or RARA variants. D-FISH with PML/RARA probe helped identification of RARA insertion to PML. By application of D-FISH on metaphase cells, we documented that translocation of 15 to 17 leads to 17q deletion which results in loss of reciprocal fusion and/or residual RARA on der(17. Among the complex variants of t(15;17, PML-RARA fusion followed by residual RARA insertion closed to PML-RARA on der(15 was unique and unusual. FISH with break-apart RARA probe on metaphase cells was found to be a very efficient strategy to detect unknown RARA variant translocations like t(11;17(q23;q21, t(11;17(q13;q21 and t(2;17(p21;q21. These findings proved that D-FISH and break-apart probe strategy has potential to detect primary as well as secondary additional aberrations of PML, RARA and other additional loci. The long-term clinical follow-up is essential to evaluate the clinical importance of these findings.

  16. Protein phosphatases and chromatin modifying complexes in the inflammatory cascade in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Escobar; Javier; Pereda; Alessandro; Arduini; Juan; Sastre; Juan; Sandoval; Luis; Aparisi; Gerardo; López-Rodas; Luis; Sabater

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and death due to multiple organ failure. Acinar cells, together with leukocytes, trigger the inflammatory cascade in response to local damage of the pancreas. Amplification of the inflammatory cascade requires up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and this process is mediated not only by nuclear factor κB but also by chromatinmodifying complexes and chromatin remodeling. Among the different families of histone acetyltransferases, the p300/CBP family seems to be particularly associated with the inflammatory process. cAMP activates gene expression via the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) and the transcription factor CRE-binding protein (CREB). CREB can be phosphorylated and activated by different kinases, such as protein kinase A and MAPK, and then it recruits the histone acetyltransferase co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its homologue p300. The recruitment of CBP/p300 and changes in the level of histone acetylation are required for transcription activation. Transcriptional repression is also a dynamic and essential mechanism of down-regulation of genes for resolution of inflammation, which seems to be mediated mainly by protein phosphatases (PP1, PP2A and MKP1) and histone deacetylases(HDACs) .Class HDACs are key transcriptional regulators whose activities are controlled via phosphorylationdependent nucleo/cytoplasmic shuttling. PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylation of class HDACs, triggeringnuclear localization and repression of target genes, whereas phosphorylation triggers cytoplasmic localization leading to activation of target genes. The potential benefit from treatment with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors is discussed.

  17. Role of Pulse Pressure and Geometry of Primary Entry Tear in Acute Type B Dissection Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelukhana, Srikara V; Wang, Yanmin; Berwick, Zachary; Kratzberg, Jarin; Krieger, Joshua; Roeder, Blayne; Cloughs, Rachel E; Hsiao, Albert; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2016-08-10

    The hemodynamic and geometric factors leading to propagation of acute Type B dissections are poorly understood. The objective is to elucidate whether geometric and hemodynamic parameters increase the predilection for aortic dissection propagation. A pulse duplicator set-up was used on porcine aorta with a single entry tear. Mean pressures of 100 and 180 mmHg were used, with pulse pressures ranging from 40 to 200 mmHg. The propagation for varying geometric conditions (%circumference of the entry tear: 15-65%, axial length: 0.5-3.2 cm) were tested for two flap thicknesses (1/3rd and 2/3rd of the thickness of vessel wall, respectively). To assess the effect of pulse and mean pressure on flap dynamics, the %true lumen (TL) cross-sectional area of the entry tear were compared. The % circumference for propagation of thin flap (47 ± 1%) was not significantly different (p = 0.14) from thick flap (44 ± 2%). On the contrary, the axial length of propagation for thin flap (2.57 ± 0.15 cm) was significantly different (p propagation was calculated as 75 ± 9 J/m(2) and was fairly uniform across different specimens. Pulse pressure had a significant effect on the flap movement in contrast to mean pressure. Hence, mitigation of pulse pressure and restriction of flap movement may be beneficial in patients with type B acute dissections.

  18. Medication regimen complexity and readmissions after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Abou-Karam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Readmission rate is increasingly being viewed as a key indicator of health system performance. Medication regimen complexity index scores may be predictive of readmissions; however, few studies have examined this potential association. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether medication regimen complexity index is associated with all-cause 30-day readmission after admission for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: This study was an institutional review board–approved, multi-center, case–control study. Patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomly selected for inclusion. Patients were excluded if they discharged against medical advice or expired during their index visit. Block randomization was utilized for equal representation of index diagnosis and site. Discharge medication regimen complexity index scores were compared between subjects with readmission versus those without. Medication regimen complexity index score was then used as a predictor in logistic regression modeling for readmission. Results: Seven hundred and fifty-six patients were randomly selected for inclusion, and 101 (13.4% readmitted within 30 days. The readmission group had higher medication regimen complexity index scores than the no-readmission group (p < 0.01. However, after controlling for demographics, disease state, length of stay, site, and medication count, medication regimen complexity index was no longer a significant predictor of readmission (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.97–1.01 or revisit (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.02. Conclusion: There is little evidence to support the use of medication regimen complexity index in readmission prediction when other measures are available. Medication regimen complexity index

  19. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  20. Managing innovation complexity: About the co-existence of innovation types

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Philipp Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the changing innovation management literature by providing an overview of different innovation types and organizational complexity factors. Aiming at a better understanding of effective innovation management, innovation and complexity are related to the formulation of an innovation strategy and interaction between different innovation types is further explored. The chosen approach in this study is to review the existing literature on different inn...

  1. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies of a new schiff base derived copper (II complex against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

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    Maryam Hajrezaie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copper is an essential element in various metabolisms. The investigation was carried out to evaluate acute gastroprotective effects of the Copper (II complex against ethanol-induced superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were orally administered with Tween 20 (10% v/v. Group 3 was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20. Groups 4-7 received 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of the complex (10% Tween 20, respectively. Tween 20 (10% v/v was given orally to group 1 and absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7, respectively. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Group 2 exhibited severe superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved by the pre-treatment complex. The results showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide (NO, and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2 activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA level. Histology showed marked reduction of hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in groups 4-7. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. PAS staining of groups 4-7 showed intense stain uptake of gastric mucosa. The acute toxicity revealed the non-toxic nature of the compound. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The gastroprotective effect of the Copper (II complex may possibly be due to preservation of gastric wall mucus; increase in PGE(2 synthesis; GSH, SOD, and NO up-regulation of Hsp70 protein; decrease in MDA level; and down-regulation of Bax protein.

  2. A NEW TYPE OF CROWN FUNCTIONALIZED POLYSILOXANE AND ITS PLATINUM COMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuanyin; HONG Liwu; LI Jun; LU Xueran

    1993-01-01

    A new type of crown functionalized polysiloxane, in which the crown moieties were incorporated into main chain, and its platinum complex were synthesized. The polysiloxane was synthesized from 3, 16- dihydroxy- 1 - thia - 5, 8, 11, 14- tetraoxacycloheptadecane via etherification with ω- chloroundecene, followed by hydrosilylation with triethoxysilane, cohydrolysis with D4, sequentially. Treating the polysiloxane with potassium cholroplatinite, the title complex was obtained. It was found that the platinum complex exhibited high catalytic activity in the hydrosilylation of olefins with triethoxysilane.

  3. Acute kidney injury after ingestion of rhubarb: secondary oxalate nephropathy in a patient with type 1 diabetes

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    Albersmeyer Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxalosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by deposition of oxalate crystals in various organs including the kidney. Whereas primary forms result from genetic defects in oxalate metabolism, secondary forms of oxalosis can result from excessive intestinal oxalate absorption or increased endogenous production, e.g. after intoxication with ethylene glycol. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of acute crystal-induced renal failure associated with excessive ingestion of rhubarb in a type 1 diabetic with previously normal excretory renal function. Renal biopsy revealed mild mesangial sclerosis, but prominent tubular deposition of oxalate crystals in the kidney. Oxalate serum levels were increased. Conclusion Acute secondary oxalate nephropathy due to excessive dietary intake of oxalate may lead to acute renal failure in patients with preexisting renal disease like mild diabetic nephropathy. Attention should be payed to special food behaviors when reasons for acute renal failure are explored.

  4. Development of a new DNA extraction protocol for PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

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    A Ghodousi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE protocol was developed and applied to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to reduce the cost of using lyticase. This protocol reduces the expense of PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as it removes the use of lyticase during the spheroplast formation from these bacteria.

  5. Thiopyridazine-Based Copper Boratrane Complexes Demonstrating the Z-type Nature of the Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Stefan; Tüchler, Michael; Belaj, Ferdinand; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C

    2016-05-16

    In Z-type ligands the electrons for the coordination bond are formally provided by the metal. They represent an important addition to the much more extensively used L- and X-type σ-donor ligands for the development of transition metal complexes with new reactivities. We report here a new boron Z-type ligand with three tethering thiopyridazinyl donors forming exclusively complexes that feature a metal boron bond. Rational substitution pattern in the backbone of the pyridazinyl heterocycle led to a well-behaved ligand system that allowed preparation of a series of copper boratrane complexes in high yields. They are found to be more soluble in common organic solvents allowing reactivity studies in contrast to previous complexes with this type of ligand. Thus, copper complexes [Cu{B(Pn(Me,tBu))3}X] with X = Cl, OTf, N3, and κN-NCS are reported. Solution behavior was explored, and the molecular structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The thiocyanate ligand is found to coordinate via its nitrogen atom pointing to a high oxidation state of the copper. Density functional theory calculations indicate a high positive charge on copper and a strong copper-boron interaction. Thus, here reported complexes deliver synthetic evidence for the Z-type nature of the ligand. These findings are important for further dissemination of these types of ligands in coordination chemistry.

  6. Acute Response of Some Iron Indices of Young Elite Wrestlers to Three Types of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Wrestling Exercise

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    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the acute responses of some iron indices of young elite wrestlers to three types of aerobic, anaerobic, and wrestling exercises. A total of 24 elite volunteer wrestlers were randomly categorized into three groups (n=8 aerobic, anaerobic, and routine wrestling exercises. The exercises were conducted during three non-consecutive sessions within one week. The aerobic exercises included 35 min of continuous running with 130 beats per minute (BPM on a treadmill; the anaerobic exercises included 15 min circuit movements and 15 min rest with 160 BPM, and the wrestling training included routine wrestling exercises. Blood sampling was done in the first and third sessions in order to study the acute responses which included four stages of 1 h before, immediately, 3 h, and finally 24 h after exercises. The study of the acute response to the first session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum iron (p=0.57. Furthermore, the serum ferritin (p=0.012 and TIBC (p=0.006 affected was affected by type of exercise. The study of the acute response to the second session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum ferritin (p=0.731 and TIBC (p=0.231, rather the serum iron was affected by the type of exercise (p=0.01. Conclusively, the study of acute response showed that wrestling exercises led to a decline in iron stores during exercise and reduced total iron binding capacity during a 24-h recovery period. The study of acute exercise after a short adaptation period showed that despite the fact that serum iron had no change in anaerobic and wrestling exercises over the passage of time, it changed during aerobic exercise and 24-h recovery periods. Furthermore, the progress of iron deficiency was only observed in the first stage which prevented its progress to the next stage.

  7. Mixed-method research protocol: defining and operationalizing patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Evelyn; Kleinknecht-Dolf, Michael; Müller, Marianne; Kugler, Christiane; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    To define the concept of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals and to operationalize it in a questionnaire. The concept of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals has not been conclusively defined in the literature. The operationalization in a corresponding questionnaire is necessary, given the increased significance of the topic, due to shortened lengths of stay and increased patient morbidity. Hybrid model of concept development and embedded mixed-methods design. The theoretical phase of the hybrid model involved a literature review and the development of a working definition. In the fieldwork phase of 2015 and 2016, an embedded mixed-methods design was applied with complexity assessments of all patients at five Swiss hospitals using our newly operationalized questionnaire 'Complexity of Nursing Care' over 1 month. These data will be analysed with structural equation modelling. Twelve qualitative case studies will be embedded. They will be analysed using a structured process of constructing case studies and content analysis. In the final analytic phase, the quantitative and qualitative data will be merged and added to the results of the theoretical phase for a common interpretation. Cantonal Ethics Committee Zurich judged the research programme as unproblematic in December 2014 and May 2015. Following the phases of the hybrid model and using an embedded mixed-methods design can reach an in-depth understanding of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals, a final version of the questionnaire and an acknowledged definition of the concept. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

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    Shih-Han Wang

    Full Text Available The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group. The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05 during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05, which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  9. How I do it: transapical cannulation for acute type-A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Christos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aortic dissection is the most frequently diagnosed lethal disease of the aorta. Half of all patients with acute type-A aortic dissection die within 48 hours of presentation. There is still debate as to the optimal site of arterial cannulation for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with type-A aortic dissection. Femoral artery cannulation with retrograde perfusion is the most common method but because of the risk of malperfusion of vital organs and atheroembolism related to it different sites such as the axillary artery, the innominate artery and the aortic arch are used. Cannulation of these sites is not without risks of atheroembolism, neurovascular complications and can be time consuming. Another yet to be popularised option is the transapical aortic cannulation (TAC described in this article. TAC consists of the insertion of the arterial cannula through the apex of the left ventricle and the aortic valve to lie in the sinus of Valsalva. Trans-oesophageal guidance is necessary to ensure correct placement of the cannula. TAC is an excellent method of establishing cardiopulmonary bypass as it is quick, provides a more physiological method of delivering antegrade arterial flow and is the only method to assure perfusion of the true lumen.

  10. The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty…

  11. The Relationship between Dyslipidemia and Acute Axonal Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwai, Natalie C. G.; Nigole, William; Poynten, Ann M.; Brown, Christopher; Krishnan, Arun V.

    2016-01-01

    lipoprotein concentration when adjusted for renal function, a separate risk factor for neuropathy development. Our findings indicate that acutely, serum lipids do not exert an acute effect on axonal function in type 2 diabetic patients: TEd(10–20ms)(1.2(-1.4,3.8);P = 0.4) and superexcitability (2.4(-0.05, 4.8);P = 0.06). Conclusions These findings suggest that serum triglyceride levels are not related to axonal function in type 2 diabetic patients. Additional pathogenic mechanisms may play a more substantial role in axonal dysfunction prior to DPN development. PMID:27078166

  12. Early and midterm outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for acute and chronic complicated type B aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Hong; Du, Xin; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Jia, Xin; Ge, Yang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in the current era has been chosen as a dominant and minimally invasive treatment for complicated aorta dissection. This study aimed to assess safety and feasibility of TEVAR in acute and chronic type B aortic dissection. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 85 patients with complicated type B aortic dissection undergoing TEVAR were divided into acute aortic dissection (AAD) (n = 60) group and chronic aortic dissection (CAD) group (n = 25). Computed tomography was used to evaluate postoperative changes in maximal aortic diameter and true and false lumen diameters at 3 levels during a mean follow-up period of 26.4 ± 15.6 months. The technical success rate was 100%. In-hospital and 30-day rates of death were 3.3% in acute group and 0 in chronic group. Postdischarge rates of type I leak, type II leak, and retrograde type A dissection were 6.7%, 5.2%, and 3.4% (acute) and 0%, 4.0%, and 4.0% (chronic), respectively. The maximal aorta diameter remained stable in all the 3 levels in both acute and chronic group. The cumulative freedom from all-cause mortality at 3 years was similar in acute and chronic groups (89.5% vs 95.5%, P = .308). The cumulative freedom from aortic-related mortality was also not significantly different in the acute and chronic groups (92.8% vs 95.2%, P = .531). In the thoracic aorta, TEVAR treatment resulted in a significant increase in true lumen (TL) diameter and decrease in false lumen (FL). However, in the abdominal aorta, TEVAR did not lead to significant change in TL and FL diameters. The rates of complete thrombosis thoracic false lumens were better than that in the abdominal false lumen. TEVAR was a safe and effect therapy for complicated acute and chronic type B dissection with low early and mid-term mortality and morbidity. PMID:28700467

  13. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Salter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  14. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hannah; Douthwaite, Sam; Newsholme, William; Horsfield, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  15. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems.

  16. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pheat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; pchicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  17. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunying; Merchant, Michael L; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; McLeish, Kenneth R; Lederer, Eleanor D; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Fraig, Mostafa; Barati, Michelle T; Lentsch, Alex B; Roman, Jesse; Klein, Jon B; Rane, Madhavi J

    2015-01-01

    Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC) deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2), GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting a

  18. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunying Jin

    Full Text Available Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2, GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting

  19. Repair of an acute Type A aortic dissection with LVAD patient after failed mitral and tricuspid operation

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Fleissner, Felix; Hanke, Jasmin; Rojas,Sebastian; Avsar, Murat; Martens, Andreas; Shrestha, Malakh; Haverich, Axel; Strueber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message An acute type A dissection in a patient with a left ventricular assist device was treated by replacement of the ascending aorta and the proximal arch using a prosthesis with a side branch which was connected to the left ventricular assist device outflow branch, greatly simplifying the procedure.

  20. Soluble interleukin-15 complexes are generated in vivo by type I interferon dependent and independent pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Anthony

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-15 associates with IL-15Rα on the cell surface where it can be cleaved into soluble cytokine/receptor complexes that have the potential to stimulate CD8 T cells and NK cells. Unfortunately, little is known about the in vivo production of soluble IL-15Rα/IL-15 complexes (sIL-15 complexes, particularly regarding the circumstances that induce them and the mechanisms responsible. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the signals leading to the generation of sIL-15 complexes. In this study, we show that sIL-15 complexes are increased in the serum of mice in response to Interferon (IFN-α. In bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC, IFN-α increased the activity of ADAM17, a metalloproteinase implicated in cleaving IL-15 complexes from the cell surface. Moreover, knocking out ADAM17 in BMDCs prevented the ability of IFN-α to induce sIL-15 complexes demonstrating ADAM17 as a critical protease mediating cleavage of IL-15 complexes in response to type I IFNs. Type I IFN signaling was required for generating sIL-15 complexes as in vivo induction of sIL-15 complexes by Poly I:C stimulation or total body irradiation (TBI was impaired in IFNAR-/- mice. Interestingly, serum sIL-15 complexes were also induced in mice infected with Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV or mice treated with agonistic CD40 antibodies; however, sIL-15 complexes were still induced in IFNAR-/- mice after VSV infection or CD40 stimulation indicating pathways other than type I IFNs induce sIL-15 complexes. Overall, this study has shown that type I IFNs, VSV infection, and CD40 stimulation induce sIL-15 complexes suggesting the generation of sIL-15 complexes is a common event associated with immune activation. These findings reveal an unrealized mechanism for enhanced immune responses occurring during infection, vaccination, inflammation, and autoimmunity.

  1. CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC EFFICACY OF NATIONAL LACTOBACILLUS-BASED PROBIOTICS IN COMPLEX THERAPY FOR ACUTE ENTERIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Gonchar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Active use of probiotic medications in children with acute enteric infections (AEI does not always result in noticeable improvement of therapy results, which triggers the need for a study of pharmacoeconomic efficacy of using probiotics. The results of complex therapy for AEI in infants using lactobacillus-based prebiotics and conventional therapy were compared. Key clinical criteria of therapy for AEI were: reduction in inflammatory intestine modifications, elimination of Klebsiella pneumoniae, restoration of indigenous microflora. The results of the conducted study helped identify antagonism of Vitaflora against K. pneumoniae, a positive influence on colitis syndrome progress, as well as identify Biobacton’s impact on the restoration of intestine microbiocenosis.Key words: Acute enteric infections, children, infancy, therapy, prebiotics, pharmacoeconomic efficacy. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:10-15

  2. Successful staged operation for acute type A aortic dissection with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Tokuichiro; Makuuchi, Haruo

    2013-06-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with both paraplegia and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta at onset. Extraanatomical bypass was performed following spinal drainage. After 3 days, the ascending aorta replaced under cardiopulmonary bypass using the extraanatomical bypass graft for arterial cannulation. The abdominal aorta was replaced after 6 months. A staged operation is one of the options for acute aortic dissection with paraplegia and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta.

  3. Chiroptical properties of cation complexes of chiral phenazino-18-crown-6 ether-type hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarvas, Szilvia; Szalay, Luca; Vass, Elemér; Hollósi, Miklós; Samu, Erika; Huszthy, Péter

    2005-06-01

    Herein we report CD spectroscopic studies on complexes of (R,R)-dimethyl-, (R,R)-diisobutyl-, and (S,S)-di-sec-butyl-phenazino-18-crown-6 ligands (Scheme 1) with selected alkali (Na+, K+), alkaline earth (Mg2+, Ca2+), and transition-metal (Ag+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Pb2+) cations. The complexation was monitored in the 300- to 240-nm region of the CD spectra comprising mainly the 1Bb band of the heteroaromatic subunit. The CD spectra of the complexes showed an unexpected diversity. In the most characteristic 1Bb spectral region, the number, position, and intensity of band(s) depend not only on the heteroaromatic subunit and the size of the substituents but also on the diameter, ion strength, and coordination geometry of the cation. The appearance of two weak 1Bb CD bands (type-I spectra) with the sign pattern of the host is an indication of two complexes of comparable stability. The "type-II" spectra differ from that of the host in the number, sign pattern, and intensity of the bands. Complexes of transition-metal cations generally show CD spectra with more intense bands. The CD spectra of complexes of (S,S)-di-sec-butyl-phenazino-18-crown-6 ligand with Na+, K+, and Pb2+ (type III) strongly suggest exciton coupling caused by the closeness of the heteroaromatic rings of two 1:1 complex molecules.

  4. Relationship between acute kidney injury before thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair and in-hospital outcomes in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei REN; Xiao WANG; Chun-Yan HU; Bin QUE; Hui AI; Chun-Mei WANG; Li-Zhong SUN; Shao-Ping NIE

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs after catheter-based interventional procedures and increases mortality. How-ever, the implications of AKI before thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) of type B acute aortic dissection (AAD) remain un-clear. This study evaluated the incidence, predictors, and in-hospital outcomes of AKI before TEVAR in patients with type B AAD. Meth-ods Between 2009 and 2013, 76 patients were retrospectively evaluated who received TEVAR for type B AAD within 36 h from symptom onset. The patients were classified into no-AKI vs. AKI groups, and the severity of AKI was further staged according to kidney disease:im-proving global outcomes criteria before TEVAR. Results The incidence of preoperative AKI was 36.8%. In-hospital complications was significantly higher in patients with preoperative AKI compared with no-AKI (50.0%vs. 4.2%, respectively;P<0.001), including acute renal failure (21.4%vs. 0, respectively;P<0.001), and they increased with severity of AKI (P<0.001). The maximum levels of body tem-perature and white blood cell count were significantly related to maximum serum creatinine level before TEVAR. Multivariate analysis showed that systolic blood pressure on admission (OR:1.023;95%CI:1.003–1.044;P=0.0238) and bilateral renal artery involvement (OR:19.076;95%CI:1.914–190.164;P=0.0120) were strong predictors of preoperative AKI. Conclusions Preoperative AKI frequently oc-curred in patients with type B AAD, and correlated with higher in-hospital complications and enhanced inflammatory reaction. Systolic blood pressure on admission and bilateral renal artery involvement were major risk factors for AKI before TEVAR.

  5. Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in male patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Abdullah; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Genc, Esra Sena; Akkus, Mustafa; Emul, Murat

    2016-02-28

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been shown in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that is measurable in the circulating blood and reflects the inflammation in the body. We aimed to investigate serum suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia who were in acute state and to compare with healthy controls. Forty five patients and 43 healthy controls were included in the study. We found no significant difference in suPAR levels between patients and controls, suggesting that suPAR as an inflammatory marker does not have a role in the inflammatory process of acute schizophrenia.

  6. Changing glucocorticoid action: 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in acute and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Karen E; Coutinho, Agnes E; Zhang, Zhenguang; Kipari, Tiina; Savill, John S; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2013-09-01

    Since the discovery of cortisone in the 1940s and its early success in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids have remained the mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapies. However, cortisone itself is intrinsically inert. To be effective, it requires conversion to cortisol, the active glucocorticoid, by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). Despite the identification of 11β-HSD in liver in 1953 (which we now know to be 11β-HSD1), its physiological role has been little explored until recently. Over the past decade, however, it has become apparent that 11β-HSD1 plays an important role in shaping endogenous glucocorticoid action. Acute inflammation is more severe with 11β-HSD1-deficiency or inhibition, yet in some inflammatory settings such as obesity or diabetes, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/inhibition is beneficial, reducing inflammation. Current evidence suggests both beneficial and detrimental effects may result from 11β-HSD1 inhibition in chronic inflammatory disease. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11β-HSD1 in inflammation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'.

  7. Moderate Versus Deep Hypothermia With Unilateral Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion for Acute Type A Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshnower, Bradley G; Thourani, Vinod H; Halkos, Michael E; Sarin, Eric L; Keeling, William B; Lamias, Mark J; Guyton, Robert A; Chen, Edward P

    2015-11-01

    Despite improved results with surgical therapy for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD), there remains a lack of consensus regarding the optimal method of cerebral protection and circulation management during ATAAD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether in the setting of antegrade cerebral perfusion, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) provides equivalent cerebral and visceral protection as deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for patients undergoing emergent ATAAD repair. A review of the Emory aortic surgery database from 2004 to 2014 identified 288 patients who underwent ATAAD with right axillary artery cannulation, unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (uSACP), and hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). In all, 88 patients underwent HCA at 24 °C or lower (DHCA), and 206 patients underwent HCA at more than 24 °C (MHCA). Major adverse outcomes of death, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction, and dialysis-dependent renal failure were examined. The groups were well matched for age and major comorbidities. The DHCA patients underwent HCA at lower temperatures (DHCA 21.6 ± 3.1 °C vs MHCA 27.4 ± 1.6 °C, p 0.05). Moderate HCA with uSACP is an effective circulation management strategy that provides excellent cerebral and visceral protection during emergent ATAAD repair. In the setting of antegrade cerebral perfusion, deep hypothermia does not provide any additional benefit. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing glucocorticoid action: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in acute and chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Karen E.; Coutinho, Agnes E.; Zhang, Zhenguang; Kipari, Tiina; Savill, John S.; Seckl, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of cortisone in the 1940s and its early success in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids have remained the mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapies. However, cortisone itself is intrinsically inert. To be effective, it requires conversion to cortisol, the active glucocorticoid, by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). Despite the identification of 11β-HSD in liver in 1953 (which we now know to be 11β-HSD1), its physiological role has been little explored until recently. Over the past decade, however, it has become apparent that 11β-HSD1 plays an important role in shaping endogenous glucocorticoid action. Acute inflammation is more severe with 11β-HSD1-deficiency or inhibition, yet in some inflammatory settings such as obesity or diabetes, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/inhibition is beneficial, reducing inflammation. Current evidence suggests both beneficial and detrimental effects may result from 11β-HSD1 inhibition in chronic inflammatory disease. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11β-HSD1 in inflammation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘CSR 2013’. PMID:23435016

  9. B-type natriuretic peptide and acute heart failure: Fluid homeostasis, biomarker and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Courchoud, I; Chen, H H

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptides are a family of peptides with similar structures, but are genetically distinct with diverse actions in cardiovascular, renal and fluid homeostasis. The family consists of an atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) of myocardial cell origin, a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) of endothelial origin, and a urodilatin (Uro) which is processed from a prohormone ANP in the kidney. Nesiritide, a human recombinant BNP, was approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of acute heart failure (AHF) in 2001. Human recombinant ANP (Carperitide) was approved for the same clinical indication in Japan in 1995, and human recombinant Urodilatin (Ularitide) is currently undergoing phase III clinical trial (TRUE AHF). This review will provide an update on important issues regarding the role of BNP in fluid hemostasis as a biomarker and therapeutics in AHF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  12. Efficacy of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator thrombolysis and primary coronary stenting after acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈步星; 王伟民; 赵红; 胡大一; 徐成斌; 赵明中; 卢明瑜; 刘健; 吴淳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of low dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis with primary coronary stenting after acute myocardial infarction.Methods Of 261 patients with first acute myocardial infarction, 131 were given low dose rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis, and 130 primary coronary stenting.Results The age, time from onset of chest pain to hospital presentation and infarct location between these two groups were comparable. The patency rate of the infarct-related artery (IRA) in patients in the thrombolysis group was significantly lower than that of patients in the primary stenting group (P0.05).Conclusion Comparing with low dose rt-PA thrombolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction, primary coronary stenting has a higher patency rate of the IRA, better cardiac function and shorter hospitalization time.

  13. Non coding extremities of the seven influenza virus type C vRNA segments: effect on transcription and replication by the type C and type A polymerase complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Werf Sylvie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription/replication of the influenza viruses implicate the terminal nucleotide sequences of viral RNA, which comprise sequences at the extremities conserved among the genomic segments as well as variable 3' and 5' non-coding (NC regions. The plasmid-based system for the in vivo reconstitution of functional ribonucleoproteins, upon expression of viral-like RNAs together with the nucleoprotein and polymerase proteins has been widely used to analyze transcription/replication of influenza viruses. It was thus shown that the type A polymerase could transcribe and replicate type A, B, or C vRNA templates whereas neither type B nor type C polymerases were able to transcribe and replicate type A templates efficiently. Here we studied the importance of the NC regions from the seven segments of type C influenza virus for efficient transcription/replication by the type A and C polymerases. Results The NC sequences of the seven genomic segments of the type C influenza virus C/Johannesburg/1/66 strain were found to be more variable in length than those of the type A and B viruses. The levels of transcription/replication of viral-like vRNAs harboring the NC sequences of the respective type C virus segments flanking the CAT reporter gene were comparable in the presence of either type C or type A polymerase complexes except for the NS and PB2-like vRNAs. For the NS-like vRNA, the transcription/replication level was higher after introduction of a U residue at position 6 in the 5' NC region as for all other segments. For the PB2-like vRNA the CAT expression level was particularly reduced with the type C polymerase. Analysis of mutants of the 5' NC sequence in the PB2-like vRNA, the shortest 5' NC sequence among the seven segments, showed that additional sequences within the PB2 ORF were essential for the efficiency of transcription but not replication by the type C polymerase complex. Conclusion In the context of a PB2-like reporter

  14. Speciation and Precipitation of Uranium Complexes in Hydrothermal Solutions Related to Granite—type Uranium Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培荣; 章邦桐; 等

    1992-01-01

    Uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions during the stage of ore deposition are weakly alkaline and of the Ca2+ -Na+/HCO3- -F- type.UO2(CO3)22- and UO2F4-, are dominant in the hydrothermal solutions with respect to their activity.Wall-rock hydrothermal alterations ,temperature and pressure drop and the reducing capability of rock assemblage (Δeh) led to a decrease in Eh of the hydrothermal solutions and an increase in Eh at which uranium began precipitating.Therefore,the mechanism of uranium precipitation is essentially the reduction of uranium complexes.The granite-type uranium deposits are the most important type of uranium resources in China.Discussions will be made in this paper concerning the hydrothermal speciation and precipitation mech-anisms of uranium complexes in the light of fluid inclusion and geological data from some major de-posits of this type in South China.

  15. Arsenic trioxide in front-line therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (C9710): prognostic significance of FLT3 mutations and complex karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Xavier; Moser, Barry K; Gallagher, Robert E; Laumann, Kristina; Bloomfield, Clara D; Powell, Bayard L; Koval, Gregory; Gulati, Kabir; Holowka, Nicholas; Larson, Richard A; Tallman, Martin S; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Sher, Dorie; Willman, Cheryl; Paietta, Elisabeth; Stock, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The addition of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to frontline therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to result in significant improvements in disease-free survival (DFS). FLT3 mutations are frequently observed in APL, but its prognostic significance remains unclear. We analyzed 245 newly diagnosed adult patients with APL treated on intergroup trial C9710 and evaluated previously defined biological and prognostic factors and their relationship to FLT3 mutations and to additional karyotypic abnormalities. FLT3 mutations were found in 48% of patients, including 31% with an internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), 14% with a point mutation (FLT3-D835) and 2% with both mutations. The FLT3-ITD mutant level was uniformly low, < 0.5. Neither FLT3 mutation had an impact on remission rate, induction death rate, DFS or overall survival (OS). The addition of ATO consolidation improved outcomes regardless of FLT3 mutation type or level, initial white blood cell count, PML-RARA isoform type or transcript level. The presence of a complex karyotype was strongly associated with an inferior OS independently of post-remission treatment. In conclusion, the addition of ATO to frontline therapy overcomes the impact of previously described adverse prognostic factors including FLT3 mutations. However, complex karyotype is strongly associated with an inferior OS despite ATO therapy.

  16. Acute in vivo regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity by insulin and intralipid infusions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Deborah J; Homer, Natalie Z M; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R

    2006-11-01

    Extraadrenal regeneration of cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1) is increased after a mixed meal. It is unknown which tissue is responsible and whether this reflects the complex transcriptional control of 11HSD1 or posttranscriptional control exerted by supply of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate from hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The objective of this study was to test whether hyperinsulinemia and/or increased serum free fatty acids increase whole-body and intraadipose 11HSD1, and whether adipose 11HSD1 switches from dehydrogenase to reductase activity. In nine healthy men, we measured whole-body cortisol regeneration (by iv infusion of 9,11,12,12-[2H]4 -cortisol) and intra-adipose interconversion of cortisol and cortisone (by sc microdialysis infusion of [3H]4 -cortisol and [3H]2 -cortisone in separate cannulae) during: 1) a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; 2) iv lipid infusion (Intralipid 20% fat emulsion); and 3) saline infusion, each for 3.5 h. Hyperinsulinemia increased rate of appearance of 9,12,12-[2H]3 -cortisol (19.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.7 +/- 1.1 nmol/min with saline, P adipose, the predominant reaction was reductase conversion of cortisone to cortisol (after 3.5 h of saline infusion, reaching 11.0 +/- 2.7% per hour reductase vs. 5.2 +/- 1.3 dehydrogenase, P effects on whole-body deuterated cortisol metabolism, but increased both dehydrogenase and reductase (reaching 16.7 +/- 1.8, P adipose. Hyperinsulinemia and increased free fatty acids induce acute increases in 11HSD1 activity in adipose tissue that are not attributable to a switch from dehydrogenase to reductase. Hyperinsulinemia also increases systemic cortisol regeneration. These effects may enhance intracellular cortisol concentrations after a meal.

  17. Schur-Type Inequalities for Complex Polynomials with no Zeros in the Unit Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Gy. Révész

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting out from a question posed by T. Erdélyi and J. Szabados, we consider Schur-type inequalities for the classes of complex algebraic polynomials having no zeros within the unit disk D. The class of polynomials with no zeros in D—also known as Bernstein or Lorentz class—was studied in detail earlier. For real polynomials utilizing the Bernstein-Lorentz representation as convex combinations of fundamental polynomials (1−xk(1+xn−k, G. Lorentz, T. Erdélyi, and J. Szabados proved a number of improved versions of Schur- (and also Bernstein- and Markov- type inequalities. Here we investigate the similar questions for complex polynomials. For complex polynomials, the above convex representation is not available. Even worse, the set of complex polynomials, having no zeros in the unit disk, does not form a convex set. Therefore, a possible proof must go along different lines. In fact, such a direct argument was asked for by Erdélyi and Szabados already for the real case. The sharp forms of the Bernstein- and Markov-type inequalities are known, and the right factors are worse for complex coefficients than for real ones. However, here it turns out that Schur-type inequalities hold unchanged even for complex polynomials and for all monotonic, continuous weight functions. As a consequence, it becomes possible to deduce the corresponding Markov inequality from the known Bernstein inequality and the new Schur-type inequality with logarithmic weight.

  18. Long-term results of modified sandwich repair of aortic root in 151 patients with acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yangfeng; Liao, Zilin; Han, Lin; Tang, Hao; Song, Zhigang; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-07-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection frequently induces aortic root disease; however, the optimal surgical strategy for aortic root dissection remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to introduce a novel technique for reconstruction of type A dissection to improve patient prognosis. We performed a retrospective review of 791 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection between January 2003 and July 2015. Among these patients, 151 were selected (72% men, age 51.7 ± 9.8 years) to have the modified sandwich repair of aortic root dissection. The in-hospital mortality rate of the 151 patients was 6.6% (10/151). During a mean follow-up period of 52.7 ± 28.6 months, the survival rate was 100, 89.1 and 69.7% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography were performed every year to monitor the pathological change in the aortic root. Freedom from severe aortic regurgitation at 5 years was 100%. No patients required reintervention due to dissection or pseudoaneurysm of the proximal aortic root. Aortic valve resuspension and repair of the sinus of Valsalva with the modified sandwich technique using Teflon felt strips for acute type A dissection could be reliable and effective.

  19. Differential Efficacy of Ketamine in the Acute versus Chronic Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Yang, Phillip; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling and often chronic condition, where many patients transition from an acute phase with prominent peripheral neurogenic inflammation to a chronic phase with evident central nervous system (CNS) changes. Ketamine is a centrally-acting agent believed to work through blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is being increasingly used for the treatment of refractory CRPS, although the basis for the drug’s effects and efficacy at different stages of the syndrome remain unclear. Methods We used a mouse model of CRPS (n=8–12/group) involving tibia fracture/cast immobilization to test the efficacy of ketamine (2 mg/kg/day; 7 days) or vehicle infusion during acute (3weeks [3w] post-fracture) and chronic (7w post-fracture) stages. Results Acute phase fracture mice displayed elevated limb temperature, edema and nociceptive sensitization that were not reduced by ketamine. Fracture mice treated with ketamine during the chronic phase showed reduced nociceptive sensitization that persisted beyond completion of the infusion. During this chronic phase, ketamine also reduced latent nociceptive sensitization and improved motor function at 18 weeks post-fracture. No side effects of the infusions were identified. These behavioral changes were associated with altered spinal astrocyte activation and expression of pain-related proteins including NMDA receptor 2b (NR2b), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii (CaMK2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that ketamine is efficacious in the chronic, but not acute stages of CRPS, suggesting that the centrally-acting drug is relatively ineffective in early CRPS when peripheral mechanisms are more critical for supporting nociceptive sensitization. PMID:26492479

  20. Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Gaffney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how acute restoration of normoglycaemia affected energy metabolism during exercise in nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes. Six subjects (mean ± SEM aged 56.2 ± 2.7 years, with a BMI of 24.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2 and a VO2 peak of 28.7 ml/kg/min, attended the lab on two randomised occasions for a four-hour resting infusion of insulin or saline, followed by 30 minutes cycling at 50% VO2 peak. During the 4 h resting infusion, there was a greater (P<0.0001 reduction in blood glucose in insulin treatment (INS (from 11.2 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l than in saline treatment/control (CON (from 11.5 ± 0.7 to 8.5 ± 0.6 mmol/l. This was associated with a lower (P<0.05 resting metabolic rate in INS (3.87 ± 0.17 than in CON (4.39 ± 0.30 kJ/min. During subsequent exercise, blood glucose increased significantly in INS from 5.6 ± 0.1 at 0 min to 6.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l at 30 min (P<0.01, which was accompanied by a lower blood lactate response (P<0.05. Oxygen uptake, rates of substrate utilization, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials. Insulin-induced normoglycaemia increased blood glucose during subsequent exercise without altering overall substrate utilization.

  1. [Types of Care for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Acute and Maintenance Phase Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Oviedo Lugo, Gabriel Fernando; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Castro Díaz, Sergio Mario; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    To assist the clinician in making decisions about the types of care available for adults with schizophrenia. To determine which are the modalities of treatment associated with better outcomes in adults with schizophrenia. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. Patients who were in Assertive community treatment had a lower risk of new hospitalizations. For the intensive case management, the results favored this intervention in the outcomes: medium term readmissions, social functioning and satisfaction with services. The crisis resolution teams was associated with better outcomes on outcomes of readmissions, social functioning and service satisfaction in comparison with standard care. The use of different modalities of care leads to the need of a comprehensive approach to patients to reduce the overall disability associated with the disease. Evidence shows overall benefit for most outcomes studied without encountering hazards for health of patients. This evaluation is recommended to use the professional ways of providing health services that are community-based and have a multidisciplinary group. It is not recommended the modality "day hospital" during the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperlactatemia and the Outcome of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Suffering Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increased lactate production is frequent in unregulated/complicated diabetes mellitus. Methods. Three groups, each consisting of 40 patients (type 2 diabetics with myocardial infarction, DM+AMI, nondiabetics suffering myocardial infarction, MI, and diabetics with no apparent cardiovascular pathology, DM group, were tested for pH, serum bicarbonate and electrolytes, blood lactate, and CK-MB. Results. Blood lactate levels were markedly higher in AMI+DM compared to MI group (4.54±1.44 versus 3.19±1.005 mmol/L, p<0.05; they correlated with the incidence of heart failure (ρ=0.66, cardiac rhythm disorders (ρ=0.54, oxygen saturation (ρ=0.72, CK-MB levels (ρ=0.62, and poor short-term outcome. Lactic acidosis in DM+AMI group was not always related to lethal outcome. Discussion. The lactate cutoff value associated with grave prognosis depends on the specific disease. While some authors proposed cutoff values ranging from 0.76 to 4 mmol/L, others argued that only occurrence of lactic acidosis may be truly predictive of lethal outcome. Conclusion. Both defective glucose metabolism and low tissue oxygenation may contribute to the lactate production in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction; high lactate levels indicate increased risk for poor outcome in this population comparing to nondiabetic patients. The rise in blood lactate concentration in diabetics with AMI was associated with increased incidence of heart failure, severe arrhythmias, cardiogenic shock, and high mortality rate.

  3. Acute Resveratrol Consumption Improves Neurovascular Coupling Capacity in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H.X. Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor cerebral perfusion may contribute to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that resveratrol can enhance cerebral vasodilator function and thereby alleviate the cognitive deficits in T2DM. We have already reported that acute resveratrol consumption improved cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR to hypercapnia. We now report the effects of resveratrol on neurovascular coupling capacity (CVR to cognitive stimuli, cognitive performance and correlations with plasma resveratrol concentrations. Methods: Thirty-six T2DM adults aged 40–80 years were randomized to consume single doses of resveratrol (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg at weekly intervals. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor changes in blood flow velocity (BFV during a cognitive test battery. The battery consisted of dual-tasking (finger tapping with both Trail Making task and Serial Subtraction 3 task and a computerized multi-tasking test that required attending to four tasks simultaneously. CVR to cognitive tasks was calculated as the per cent increase in BFV from pre-test basal to peak mean blood flow velocity and also as the area under the curve for BFV. Results: Compared to placebo, 75 mg resveratrol significantly improved neurovascular coupling capacity, which correlated with plasma total resveratrol levels. Enhanced performance on the multi-tasking test battery was also evident following 75 mg and 300 mg of resveratrol. Conclusion: a single 75 mg dose of resveratrol was able to improve neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in T2DM. Evaluation of benefits of chronic resveratrol supplementation is now warranted.

  4. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers as a first choice in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Hoon; Bae, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Lee, Won Kee; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Chae, Shung Chull

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been adequately evaluated in patients without left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Between November 2005 and January 2008, 6,781 patients who were not receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or ARBs were selected from the Korean AMI Registry. The primary endpoints were 12-month major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including death and recurrent AMI. Results: Seventy percent of the patients were Killip class 1 and had a LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%. The prescription rate of ARBs was 12.2%. For each patient, a propensity score, indicating the likelihood of using ARBs during hospitalization or at discharge, was calculated using a non-parsimonious multivariable logistic regression model, and was used to match the patients 1:4, yielding 715 ARB users versus 2,860 ACEI users. The effect of ARBs on in-hospital mortality and 12-month MACE occurrence was assessed using matched logistic and Cox regression models. Compared with ACEIs, ARBs significantly reduced in-hospital mortality(1.3% vs. 3.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.379; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.190 to0.756; p = 0.006) and 12-month MACE occurrence (4.6% vs. 6.9%; HR, 0.661; 95% CI, 0.457 to 0.956; p = 0.028). However, the benefit of ARBs on 12-month mortality compared with ACEIs was marginal (4.3% vs. 6.2%; HR, 0.684; 95% CI, 0.467 to 1.002; p = 0.051). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ARBs are not inferior to, and may actually be better than ACEIs in Korean patients with AMI. PMID:26701233

  5. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  6. Levels of complexity in pathogen recognition by C-type lectins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambi, A.; Figdor, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    In pathogen recognition by C-type lectins, several levels of complexity can be distinguished; these might modulate the immune response in different ways. Firstly, the pathogen-associated molecular pattern repertoire expressed at the microbial surface determines the interactions with specific recepto

  7. Peripheral nerve pathology in patients with severely affected complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bodde, Marlies I.; van den Dungen, Johannes; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is a chronic pain syndrome with no clinical evidence of nerve injury; however, recently, changes in muscle tissue have been found in case of CRPS-I. Our aim was to search for histological changes in peripheral nerves of amputated limbs from patients wit

  8. Bilingual Children's Acquisition of English Verb Morphology: Effects of Language Exposure, Structure Complexity, and Task Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether bilingual-monolingual differences would be apparent in school-age children's use and knowledge of English verb morphology and whether differences would be influenced by amount of exposure to English, complexity of the morphological structure, or the type of task given. French-English bilinguals (mean age = 6;10)…

  9. Therapy-Resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I : To Amputate or Not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, M.I.; Dijkstra, P.U.; den Dunnen, W.F.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is controversial. An evidence-based decision regarding whether or not to amputate is not possible on the basis of current guidelines. The aim of the current study was to system

  10. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a retro

  11. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  12. Metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes have normal mitochondrial complex I respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Rabøl, R; Hansen, C N;

    2012-01-01

    The glucose-lowering drug metformin has been shown to inhibit complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle. To investigate this effect in vivo we studied skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content from patients with type 2 diabetes treated with me...

  13. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction evalua

  14. Quality of life in adults with childhood-onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Edward C T H; van de Sandt-Renkema, Nienke; Krabbe, Paul F M; Aronson, Daniel C; Severijnen, René S V M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical presentation of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I) in children differs compared to the presentation in adults. Reported results of treatment of CRPS I in children are usually more favourable and seem better than the reported treatment of adults with CRPS I. We

  15. Amputation for Long-Standing, Therapy-Resistant Type-I Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans-Schreuder, H.K.; Bodde, M.I.; Schrier, E.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van den Dungen, J.A.; den Dunnen, W.F.; Geertzen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some patients with long-standing, therapy-resistant typed complex regional pain syndrome consider an amputation. There is a lack of evidence regarding the risk of recurrence of the pain syndrome and patient outcomes after amputation. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the impa

  16. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  17. Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehof Sjoerd

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 pro-inflammatory mediators and vascular changes play an important role in the sustained development and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of vasoactive substances endothelin-1 (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO during early chronic CRPS1. Methods Included were 29 patients with CRPS 1 who were diagnosed during the acute stage of their disease and observed during follow-up visits. Disease activity and impairment were determined and artificial suction blisters were made on the CRPS1 and the contralateral extremities for measurements of IL-6, TNF-α, ET-1 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Results The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 in blister fluid in the CRPS1 extremity versus the contralateral extremity were significantly increased and correlated with each other, whereas NOx levels were decreased. Conclusion The NOx/ET-1 ratio appears to be disturbed in the intermediate stage of CRPS, resulting in vasoconstriction and consequently in a diminished tissue blood distribution.

  18. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Three Different Types of Behavioral Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: While central nervous system serotonin has been implicated in a variety of problematic impulsive behaviors, biological manipulation of brain serotonin using acute tryptophan depletion for studying changes in impulsive behavior has received little attention. Methods: Using identical treatment conditions, we examined the effects of reduced serotonin synthesis for each of three matched groups using acute tryptophan depletion. Thirty healthy men and women (ages 18–45) were assigned ...

  19. Abrupt clinical onset of Chiari type I/syringomyelia complex: clinical and physiopathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Luca; Della Pepa, Giuseppe M; Caldarelli, Massimo; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2012-07-01

    Chiari I malformation (CI) continues to raise great interest among physicians due to the larger and larger number of newly diagnosed cases. The clinical and radiological picture and the management options of such a chronic disease are well acknowledged as well as those of the associated syringomyelia. Little is known, on the other hand, about abrupt clinical onset following decompensation of CI/syringomyelia complex. This review on the sudden onset of these two conditions shows that this is a very rare phenomenon; only 41 cases are being reported in the last three decades. In all these cases, acute onset was referable to CI/syringomyelia and the clinical course quickly precipitated. Motor deficits (36.5 %), respiratory failure (29 %), cranial nerve palsy (17 %), and cardiac arrest (14.5 %) were the most common findings, thus confirming that abrupt onset may have severe and life-threatening consequences. Indeed, sudden or early mortality accounted for 19.5 % of cases. In spite of that, most of the surviving subjects had an excellent outcome following either surgical or medical/rehabilitation treatment. Physiopathology of abrupt onset is attributed to the acute compression of the brainstem/upper cervical spinal cord by ectopic tonsils and syringobulbia/syringomyelia, frequently precipitated by a minor injury, followed by impairment of medullary baroreceptors and midbrain reticular substance (cardiac arrest, syncope), medullary chemoreceptors and phrenic nerve nuclei (respiratory failure), lower cranial nerve nuclei (cardiac arrest, cranial nerve palsy), and pyramidal tracts (motor deficits). About 87 % of patients of this review were asymptomatic prior to their acute onset. The problem of the management of asymptomatic subjects is still open.

  20. Emergent severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by adenovirus type 55 in immunocompetent adults in 2013: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bing; He, Hangyong; Wang, Zheng; Qu, Jiuxin; Li, Xuyan; Chengjun BAN; Wan, Jun; Cao, Bin; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Since 2008, severe cases of emerging human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) in immunocompetent adults have been reported sporadically in China. The clinical features and outcomes of the most critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by HAdV-55 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are lacking. Methods We conducted a prospective, single-center observational study of pneumonia with A...

  1. Successful reversal of immediate paraplegia associated with repair of acute Type A aortic dissection using cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Shinichiro; Cho, Yasunori; Aki, Akira; Ueda, Toshihiko

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of a 49-year old man who suffered from immediate paraplegia upon awakening from anaesthesia after surgery for acute aortic dissection Type A. A catheter was promptly inserted into the spinal canal for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and the cerebrospinal fluid pressure was maintained paraplegia and was able to walk by himself after rehabilitation. In some cases, cerebrospinal fluid drainage can be effective for the treatment of immediate postoperative spinal cord damage.

  2. Long-term outcomes of tear-oriented ascending/hemiarch replacements for acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kei; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Extended arch repair for acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Our strategy for acute type A aortic dissection was primary entry resection and tear-oriented ascending/hemiarch replacement for patients with the intimal tear in the ascending aorta or is not found in the ascending/aortic arch. Extended total/partial arch replacement was performed for patients with the tear located in the aortic arch. Here, we investigated the validity of our strategy from the viewpoints of long-term survival and reoperation. Between 2003 and 2014, 267 acute type A aortic dissection patients (mean age; 65.2 ± 12.9 years, 134 men and 133 women) underwent emergent surgical repair. Ascending/hemiarch replacements were performed in 225 patients (ascending/hemiarch group) and total/partial arch replacements in 42 patients (arch group). Early and late outcomes of both groups were compared. The hospital mortality rates in the ascending/hemiarch and the arch groups were 4.4 and 9.5 %, respectively (p = 0.25). For ascending/hemiarch and arch groups, the actuarial survival rates were 80.7 vs. 84.3 % after 5 years, and 66.4 vs. 74.6 %, respectively, after 10 years (p = 0.94). For ascending/hemiarch and arch groups, reoperation-free survival rates were 72.1 vs. 77.1 % after 5 years, and 62.0 vs. 67.1 %, respectively, after 10 years (p = 0.85). We observed no significant differences in the actuarial survival or reoperation-free survival rates between the groups. These findings suggest that tear-oriented ascending/hemiarch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection does not increase the risk of long-term mortality or reoperation.

  3. [Characteristics of the acute phase reaction in humans with various types of autonomic nervous system regulation during simulated hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, A V; Dorofeĭkov, V V; Freĭdlin, T S; Freĭdlin, I S; Shustov, E B; Shcherbak, I G; Iastrebov, D Iu

    2000-01-01

    Depending on the type of autonomous regulation, differences in basic levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) were revealed under conditions of hyperthermia in healthy subjects aged 19-21. A parasympathetic type of autonomous regulation corresponded to higher initial levels of proinflammatory cytokinesis, whereas a dominating sympathetic type corresponded to lower levels of the IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. The subjects with the latter type of regulation revealed an increase in the IL-1 beta TNF alpha combined with a higher heat tolerance. The subjects with the former type of regulation revealed a lower heat tolerance. The increase in the alpha2-macroglobulin appeared to be a most typical acute phase response of the human body to hyperthermia.

  4. Intravenous metamizol (Dipyrone) in acute migraine treatment and in episodic tension-type headache--a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigal, M E; Bordini, C A; Speciali, J G

    2001-03-01

    Acute headache is a very frequent symptom, responsible for significant demand at primary care units and emergency rooms. In such sets in Brazil, metamizol is easily found but, on the other hand, neither ergotics nor triptans are available. The aim of this study is to compare intravenous metamizol with placebo in the acute treatment of migraine with aura, migraine without aura and episodic tension-type headache. Fifty-four migraine with aura patients, 95 migraine without aura patients and 30 tension-type headache patients were treated with metamizol. Ninety patients (30 migraine with aura, 30 migraine without aura and 30 tension-type headache patients) received placebo. Pain intensity, nausea, aura, photo- and phonophobia were investigated at 30 min and 60 min after the administration of the drug. Significant improvement of pain after 30 min and 60 min post-dosage was achieved from metamizol groups compared with placebo groups. Significant improvement of all other symptoms was achieved after 60 min post-dosage. Side-effects were mild and with small incidence. Metamizol is an effective, safe and low price drug. It may be regarded as a good alternative drug for the treatment of common acute primary headaches.

  5. Echocardiographic detection of intimo-intimal intussusception in a patient with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Thunberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intimo-intimal intussusception is a very rare and unusual complication of type A dissections, typically noted on  TEE exam. It has been reported in a few cases in the cardiothoracic surgical and radiology literature, and even more rarely in the cardiac anesthesia/TEE literature. This uncommon variation occurs in severe, acute, type A dissections when the ascending aortic intima circumferentially strips and detaches from the media and forms a tube-like structure which may either prolapse antegrade into the ascending aortic lumen or retrograde into the left ventricular (LV outflow tract and LV cavity. Antegrade intussusceptions may be severe enough to partially or completely occlude the ostia of the innominate, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries producing acute neurologic symptoms. Retrograde intussusceptions may severely impair LV filling in diastole, can worsen aortic insufficiency, mitral regurgitation, as well as produce occlusion of the coronary ostia and acute coronary ischemia. Here, we describe the incidental finding of a retrograde intussusception that was not visualized on computed tomography scan but by intraoperative TEE examination, in a patient with a severe, extensive type A dissection.

  6. Tailor-made rehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb robots for acute stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke.

  7. [Asthenic syndrome in clinical course of acute period of brain concussion during complex treatment using nootropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a complex examination of 108 persons aged from 16 till 60 years in acute period of closed craniocerebral injury (CCCT) has been done. Every participants have been divided into 2 groups depending on a nootrop medication they receive in a complex treatment. A control group consisted of 30 practically healthy people. Objective examination by means of tests was done on the 1-st, 10-th that 30-th day of treatment. Patients of 1-st (37 persons) group received piracetam in complex treatment and patients of the 2-nd group (71 persons) pramistar. Patients of the first group received a base treatment (analgetics, tranquilizers, vitamins of group B, magnesium sulfate, diuretic preparations) as well as piracetam at dosage 0.2, two tablets three times per day. The Patients of the 2-nd group received a base treatment as well as pramistar at dosage 0.6, one tablet 2 times per day. Specially developed multiaspects scales and questionnaires, MRT of the brain and EEG have been used for objectification of patient, complaints. During a complex clinico-neuropsychological examination it was found that all cases of concussion of the brain are accompanied by those or other asthenic disorders.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic physical exercise and stress on different types of memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Billig Mello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the effect of acute and chronic physical exercise in a treadmill and of daily stress (because forced exercise involves a degree of stress during 2 or 8 weeks on different types of memory in male Wistar rats. The memory tests employed were: habituation in an open field, object recognition and spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Daily foot-shock stress enhanced habituation learning after 2 but not after 8 weeks; it hindered both short- (STM and long-term memory (LTM of the recognition task at 2 weeks but only STM after 8 weeks and had no effect on spatial learning after either 2 or 8 weeks. Acute but not chronic exercise also enhanced habituation in the open field and hindered STM and LTM in the recognition task. Chronic exercise enhanced one important measure of spatial learning (latency to escape but not others. Our findings indicate that some care must be taken when interpreting effects of forced exercise on brain parameters since at least part of them may be due to the stress inherent to the training procedure.Neste trabalho estudamos os efeitos do exercício forçado diário em esteira rolante e da exposição diária ao estresse (porque o exercício forçado envolve um certo grau de estresse durante 2 ou 8 semanas em diferentes tipos de memória em ratos Wistar machos. Os testes de memória utilizados foram: habituação da exploração em um campo aberto, reconhecimento de objetos, e memória espacial no labirinto aquático de Morris. O estresse diário facilitou a memória de habituação, os animais aprenderam após 2 mas não após 8 semanas; houve prejuízo na memória curta (STM e de longa duração (LTM no teste de reconhecimento em 2 semanas, mas somente de STM após 8 semanas; não houve nenhum efeito na memória espacial após 2 ou 8 semanas. O protocolo do exercício facilitou também a memória de habituação no campo aberto após 2 mas não após 8 semanas; prejudicou STM e LTM na tarefa do reconhecimento

  9. Type 1 copper site synthetic model complexes with increased redox potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Tolman, William B

    2012-02-01

    Reactions of NaSCPh(3) with (R(3)tacn)Cu(OTf)(2) (R is Me, iPr; tacn is 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; OTf is CF(3)SO(3)(-)) yield blue complexes identified as ((R(3)tacn)CuSCPh(3))(OTf) on the basis of UV-vis, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These complexes exhibit spectroscopic properties typical of type 1 copper sites in proteins, including diagnostic Sπ → Cu(d(x(2)-y(2))) ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions at approximately 610-630 nm and small A(||) values in EPR spectra of less than 100 × 10(-4) cm(-1). Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed redox potentials for the complexes similar to those of several low-potential type 1 copper proteins (e.g., azurin, stellacyanin) and approximately 0.5 V higher than those of previously reported model compounds. Thus, the new complexes mimic key aspects of both the structure and the function of type 1 copper sites.

  10. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology.

  11. Complex dissemination of the diversified mcr-1-harbouring plasmids in Escherichia coli of different sequence types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjing; Li, Zhencui; Lin, Jingxia; Wang, Xiuna; Deng, Xianbo; Feng, Youjun

    2016-12-13

    The emergence of the mobilized colistin resistance gene, representing a novel mechanism for bacterial drug resistance, challenges the last resort against the severe infections by Gram-negative bacteria with multi-drug resistances. Very recently, we showed the diversity in the mcr-1-carrying plasmid reservoirs from the gut microbiota. Here, we reported that a similar but more complex scenario is present in the healthy swine populations, Southern China, 2016. Amongst the 1026 pieces of Escherichia coli isolates from 3 different pig farms, 302 E. coli isolates were determined to be positive for the mcr-1 gene (30%, 302/1026). Multi-locus sequence typing assigned no less than 11 kinds of sequence types including one novel Sequence Type to these mcr-1-positive strains. PCR analyses combined with the direct DNA sequencing revealed unexpected complexity of the mcr-1-harbouring plasmids whose backbones are at least grouped into 6 types four of which are new. Transcriptional analyses showed that the mcr-1 promoter of different origins exhibits similar activity. It seems likely that complex dissemination of the diversified mcr-1-bearing plasmids occurs amongst the various ST E. coli inhabiting the healthy swine populations, in Southern China.

  12. The organization of the Golgi complex and microtubules in skeletal muscle is fiber type-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Lu, Z; Ploug, Thorkil

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a nonconventional Golgi complex (GC), the organization of which has been a subject of controversy in the past. We have now examined the distribution of the GC by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in whole fibers from different rat muscles, both innervated...... of the hindlimb muscles, GC elements as well as microtubules converge toward a common pattern, that of the slow-twitch fibers, in all fibers. Our data suggest that innervation regulates the distribution of microtubules, which in turn organize the Golgi complex according to muscle fiber type....

  13. Complex asteroseismology of the hybrid B-type pulsator $\\gamma$ Pegasi: a test of stellar opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Przemysław

    2010-01-01

    Using the updated oscillation spectrum of $\\gamma$ Pegasi, we construct a set of seismic models which reproduce two pulsational frequencies corresponding to the $\\ell=0$, p$_1$ and $\\ell=1$, g$_1$ modes. Then, we single out models which reproduce other well identified modes. Finally, we extend our seismic modelling by a requirement of fitting also values of the complex, nonadiabatic parameter $f$ associated to each mode frequency. Such complex asteroseismology of the B-type pulsators provides a unique test of stellar metallicity and opacities. In contrast to our previous studies, results for $\\gamma$ Peg indicate that both opacity tables, OPAL and OP, are equally preferred.

  14. Outcomes of Patients With Acute Type B (DeBakey III) Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rana O.; Sandhu, Harleen K.; Leake, Samuel S.; Boutrous, Mina L.; Kumar, Varsha; Azizzadeh, Ali; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M.; Saqib, Naveed U.; Nguyen, Tom C.; Miller, Charles C.; Safi, Hazim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Aortic dissection remains the most common aortic catastrophe. In the endovascular era, the management of acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) is undergoing dramatic changes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with ATBAD who were treated at our center over a 13-year period. Methods and Results— We reviewed patients with ATBAD between 2001 and 2014, analyzing variables based on status (complicated [c] versus uncomplicated [u]) and treatment modalities. We defined cATBAD as rupture, expansion of diameter on imaging during the admission, persistent pain, or clinical malperfusion leading to a deficit in cerebral, spinal, visceral, renal, or peripheral vascular territories at presentation or during initial hospitalization. Postoperative outcomes were defined as deficits not present before the intervention. Outcomes were compared between the groups by use of Kaplan-Meier and descriptive statistics. We treated 442 patients with ATBAD. Of those 442, 60.6% had uATBAD and were treated medically, and 39.4% had cATBAD, of whom 39.0% were treated medically to 30.0% with open repair, 21.3% with thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and 9.7% with other open peripheral procedures. Intervention-free survival at 1 and 5 years was 84.8% and 62.7% for uATBAD, 61.8% and 44.0% for cATBAD-medical, 69.2% and 47.2% for cATBAD-open, and 68.0% and 42.5% for cATBAD–thoracic endovascular aortic repair, respectively (P=0.001). Overall survival was significantly related primarily to complicated presentation. Conclusions— In our experience, early and late outcomes of ATBAD were dependent on the presence of complications, with cATBAD faring worse. Although uATBAD was associated with favorable early survival, late complications still occurred, mandating radiographic surveillance and open or endovascular interventions. Prospective trials are required to better determine the optimal therapy for uATBAD. PMID:26304666

  15. Gene expression profiling of acute type A aortic dissection combined with in vitroassessment†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoyuki; Futamura, Kyoko; Arakawa, Mamoru; Okada, Naoko; Emrich, Fabian; Okamura, Homare; Sato, Tetsuya; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Koyano, Tiffany K; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo; Matsuda, Akio; Kawahito, Koji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Fischbein, Michael P

    2017-04-11

    The mechanisms underlying aortic dissection remain to be fully elucidated. We aimed to identify key molecules driving dissection through gene expression profiling achieved by microarray analysis and subsequent in vitro experiments using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs). Total RNA, including microRNA (miRNA), was isolated from the intima-media layer of dissected ascending aorta obtained intraoperatively from acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients without familial thoracic aortic disease ( n  = 8) and that of non-dissected ascending aorta obtained from transplant donors ( n  = 9). Gene expression profiling was performed with mRNA and miRNA microarrays, and results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Target genes and miRNA were identified by gene ontology analysis and a literature search. To reproduce the in silico results, HAECs and AoSMCs were stimulated in vitro by upstream cytokines, and expression of target genes was assessed by qPCR. Microarray analysis revealed 1536 genes (3.6%, 1536/42 545 probes) and 41 miRNAs (3.0%, 41/1368 probes) that were differentially expressed in the ATAAD group (versus donor group). The top 15 related pathways included regulation of inflammatory response, growth factor activity and extracellular matrix. Gene ontology analysis identified JAK2 (regulation of inflammatory response), PDGFA, TGFB1, VEGFA (growth factor activity) and TIMP3 , TIMP4, SERPINE1 (extracellular matrix) as the target genes and miR-21-5p, a TIMP3 repressor, as target miRNA that interacts with the target genes. Validation qPCR confirmed the altered expression of all 7 target genes and miR-21-5p in dissected aorta specimens (all genes, P  < 0.05). Ingenuity pathway analysis showed TNF-α and TGF-β to be upstream cytokines for the target genes. In vitro experiments showed these cytokines inhibit TIMP3 expression ( P  < 0.05) and enhance VEGFA expression ( P

  16. Molecular Assembly of Clostridium botulinum progenitor M complex of type E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Singh, Bal Ram; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2015-12-07

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is released as a progenitor complex, in association with a non-toxic-non-hemagglutinin protein (NTNH) and other associated proteins. We have determined the crystal structure of M type Progenitor complex of botulinum neurotoxin E [PTC-E(M)], a heterodimer of BoNT and NTNH. The crystal structure reveals that the complex exists as a tight, interlocked heterodimer of BoNT and NTNH. The crystal structure explains the mechanism of molecular assembly of the complex and reveals several acidic clusters at the interface responsible for association at low acidic pH and disassociation at basic/neutral pH. The similarity of the general architecture between the PTC-E(M) and the previously determined PTC-A(M) strongly suggests that the progenitor M complexes of all botulinum serotypes may have similar molecular arrangement, although the neurotoxins apparently can take very different conformation when they are released from the M complex.

  17. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Acute Monoblastic Leukemias; Acute... Monocytic Leukemia; Acute Monocytic Leukemias; Acute monoblastic leukaemia; Acute monoblastic leukemia; Acute... monocytic leukaemia; Acute monocytic leukemia, morphology; Acute monocytoid leukemia; Leukemia, Acute... Monoblastic; Leukemia, Acute Monocytic; Leukemia, Monoblastic, Acute; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute... Schilling-Type Myeloid; Leukemias, Acute Monoblastic; Leukemias, Acute Monocytic; M5a - Acute monoblastic leukaemia; M5a - Acute

  18. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  19. Diabetic ketoacidosis and acute mountain sickness: case report and review of treatment options in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven C M

    2015-06-01

    A 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus and no microvascular complications traveled from near sea level to an altitude of 3000 m within 6 hours. At altitude, his blood glucose levels began to rise, necessitating increased insulin delivery. Typical symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) developed, and he became increasingly hyperglycemic and unwell. Upon presentation to an emergency clinic, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was diagnosed and was managed with insulin, intravenous fluids with potassium, and acetazolamide orally. No other potential causes for diabetic ketoacidosis were identified. Hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis resolved with treatment as expected, but an increased insulin requirement was noted for the next 48 hours, until returning to expected levels when acetazolamide was discontinued. This case describes an episode of mild diabetic ketoacidosis potentially precipitated by moderate to severe acute mountain sickness, and an apparent hyperglycemic effect of acetazolamide. Individuals with type 1 diabetes traveling to altitude and their physicians should be vigilant for this complication and should be aware of the effects of conventional first-line therapies for acute mountain sickness on insulin requirement, glycemic control, and preexisting microvascular diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational therapy for complex inpatients with stroke: identification of occupational needs in post-acute rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, Margherita; Costi, Stefania; Pellegrini, Martina; Formisano, Debora; Borghi, Sergio; Fugazzaro, Stefania

    2017-02-07

    Inpatients admitted to rehabilitation express needs not linked to disease causing hospitalization. This observational cross-sectional study identifies features and occupational needs of complex inpatients during rehabilitation, focusing on function and ability, regardless of diagnosis. This study included sixteen adult inpatients with stroke, deemed complex according to Rehabilitation Complexity Scale-Extended, at admission to Rehabilitation ward (from July 2014 to February 2015). Patients with primary psychiatric disorders, language barriers, cognitive or severe communication deficits were excluded. Upon admission, a multidisciplinary team collected data on general health, independence in daily activities (Modified Barthel Index), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), resistance to sitting and ability to perform instrumental activities (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living). The occupational therapist identified occupational needs according to Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Inpatients enrolled in this study were dependent in basic ADL, limited in instrumental ADL and easily fatigable. Their occupational needs related to self-care (75%) and, to a lesser extent, productivity (15%) and leisure (10%). According to inpatients, rehabilitation process should firstly address self-care needs, followed by productivity and leisure problems. Despite small sample size, this study described patterns of occupational needs in complex inpatients with stroke. These results will be implemented in client-centered rehabilitation programs to be tested in a phase-two trial. [NCT02173197] Implications for Rehabilitation Priority occupational needs of complex inpatients with stroke during rehabilitation are focused on self-care area. Productivity and leisure problems also arise in early post-acute phase. Client-centered rehabilitation programs should firstly address self-care needs and, later on, they should also focus on the recovery of family and social roles.

  1. [Early motor rehabilitation with the help of a software/hardware complex "Vertical" in acute period of stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, A I; Tikhonova, D Iu; Solopova, I A; Grishin, A A; Alekhin, A I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was the investigation of effectiveness of restoration of lost motor functions in acute period of stroke with the help of software/hardware complex "Vertical". This complex includes a functional bed-trainer for leg movements with phase-dependent functional electrical myostimulation (FES). Fifty-five subjects (mean age 64 +/-1.5 years) were assigned randomly to two groups receiving standard rehabilitation (a control group--27 subjects) and standard rehabilitation combined with the treatment by the "Vertical" complex (FES group--28 subjects). The treatment course was started on average 9 +/- 4 days after stroke and consisted of 30 min sessions 5 days per week during 2 weeks. Outcome was assessed by a battery of scales, everyday movement abilities and biomechanical parameters before and after treatment. No significant differences were found in baseline measurements. After the treatment, there was a positive dynamics in both groups with significant improvement in scores in the FES group. Most of patients of this group (67%) had hemiparesis of mild degree compared to the control group (7%, p < 0.05) to the end of treatment. Also 89% of subjects in the FES group were able to walk without assistance after treatment as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). There was a significant improvement in ankle flexors and extensors force of the paretic leg as well as in ankle joint movements of voluntary "walking" in the supine position in the FES group (p < 0.05).

  2. Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease.

  3. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Agnieszka; Fol, Marek; Rahman, Moshiur; Stokes, Karen Y; Florence, Jon M; Leskov, Igor L; Khoretonenko, Mikhail V; Matthay, Michael A; Liu, Kathleen D; Calfee, Carolyn S; Tvinnereim, Amy; Rosenfield, Gabriel R; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2014-09-15

    Previous observations made by our laboratory indicate that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of local inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have shown that there is cross talk between FcγRIIa and TLR4 in alveolar neutrophils from patients with ALI/ARDS and that Btk mediates the molecular cooperation between these two receptors. To study the function of Btk in vivo we have developed a unique two-hit model of ALI: LPS/immune complex (IC)-induced ALI. Furthermore, we conjugated F(ab)2 fragments of anti-neutrophil antibodies (Ly6G1A8) with specific siRNA for Btk to silence Btk specifically in alveolar neutrophils. It should be stressed that we are the first group to perform noninvasive transfections of neutrophils, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our present findings indicate that silencing Btk in alveolar neutrophils has a dramatic protective effect in mice with LPS/IC-induced ALI, and that Btk regulates neutrophil survival and clearance of apoptotic neutrophils in this model. In conclusion, we put forward a hypothesis that Btk-targeted neutrophil specific therapy is a valid goal of research geared toward restoring homeostasis in lungs of patients with ALI/ARDS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Feng, Zongdi; Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Brasky, Kathleen M; Zhou, Yan; Yamane, Daisuke; Perelson, Alan S; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2011-07-05

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an hepatotropic human picornavirus that is associated only with acute infection. Its pathogenesis is not well understood because there are few studies in animal models using modern methodologies. We characterized HAV infections in three chimpanzees, quantifying viral RNA by quantitative RT-PCR and examining critical aspects of the innate immune response including intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression. We compared these infection profiles with similar studies of chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), an hepatotropic flavivirus that frequently causes persistent infection. Surprisingly, HAV-infected animals exhibited very limited induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes in the liver compared with chimpanzees with acute resolving HCV infection, despite similar levels of viremia and 100-fold greater quantities of viral RNA in the liver. Minimal IFN-stimulated gene 15 and IFIT1 responses peaked 1-2 wk after HAV challenge and then subsided despite continuing high hepatic viral RNA. An acute inflammatory response at 3-4 wk correlated with the appearance of virus-specific antibodies and apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes. Despite this, HAV RNA persisted in the liver for months, remaining present long after clearance from serum and feces and revealing dramatic differences in the kinetics of clearance in the three compartments. Viral RNA was detected in the liver for significantly longer (35 to >48 wk) than HCV RNA in animals with acute resolving HCV infection (10-20 wk). Collectively, these findings indicate that HAV is far stealthier than HCV early in the course of acute resolving infection. HAV infections represent a distinctly different paradigm in virus-host interactions within the liver.

  5. Tuning the Ising-type anisotropy in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Cahier, Benjamin; Guihéry, Nathalie; Rivière, Eric; Guillot, Régis; Barra, Anne-Laure; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Campbell, Victoria E; Mallah, Talal

    2015-11-28

    This paper demonstrates the engineering and tuning of Ising-type magnetic anisotropy in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes. Here, we predict that employing a ligand that forces a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement and has weak equatorial σ-donating atoms, increases (in absolute value) the negative zero field splitting parameter D. With these considerations in mind, we used a sulfur containing ligand (NS3(iPr)), which imposes a trigonal bipyramidal geometry to the central Co(II) ion with long equatorial Co-S bonds. The resulting complex exhibits a larger anisotropy barrier and a longer relaxation time in comparison to the complex prepared with a nitrogen containing ligand (Me6tren).

  6. New Copper and Oxomolybdate Robson-Type Polynuclear Macrocyclic Complexes: Structure, Spectroscopy, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carpes Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The polynuclear complexes [Mo3O8(tidf]·dmso·2H2O (1 and [{Cu2(tidf}2(μ-Mo8O24] (2 (tidf2− is a symmetrical tetraiminodiphenolate Robson-type macrocyclic ligand were prepared from equimolar combinations of [Mg2(tidf](NO32·4H2O, [MoO2Cl2(dmso2] (for 1 and complex 1 and Cu(ClO42·4H2O (for 2 in acetonitrile. Molecular structures of both complexes were determined and showed atypical modes of coordination. A significant observation was the remarkable flexibility of the macrocycle ligand that effectively accommodated the steric demands of metal cations and the packing forces and showed a unique mode of coordination. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and FTIR and redox properties are discussed.

  7. Impairments and activity limitations in subjects with chronic upper-limb complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Schasfoort (Fabiënne); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of impairments and activity limitations and their interrelationship in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS type I). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study interrelating impairments and objectively measured activity limitations. SETTING: Ambulatory and

  8. Contribution of permafrost degradation landforms to summer export of DOC from Yedoma-type Ice Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Anne; Polakowski, Lydia; Chetverova, Antonina; Eulenburg, Antje; Fedorova, Irina; Skorospekhova, Tatyana; Bobrova, Olga; Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Overduin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Thermo-erosional landforms (valleys, gullies) and their associated streams are the main connecting pathways between inland permafrost areas and rivers and coasts. Surface and ground waters are routed along these streams, which transport particulate and dissolved matter from the catchments to the rivers and coastal waters. Regions of ice-rich permafrost, such as the Yedoma-type Ice Complex, are not only characterized by a high abundance of thermo-erosional landforms,...

  9. Complex links between natural tuberculosis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boar

    OpenAIRE

    Iratxe Díez-Delgado; Mariana Boadella; MariPaz Martín-Hernando; José Angel Barasona; Beatriz Beltrán-Beck; David González-Barrio; Marina Sibila; Joaquín Vicente; Garrido, Joseba M; Joaquim Segalés; Christian Gortazar

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% f...

  10. Development of a tiered multilocus sequence typing scheme for members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W; Pfeiler, Erika A; Elkins, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species.

  11. Artificial light at night alters delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in response to acute stress in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress.

  12. Intact initiation of autophagy and mitochondrial fission by acute exercise in skeletal muscle of patientswith type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Sørensen, Rikke; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysregulation, and, in some studies, exercise resistance in skeletal muscle. Regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics during exercise and recovery is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis......, and these responses may be altered in T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of acute exercise on markers of autophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with T2D (n=13) and weight-matched controls (n=14) before, immediately after and 3h after an acute bout...... of exercise. RESULTS: While mRNA levels of most markers of autophagy ( PIK3C, MAP1LC3B, SQSTM1, BNIP3, BNIP3L ) and mitochondrial dynamics ( OPA1, FIS1 ) remained unchanged, some either increased during and after exercise (GABARAPL1 ), decreased in the recovery period ( BECN1, ATG7, DNM1L ), or both ( MFN2...

  13. Late Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Severe Acute Systemic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Sorina Alina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last International Diabetes Federation statement showed that in 2015, there were 415 million people diagnosed with diabetes and the expectation for 2040 is around 642 million people all over the world. Diabetes Mellitus is a disease associated with major negative consequences due to its acute and chronic complications with chronic hyperglycemia playing a major role.

  14. Detection of immune-complex-dissociated nonstructural-1 antigen in patients with acute dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C.P. Burghoorn-Maas; A. Falconar; T.E. Setiati (Tatty); K. Djamiatun; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAccurate and timely diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infections is essential for the differential diagnosis of patients with febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, the diagnostic value of a newly developed immune-complex dissociated nonstructural-1 (NS-1) antigen dot

  15. Thermal Behaviour of Some New Polyoxometalate Complexes of Ciprofloxacin with Keggin-type Heteropoly Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dun-jia; FANG Zheng-dong; HAN De-yan

    2005-01-01

    Four polyoxometalate complexes, (CPFX·HCl)3H4SiW12O40, (CPFX·HCl)3H3PW12O40, (CPFX·HCl)3H3PMo12O40 and (CPFX·HCl)4H4SiMo12O40, were prepared from ciprofloxacin hydrochloride(CPFX·HCl) reacting with HnXM12O40·nH2O(X=P,Si; M=W,Mo) in an aqueous solution, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrometry and TG-DTA. The IR spectrum confirms the presence of Keggin-type anions of heteropoly acids and the characteristic functional groups of ciprofloxacin. The TG/DTA curves show that their thermal decomposition is a multi-step process including simultaneous collapse of the Keggin-type structure. At first, these compounds had a mass loss of water molecules, then several other mass losses occurred due to the decomposition of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and its fragments with the degradation of Keggin anions. The end product of decomposition is the mixture of WO3(or MoO3) and SiO2(or P2O5), identified by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The possible thermal decomposition mechanisms of these complexes are proposed. This study exemplified that the thermal stability of the complexes containing tungsten is much better than that of the complexes containing molybdenum.

  16. The number of cell types, information content, and the evolution of complex multicellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J. Niklas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of different cell types (NCT characterizing an organism is often used to quantify organismic complexity. This method results in the tautology that more complex organisms have a larger number of different kinds of cells, and that organisms with more different kinds of cells are more complex. This circular reasoning can be avoided (and simultaneously tested when NCT is plotted against different measures of organismic information content (e.g., genome or proteome size. This approach is illustrated by plotting the NCT of representative diatoms, green and brown algae, land plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates against data for genome size (number of base-pairs, proteome size (number of amino acids, and proteome functional versatility (number of intrinsically disordered protein domains or residues. Statistical analyses of these data indicate that increases in NCT fail to keep pace with increases in genome size, but exceed a one-to-one scaling relationship with increasing proteome size and with increasing numbers of intrinsically disordered protein residues. We interpret these trends to indicate that comparatively small increases in proteome (and not genome size are associated with disproportionate increases in NCT, and that proteins with intrinsically disordered domains enhance cell type diversity and thus contribute to the evolution of complex multicellularity.

  17. [The use of botulinum toxin type a in the acute phase of facial nerve injury after neurosurgical surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, O R; Akulov, M A; Usachev, D Iu; Taniashin, S V; Zakharov, V O; Saksonova, E V; Mingazova, L R; Surovykh, S V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of botulinum toxin type A in the acute phase of facial nerve injury after neurosurgical surgery. The study involved 55 patients with acute facial muscle paresis caused by facial nerve injury during surgery on the posterior cranial fossa and cerebello-pontine angle (CPA). The first group consisted of 35 patients (mean age, 48.14±1.26 years) who were administered botulinum toxin type A (xeomin) at a dose of 2-3 U per point in muscles of the intact side of the face. The control group included 20 patients (mean age, 49.85±1.4 years) who underwent standard rehabilitation treatment of this pathology. The treatment efficacy was evaluated using the House-Brackmann Scale, the Yanagihara facial grading system, the Facial Disability Index (FDI), and the Sunnybrook Facial Grading (SFG) Scale. Before treatment, patients of both groups experienced severe dysfunction according to the House-Brackmann Scale. A month after the botulinium toxin type A therapy had been started, a significant improvement in the group of patients who received botulinum toxin was observed at all scales (p<0.05), whereas improvement in the facial nerve function in the second group was observed only by the 3rd month of rehabilitation treatment (p<0.05). The number of synkineses in the patients who did not receive botulinum toxin was 46% higher than that in the first group (p=0.019) one year after the surgery, and it was higher by 91% after 2 years (p<0.001). The use of botulinum toxin type A is reasonable in acute facial nerve injury and should be mandatory in combined therapy of these patients.

  18. Timeliness of tissue-type plasminogen activator therapy in acute ischemic stroke: patient characteristics, hospital factors, and outcomes associated with door-to-needle times within 60 minutes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Smith, Eric E; Saver, Jeffrey L; Reeves, Mathew J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; Olson, DaiWai M; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D; Schwamm, Lee H

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke are time dependent, and guidelines recommend an arrival to treatment initiation (door-to-needle) time of ≤60 minutes...

  19. The effects of numerical-model complexity and observation type on estimated porosity values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J. Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Green, Christopher T.

    2015-09-01

    The relative merits of model complexity and types of observations employed in model calibration are compared. An existing groundwater flow model coupled with an advective transport simulation of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah (USA), is adapted for advective transport, and effective porosity is adjusted until simulated tritium concentrations match concentrations in samples from wells. Two calibration approaches are used: a "complex" highly parameterized porosity field and a "simple" parsimonious model of porosity distribution. The use of an atmospheric tracer (tritium in this case) and apparent ages (from tritium/helium) in model calibration also are discussed. Of the models tested, the complex model (with tritium concentrations and tritium/helium apparent ages) performs best. Although tritium breakthrough curves simulated by complex and simple models are very generally similar, and there is value in the simple model, the complex model is supported by a more realistic porosity distribution and a greater number of estimable parameters. Culling the best quality data did not lead to better calibration, possibly because of processes and aquifer characteristics that are not simulated. Despite many factors that contribute to shortcomings of both the models and the data, useful information is obtained from all the models evaluated. Although any particular prediction of tritium breakthrough may have large errors, overall, the models mimic observed trends.

  20. Mechanics unloading analysis and experimentation of a new type of parallel biomimetic shoulder complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yulei; Li, Zhisen; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Wenwen; Zeng, Daxing; Zhou, Yulin

    2016-07-01

    The structure design for high ratio of carrying capacity to deadweight is one of the challenges for the bionic mechanism, while the problem concerning high carrying capacity has not yet be solved for the existing shoulder complex. A new type biomimetic shoulder complex, which adopts 3-PSS/S(P for prismatic pair, S for spherical pair) spherical parallel mechanism (SPM), is proposed. The static equilibrium equations of each component are established by using the vector method and the equations for constrain forces with certain load are solved. Then the constrain force on the middle limb and that on the side limbs are compared in order to verify the unloading performance of the mechanism. In addition, the prototype mechanism of the shoulder complex is developed, and the force feedback experiment is conducted to verify the static analysis, which indicates that the middle limb suffers most of the external force and the effect of mechanics unloading is achieved. The 3-PSS/S spherical parallel mechanism is presented for the shoulder complex, and the realization of mechanics unloading is benefit for the improvement of the carrying capacity of the shoulder complex.

  1. Lanczos-type variants of the COCR method for complex nonsymmetric linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Zhang, Yong; Li, Liang; Cheng, Guang-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Duan, Yong; Sogabe, Tomohiro; Carpentieri, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    Motivated by the celebrated extending applications of the well-established complex Biconjugate Gradient (CBiCG) method to deal with large three-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problems by Pocock and Walker [M.D. Pocock, S.P. Walker, The complex Bi-conjugate Gradient solver applied to large electromagnetic scattering problems, computational costs, and cost scalings, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 45 (1997) 140-146], three Lanczos-type variants of the recent Conjugate A-Orthogonal Conjugate Residual (COCR) method of Sogabe and Zhang [T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, A COCR method for solving complex symmetric linear systems, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 199 (2007) 297-303] are explored for the solution of complex nonsymmetric linear systems. The first two can be respectively considered as mathematically equivalent but numerically improved popularizing versions of the BiCR and CRS methods for complex systems presented in Sogabe's Ph.D. Dissertation. And the last one is somewhat new and is a stabilized and more smoothly converging variant of the first two in some circumstances. The presented algorithms are with the hope of obtaining smoother and, hopefully, faster convergence behavior in comparison with the CBiCG method as well as its two corresponding variants. This motivation is demonstrated by numerical experiments performed on some selective matrices borrowed from The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection by Davis.

  2. Neurochemical mechanism of the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex in rats with acute inflammatory stomach ache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Xu; Qin Li; Lv Zhou; Liqiang Ru

    2012-01-01

    The normal gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex cycle was interrupted, and paroxysmal contraction appeared after formaldehyde-induced stomach ache. Activities of nitric oxide synthase, acetylcholinesterase and vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons were significantly reduced, whereas activities of calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons were significantly increased in the pyloric sphincter muscular layer, myenteric nerve plexus and submucous nerve plexus. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) suppressed paroxysmal contraction in rats with formaldehyde-induced stomach ache, and neurons in the enteric nervous system were normal. These results indicated that nitrergic neurons, cholinergic neurons, vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons and calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons in the enteric nervous system may be involved in changes to the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex following stomach ache, and that electroacupuncture can regulate this process.

  3. Spectroscopic, thermal analysis and DFT computational studies of salen-type Schiff base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein Pasha; Hadi, Jabbar S.; Abdulnabi, Zuhair A.; Bolandnazar, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    A new series of metal(II) complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) have been synthesized from a salen-type Schiff base ligand derived from o-vanillin and 4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-mass), molar conductance measurements and thermal analysis techniques. Coats-Redfern method has been utilized to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the metal complexes. The molecular geometry, Mulliken atomic charges of the studied compounds were investigated theoretically by performing density functional theory (DFT) to access reliable results to the experimental values. The theoretical 13C chemical shift results of the studied compounds have been calculated at the B3LYP, PBEPBE and PW91PW91 methods and standard 6-311+G(d,p) basis set starting from optimized geometry. The comparison of the results indicates that B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) yields good agreement with the observed chemical shifts. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the metal complexes are non-electrolytes. The spectral and thermal analysis reveals that all complexes have octahedral geometry except Cu(II) complex which can attain the square planner arrangement. The presence of lattice and coordinated water molecules are indicated by thermograms of the complexes. The thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses confirm high stability for all complexes followed by thermal decomposition in different steps.

  4. Different Types of nsP3-Containing Protein Complexes in Sindbis Virus-Infected Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions. PMID:18684830

  5. Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-10-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions.

  6. Sex in smut fungi: Structure, function and evolution of mating-type complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkeren, Guus; Kämper, Jörg; Schirawski, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Smut fungi are basidiomycete plant pathogens that pose a threat to many important cereal crops. In order to be pathogenic on plants, smut fungal cells of compatible mating-type need to fuse. Fusion and pathogenicity are regulated by two loci, a and b, which harbor conserved genes. The functions of the encoded mating-type complexes have been well-studied in the model fungus Ustilago maydis and will be briefly reviewed here. Sequence comparison of the mating-type loci of different smut and related fungi has revealed that these loci differ substantially in structure. These structural differences point to an evolution from tetrapolar to bipolar mating behavior, which might have occurred several independent times during fungal speciation.

  7. Investigating Burkholderia cepacia complex populations recovered from Italian maize rhizosphere by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmastri, Claudia; Baldwin, Adam; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Chiarini, Luigi; Dowson, Christopher

    2007-07-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) comprises at least nine closely related species of abundant environmental microorganisms. Some of these species are highly spread in the rhizosphere of several crop plants, particularly of maize; additionally, as opportunistic pathogens, strains of the BCC are capable of colonizing humans. We have developed and validated a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the BCC. Although widely applied to understand the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens, MLST has seen limited application to the population analysis of species residing in the natural environment; we describe its novel application to BCC populations within maize rhizospheres. 115 BCC isolates were recovered from the roots of different maize cultivars from three different Italian regions over a 9-year period (1994-2002). A total of 44 sequence types (STs) were found of which 41 were novel when compared with existing MLST data which encompassed a global database of 1000 clinical and environmental strains representing nearly 400 STs. In this study of rhizosphere isolates approximately 2.5 isolates per ST was found, comparable to that found for the whole BCC population. Multilocus sequence typing also resolved inaccuracies associated with previous identification of the maize isolates based on recA gene restriction fragment length polymorphims and species-specific polymerase chain reaction. The 115 maize isolates comprised the following BCC species groups, B. ambifaria (39%), BCC6 (29%), BCC5 (10%), B. pyrrocinia (8%), B. cenocepacia IIIB (7%) and B. cepacia (6%), with BCC5 and BCC6 potentially constituting novel species groups within the complex. Closely related clonal complexes of strains were identified within B. cepacia, B. cenocepacia IIIB, BCC5 and BCC6, with one of the BCC5 clonal complexes being distributed across all three sampling sites. Overall, our analysis demonstrates that the maize rhizosphere harbours a massive diversity of novel BCC STs, so that their

  8. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  9. Discrimination in waiting times by insurance type and financial soundness of German acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, Christoph; Wübker, Achim; Wübker, Ansgar; Kuchinke, Björn A

    2011-10-01

    This paper shows that patients with private health insurance (PHI) are being offered significantly shorter waiting times than patients with statutory health insurance (SHI) in German acute hospital care. This behavior may be driven by the higher expected profitability of PHI relative to SHI holders. Further, we find that hospitals offering private insurees shorter waiting times when compared with SHI holders have a significantly better financial performance than those abstaining from or with less discrimination.

  10. Acute renal failure as an initial manifestation of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afshar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN is a group of heritable syndromes characterized by aberrant growth of benign or malignant tumors in a subset of endocrine tissues. There are three major syndromes: MEN1, 2A and 2B. We describe a 60-year-old woman who initially manifested acute renal failure due to hypercalcemia and dehydration and, finally, was diagnosed as a sporadic MEN1 case.

  11. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with

  12. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with th

  13. Work-related outcome after acute coronary syndrome: Implications of complex cardiac rehabilitation in occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lamberti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Coronary heart disease is frequent in the working-age population. Traditional outcomes, such as mortality and hospital readmission, are useful for evaluating prognosis. Fit-for-work is an emerging outcome with clinical as well as socioeconomic significance. We describe the possible benefit of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR program for return to work (RTW after acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Material and Methods: We evaluated 204 patients with recent ACS. They were divided into 4 groups on the basis of their occupational work load: very light (VL, light (L, moderate (M, and heavy (H. Work-related outcomes were assessed with the Work Performance Scale (WPS of the Functional Status Questionnaire and as “days missed from work” (DMW in the previous 4 weeks. The variables considered for outcomes were percent ejection fraction, functional capacity expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs, and participation or non-participation in the CR program (CR+ and CR–. Results: One hundred thirty (66% patients took part in the CR program. Total WPS scores for CR+ and CR– subgroups were VL group: 18±4 vs. 14±4 (p < 0.001, L group: 18±3 vs. 14±3 (p < 0.0001, M group: 19±3 vs. 16±3 (p < 0.003, and H group: 20±4 vs. 17±3 (p < 0.006. Fewer DMW were reported by the CR+ group. Conclusions: Non-participation in CR was a consistent cause of poorer work-related outcomes. Our findings indicate that CR and occupational counseling play a very important role in worker recovery and subsequent reintegration in the workplace, in particular among clerical workers.

  14. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN RESPONSES IN MICE INFECTED WITH RIVER WATER CONTAMINATED BY PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA TYPE B: 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqdad Khaleel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals are predisposed to infections through varieties of ways which activate the innate immune systems at the initial phase of acute infections. Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS is a devastating septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by a particular serotypes of Pasteurella multocida and serotype B: 2 is the most important cause of the disease in Asia. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate on acute phase protein responses in mice infected with river water contaminated by Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Five infected mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. There were increased concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp in the mice inoculated with infected river water kept for 24 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0454 relative to the control, oral and the aerosol routes. There was significant increased concentration of Serum Amyloid A (SAA in the mice that were inoculated with infected river water kept for 72 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0020 compared to control, orally and the aerosol routes. The intraperitoneal route though most effective in response but practically not feasible for vaccine administration in larger animals and the oral routes was inadequate in eliciting acute phase response in the present study of mice model. Therefore, the aerosol routes could perhaps be a readily available route for effective vaccine administration and heightened immunity in animals considering the progressive responses of APPs through this route.

  15. Acute Versus Progressive Onset of Diabetes in NOD Mice: Potential Implications for Therapeutic Interventions in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clayton E; Xue, Song; Posgai, Amanda; Lightfoot, Yaima L; Li, Xia; Lin, Andrea; Wasserfall, Clive; Haller, Michael J; Schatz, Desmond; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Most natural history models for type 1 diabetes (T1D) propose that overt hyperglycemia results after a progressive loss of insulin-secreting β-cell mass and/or function. To experimentally address this concept, we prospectively determined morning blood glucose measurements every other day in multiple cohorts (total n = 660) of female NOD/ShiLtJ mice starting at 8 weeks of age until diabetes onset or 26 weeks of age. Consistent with this notion, a majority of mice that developed diabetes (354 of 489 [72%]) displayed a progressive increase in blood glucose with transient excursions >200 mg/dL, followed by acute and persistent hyperglycemia at diabetes onset. However, 135 of the 489 (28%) diabetic animals demonstrated normal glucose values followed by acute (i.e., sudden) hyperglycemia. Interestingly, diabetes onset occurred earlier in mice with acute versus progressive disease onset (15.37 ± 0.3207 vs. 17.44 ± 0.2073 weeks of age, P reversal of T1D by immunotherapeutic intervention, with increased effectiveness observed in situations of a progressive deterioration in euglycemia. These studies highlight a novel natural history aspect in this animal model, one that may provide important guidance for the selection of subjects participating in human trials seeking disease reversal.

  16. VHL type 2B mutations retain VBC complex form and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Hacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by a spectrum of hypervascular tumors, including renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, and pheochromocytoma, which occur with VHL genotype-specific differences in penetrance. VHL loss causes a failure to regulate the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, resulting in accumulation of both factors to high levels. Although HIF dysregulation is critical to VHL disease-associated renal tumorigenesis, increasing evidence points toward gradations of HIF dysregulation contributing to the degree of predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other manifestations of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This investigation examined the ability of disease-specific VHL missense mutations to support the assembly of the VBC complex and to promote the ubiquitylation of HIF. Our interaction analysis supported previous observations that VHL Type 2B mutations disrupt the interaction between pVHL and Elongin C but maintain partial regulation of HIF. We additionally demonstrated that Type 2B mutant pVHL forms a remnant VBC complex containing the active members ROC1 and Cullin-2 which retains the ability to ubiquitylate HIF-1alpha. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that subtypes of VHL mutations support an intermediate level of HIF regulation via a remnant VBC complex. These findings provide a mechanism for the graded HIF dysregulation and genetic predisposition for cancer development in VHL disease.

  17. Calculation of photoionization differential cross sections using complex Gauss-type orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Rei; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2017-09-05

    Accurate theoretical calculation of photoelectron angular distributions for general molecules is becoming an important tool to image various chemical reactions in real time. We show in this article that not only photoionization total cross sections but also photoelectron angular distributions can be accurately calculated using complex Gauss-type orbital (cGTO) basis functions. Our method can be easily combined with existing quantum chemistry techniques including electron correlation effects, and applied to various molecules. The so-called two-potential formula is applied to represent the transition dipole moment from an initial bound state to a final continuum state in the molecular coordinate frame. The two required continuum functions, the zeroth-order final continuum state and the first-order wave function induced by the photon field, have been variationally obtained using the complex basis function method with a mixture of appropriate cGTOs and conventional real Gauss-type orbitals (GTOs) to represent the continuum orbitals as well as the remaining bound orbitals. The complex orbital exponents of the cGTOs are optimized by fitting to the outgoing Coulomb functions. The efficiency of the current method is demonstrated through the calculations of the asymmetry parameters and molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions of H2+ and H2 . In the calculations of H2 , the static exchange and random phase approximations are employed, and the dependence of the results on the basis functions is discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assembly and stoichiometry of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Takuma; Makino, Fumiaki; Dietsche, Tobias; Kinoshita, Miki; Kato, Takayuki; Wagner, Samuel; Namba, Keiichi; Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus, which is required for flagellar assembly beyond the cell membranes, consists of a transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR form the gate complex inside the basal body MS ring, although FliO is required for efficient export gate formation in Salmonella enterica. However, it remains unknown how they form the gate complex. Here we report that FliP forms a homohexameric ring with a diameter of 10 nm. Alanine substitutions of conserved Phe-137, Phe-150, and Glu-178 residues in the periplasmic domain of FliP (FliPP) inhibited FliP6 ring formation, suppressing flagellar protein export. FliO formed a 5-nm ring structure with 3 clamp-like structures that bind to the FliP6 ring. The crystal structure of FliPP derived from Thermotoga maritia, and structure-based photo-crosslinking experiments revealed that Phe-150 and Ser-156 of FliPP are involved in the FliP-FliP interactions and that Phe-150, Arg-152, Ser-156, and Pro-158 are responsible for the FliP-FliO interactions. Overexpression of FliP restored motility of a ∆fliO mutant to the wild-type level, suggesting that the FliP6 ring is a functional unit in the export gate complex and that FliO is not part of the final gate structure. Copurification assays revealed that FlhA, FlhB, FliQ, and FliR are associated with the FliO/FliP complex. We propose that the assembly of the export gate complex begins with FliP6 ring formation with the help of the FliO scaffold, followed by FliQ, FliR, and FlhB and finally FlhA during MS ring formation.

  19. Synthesis, structure and applications of [cis-dioxomolybdenum(VI)-(ONO)] type complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajan Deepan Chakravarthy; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2011-03-01

    Oxo-molybdenum chemistry is of great interest since such units are found in the active sites of a majority of molybdo-enzymes. In order to mimic the biological systems, a number of oxo-molybdenum complexes have been synthesised and studied. This review describes synthesis, structure and applications of oxomolybdenum complexes particularly cis-MoO2(L)(D) where L stands for a dianionic tridentate ONO ligand and D for a donor solvent molecule/monodentate ligand. The ligand moieties are derived from Schiff base, hydrazide Schiff base and other related tridentate ligands L(H)2. The coordination geometry around the Mo center in these complexes can be best described as a distorted octahedron in which the ONO-tridentate ligand occupies meridional position with two anionic oxygen donors mutually trans and are cis to the oxygen centers of the cis-dioxo group. Mostly the applications of cis-MoO2-(ONO) type complexes seen in literature are oxo transfer reactions like epoxidation, sulfoxidation and phosphine oxidation reactions.

  20. The Spectra of Type IIB Flux Compactifications at Large Complex Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Callum

    2015-01-01

    We compute the spectra of the Hessian matrix, ${\\cal H}$, and the matrix ${\\cal M}$ that governs the critical point equation of the low-energy effective supergravity, as a function of the complex structure and axio-dilaton moduli space in type IIB flux compactifications at large complex structure. We find both spectra analytically in an $h^{1,2}_-+3$ real-dimensional subspace of the moduli space, and show that they exhibit a universal structure with highly degenerate eigenvalues, independently of the choice of flux, the details of the compactification geometry, and the number of complex structure moduli. In this subspace, the spectrum of the Hessian matrix contains no tachyons, but there are also no critical points. We show numerically that the spectra of ${\\cal H}$ and ${\\cal M}$ remain highly peaked over a large fraction of the sampled moduli space of explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with 2 to 5 complex structure moduli. In these models, the scale of the supersymmetric contribution to the scalar masses...

  1. Fibre type-specific change in FXYD1 phosphorylation during acute intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Murphy, Robyn M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine fibre type-specific Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit expression and exercise-induced alterations in phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation in humans. Segments of human skeletal muscle fibres were dissected and fibre typed, and protein expression was determined...... by Western blotting. The protein expression of the Na(+)-K(+) pump a2 isoform was lower in type I than in type II fibres (0.63 ± 0.04 a.u. vs. 1.00 ± 0.07 a.u., P ... channel Kir6.2 was higher in type I compared with type II fibres. In both type I (P type II fibres (P

  2. The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A cyclophilin A complex reduces desensitization of GABA(A)-mediated responses in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, M; Mozrzymas, JW; Boddeke, HWGM; Cherubini, E

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the selective inhibitor of calcineurin, cyclosporin A-cyclophilin A (CC) complex on the desensitization kinetics of GABA(A) receptors was studied in acutely dissociated hippocampal neurons, using the patch clamp technique in the whole cell configuration. In control conditions, the dec

  3. Bacterial flagella and Type III secretion: case studies in the evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, M J; Gophna, U

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial flagella at first sight appear uniquely sophisticated in structure, so much so that they have even been considered 'irreducibly complex' by the intelligent design movement. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that these remarkable pieces of molecular machinery are the product of processes that are fully compatible with Darwinian evolution. In this chapter we present evidence for such processes, based on a review of experimental studies, molecular phylogeny and microbial genomics. Several processes have played important roles in flagellar evolution: self-assembly of simple repeating subunits, gene duplication with subsequent divergence, recruitment of elements from other systems ('molecular bricolage'), and recombination. We also discuss additional tentative new assignments of homology (FliG with MgtE, FliO with YscJ). In conclusion, rather than providing evidence of intelligent design, flagellar and non-flagellar Type III secretion systems instead provide excellent case studies in the evolution of complex systems from simpler components.

  4. Pancreatic Islet Protein Complexes and Their Dysregulation in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Brunak, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease that involves multiple genes. Numerous risk loci have already been associated with T2D, although many susceptibility genes remain to be identified given heritability estimates. Systems biology approaches hold potential for discovering novel T2D genes...... associated with diabetic phenotypes through heterogeneous evidence sources, including genetic variation, methylation, and gene expression in islets. The analysis specifically revealed ten T2D candidate genes with probable roles in islets (ANPEP, HADH, FAM105A, PDLIM4, PDLIM5, MAP2K4, PPP2R5E, SNX13, GNAS...... give rise to diabetic phenotypes. The complex nature of T2D ultimately prompts an understanding of the individual patients at the network biology level. We present the foundation for such work by exposing a subset of the global interactome that is dysregulated in T2D and consequently provides a good...

  5. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia of T/myeloid type with a prominent cellular heterogeneity and unique karyotypic aberration 45,XY, dic(11;17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, M; Colovic, N; Jankovic, G; Kraguljac Kurtovic, N; Vidovic, A; Djordjevic, V; Bogdanovic, A

    2012-06-01

    A 26-yr-old male patient with mixed phenotype acute leukemia of T/myeloid type with prominent leukemic cell heterogeneity, and the presence of a so far unreported karyotype aberration in this type of acute leukemia 45,XY, dic(11;17)(11qter→11p11.2::17p11.2→17qter) is presented. Flow immunocytometry was performed by direct multicolor immunofluorescent technique on bone marrow aspirates. Cytogenetic analyses were performed using G-banding method by direct preparation of unstimulated bone marrow cells and following 24 hours of culture in RPMI 1540 culture medium with 25% fetal calf serum at 37°C RESULTS: The flow immunocytometry of bone marrow nucleated cells revealed the existance of three distinct blast cell populations with overlapping immunophenotypes. Predominant blast cell population had an early myeloid phenotype and aberrant expression of CD7 antigen (HLA-DR(+), CD34(+), anti-MPO(+), CD117(+), CD33(+), CD13(+), CD7(+low), cyCD3(-), TdT(-)). The other two blast cell populations, smaller in cell diameter and less sizable in cell proportion, both shared the T-lymphoid features. The patient was treated with ADE protocol (etoposide, cytarabine and doxorubicine). A complete remission was achieved and lasted 5 months. A case of MPAL with complex biological features, 45,XY, dic(11;17)(11qter→11p11.2::17p11.2→17qter) karyotype and an aggressive, therapy-resistant clinical course, is presented. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Staphylococcus aureus lineage-specific markers collagen adhesin and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 distinguish multilocus sequence typing clonal complexes within spa clonal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Sebastian, Silvie; Welling, Maaike A; Beisser, Patrick S; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2009-01-01

    Spa typing/based upon repeat pattern (BURP) sometimes cannot differentiate multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs) within spa-CCs. It has been observed previously that virulence factors, such as collagen adhesin (CNA) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), are associated with

  7. Glucose time series complexity as a predictor of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Castro, Carmen; Vigil, Luis; Vargas, Borja; García Delgado, Emilio; García Carretero, Rafael; Ruiz-Galiana, Julián; Varela, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Complexity analysis of glucose profile may provide valuable information about the gluco-regulatory system. We hypothesized that a complexity metric (detrended fluctuation analysis, DFA) may have a prognostic value for the development of type 2 diabetes in patients at risk. A total of 206 patients with any of the following risk factors (1) essential hypertension, (2) obesity or (3) a first-degree relative with a diagnosis of diabetes were included in a survival analysis study for a diagnosis of new onset type 2 diabetes. At inclusion, a glucometry by means of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System was performed, and DFA was calculated for a 24-h glucose time series. Patients were then followed up every 6 months, controlling for the development of diabetes. In a median follow-up of 18 months, there were 18 new cases of diabetes (58.5 cases/1000 patient-years). DFA was a significant predictor for the development of diabetes, with ten events in the highest quartile versus one in the lowest (log-rank test chi2 = 9, df = 1, p = 0.003), even after adjusting for other relevant clinical and biochemical variables. In a Cox model, the risk of diabetes development increased 2.8 times for every 0.1 DFA units. In a multivariate analysis, only fasting glucose, HbA1c and DFA emerged as significant factors. Detrended fluctuation analysis significantly performed as a harbinger of type 2 diabetes development in a high-risk population. Complexity analysis may help in targeting patients who could be candidates for intensified treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Acute doxorubicin insult in the mouse ovary is cell- and follicle-type dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours, as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10-12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult

  9. Rare association of turner syndrome with neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttur Malini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare association of Turner syndrome with both Neurofibromatosis type I and Tuberous Sclerosis. The patient had XO karyotype with Turners stigmata and also had features of Neurofibromatosis 1 in the form of significant cafe-au-lait spots and Plexiform neurofibroma along with typical features of Tuberous Sclerosis complex. Pedigree analysis revealed that the elder brother of the proband in the family also suffered from Tuberous Sclerosis without the manifestation of Neurofibromatosis or any other genetic disorders. We hypothesize that these associations could be due to new independent mutations and also increased maternal and paternal age in a pre-disposition of Turner syndrome.

  10. Cation-anionicpalladium Complexes- New Types of Antitumor, Immune Response-modulating and Radioprotective Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EFIMENKO I. A.; SHISHILOV O. N.; IVANOVA N. A.; EROFEEVA O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report results of our investigations of new class of bioactive palladium compounds (AHn)m[PdC14],which were discovered as a result of systematic study of correlations between composition,structure and bioactivity of different types of platinum metals coordination compounds.For the first time we demonstrated in vivoa possibility of development of palladium compounds,which exceed cisplatin in antitumor activity and do not show immunosuppressive effects,and palladium compounds with immunostimulating and radioprotective activities.Combinations of cytostatic agents or radiation with palladium complexes lead to significant synergism of their activities and high therapeutic efficiency exceeded an efficiency of their separated use.

  11. Liouville and Calabi-Yau type theorems for complex Hessian equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dinew, Slawomir

    2012-01-01

    We prove a Liouville type theorem for entire maximal $m$-subharmonic functions in $\\mathbb C^n$ with bounded gradient. This result, coupled with a standard blow-up argument, yields a (non-explicit) a priori gradient estimate for the complex Hessian equation on a compact K\\"ahler manifold. This terminates the program, initiated by Hou, Ma and Wu, of solving the non-degenerate Hessian equation on such manifolds in full generality. We also obtain, using our previous work, continuous weak solutions in the degenerate case for the right hand side in some $L^p, $ with sharp bound on $p$.

  12. Complexation between polyallylammonium cations and polystyrenesulfonate anions: the effect of ionic strength and the electrolyte type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Požar, Josip; Kovačević, Davor

    2014-09-14

    Complexation between polyallylammonium cations and polystyrenesulfonate anions was investigated in aqueous solutions of binary 1 : 1 sodium electrolytes (NaX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, NO3, ClO4) by means of microcalorimetry, dynamic light scattering, electrokinetics and spectrophotometry. At lower molar ratios of monomer units charged polyelectrolyte complexes were formed. At molar ratios close to equivalence and at lower salt concentrations (c(NAX)/mol dm(-3) ≤ 0.1) flocculation occurred. The obtained precipitates contained approximately equimolar amounts of oppositely charged monomer units. At c(NAX)/mol dm(-3) ≥ 0.5 (X = NO3, ClO4) and in the case when the polycation was present in excess, the amount of positively charged monomer units in the precipitate was higher than that of negatively charged monomers (asymmetric neutralisation). In addition, the aggregation of positively charged complexes in concentrated solutions of all investigated electrolytes was noticed. The onset of aggregation was strongly anion specific. However, the aggregation of negatively charged complexes did not occur even at c(NaX) = 3 mol dm(-3). The composition of the insoluble products at equimolar ratio of monomer units and higher concentrations of NaNO3 and NaClO4 was dependent on the order of addition, indicating non-equilibrium interpolyelectrolyte neutralisation under all ionic conditions. At 25 °C and c(NaClO4) = 1 mol dm(-3) equilibrium was not reached after two months. In contrast, the supernatants showed no traces of free polyanion chains after being heated for a week at 60 °C. The pairing of monomer units was predominantly entropically driven, irrespective of the type of reaction products formed (polyelectrolyte complexes, precipitates) and the electrolyte type. The results obtained indicate that the overcharging is not an enthalpically demanding process. The calorimetric measurements also suggest that the strong influence of counteranions on the composition of the reaction

  13. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  14. Disrupted Junctional Membrane Complexes and Hyperactive Ryanodine Receptors Following Acute Junctophilin Knockdown in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Ralph J.; Garbino, Alejandro; Wang, Wei; Dixit, Sayali S.; Landstrom, Andrew P.; Gaur, Namit; De Almeida, Angela C.; Skapura, Darlene G.; Rudy, Yoram; Burns, Alan R.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Wehrens, Xander H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Excitation-contraction coupling in striated muscle requires proper communication of plasmalemmal voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ release channels on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) within junctional membrane complexes (JMCs). Whereas previous studies revealed a loss of JMCs and embryonic lethality in germ-line junctophilin-2 (JPH2) knockout mice, it has remained unclear whether JPH2 plays an essential role in JMC formation and the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release process in the heart. Our recent work demonstrated loss-of-function mutations in JPH2 in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results To elucidate the role of JPH2 in the heart, we developed a novel approach to conditionally reduce JPH2 protein levels using RNA interference. Cardiac-specific JPH2 knockdown resulted in impaired cardiac contractility, which caused heart failure and increased mortality. JPH2 deficiency resulted in loss of excitation-contraction coupling gain, precipitated by a reduction in the number of JMCs and increased variability in the plasmalemma-SR distance. Conclusions Loss of JPH2 had profound effects on Ca2+ release channel inactivation, suggesting a novel functional role for JPH2 in regulating intracellular Ca2+ release channels in cardiac myocytes. Thus, our novel approach of cardiac-specific shRNA-mediated knockdown of junctophilin-2 has uncovered a critical role for junctophilin in intracellular Ca2+ release in the heart. PMID:21339484

  15. Generation and evolution processes of Paleoproterozoic massive-type Sancheong anorthosite complex, Yeongnam massif, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Deok-Seon

    2016-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic (˜1.87-1.79 Ga) Sancheong anorthosite complex in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, consists of massive-type and foliation-type Sancheong anorthosite (SA), Fe-Ti ore body (FTO), and mafic granulite (MG). We report their characteristics and interrelation on foliations, occurrences, lithofacies, composition minerals, suggesting the generation and evolution processes of the Sancheong anorthosite complex with the origin of their foliations. The main characteristics and interrelation are as follows: multilayer structures of FTO, straight-, anastomosing-, uneven-types FTO and MG veins derived from blocking associate with size reduction of SA, gradual or irregular boundaries of SA blocks, FTO and MG showing bulbous lobate margins and comb structures between SA blocks, flow foliations and linear arrangements of FTO and MG, discontinuous shear zone of SA, orientation of FTO and MG foliations parallel to the boundaries of SA blocks, predominance of FTO and MG foliations toward the boundaries of SA blocks, flow folding structures of FTO and MG foliation, lithfacies change of MG into FTO by the injection of MG into SA, and very similar assemblage of mafic minerals and chemical composition of ilmenite and almost equal occurrence and foliation features between FTO and MG. Such evidences indicate that the SA, FTO, MG foliations are magmatic foliations which were formed in a not fully congealed state of SA from the results of the fracturing of partly congealed SA, the injection and flow of FTO and MG melts into the fractured SA, the dynamic intercompaction between them. It also implies that the SA, FTO, MG were not formed from the intrusion and differentiation of magmas which were different from each other in genesis and age but from the multiple fractionation and polybaric crystallization of the coeval and cogenetic magma. Our new model suggests that the Sancheong anorthosite complex was generated and evolved as following sequence: the

  16. Innate immune response of human alveolar type II cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhaohui; Travanty, Emily A; Oko, Lauren; Edeen, Karen; Berglund, Andrew; Wang, Jieru; Ito, Yoko; Holmes, Kathryn V; Mason, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV) produces a devastating primary viral pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage and a marked increase in circulating cytokines. One of the major cell types to be infected is the alveolar type II cell. However, the innate immune response of primary human alveolar epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV has not been defined. Our objectives included developing a culture system permissive for SARS-CoV infection in primary human type II cells and defining their innate immune response. Culturing primary human alveolar type II cells at an air-liquid interface (A/L) improved their differentiation and greatly increased their susceptibility to infection, allowing us to define their primary interferon and chemokine responses. Viral antigens were detected in the cytoplasm of infected type II cells, electron micrographs demonstrated secretory vesicles filled with virions, virus RNA concentrations increased with time, and infectious virions were released by exocytosis from the apical surface of polarized type II cells. A marked increase was evident in the mRNA concentrations of interferon-β and interferon-λ (IL-29) and in a large number of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. A surprising finding involved the variability of expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, the SARS-CoV receptor, in type II cells from different donors. In conclusion, the cultivation of alveolar type II cells at an air-liquid interface provides primary cultures in which to study the pulmonary innate immune responses to infection with SARS-CoV, and to explore possible therapeutic approaches to modulating these innate immune responses.

  17. Assessment of Serum VASPIN Levels among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with or without Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyaseelan, Aswathy Jaya; Adole, Prashant Shankarrao; Wyawahare, Mukta; Saya, Rama Prakasha

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is on the verge of becoming a pandemic in India. Type 2 DM patient have two to four times increased risk of carotid artery disease. Adipokines have been regarded recently as direct link between diabetes and atherosclerosis. Visceral Adipose Tissue Derived Serine Protease Inhibitor (VASPIN); one of the most recently discovered adipokine, inhibits the proteases responsible for insulin resistance, carotid plaque development and rupture. In literature, few studies have addressed the role of VASPIN in pathogenesis of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in patients with type 2 DM. To find association between serum VASPIN with lipid profile, creatine kinase-total, creatine kinase-MB, troponin-I, age, height, weight, blood pressure, smoking, family history of ACS and to prove the hypothesis of low serum VASPIN level as predictor of ACS in patients with type 2 DM. Forty-one type 2 DM patients (controls) and 41 type 2 DM patients with ACS (cases) were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed and fasting serum biochemical parameters and VASPIN were measured. The results of cases and controls were compared by student t-test or Mann-Whitney test. All the parameters were correlated with serum VASPIN by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation. Fasting serum VASPIN concentration was significantly (pdiabetes, serum Creative Kinase-Total, CK-MB and urea (p< 0.05). Utilizing Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the serum VASPIN level of less than 0.594pg/ml showed greatest risk of ACS among type 2 DM patients (p< 0.0001). Type 2 DM patients with low serum vaspin concentration were at risk of ACS independent of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Acute downregulation of Type II and Type III iodothyronine deiodinases by photoperiod in peripubertal male and female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Availability of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a central role in seasonal reproductive responses to photoperiod. Across many vertebrates, Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) is elevated under reproductively stimulatory long days (LD) and synthesizes the conversion of thyroxine to T3; Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) reduces T3 production and signaling, and is upregulated under reproductively-inhibitory short days (SD). In Siberian hamsters, regulation of hypothalamic T3 is dominated by dio3 expression, whereas dio2 expression is less-consistently affected by photoperiod. In adult hamsters, changes in deiodinase mRNA expression typically require several weeks to manifest, but it is not known whether or how quickly these mechanisms are engaged during the rapid responses to photoperiod observed in young, peri-pubertal hamsters. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) deiodinase responses to photoperiod are accelerated in juvenile hamsters and (2) photoperiodic downregulation of deiodinase expression occurs more rapidly than upregulation. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression was quantified in male and female Siberian hamsters that were weaned on postnatal day 18 (PND 18) into SD or remained in their natal LD, and on PND 31 were exposed to a single long or short day. In SD males and females, a single long day inhibited dio3 mRNA expression, but did not increase dio2 mRNA. In LD males, a single short day rapidly inhibited dio2 mRNA expression, but did not stimulate expression of dio3 mRNA. Downregulation of dio2 and dio3 mRNAs precedes gonadotrophin responses to day length. Rapid photoperiodic inhibition of deiodinase mRNAs may initiate changes in thyroid hormone signaling in advance of longer-term, melatonin-dependent, responses.

  19. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of hydrophobic glycoprotein: synthesis of saposin C carrying complex-type carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Hironobu; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Hagiwara, Masashi; Asahina, Yuya; Ueki, Akiharu; Katayama, Hidekazu; Nakahara, Yuko; Yoneshige, Azusa; Matsuda, Junko; Ito, Yukishige; Nakahara, Yoshiaki

    2012-11-02

    The complex-type N-linked octasaccharide oxazoline having LacNAc as the nonreducing end sugar was efficiently synthesized using the benzyl-protected LacNAc, mannose, and β-mannosyl GlcNAc units as key building blocks. To achieve a highly β-selective glycosylation with the LacNAc unit, the N-trichloroacetyl group was used for the protection of the amino group in the LacNAc unit. After complete assembly of these units and deprotection, the obtained free sugar was successfully derivatized into the corresponding sugar oxazoline. On the other hand, the N-acetylglucosaminylated saposin C, a hydrophobic lipid-binding protein, was chemically synthesized by the native chemical ligation reaction. On the basis of the previous results related to the synthesis of the nonglycosylated saposin C, the O-acyl isopeptide structure was introduced to the N-terminal peptide thioester carrying GlcNAc to improve its solubility toward aqueous organic solvents. The ligation reaction efficiently proceeded with the simultaneous O- to N-acyl shift at the O-acyl isopeptide moiety. After the removal of the cysteine-protecting group and folding, saposin C carrying GlcNAc was successfully obtained. The synthetic sugar oxazoline was then transferred to this glycoprotein using the mutant of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Mucor hiemalis (Endo-M) (glycosynthase), and the saposin C carrying the complex-type nonasaccharide was successfully obtained.

  20. Molecular typing of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex from Northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gloria M; Casillas-Vega, Néstor; Garza-González, Elvira; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Rivera, Gildardo; Rodríguez, Jesús Ancer; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex. Based on molecular identification, these two species have been further differentiated into molecular types. The aim of this work was to characterize clinical cryptococcal isolates recovered from six hospitals in Northeast Mexico from 1995 to 2011. One hundred and sixty-six isolates, which were characterized by biochemical tests and in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, and voriconazole, and M13 PCR fingerprinting, were included in this study. Utilizing phenotypic tests, 153 isolates (92.16 %) were identified as C. neoformans and 13 (7.83 %) as C. gattii. All isolates were susceptible to all antifungals tested. Employing M13 PCR fingerprinting, eight molecular types were detected. VNI was the most common genotype (124 cases; 74.6 %), followed by VNII (15 cases; 9 %), VNIII (8 cases; 4.8 %), VNIV (6 cases; 3.6 %), VGI (6 cases; 3.6 %), VGII (3 cases; 1.8 %), and VGIII and VGIV (2 cases, 1.2 % each). We confirm the presence of C. gattii in clinical isolates in Northeast Mexico, and a high clonal diversity in the studied strains of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

  1. Types of coordination and syntactic complexity in written discourse of younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvanoviĆ Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time influential linguists considered language development to be basically completed by the age of five or six. Consequently, research on school age children and adolescents has been quite rare. However, during the last two decades, considerable effort has been made to understand the nature of writing processes among schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to explore writing competence of younger school age children by investigating compound sentences and coordinating conjunctions during the production of a written text. The most important thing in learning how to write is the development of a child's ability to produce and understand complex sentences of various kinds. Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences are often overused and traditionally seem to implicate poor syntactic ability. The examinees were divided in 4 age groups (181 pupils. Each examinee wrote 3 essays, so the whole corpus consisted of 543 texts in total. The analysis of the collected material included two levels: first we identified compound sentences and the number of clauses, and then the type of coordination was determined. The obtained results show the number and type of coordinated constructions which pupils from the first to the fourth grade of primary school produce. Also, coordinating conjunctions indicate the higher level of syntactic complexity of the text they are produced in. This research provides a new insight into syntactic competence of younger pupils in primary school.

  2. Using mating-type gene sequences for improved phylogenetic resolution of Collectotrichum species complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meizhu; Schardl, Christopher L; Nuckles, Etta M; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2005-01-01

    Colletotrichum species are defined primarily on the basis of host preference and morphology of the organism in planta and in culture. However the genus contains several species complexes that encompass such a broad range of morphological and pathological variation that the species name is of relatively little use either to the taxonomist or plant pathologist. Phylogenetic analyses, primarily based on variable regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, have indicated that these species complexes comprise a variable number of identifiable monophyletic clades. However rDNA sequences often are insufficiently diverse to fully resolve such closely related lineages. A group of isolates representing three species complexes (C. graminicola, C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum) were analyzed by using the high mobility group (HMG)-encoding sequence of the MAT1-2 mating type sequence, which has been shown in other fungi to be especially suitable for distinguishing relationships among closely related groups. Results were compared with those obtained from analysis of variable regions of the rDNA as well as from standard morphological classification methods. Results achieved through analysis of MAT1-2 sequences correlated well with those obtained by analysis of rDNA sequences but provided significantly better resolution among the various lineages. Morphological traits, including hyphopodia size, colony appearance, spore size, appresorial shape and size and host preference, frequently were unreliable as indicators of phylogenetic association. Spore shape and hyphopodia shape more often were useful for this purpose.

  3. Structural basis for the recognition of complex-type biantennary oligosaccharides by Pterocarpus angolensis lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buts, Lieven; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Imberty, Anne; Amiot, Nicolas; Boons, Geert-Jan; Beeckmans, Sonia; Versées, Wim; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2006-06-01

    The crystal structure of Pterocarpus angolensis lectin is determined in its ligand-free state, in complex with the fucosylated biantennary complex type decasaccharide NA2F, and in complex with a series of smaller oligosaccharide constituents of NA2F. These results together with thermodynamic binding data indicate that the complete oligosaccharide binding site of the lectin consists of five subsites allowing the specific recognition of the pentasaccharide GlcNAc beta(1-2)Man alpha(1-3)[GlcNAc beta(1-2)Man alpha(1-6)]Man. The mannose on the 1-6 arm occupies the monosaccharide binding site while the GlcNAc residue on this arm occupies a subsite that is almost identical to that of concanavalin A (con A). The core mannose and the GlcNAc beta(1-2)Man moiety on the 1-3 arm on the other hand occupy a series of subsites distinct from those of con A.

  4. Incidence, Mortality and Positive Predictive Value of Type 1 Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta González, Raquel; Couto Comba, Patricia; Rodríguez Esteban, Marcos; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Hernández Afonso, Julio; Rodríguez Pérez, María del Cristo; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Elosua, Roberto; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with cardiorenal syndrome subtype 1 (CRS1) in patients who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was greater than the expected risk based on the sum of its components, to estimate the predictive value of CRS1, and to determine whether the severity of CRS1 worsens the prognosis. Methods Follow-up study of 1912 incident cases of ACS for 1 year after discharge. Cox regression models were estimated with time to event (in-hospital death, and readmission or death during the first year after discharge) as the dependent variable. Results The incidence of CRS1 was 9.2/1000 person-days of hospitalization (95% CI = 8.1–10.5), but these patients accounted for 56.6% (95% CI = 47.4–65.) of all mortality. The positive predictive value of CRS1 was 29.6% (95% CI = 23.9–36.0) for in-hospital death, and 51.4% (95% CI = 44.8–58.0) for readmission or death after discharge. The risk of in-hospital death from CRS1 (RR = 18.3; 95% CI = 6.3–53.2) was greater than the sum of risks associated with either acute heart failure (RR = 7.6; 95% CI = 1.8–31.8) or acute kidney injury (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 0.9–8.8). The risk of events associated with CRS1 also increased with syndrome severity, reaching a RR of 10.6 (95% CI = 6.2–18.1) for in-hospital death at the highest severity level. Conclusions The effect of CRS1 on in-hospital mortality is greater than the sum of the effects associated with each of its components, and it increases with the severity of the syndrome. CRS1 accounted for more than half of all mortality, and its positive predictive value approached 30% in-hospital and 50% after discharge. PMID:27907067

  5. Acute pancreatitis in the use of canagliflozin: A rare side-effect of the novel therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivali, Narat; Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Ungprasert, Patompong

    2015-01-01

    Canagliflozin (Invokana) is an innovative treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) approved in a new class acknowledged as sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Acute pancreatitis is a very rare side effect with an incidence <1%. a 50-year-old white male with DM type 2 presented to the emergency department with acute onset of abdominal pain after 4 days treatment with canagliflozin. He was successfully diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis induced by acute pancreatitis. Canagliflozin was discontinued. His diabetic ketoacidosis was improved after aggressive intravenous fluid along with intravenous insulin infusion. Our case demonstrates very rare but serious side effect, acute pancreatitis in the use of canagliflozin. As the utility of canagliflozin expands, physicians must be aware of this potentially fatal adverse effect. More specific details on potential candidates for this novel therapy are urgently needed. PMID:26229348

  6. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  7. Acute renal effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide in overweight type 2 diabetes patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Tonneijck (Lennart); M.M. Smits (Mark M.); M.H.A. Muskiet (Marcel H. A.); T. Hoekstra (Trynke); M.H.H. Kramer (Mark); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); M. Diamant (Michaela); J.A. Joles (Jaap); D.H. van Raalte (Daniël H.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: We included overweight (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35–75 years with type 2 diabetes

  8. Acute renal effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide in overweight type 2 diabetes patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Tonneijck (Lennart); M.M. Smits (Mark M.); M.H.A. Muskiet (Marcel H. A.); T. Hoekstra (Trynke); M.H.H. Kramer (Mark); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); M. Diamant (Michaela); J.A. Joles (Jaap); D.H. van Raalte (Daniël H.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: We included overweight (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35–75 years with type 2 diabetes

  9. Acute renal effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide in overweight type 2 diabetes patients : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M.; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Danser, A. H Jan; Diamant, Michaela; Joles, Jaap A.; van Raalte, Daniël H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: We included overweight (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35–75 years with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c

  10. Complex molecular genetic abnormalities involving three or more genetic mutations are important prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, S; Yamaguchi, H; Ueki, T; Usuki, K; Kurosawa, S; Kobayashi, Y; Kawata, E; Tajika, K; Gomi, S; Koizumi, M; Fujiwara, Y; Yui, S; Fukunaga, K; Ryotokuji, T; Hirakawa, T; Arai, K; Kitano, T; Kosaka, F; Tamai, H; Nakayama, K; Fukuda, T; Inokuchi, K

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of 28 recurrently mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 271 patients with de novo AML. Co-mutations were frequently detected in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, at an average of 2.76 co-mutations per patient. When assessing the prognostic impact of these co-mutations in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, overall survival (OS) was found to be significantly shorter (P=0.0006) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) significantly higher (P=0.0052) in patients with complex molecular genetic abnormalities (CMGAs) involving three or more mutations. This trend was marked even among patients aged ⩽65 years who were also FLT3-ITD (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications)-negative (OS: P=0.0010; CIR: P=0.1800). Moreover, the multivariate analysis revealed that CMGA positivity was an independent prognostic factor associated with OS (P=0.0007). In stratification based on FLT3-ITD and CEBPA status and 'simplified analysis of co-mutations' using seven genes that featured frequently in CMGAs, CMGA positivity retained its prognostic value in transplantation-aged patients of the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (OS: P=0.0002. CIR: Pmutation analysis to have clinical usefulness and applicability.

  11. Short-term Prognosis of Fragmented QRS Complex in Patients with Non-ST Elevated Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Xiao Wang; Shu-Hua Mi; Zhe Chi; Qing Chen; Xin Zhao; Shao-Ping Nie

    2016-01-01

    Background:There remains significant debate as to the relationship between fragmented QRS (fQRS) complexes on electrocardiogram (ECG) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Few studies have reported on this relationship in non-ST elevated AMI (NSTEMI),and thus,we attempt to assess this relationship and its potential short-term prognostic value.Methods:This was a single-center,observational,retrospective cohort study.A total of 513 consecutive patients (399 men,114 women) with NSTEMI within 24 h who underwent coronary angiography at our department,between January 1,2014,and December 31,2014.Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of fQRS complex on the admission ECG.fQRS complexes were defined as the existence of an additional R' or crochetage wave,notching in the nadir of the S wave,RS fragmentation,or QS complexes on 2 contiguous leads.All patients were followed up for 6 months,and all major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded.Results:In this study,there were 285 patients with fQRS ECG in the 513 patients with NSTEMI.The number of patients with 0-2 coronary arteries narrowed by ≥50% in fQRS group were less while patients with 3 narrowed arteries were more than in the non-fQRS group (P =0.042).There were fewer Killip Class Ⅰ patients in the fQRS group (P =0.019),while Killip Class Ⅱ,Ⅲ,and Ⅳ patients were more in the fQRS group than in the non-fQRS group (P =0.019).Left ventricular ejection fraction levels were significantly lower in the fQRS group (P =0.021).Baseline total cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein,creatinine,creatine kinase,homocysteine,high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP),and red blood cells distribution width levels were significantly higher in the fQRS group.Total MACE (MACE,P =0.028),revascularization (P =0.005),and recurrent angina (P =0.005) were also significantly greater in the fQRS group.On final logistic regression analysis,after adjusting for baseline variables,the following variables

  12. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Enhanced photovoltaic effect of ruthenium complex-modified graphene oxide with P-type conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: jj_zw_js@sina.com.cn; Bai, Huicong; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Lin, Shen; Liu, Jian; Yang, Qi; Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail: songlab@lnu.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    A graphene oxide nanocomposite with bis(1,10-phenanthroline)(N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(4-methyl-2,2-bipyridine-4-yl) formamide) ruthenium (Ru(phen){sub 2}(bpy-NH{sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}), a ruthenium complex, was synthesized by amidation reaction between amino group of the ruthenium complex and carboxyl group of GO. The as-prepared Ru(II)–GO composite was characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, surface photovoltage (SPV) spectrum and transient photovoltage (TPV) technology. This nanocomposite showed a typical p-type character and an enhanced photovoltaic effect at long timescale of about 3 × 10{sup −3} s compared to GO alone. A reversible rise/decay of the photocurrent in response to the on/off illumination step was also observed in a photoelectrochemical cell of the Ru(II)–GO composite. The photocurrent response of the Ru(II)–GO film was remarkably higher than that of GO film. Therefore, this Ru(II)–GO composite is believed to be a promising p-type photoelectric conversion material for further photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • A new dye-sensitized graphene oxide nanocomposite was reported. • A photo-induced charge transfer process in this nanocomposite was confirmed. • This composite showed a typical p-type conductivity. • This composite showed an enhanced photovoltaic effect at a long timescale.

  14. A-type Lamins Form Distinct Filamentous Networks with Differential Nuclear Pore Complex Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Chojnowski, Alexandre; Boudier, Thomas; Lim, John S Y; Ahmed, Sohail; Ser, Zheng; Stewart, Colin; Burke, Brian

    2016-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is a universal feature of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs) [1]. In mammalian cells, it appears as a 10-30 nm filamentous layer at the nuclear face of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and is composed primarily of A- and B-type lamins, members of the intermediate filament family [2]. While providing structural integrity to the NE, the lamina also represents an important signaling and regulatory platform [3]. Two A-type lamin isoforms, lamins A and C (LaA and LaC), are expressed in most adult human cells. Encoded by a single gene, these proteins are largely identical, diverging only in their C-terminal tail domains. By contrast with that of LaC, the unique LaA tail undergoes extensive processing, including farnesylation and endo-proteolysis [4, 5]. However, functional differences between LaA and LaC are still unclear. Compounding this uncertainty, the structure of the lamina remains ill defined. In this study, we used BioID, an in vivo proximity-labeling method to identify differential interactors of A-type lamins [6]. One of these, Tpr, a nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein, is highlighted by its selective association with LaC. By employing superresolution microscopy, we demonstrate that this Tpr association is mirrored in enhanced interaction of LaC with NPCs. Further superresolution studies visualizing both endogenous A- and B-type lamins have allowed us to construct a nanometer-scale model of the mammalian nuclear lamina. Our data indicate that different A- and B-type lamin species assemble into separate filament networks that together form an extended composite structure at the nuclear periphery providing attachment sites for NPCs, thereby regulating their distribution.

  15. Comparing the executive function of patients with schizophrenia, acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode, and healthy controls on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Continuous Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From among various cognitive deficits, deficits in executive processes have an effective role in limiting the patients’ ability to retain, acquire, and re-learn the skills necessary for real-life performance. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the executive function of patients with schizophrenia, acute/chronic type I disorder, and the healthy group. Methods: The present research was an analytical-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all the outpatients and inpatients with acute/chronic schizophrenia and acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode visiting Shafa Psychiatric Hospital, Rasht, Iran. Using convenience sampling, 60 male subjects aging 18-49 years old were selected in 2014-2015. They were matched for the variables of sex, age, and education level. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test, and Raven’s Progressive Matrices were administered, and the data were analyzed using MANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: A significant difference was observed between the acute/chronic schizophrenia group, acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode, and healthy group on the two tests. Patients with schizophrenia had a weaker executive function and attention deficit compared to those with type I disorder and the healthy group (P0.05. Conclusion: Both schizophrenia and type I disorder patients show deficits in executive function and attention. However, the former group manifests higher impairment in cognitive activities, concept formation, cognitive flexibility, and attention deficit.

  16. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance.

  17. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kop, Willem J

    2013-10-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Ninety-nine HF patients (mean age 65±12years; 75% men) underwent a public speech task, during which heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Type D personality and its components negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) were assessed with the DS14. General linear models with repeated measures and logistic regression were used to assess differences in stress response and recovery. Type D personality was associated with a reduced HR response (F1,93=4.31, ppersonality with respect to the BP response. Examining continuous NA and SI scores and their interaction (NA∗SI), revealed a significant association of NA∗SI with the SBP response (F1,93=4.11, ppersonality may show an inadequate response to acute social stress, characterized by a blunted HR response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal thalamocortical activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K D; Dubois, M; Llinás, R R

    2010-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic disease that presents a continuing challenge in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent studies of neuropathic pain, in both animals and patients, have established a direct relationship between abnormal thalamic rhythmicity related to Thalamo-cortical Dysrhythmia (TCD) and the occurrence of central pain. Here, this relationship has been examined using magneto-encephalographic (MEG) imaging in CRPS Type I, characterized by the absence of nerve lesions. The study addresses spontaneous MEG activity from 13 awake, adult patients (2 men, 11 women; age 15-62), with CRPS Type I of one extremity (duration range: 3months to 10years) and from 13 control subjects. All CRPS I patients demonstrated peaks in power spectrum in the delta (orbitofrontal-temporal cortices related to the affective pain perception. Indeed, CRPS Type I patients presented abnormal brain activity typical of TCD, which has both diagnostic value indicating a central origin for this ailment and a potential treatment interest involving pharmacological and electrical stimulation therapies.

  19. Complex Type 2 Reactions in Three Patients with Hansen's Disease from a Southern United States Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kristoffer E; Salinas, Jorge L; McDonald, Robert W; Sheth, Anandi N; Fairley, Jessica K

    2015-11-01

    In non-endemic countries, leprosy, or Hansen's disease (HD), remains rare and is often underrecognized. Consequently, the literature is currently lacking in clinical descriptions of leprosy complications in the United States. Immune-mediated inflammatory states known as reactions are common complications of HD. Type 1 reactions are typical of borderline cases and occur in 30% of patients and present as swelling and inflammation of existing skin lesions, neuritis, and nerve dysfunction. Type 2 reactions are systemic events that occur at the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, and typical symptoms include fever, arthralgias, neuritis, and classic painful erythematous skin nodules known as erythema nodosum leprosum. We report three patients with lepromatous leprosy seen at a U.S. HD clinic with complicated type 2 reactions. The differences in presentations and clinical courses highlight the complexity of the disease and the need for increased awareness of unique manifestations of lepromatous leprosy in non-endemic areas. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and Methods: Average, inferior, and superior values of RNFL and GCC thickness were measured in 123 patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The values of participants with DM were compared to controls. Diabetic patients were collected in Groups 1, 2 and 3. Group 1 = 33 participants who had no diabetic retinopathy (DR; Group 2 = 30 participants who had mild nonproliferative DR and Group 3 = 30 participants who had moderate non-proliferative DR. The 30 healthy participants collected in Group 4. Analysis of variance test and a multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The values of RNFL and GCC in the type 2 diabetes were thinner than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study showed that there is a nonsignificant loss of RNFL and GCC in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Assessment value of transcranial Doppler hemodynamic typing for prognosis of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xie

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of transcranial Doppler hemodynamic typing for prognosis of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction.Methods:A total of 54 cases of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction who received treatment in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were included for study, and according to different types, they were divided into total occlusion group 17 cases, partial occlusion group 28 cases and non-occlusion group 9 cases. Differences in levels of infarction-related proteins, coagulation-related indicators, illness-related factors, etc in circulating blood of three groups were compared, and the correlation of middle cerebral arterial systolic velocity (Vs) and diastolic velocity (Vd) with above indicators was further analyzed.Results:Vs and Vd values of non-occlusion group were higher than those of total occlusion group and partial occlusion group, and Vs and Vd values of partial occlusion group were higher than those of total occlusion group; serum Gelsolin, PT, APTT and TT values of non-occlusion group were higher, SAA, Apo- CⅡ, HbA1c, GSP, Aβ, HSP70, FIB, D-D, Copeptin, P-selectin, PTX3, TPO and FFA values were lower, and compared with partial occlusion group and total occlusion group, differences were significant; Gelsolin, PT, APTT and TT values of partial occlusion group were higher than those of total occlusion group, and SAA, Apo- CⅡ, HbA1c, GSP, Aβ, HSP70, FIB, D-D, Copeptin, P-selectin, PTX3, TPO and FFA values were lower than those of total occlusion group; middle cerebral arterial Vs and Vd values were directly proportional to Gelsolin, PT, APTT and TT values, and inversely proportional to SAA, Apo- CⅡ, HbA1c, GSP, Aβ, HSP70, FIB, D-D, Copeptin, P-selectin, PTX3, TPO and FFA values.Conclusions:Transcranial Doppler hemodynamic typing can be the reliable way to judge the severity of acute middle cerebral artery infarction, and has great value in assessing disease prognosis.

  2. A rationally engineered yeast pyruvyltransferase Pvg1p introduces sialylation-like properties in neo-human-type complex oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Yoshinaga, Sho; Yoritsune, Ken-Ichi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakakita, Shin-Ichi; Kanekiyo, Miho; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2016-05-19

    Pyruvylation onto the terminus of oligosaccharide, widely seen from prokaryote to eukaryote, confers negative charges on the cell surface and seems to be functionally similar to sialylation, which is found at the end of human-type complex oligosaccharide. However, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying pyruvylation have not been clarified well. Here, we first determined the crystal structure of fission yeast pyruvyltransferase Pvg1p at a resolution of 2.46 Å. Subsequently, by combining molecular modeling with mutational analysis of active site residues, we obtained a Pvg1p mutant (Pvg1p(H168C)) that efficiently transferred pyruvyl moiety onto a human-type complex glycopeptide. The resultant pyruvylated human-type complex glycopeptide recognized similar lectins on lectin arrays as the α2,6-sialyl glycopeptides. This newly-generated pyruvylation of human-type complex oligosaccharides would provide a novel method for glyco-bioengineering.

  3. Sliding-scale versus basal-bolus insulin in the management of severe or acute hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasniza Zaman Huri

    Full Text Available Sliding-scale and basal-bolus insulin regimens are two options available for the treatment of severe or acute hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Although its use is not recommended, sliding-scale insulin therapy is still being used widely. The aims of the study were to compare the glycemic control achieved by using sliding-scale or basal-bolus regimens for the management of severe or acute hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and to analyze factors associated with the types of insulin therapy used in the management of severe or acute hyperglycemia. This retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of patients with acute or severe hyperglycemia admitted to a hospital in Malaysia from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 202 patients and 247 admissions were included. Patients treated with the basal-bolus insulin regimen attained lower fasting blood glucose (10.8 ± 2.3 versus 11.6 ± 3.5 mmol/L; p = 0.028 and mean glucose levels throughout severe/acute hyperglycemia (12.3 ± 1.9 versus 12.8 ± 2.2; p = 0.021 compared with sliding-scale insulin regimens. Diabetic ketoacidosis (p = 0.043, cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.005, acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (p = 0.010, and the use of corticosteroids (p = 0.037 and loop diuretics (p = 0.016 were significantly associated with the type of insulin regimen used. In conclusion, type 2 diabetes patients with severe and acute hyperglycemia achieved better glycemic control with the basal-bolus regimen than with sliding-scale insulin, and factors associated with the insulin regimen used could be identified.

  4. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system has an exotoxin S/T/Y independent pathogenic role during acute lung infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Galle

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS is a complex nanomachine of many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. It forms a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the host eukaryotic cell membrane for injection of bacterial proteins that manipulate host cell signaling. However, few studies have focused on the effector-independent functions of the T3SS. Using a murine model of acute lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human opportunistic pathogen, we compared the pathogenicity of mutant bacteria that lack all of the known effector toxins ( ΔSTY, with mutant bacteria that also lack the major translocator protein PopB (ΔSTY/ΔPopB and so cannot form a functional T3SS channel in the host cell membrane. Mortality was higher among mice challenged with ΔSTY compared to mice challenged with ΔSTY/ΔPopB mutant bacteria. In addition, mice infected with ΔSTY showed decreased bacterial clearance from the lungs compared to those infected with ΔSTY/ΔPopB. Infection was in both cases associated with substantial killing of lung infiltrating macrophages. However, macrophages from ΔSTY-infected mice died by pro-inflammatory necrosis characterized by membrane permeabilization and caspase-1 mediated IL-1β production, whereas macrophages from ΔSTY/ΔPopB infected mice died by apoptosis, which is characterized by annexin V positive staining of the cell membrane and caspase-3 activation. This was confirmed in macrophages infected in vitro. These results demonstrate a T3SS effector toxin independent role for the T3SS, in particular the T3SS translocator protein PopB, in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa during acute lung infection.

  5. Platelet degranulation and monocyte-platelet complex formation are increased in the acute and convalescent phases after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, Dominick J H

    2004-06-01

    Flow cytometric studies suggest that platelets are activated in ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). However, few studies have measured circulating leucocyte-platelet complexes in this patient population. Whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify the expression of CD62P-, CD63-, and PAC1-binding, and the percentages of leucocyte-platelet complexes in acute (1-27 d, n = 79) and convalescent (79-725 d, n = 70) ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients compared with controls without CVD (n = 27). We performed a full blood count, and measured plasma levels of soluble P-selectin, soluble E-selectin, and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) as additional markers of platelet and\\/or endothelial cell activation. The median percentage CD62P expression and the median percentage monocyte-platelet complexes were higher in both acute and convalescent CVD patients than controls (P <\\/= 0.02). The mean white cell count and mean VWF:Ag levels were significantly elevated in the acute and convalescent phases after ischaemic stroke or TIA (P <\\/= 0.02). Otherwise, there was no significant increase in any other marker of platelet or endothelial activation in CVD patients. There was a positive correlation between the percentage expression of CD62P and the percentages of both neutrophil-platelet and monocyte-platelet complexes in the acute phase, and the percentages of all leucocyte-platelet complexes in the convalescent phase after ischaemic CVD. This study provides evidence for ongoing excessive platelet and\\/or endothelial activation in ischaemic CVD patients despite treatment with antithrombotic therapy.

  6. A systematic review of acute pancreatitis as an adverse event of type 2 diabetes drugs: from hard facts to a balanced position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, C B; Nada, E; Tartaglino, B; Marafetti, L; Gnavi, R

    2014-11-01

    The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use.

  7. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Selles, Ruud; Schreuders, Ton; Stam, Henk

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with the painful hand hidden behind the mirror while the non-painful hand was positioned so that, from the perspective of the patient, the reflection of this hand was "superimposed" on the painful hand. P...

  8. From a cycloheptatrienylzirconium allyl complex to a cycloheptatrienylzirconium imidazolin-2-iminato "pogo stick" complex with imido-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Bannenberg, Thomas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2012-04-02

    The reaction of the cycloheptatrienylzirconium half-sandwich complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))ZrCl(tmeda)] (1) (tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) with Li(Im(Dipp)N), generated from bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH) with methyllithium, yields the imidazolin-2-iminato complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Im(Dipp)N)(tmeda)] (2). The corresponding tmeda-free complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Im(Dipp)N)] (5) can be synthesized via the 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)allyl complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr{η(3)-C(3)H(3)(TMS)(2)}(THF)] (3; TMS = SiMe(3)), which undergoes an acid-base reaction with Im(Dipp)NH to form 5 and 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)propene. 5 exhibits an unusual one-legged piano stool ("pogo stick") geometry with a particularly short Zr-N bond of 1.997(2) Å. Addition of 2,6-dimethylphenyl or tert-butyl isocyanide affords the complexes [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Im(Dipp)N)(CNR)] (R = o-Xy, 6; R = t-Bu, 7), while the reaction with 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanate results in a [2 + 2] cycloaddition to form the ureato(1-) complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr{Im(Dipp)N(C═O)N-o-Xy}] (8). 5 can also act as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. These reactivity patterns together with density functional theory calculations reveal a marked similarity of the bonding in imidazolin-2-iminato and conventional imido transition-metal complexes.

  9. The structure of a tunicate C-type lectin from Polyandrocarpa misakiensis complexed with D -galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, S F; Legge, G B; Proctor, M R; Butler, P J; Bycroft, M; Williams, R L

    1999-07-23

    C-type lectins are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-recognising proteins. Isothermal titration calorimetry of the C-type Polyandrocarpa lectin (TC14) from the tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis revealed the presence of a single calcium atom per monomer with a dissociation constant of 2.6 microM, and confirmed the specificity of TC14 for D -galactose and related monosaccharides. We have determined the 2.2 A X-ray crystal structure of Polyandrocarpa lectin complexed with D -galactose. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that TC14 behaves as a dimer in solution. This is reflected by the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit with the dimeric interface formed by antiparallel pairing of the two N-terminal beta-strands and hydrophobic interactions. TC14 adopts a typical C-type lectin fold with differences in structure from other C-type lectins mainly in the diverse loop regions and in the second alpha-helix, which is involved in the formation of the dimeric interface. The D -galactose is bound through coordination of the 3 and 4-hydroxyl oxygen atoms with a bound calcium atom. Additional hydrogen bonds are formed directly between serine, aspartate and glutamate side-chains of the protein and the sugar 3 and 4-hydroxyl groups. Comparison of the galactose binding by TC14 with the mannose binding by rat mannose-binding protein reveals how monosaccharide specificity is achieved in this lectin. A tryptophan side-chain close to the binding site and the distribution of hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors around the 3 and 4-hydroxyl groups of the sugar are essential determinants of specificity. These elements are, however, arranged in a very different way than in an engineered galactose-specific mutant of MBPA. Possible biological functions can more easily be understood from the fact that TC14 is a dimer under physiological conditions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Double-blind comparison of two types of benzocaine lozenges for the treatment of acute pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Regina; Graubaum, Hans-Joachim; Grünwald, Jörg; Schmidt, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    In a reference-controlled double-blind trial in patients with acute pharyngitis the effects of a newly developed lozenge containing 8 mg of benzocaine (p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, CAS 94-09-7) were compared with those of an identically dosed commercial pastille. 246 patients were randomized to receive either the lozenges (group A, n = 123) or the pastilles (group B, n = 123). Each patient took a total of six doses within 12 h according to the double-dummy principle, with each single dose spaced by 2 h. The primary parameter was the assessment of the responder rate with = 50 % pain relief within 15 min post application. Further parameters included the relative relief of pain in the course of the study and the tolerability of the formulation. After application of the first unit the comparison of groups yielded very similar and statistically not differing results for efficacy in both groups, with responder rates of 25.2 % and 22.0 % in groups A and B, respectively. One adverse drug reaction was observed in group B (burning and tingling feeling on the tongue), which, however, did not lead to discontinuation of study participation. In all other cases tolerability was stated to be "good to very good". The application of the benzocaine lozenges was statistically non-inferior to the use of the pastilles.

  11. Delineating Tree Types in a Complex Tropical Forest Setting Using High Resolution Multispectral Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, M.

    2016-12-01

    An improved process for the identification of tree types from satellite imagery for tropical forests is needed for more accurate assessments of the impact of forests on the global climate. La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica was the tropical forest area selected for this particular study. WorldView-3 imagery was utilized because of its high spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution, its availability, and its potential to differentiate species in a complex forest setting. The first-step was to establish confidence in the high spatial and high radiometric resolution imagery from WorldView-3 in delineating tree types within a complex forest setting. In achieving this goal, ASD field spectrometer data were collected of specific tree species to establish solid ground control within the study site. The spectrometer data were collected from the top of each specific tree canopy utilizing established towers located at La Selva Biological Station so as to match the near-nadir view of the WorldView-3 imagery. The ASD data was processed utilizing the spectral response functions for each of the WorldView-3 bands to convert the ASD data into a band specific reflectivity. This allowed direct comparison of the ASD spectrometer reflectance data to the WorldView-3 multispectral imagery. The WorldView-3 imagery was processed to surface reflectance using two standard atmospheric correction procedures and the proprietary DigitalGlobe Atmospheric Compensation (AComp) product. The most accurate correction process was identified through comparison to the spectrometer data collected. A series of statistical measures were then utilized to access the accuracy of the processed imagery and which imagery bands are best suited for tree type identification. From this analysis, a segmentation/classification process was performed to identify individual tree type locations within the study area. It is envisioned the results of this study will improve traditional forest classification

  12. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  13. Acute-Onset Type 1 Diabetes that Developed During the Administration of Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaku, Kenji; Otuka, Fumiko; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2017-01-01

    The patient was 32-year-old man, who received olanzapine for schizophrenia and developed polyuria and thirst without drinking soft-drinks after 4 months. Five months after the initiation of treatment, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis (blood glucose: 490 mg/dL, HbA1c: 15.5%). He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-Ab: 5.6 U/mL, IA-2 Ab: 5.9 U/mL, fasting C-peptide: 0.12 ng/mL) and was put on intensive insulin therapy. At four months after the onset of 1A diabetes, he experienced a honeymoon phase that was sustained until the 40th month of treatment. We hypothesize that the administration of olanzapine to a patient with pre-type 1A diabetes induced marked hyperglycemia and accelerated the onset of type 1A diabetes. PMID:28154279

  14. Anisotropic thermoelectric properties in layered complex nitrides with α-NaFeO2-type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Ohkubo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic structures and thermoelectric transport properties of α-NaFeO2-type d0-electron layered complex nitrides AMN2 (A = Sr or Na; M = Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta were evaluated using density-functional theory and Boltzmann theory calculations. Despite the layered crystal structure, all materials had three-dimensional electronic structures. Sr(Zr, HfN2 exhibited isotropic electronic transport properties because of the contribution of the Sr 4d orbitals to the conduction band minimums (CBMs in addition to that of the Zr 4d (Hf 5d orbitals. Na(Nb,TaN2 showed weak anisotropic electronic transport properties due to the main contribution of the Nb 4d (Ta 5d and N 2p orbitals to the CBMs and no contribution of the Na orbitals.

  15. Type 2 diabetes: genetic data sharing to advance complex disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannick, Jason; Florez, Jose C

    2016-09-01

    As with other complex diseases, unbiased association studies followed by physiological and experimental characterization have for years formed a paradigm for identifying genes or processes of relevance to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Recent large-scale common and rare variant genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that substantially larger association studies are needed to identify most T2D loci in the population. To hasten clinical translation of genetic discoveries, new paradigms are also required to aid specialized investigation of nascent hypotheses. We argue for an integrated T2D knowledgebase, designed for a worldwide community to access aggregated large-scale genetic data sets, as one paradigm to catalyse convergence of these efforts.

  16. Existence and decay estimates of solutions to complex Ginzburg-Landau type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsuma, Daisuke; Yokota, Tomomi; Yoshii, Kentarou

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with the initial-boundary value problem (denoted by (CGL)) for the complex Ginzburg-Landau type equation ∂u/∂t - (λ + iα) Δu + (κ + iβ)| u | q - 1 u - γu = 0 with initial data u0 ∈Lp (Ω) in the case 1 0, α , β , γ , κ ∈ R. There are a lot of studies on local and global existence of solutions to (CGL) including the physically relevant case q = 3 and κ > 0. This paper gives existence results with precise properties of solutions and rigorous proof from a mathematical point of view. The physically relevant case can be considered as a special case of the results. Moreover, in the case κ inequality with Re .

  17. Identification and typing of the Candida parapsilosis complex: MALDI-TOF MS vs. AFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Elena; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Vella, Antonietta; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2014-02-01

    In this study we compare the capability of amplification fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify and subtype isolates of members of the Candida parapsilosis complex (C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis) and Lodderomyces elongisporus, which cannot be differentiated with biochemical methods. Both techniques correctly identified all isolates included in this study and clustered isolates within the different species. DNA-based and mass spectrum-based dendrograms yielded similar outcomes with regard to phylogenetic distance within C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis species. However, a different clustering was obtained for C. metapsilosis for which AFLP was highly effective in differentiating. While MALDI-TOF MS was found to be a reliable method for species-level identification, further studies are required to assess its value as a fungal typing tool.

  18. Anisotropic thermoelectric properties in layered complex nitrides with α-NaFeO2-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Isao; Mori, Takao

    2016-10-01

    Electronic structures and thermoelectric transport properties of α-NaFeO2-type d0-electron layered complex nitrides AMN2 (A = Sr or Na; M = Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) were evaluated using density-functional theory and Boltzmann theory calculations. Despite the layered crystal structure, all materials had three-dimensional electronic structures. Sr(Zr, Hf)N2 exhibited isotropic electronic transport properties because of the contribution of the Sr 4d orbitals to the conduction band minimums (CBMs) in addition to that of the Zr 4d (Hf 5d) orbitals. Na(Nb,Ta)N2 showed weak anisotropic electronic transport properties due to the main contribution of the Nb 4d (Ta 5d) and N 2p orbitals to the CBMs and no contribution of the Na orbitals.

  19. The census of complex organic molecules in the solar type protostar IRAS16293-2422

    CERN Document Server

    Jaber, Ali A; Kahane, C; Caux, E

    2014-01-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) are considered crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of the terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules in principle difficult to synthetize in the harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesised on the lukewarm grain surfaces ($\\gtrsim$30-40 K), and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures $\\gtrsim$100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in $\\lesssim$20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of the COMs formation. We present here a complete census of the oxygen and nitrogen bearing COMs, previously detected in different ISM regions, towards the solar type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Six COMs, out of the 29 searched for, were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ...

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Changes Are Associated with Type A Acute Aortic Dissections and Spontaneous Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture in Tuzla Canton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krdzalic, Alisa; Rifatbegovic, Zijah; Krdzalic, Goran; Jahic, Elmir; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Golic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between seasonal variation and incidence of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) and spontaneous abdominal aneurysm rupture (rAAA) in Canton Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Patients and methods: A total of 81 cases, 41 AAD and 40 of ruptured AAA were identified from one center over a 6-year, from 2008 till 2013. In 2012 were admitted (45.6% or 36 patients). Results: Seasonal analysis showed that 19(23.4%) patients were admitted in spring, 15(18.5) in summer, 26(32%) in autumn and 21(25.9) in winter. The most frequent period was autumn/winter with 47 or 58% patients. A causal link between atmospheric pressure (AP) and incidence of rAAA and AAD on seasonal and monthly basis was found. PMID:25568523

  1. Serum aminoterminal type III procollagen peptide reflects repair after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Toft, P

    1990-01-01

    values were observed on the third to seventh postinfarction day. The individual peak changes were correlated to infarction size calculated from serum CK-MB and serum lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.60, p = 0.02). The changes in distribution of PIIINP-related antigens in serum after gel chromatography were...... similar to changes observed during wound healing in humans. PIIINP is cleaved off procollagen type III during the biosynthesis of type III collagen, which characterizes the early stages of repair and inflammation. Our findings suggest that serum PIIINP reflects the repair processes and scar formation...

  2. Complex structure of type VI peptidoglycan muramidase effector and a cognate immunity protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianyu [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ding, Jinjing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1–Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results reveal that Tse3 contains a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) fold in which three calcium-binding sites were surprisingly observed close to the catalytic Glu residue. The electrostatic properties of the substrate-binding groove are also distinctive from those of known structures with a similar fold. All of these features imply that a unique catalytic mechanism is utilized by Tse3 in cleaving glycosidic bonds. Tsi3 comprises a single domain showing a β-sandwich architecture that is reminiscent of the immunoglobulin fold. Three loops of Tsi3 insert deeply into the groove of Tse3 and completely occlude its active site, which forms the structural basis of Tse3 inactivation. This work is the first crystallographic report describing the three-dimensional structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 effector–immunity pair.

  3. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  4. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Jao, Chii-Wen; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Wang, Po-Shan; Wu, Yu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and electroencephalography (EEG), are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD) method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  5. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yun Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3 have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and electroencephalography (EEG, are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  6. Complex links between natural tuberculosis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Boadella, Mariana; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Sibila, Marina; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M; Segalés, Joaquim; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  7. Attomolar detection of botulinum toxin type A in complex biological matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bagramyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A highly sensitive, rapid and cost efficient method that can detect active botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT in complex biological samples such as foods or serum is desired in order to 1 counter the potential bioterrorist threat 2 enhance food safety 3 enable future pharmacokinetic studies in medical applications that utilize BoNTs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a botulinum neurotoxin serotype A assay with a large immuno-sorbent surface area (BoNT/A ALISSA that captures a low number of toxin molecules and measures their intrinsic metalloprotease activity with a fluorogenic substrate. In direct comparison with the "gold standard" mouse bioassay, the ALISSA is four to five orders of magnitudes more sensitive and considerably faster. Our method reaches attomolar sensitivities in serum, milk, carrot juice, and in the diluent fluid used in the mouse assay. ALISSA has high specificity for the targeted type A toxin when tested against alternative proteases including other BoNT serotypes and trypsin, and it detects the holotoxin as well as the multi-protein complex form of BoNT/A. The assay was optimized for temperature, substrate concentration, size and volume proportions of the immuno-sorbent matrix, enrichment and reaction times. Finally, a kinetic model is presented that is consistent with the observed improvement in sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sensitivity, specificity, speed and simplicity of the BoNT ALISSA should make this method attractive for diagnostic, biodefense and pharmacological applications.

  8. A Salmonella type three secretion effector/chaperone complex adopts a hexameric ring-like structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Pierre; Dewitte, Frédérique; Villeret, Vincent; Biondi, Emanuele G; Bompard, Coralie

    2015-02-15

    Many bacterial pathogens use type three secretion systems (T3SS) to inject virulence factors, named effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Most of the T3SS components are conserved among plant and animal pathogens, suggesting a common mechanism of recognition and secretion of effectors. However, no common motif has yet been identified for effectors allowing T3SS recognition. In this work, we performed a biochemical and structural characterization of the Salmonella SopB/SigE chaperone/effector complex by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results showed that the SopB/SigE complex is assembled in dynamic homohexameric-ring-shaped structures with an internal tunnel. In this ring, the chaperone maintains a disordered N-terminal end of SopB molecules, in a good position to be reached and processed by the T3SS. This ring dimensionally fits the ring-organized molecules of the injectisome, including ATPase hexameric rings; this organization suggests that this structural feature is important for ATPase recognition by T3SS. Our work constitutes the first evidence of the oligomerization of an effector, analogous to the organization of the secretion machinery, obtained in solution. As effectors share neither sequence nor structural identity, the quaternary oligomeric structure could constitute a strategy evolved to promote the specificity and efficiency of T3SS recognition.

  9. Evidence for an iron-hydrogen complex in p-type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S.; Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Murphy, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of hydrogen with iron have been studied in Fe contaminated p-type Czochralski silicon using capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Hydrogen has been introduced into the samples from a silicon nitride layer grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. After annealing of the Schottky diodes on Si:Fe + H samples under reverse bias in the temperature range of 90-120 °C, a trap has been observed in the DLTS spectra which we have assigned to a Fe-H complex. The trap is only observed when a high concentration of hydrogen is present in the near surface region. The trap concentration is higher in samples with a higher concentration of single interstitial Fe atoms. The defect has a deep donor level at Ev + 0.31 eV. Direct measurements of capture cross section of holes have shown that the capture cross section is not temperature dependent and its value is 5.2 × 10-17 cm2. It is found from an isochronal annealing study that the Fe-H complex is not very stable and can be eliminated completely by annealing for 30 min at 125 °C.

  10. Distribution of yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The number and taxonomic structure of the yeast complexes were investigated in the full profiles of the soddy-podzolic soil (Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve), dark gray forest soil (Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve), and chernozem (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Reserve). In all these soils, the number of yeasts was maximal (104 CFU/g) directly under the litter; it drastically decreased with the depth. However, at the depth of 120-160 cm, the number of yeasts significantly increased in all the soils; their maximum was found in the illuvial horizon of the soddy-podzolic soil. Such a statistically significant increase in the number of yeasts at a considerable depth was found for the first time. Different groups of yeasts were present in the yeast communities of different soils. The species structure of yeast communities changed little in each soil: the same species were isolated both from the soil surface and from the depth of more than 2 m. The results showed that yeasts could be used for soil bioindication on the basis of specific yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types rather than individual indicative species.

  11. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Díez-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa. Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2. Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  12. Acute upregulation of neuronal mitochondrial type-1 cannabinoid receptor and it's role in metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis after TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Lv, Xiao-Ai; Dai, Qun; Ge, Yu-Qing; Xu, Jie

    2016-08-02

    Metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis initiated by traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to subsequent neurodegeneration. They are all regulated by mechanisms centered around mitochondrion. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched on neuronal plasma membrane. Recent evidences point to the substantial presence of CB1 receptors on neuronal mitochondrial outer membranes (mtCB1) and the activation of mtCB1 influences aerobic respiration via inhibiting mitochondrial cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/complex I pathway. The expression and role of neuronal mtCB1 under TBI are unknown. Using TBI models of cultured neurons, wild type and CB1 knockout mice, we found mtCB1 quickly upregulated after TBI. Activation of mtCB1 promoted metabolic defects accompanied with ATP shortage but protected neurons from apoptosis. Selective activation of plasma membrane CB1 showed no effects on neuronal metabolism and apoptosis. Activation of mtCB1 receptors inhibited mitochondrial cAMP/PKA/complex I and resulted in exacerbated metabolic defects accompanied with a higher ratio of ATP reduction to oxygen consumption decrease as well as neuronal apoptosis. Further research found the remarkable accumulation of protein kinase B (AKT) on neuronal mitochondria following TBI and the activation of mtCB1 upregulated mitochondrial AKT/complex V activity. Upregulation of mitochondrial AKT/complex V activity showed anti-apoptosis effects and alleviated ATP shortage in metabolic defects. Taken together, we have identified mtCB1 quickly upregulate after TBI and a dual role the mtCB1 might play in metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis initiated by TBI: the inhibition of mitochondrial cAMP/PKA/complex I aggravates metabolic defects, energy insufficiency as well as neuronal apoptosis, but the coactivation of mitochondrial AKT/complex V mitigates energy insufficiency and neuronal apoptosis.

  13. Intrauterine onset of acute neuropathic type 2 Gaucher disease: identification of a novel insertion sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Uhl, Johannes; Penzel, Roland; Van Landeghem, Frank; Vogel, Martin; Obladen, Michael; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2004-07-15

    A subset of patients with type 2 Gaucher disease is characterized by intrauterine onset of rapidly progressive neuropathic disease, arthrogryposis, hydrops fetalis and in some cases restrictive dermopathy. beta-Glucocerebrosidase (beta-glucosidase) activity is usually low or undetectable. In most cases death ensues either in-utero or within hours or days after birth. We report on an infant born to non-consanguineous parents of Caucasian origin presenting at birth with hydrops, arthrogryposis, severe respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver failure. Death occurred within several hours after delivery and autopsy revealed typical Gaucher cells in multiple organs in combination with severe apoptotic neurodegeneration throughout the brain. beta-Glucocerebrosidase activity was 1% of the norm in fibroblasts and a novel heterozygous insertion c.1515_1516insAGTGAGGGCAAT was identified by genomic sequencing and an insertion-specific seminested PCR. In addition, molecular studies revealed a previously described in type 1 Gaucher disease missense mutation c.476G --> A which results in a heterozygous substitution of R120Q. Our observations confirm considerable genotypic heterogeneity in patients with type 2 Gaucher disease. The transheterozygous combination of a mutation, previously described in type 1 Gaucher disease, together with a newly identified insertion may result in this severe phenotype.

  14. The acute effects of in-patient physiotherapy program on functional capacity in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdirenç, Mehtap; Koçak, Gülsah; Güntekin, Rifat

    2004-06-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the acute effects of a short-term in-patient physiotherapy program on functional capacity in hospitalised type II diabetic patients. Forty four hospitalised type II diabetic patients in continuing medical care at Dokuz Eylül University Hospital were included in this study. Twenty three of the 44 patients were randomised to an exercise rehabilitation group and 21 to a control group. Patients in the exercise group were assigned to an average 12.0+/-2.4 days low-intensity exercise rehabilitation program during hospitalisation. The control group did not receive any exercise advice. Before and after the exercise rehabilitation program all patients' functional capacity was evaluated by the 6 min walking test. There were no significant differences in the main measured parameters among groups and in the 6 min walking test at baseline. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the resting heart rate (HR) decreased by 4.1% (Prehabilitation. The Borg scale did not change in the control group. Supervised in-patient exercise rehabilitation is a safe and effective intervention in type II diabetic patients, which reduces physical impairment and improves functional ability.

  15. Perihematomal Perfusion Typing and Spot Sign of Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Multimode Computed Tomography:A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yi Hou; Pei-yi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perihematomal perfusion typing and spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA) source images in order to assist in individualizing therapeutic decisions for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage by possibly forecasting perihematomal ischemia and hematoma enlargement. Methods We examined 58 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage by computed tomography perfusion and CTA within 6 hours after symptom onset. Hematoma volumes were determined from non-contrast CT images and compared between first and second CT images. The perfusion of hematoma region and perihematoma region was evaluated for presence or absence of the perihematomal penumbra. Three kinds of perihematoma perfusion typing were defined according to the perfusion of hematoma region and perihematoma region. CTA source images was reviewed to make sure presence or absence of the spot sign. Results Finally, 53 patients (34 males, 19 females) were enrolled in our study according to exclusion criteria. Finally, 21 patients were classified into the normal group, 23 patients were classified into the mild group, and 9 patients were classified into the severe group. There were significant differences in hematoma size between the presence and absence of the perihematomal penumbra group (P Conclusion In acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients, the perihematoma perfusion typing and CTA spot sign provide more radiological information that might assist in individualizing therapeutic decisions for patients by possibly forecasting perihematomal ischemia and hematoma enlargement.

  16. Isolation of a membrane protein complex for type VII secretion in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Khaled A; Anderson, Mark; Ohr, Ryan Jay; Missiakas, Dominique

    2017-09-05

    The ESAT6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus promotes effector protein transport across the bacterial envelope. Genes in the ESS cluster are required for S. aureus establishment of persistent abscess lesions and the modulation of immune responses during blood stream infections. The biochemical functions of most of the ESS gene products, specifically the identity of secretion machine components, are however unknown. Earlier work demonstrated that deletion of essB, which encodes a membrane protein, abolishes S. aureus ESS secretion. Loss of function mutations truncating the essB gene product cause dominant-negative phenotypes on ESS secretion, suggesting that EssB may be a central component of the secretion machinery. To test this prediction, we purified native and affinity-tagged EssB from staphylococcal membranes via dodecyl-maltoside extraction, identifying a complex assembled from five proteins, EsaA, EssA, EssB, EssD and EsxA. All five proteins are essential for secretion, as knock-out mutations in the corresponding genes abolish ESS transport. Biochemical and bacterial two-hybrid analyses revealed a direct interaction between EssB and EsaA that, by engaging a mobile machine component, EsxA, may also recruit EssA and EssD.IMPORTANCE Type VII secretion systems support the lifestyle of Gram-positive bacteria, including important human pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus Genes encoding SpoIIIE-FtsK-like ATPases and WXG100 secreted products are conserved features of type VII secretion pathways, however most of the genes in T7SS clusters are not conserved between different bacterial species. Here we isolate a complex of proteins from the membranes of S. aureus that appears to represent the core secretion machinery, designated ESS (ESAT-6-like secretion system). These results suggest that three membrane proteins, EsaA, EssB and EssA form a secretion complex that associates with EssC, the Spo

  17. NH-type of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff base: design, structural evaluation, reactivity and synthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergagnini, Mackenzie; Fukushi, Kazunobu; Han, Jianlin; Shibata, Norio; Roussel, Christian; Ellis, Trevor K; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2014-02-28

    The work being reported here deals with the design of a new type of "N-H" Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases and study general aspects of their reactivity. It was confirmed that the presence of NH function in these Ni(II) complexes does not interfere with the homologation of the glycine residue, rendering these derivatives of high synthetic value for the general synthesis of α-amino acids. In particular, the practical application of these NH-type complexes was demonstrated by asymmetric synthesis of various β-substituted pyroglutamic acids via Michael addition reactions with chiral Michael acceptors.

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome type i. An analysis of 7 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte Stalla, V; Medici Olaso, C; Kanopa Almada, V; Gonzalez Rabelino, G

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by the presence of pain accompanied by sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms, usually preceded by a lesion or immobilisation. The clinical course is disproportionate to the initial injury in intensity and in duration. Its distribution is regional, predominantly in limbs. It is classified as type I and type II according to the absence or presence of nerve injury. We present the cases of seven children, 6 girls and 1 boy, aged 7 to 15 years. Three had a history of previous trauma. In 5 cases, the symptoms were located in the lower limbs. Time to diagnosis was between 4 and 90 days. Three patients had clinical features of anxiety and depression. Imaging and immunological studies were performed to rule out differential diagnoses in all the children. Interdisciplinary treatment was performed with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and gabapentin or pregabalin. All patients had a good clinical outcome, with no relapses in the follow-up period (between 4 and 30 months). CRPS is frequently unrecognised in children, leading to family anxiety and unnecessary para-clinical costs. Paediatricians and paediatric neurologists should be aware of this syndrome in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, unnecessary studies, and multiple visits to specialists, with a view to providing effective treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Population structure of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex according to multilocus sequence typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Didelot, Xavier; Jolley, Keith A.; Morelli, Giovanna; Sangal, Vartul; Kristo, Paula; Imori, Priscilla F. M.; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Siitonen, Anja; Tseneva, Galina; Voskressenskaya, Ekaterina; Falcao, Juliana P.; Korkeala, Hannu; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Mazzoni, Camila; Carniel, Elisabeth; Skurnik, Mikael; Achtman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multilocus sequence analysis of 417 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis revealed that it is a complex of four populations, three of which have been previously assigned species status [Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto (s.s.), Yersinia pestis and Yersinia similis] and a fourth population, which we refer to as the Korean group, which may be in the process of speciation. We detected clear signs of recombination within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. as well as imports from Y. similis and the Korean group. The sources of genetic diversification within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. were approximately equally divided between recombination and mutation, whereas recombination has not yet been demonstrated in Y. pestis, which is also much more genetically monomorphic than is Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. Most Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. belong to a diffuse group of sequence types lacking clear population structure, although this species contains a melibiose-negative clade that is present globally in domesticated animals. Yersinia similis corresponds to the previously identified Y. pseudotuberculosis genetic type G4, which is probably not pathogenic because it lacks the virulence factors that are typical for Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. In contrast, Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s., the Korean group and Y. pestis can all cause disease in humans. PMID:21951486

  20. Heart rate complexity and cardiac sympathetic dysinnervation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Mathias; Sacre, Julian W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is one of the most severe complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate associations of cardiac sympathetic dysinnervation (CSD; by (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy) with short-term heart rate variability (HRV) measured by traditional vs. complexity markers. ECG was measured in 31 diabetic patients during rest over a period of 5 minutes and HRV quantified in different domains (time and frequency domain, scaling properties, symbolic dynamics). (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy identified 16 patients with CSD. Resting heart rate was increased and HRV reduced in these patients. In a subgroup of 16 patients ECG was also measured during standing. Changes in several HRV measures upon standing demonstrated cardiac responsiveness to orthostatic stress. Strong correlations between HRV, measured during standing, and CSD were observed with metrics based on symbolic dynamics. In conclusion, HRV assessment during standing may be useful for assessing cardiac sympathetic dysinnervation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. The Differential Effects of Three Types of Task Planning on the Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in L2 Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to review studies that have investigated the effects of three types of planning (rehearsal, pre-task planning, and within-task planning) on the fluency, complexity, and accuracy of L2 performance. All three types of planning have been shown to have a beneficial effect on fluency but the results for complexity…

  2. Dynamics of the active site architecture in plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases catalytic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L; López-Rivero, Arleth; Tondo, María Laura; Orellano, Elena G; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Medina, Milagros

    2014-10-01

    Kinetic isotope effects in reactions involving hydride transfer and their temperature dependence are powerful tools to explore dynamics of enzyme catalytic sites. In plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases the FAD cofactor exchanges a hydride with the NADP(H) coenzyme. Rates for these processes are considerably faster for the plastidic members (FNR) of the family than for those belonging to the bacterial class (FPR). Hydride transfer (HT) and deuteride transfer (DT) rates for the NADP(+) coenzyme reduction of four plant-type FNRs (two representatives of the plastidic type FNRs and the other two from the bacterial class), and their temperature dependences are here examined applying a full tunnelling model with coupled environmental fluctuations. Parameters for the two plastidic FNRs confirm a tunnelling reaction with active dynamics contributions, but isotope effects on Arrhenius factors indicate a larger contribution for donor-acceptor distance (DAD) dynamics in the Pisum sativum FNR reaction than in the Anabaena FNR reaction. On the other hand, parameters for bacterial FPRs are consistent with passive environmental reorganisation movements dominating the HT coordinate and no contribution of DAD sampling or gating fluctuations. This indicates that active sites of FPRs are more organised and rigid than those of FNRs. These differences must be due to adaptation of the active sites and catalytic mechanisms to fulfil their particular metabolic roles, establishing a compromise between protein flexibility and functional optimisation. Analysis of site-directed mutants in plastidic enzymes additionally indicates the requirement of a minimal optimal architecture in the catalytic complex to provide a favourable gating contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PHARMACOTHERAPY ANALYSIS OF ACUTE ST-ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN HOSPITALS OF VARIOUS TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Magdeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate pharmacotherapy of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in cardiology departments of Saratov hospitals of various types. Material and methods. The retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was carried out with involved of 424 hospital charts of STEMI patients, discharged during the year from the cardiology department of Saratov municipal hospital (MH; n=216 and emergency cardiology department of Saratov clinical hospital (CH; n=208. Results. The real practice in the audited hospitals are not fully consistent with current guidelines for the STEMI patients management. The relationship between guidelines compliance and hospital type is clearly seen. Doctors in MH in comparison with them in CH more often prescribed respiratory analeptics (13.4% vs 5.3% , respectively, metabolic drugs (63.4% vs 37.5%, respectively and rarer used beta-blockers (50% vs 88.9%, respectively and thrombolytic therapy (3.7% vs 51%, respectively. In MH dipyridamole was used in 9.6% of patients as an alternative to the acetylsalicylic acid, and clopidogrel was not prescribed. At the same hospital clotting time was determined for monitoring of heparin therapy. Statins were rare used in both hospitals (26% in MH vs 40% in CH. Conclusion. The real clinical practice of STEMI patients management in Saratov hospitals are not completely consistent with current clinical guidelines. There are differences in STEMI patients therapy depending on hospital type.

  4. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym AML M6; Acute Erythroblastic Leukemia; Acute Erythroblastic Leukemias; Acu...te erythraemic myelosis [obs]; Acute erythremia [obs]; Acute erythremic myelosis [obs]; Acute... erythroid leukaemia; Acute erythroid leukemia; Acute myeloid leukaemia, M6 type; Acute myeloid le...Erythroblastic Leukemia, Acute; Erythroblastic Leukemias, Acute; Erythroleukaemia...; Erythroleukemia; Erythroleukemias; FAB M6; Leukemia, Acute Erythroblastic; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, M6; Leukemias, Acute

  5. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse a......PA:uPAR complexes in lung tumor tissue as well as other types of cancer.......A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... indicate that de novo complex formation is a major factor to consider and that complexes analyzed in the presence of this antagonist represent original uPA:uPAR complexes present prior to tumor tissue processing. The present ELISA appears suitable for studying the potential prognostic impact of u...

  6. Retinoid-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia involves PML-RARalpha-mediated increase of type II transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, L; Grignani, F; Scicchitano, B M; Jetten, A M; Diverio, D; Lo Coco, F; Avvisati, G; Gambacorti-Passerini, C; Adamo, S; Levin, A A; Pelicci, P G; Nervi, C

    1996-03-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) administration leads to complete remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients by inducing growth arrest and differentiation of the leukemic clone. In the present study, we show that t-RA treatment dramatically induced type II transglutaminase (type II TGase) expression in cells carrying the t(15;17) translocation and expressing the PML-RARalpha product such as the APL-derived NB4 cell line and fresh leukemic cells from APL patients. This induction correlated with t-RA-induced growth arrest, granulocytic differentiation, and upregulation of the leukocyte adherence receptor beta subunit (CD18) gene expression. The increase in type II TGase was not abolished by cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that synthesis of a protein intermediate was not required for the induction. t-RA did not significantly alter the rate of growth arrest and did not stimulate differentiation and type II TGase activity in NB4.306 cells, a t-RA-resistant subclone of the NB4 cell line, or in leukemic cells derived from two patients morphologically defined as APL but lacking the t(15;17). However, in NB4.306 cells, t-RA treatment was able to increase CD18 mRNA expression in a manner similar to NB4 cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of these genes were investigated. In NB4 cells, using novel receptor-selective ligands such as 9-cis-RA, TTNPB, AM580, and SR11217, we found that RAR- and RARalpha-selective retinoids were able to induce growth arrest, granulocytic differentiation, and type II TGase, whereas the RXR-selective retinoid SR11217 was inactive. Moreover, an RAR alpha-antagonist completely inhibited the expression of type II TGase and CD18 induced by these selective retinoids in NB4 cells. In NB4.306 cells, an RARalpha-dependent signaling pathway was found involved in the modulation of CD18 expression. In addition, expression of the PML-RARalpha gene in myeloid U937 precursor cells resulted in the ability of these cells to

  7. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasia - a rare type of acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köpeczi Judit Beáta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasmul cu celule dendritice plasmocitoide blastice (NCDPB, clasificat recent în grupul leucemiilor acute mieloide este o boală hematologică malignă rară cu evoluţie clinică extrem de agresivă. Raportăm cazul unei paciente în vârstă de 55 ani care a prezentat ruptură spontană a splinei. Diagnosticul histopatologic, fără imunohistochimie, a fost de limfom malign non-Hodgkin (LMNH splenic de zonă marginală. Pacienta a primit 4 cure citostatice. Datorită evoluţiei nefavorabile, splina a fost reexaminată histopatologic şi imunohistochimic într-un alt laborator. Diagnosticul de LMNH a fost exclus şi s-a ridicat suspiciunea unei proliferări maligne, posibil mieloide. Datorită neconcordanţei dintre diagnostice s-a efectuat o nouă examinare imunohistochimică într-un al treilea laborator. LMNH se infirmă şi se suspicionează leucemie mieloidă, cu celule NK sau cu celule dendritice plasmocitoide. Pacienta a fost internată în clinica noastră după 8 luni de la diagnosticul iniţial. Imunofenotiparea prin citometrie în flux efectuată din măduva osoasă a evidenţiat 23% blaşti pozitivi pentru markerii CD4, CD56, CD123, HLA-DR, CD38, CD11b, CD2 şi negativi pentru markerii specifici liniilor celulare limfoide B, T, NK şi mielomonocitare. Diagnosticul final a fost NCDPB în fază leucemică. Datorită diversităii prezentării clinice, morfologice şi imunofenotipice a NCDPB, diagnosticul acestei boli maligne rare rămâne o provocare. Imunofenotiparea prin citometrie în flux este superioară examenului imunohistochimic datorită disponibilităţii unui panel mai larg de anticorpi şi posibilităţii de a identifica intensitatea expresiei antigenice. Formele atipice ale NCDPB trebuie să fie recunoscute în timp util pentru a putea trata corespunzător pacienţii cu această boală agresivă.

  8. A Novel Sandwich-type Dinuclear Complex for High-capacity Hydrogen Storage%A Novel Sandwich-type Dinuclear Complex for High-capacity Hydrogen Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 陈元振; 李赛; 曹秀贞; 柳永宁

    2012-01-01

    From density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predicted that the sandwich-type dinuclear organometallic compounds Cpffi2 and Cp2Sc2 can adsorb up to eight hydrogen molecules respectively, corresponding to a high gravimetric storage capacity of 6.7% and 6.8% (w), respectively. These sandwich-type organometallocenes proposed in this work are favorable for reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at ambient conditions.

  9. Inverted-sandwich-type and open-lantern-type dinuclear transition metal complexes: theoretical study of chemical bonds by electronic stress tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kurokawa, Yusaku I; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2011-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of two types of transition metal complexes, the inverted-sandwich-type and open-lantern-type, by the electronic stress tensor. In particular, the bond order b_e measured by the energy density which is defined from the electronic stress tensor is studied and compared with the conventional MO based bond order. We also examine the patterns found in the largest eigenvalue of the stress tensor and corresponding eigenvector field, the "spindle structure" and "pseudo-spindle structure". As for the inverted-sandwich-type complex, our bond order b_e calculation shows that relative strength of the metal-benzene bond among V, Cr and Mn complexes is V > Cr > Mn which is consistent with the MO based bond order. As for the open-lantern-type complex, we find that our energy density based bond order can properly describe the relative strength of Cr--Cr and Mo--Mo bonds by the surface integration of the energy density over the "Lagrange surface" which can take into account the spatial extent ...

  10. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  11. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  12. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Flindtgaard, M; Skriver, K; Geertsen, S S; Christiansen, L; Korsgaard Johnsen, L; Busk, D V P; Bojsen-Møller, E; Madsen, M J; Ritz, C; Roig, M; Lundbye-Jensen, J

    2016-10-27

    A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill were performed 1 (R1h) and 24 h (R1d) post acquisition. For all exercise groups, mean motor performance scores decreased at R1h compared to post acquisition (POST) level; STR (P = 0.018), CT (P = 0.02), HOC (P = 0.014) and performance scores decreased for CT compared to CON (P = 0.049). Mean performance scores increased from POST to R1d for all exercise groups; STR (P = 0.010), CT (P = 0.020), HOC (P = 0.007) while performance scores for CON decreased (P = 0.043). Changes in motor performance were thus greater for STR (P = 0.006), CT (P exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed.

  13. Endovascular Repair of Acute Uncomplicated Aortic Type B Dissection Promotes Aortic Remodelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunkwall, J; Kasprzak, P; Verhoeven, E

    2014-01-01

    treatment (BMT) with BMT and Gore TAG stent graft in patients with uncomplicated AD. The primary endpoint was a combination of incomplete/no false lumen thrombosis, aortic dilatation, or aortic rupture at 1 year. METHODS: The AD history had to be less than 14 days, and exclusion criteria were rupture......, impending rupture, malperfusion. Of the 61 patients randomised, 80% were DeBakey type IIIB. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were randomised to the BMT group and 30 to the BMT+TAG group. Mean age was 63 years for both groups. The left subclavian artery was completely covered in 47% and in part in 17...

  14. High-resolution crystal structure of HA33 of botulinum neurotoxin type B progenitor toxin complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangkook; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Kruel, Anna Magdalena; Perry, Kay; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced as progenitor toxin complexes (PTCs) by Clostridium botulinum. The PTCs are composed of BoNT and non-toxic neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs), which serve to protect and deliver BoNT through the gastrointestinal tract in food borne botulism. HA33 is a key NAP component that specifically recognizes host carbohydrates and helps enrich PTC on the intestinal lumen preceding its transport across the epithelial barriers. Here, we report the crystal structure of HA33 of type B PTC (HA33/B) in complex with lactose at 1.46 Å resolution. The structural comparisons among HA33 of serotypes A–D reveal two different HA33–glycan interaction modes. The glycan-binding pockets on HA33/A and B are more suitable to recognize galactose-containing glycans in comparison to the equivalent sites on HA33/C and D. On the contrary, HA33/C and D could potentially recognize Neu5Ac as an independent receptor, whereas HA33/A and B do not. These findings indicate that the different oral toxicity and host susceptibility observed among different BoNT serotypes could be partly determined by the serotype-specific interaction between HA33 and host carbohydrate receptors. Furthermore, we have identified a key structural water molecule that mediates the HA33/B–lactose interactions. It provides the structural basis for development of new receptor-mimicking compounds, which have enhanced binding affinity with HA33 through their water-displacing moiety. PMID:24631690

  15. Low light adaptation: energy transfer processes in different types of light harvesting complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulisová, Vladimíra; Luer, Larry; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Collins, Aaron M; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Blankenship, Robert E; Cogdell, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Energy transfer processes in photosynthetic light harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes isolated from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown at different light intensities were studied by ground state and transient absorption spectroscopy. The decomposition of ground state absorption spectra shows contributions from B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a rings, the latter component splitting into a low energy and a high energy band in samples grown under low light (LL) conditions. A spectral analysis reveals strong inhomogeneity of the B850 excitons in the LL samples that is well reproduced by an exponential-type distribution. Transient spectra show a bleach of both the low energy and high energy bands, together with the respective blue-shifted exciton-to-biexciton transitions. The different spectral evolutions were analyzed by a global fitting procedure. Energy transfer from B800 to B850 occurs in a mono-exponential process and the rate of this process is only slightly reduced in LL compared to high light samples. In LL samples, spectral relaxation of the B850 exciton follows strongly nonexponential kinetics that can be described by a reduction of the bleach of the high energy excitonic component and a red-shift of the low energetic one. We explain these spectral changes by picosecond exciton relaxation caused by a small coupling parameter of the excitonic splitting of the BChl a molecules to the surrounding bath. The splitting of exciton energy into two excitonic bands in LL complex is most probably caused by heterogenous composition of LH2 apoproteins that gives some of the BChls in the B850 ring B820-like site energies, and causes a disorder in LH2 structure.

  16. Low light adaptation: Energy transfer processes in different types of light harvesting complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulisova, Vladimira; Luer, Larry; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H.P.; Collins, Aaron M.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Blankenship, R. E.; Cogdell, Richard J

    Energy transfer processes in photosynthetic light harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes isolated from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown at different light intensities were studied by ground state and transient absorption spectroscopy. The decomposition of ground state absorption spectra shows contributions from B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a rings, the latter component splitting into a low energy and a high energy band in samples grown under low light (LL) conditions. A spectral analysis reveals strong inhomogeneity of the B850 excitons in the LL samples that is well reproduced by an exponential-type distribution. Transient spectra show a bleach of both the low energy and high energy bands, together with the respective blue-shifted exciton-to-biexciton transitions. The different spectral evolutions were analyzed by a global fitting procedure. Energy transfer from B800 to B850 occurs in a mono-exponential process and the rate of this process is only slightly reduced in LL compared to high light samples. In LL samples, spectral relaxation of the B850 exciton follows strongly nonexponential kinetics that can be described by a reduction of the bleach of the high energy excitonic component and a red-shift of the low energetic one. We explain these spectral changes by picosecond exciton relaxation caused by a small coupling parameter of the excitonic splitting of the BChl a molecules to the surrounding bath. The splitting of exciton energy into two excitonic bands in LL complex is most probably caused by heterogenous composition of LH2 apoproteins that gives some of the BChls in the B850 ring B820-like site energies, and causes a disorder in LH2 structure.

  17. Simultaneous acute shoulder arthritis and multiple mononeuropathy in a newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patient - First case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Zaborowski, Grzegorz; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Nowacki, Przemysław

    Diabetes is a common disorder that leads to the musculoskeletal symptoms such as the shoulder arthritis. The involvement of peripheral nervous system is one of the troublesome for the patients as it provokes chronic sensory symptoms, lower motor neuron involvement and autonomic symptoms. In the course of the disease there has been several types of neuropathies described. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to the internal medicine department because of the general weakness, malaise, polydypsia and polyuria since several days. The initial blood glucose level was 780mg/dl. During the first day the continuous insulin infusion was administered. On the next day when he woke up, the severe pain in the right shoulder with limited movement, right upper extremity weakness and burning pain in the radial aspect of this extremity appeared. On examination right shoulder joint movement limitation was found with the muscle weakness and sensory symptoms in the upper limbs. The clinical picture indicated on the right shoulder arthritis and the peripheral nervous system symptoms such as the right musculocutaneous, supraspinatus, right radial nerve and left radial nerve damage. We present a first case report of simultaneous, acute involvement of the shoulder joint and multiple neuropathy in a patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, presumably in the state of ketoacidosis.

  18. Risk factors and early outcomes of acute renal injury after thoracic aortic endograft repair for type B aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Songyuan Luo,* Huanyu Ding,* Jianfang Luo, Wei Li, Bing Ning, Yuan Liu, Wenhui Huang, Ling Xue, Ruixin Fan, Jiyan Chen Cardiology Department, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR has become an emerging treatment modality for acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD patients in recent years. The risk factors and impacts of acute kidney injury (AKI after percutaneous TEVAR, however, have not been widely established.Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical records of 305 consecutive patients who admitted to our institution and had TEVAR for TBAD between December 2009 and June 2013. The patients were routinely monitored for their renal functions preoperatively until 7 days after TEVAR. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Guidelines (KDIGO criteria were used for AKI.Results: Of the total 305 consecutive patients, 84 (27.5% developed AKI after TEVAR, comprising 66 (21.6% patients in KDIGO stage 1, 6 (2.0% patients in stage 2 and 12 (3.9% patients in stage 3. From the logistic regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (SBP on admission >140 mmHg (odds ratio [OR], 2.288; 95% CI, 1.319–3.969 and supra-aortic branches graft bypass hybrid surgery (OR, 3.228; 95% CI, 1.526–6.831 were independent risk factors for AKI after TEVAR. Local anesthesia tended to be a protective factor (OR, 0.563; 95% CI, 0.316–1.001. The preoperative renal function, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or statin administration, volume of contrast agent, range of TBAD and false lumen involving renal artery were not associated with post-operation AKI. The in-hospital mortality and major adverse events were markedly increased with the occurrence of AKI (7.1% vs 0.9%, P=0

  19. Branched chain and aromatic amino acids change acutely following two medical therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey A.; Davis, Jaclyn; Warner, A. Sofia; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Billings, Liana K.; Chamarthi, Bindu; Fanelli, Rebecca R.; Hernandez, Alicia M.; Huang, Chunmei; Khan, Sabina Q.; Littleton, Katherine R.; Lo, Janet; McCarthy, Rita M.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Deik, Amy; Stolerman, Elliot; Taylor, Andrew; Hudson, Margo S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Altshuler, David; Grant, Richard W.; Clish, Clary B.; Gerszten, Robert E.; Florez, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated circulating levels of branched chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAAs) are associated with insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). BCAA/AAAs decrease acutely during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a diagnostic test for T2D. It is unknown whether changes in BCAA/AAAs also signal an early response to commonly used medical therapies for T2D. Materials and Methods A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used to measure BCAA/AAAs in 30 insulin sensitive (IS) and 30 insulin resistant (IR) subjects before and after: 1) one dose of a sulfonylurea medication, glipizide, 5 mg orally; 2) two days of twice daily metformin 500 mg orally; and 3) a 75-gram OGTT. Percent change in BCAA/AAAs was determined after each intervention. Results Following glipizide, which increased insulin and decreased glucose in both subject groups, BCAA/AAAs decreased in the IS subjects only (all P<0.05). Following metformin, which decreased glucose and insulin in only the IR subjects, 4 BCAA/AAAs increased in the IR subjects at or below P=0.05, and none changed in the IS subjects. Following OGTT, which increased glucose and insulin in all subjects, BCAA/AAAs decreased in all subjects (P<0.05). Conclusions BCAA/AAAs changed acutely during glipizide and metformin administration, and the magnitude and direction of change differed by the insulin resistance status of the individual and the intervention. These results indicate that BCAA/AAAs may be useful biomarkers for monitoring the early response to therapeutic interventions for T2D. PMID:23953891

  20. Indications and Types of Antibiotic Agents Used in 6 Acute Care Hospitals, 2009-2010: A Pragmatic Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Braykov, Nikolay; Uslan, Daniel Z; Morgan, Daniel J; Gandra, Sumanth; Johannsson, Birgir; Schweizer, Marin L; Weisenberg, Scott A; Young, Heather; Cantey, Joseph; Perencevich, Eli; Septimus, Edward; Srinivasan, Arjun; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To design better antimicrobial stewardship programs, detailed data on the primary drivers and patterns of antibiotic use are needed. OBJECTIVE To characterize the indications for antibiotic therapy, agents used, duration, combinations, and microbiological justification in 6 acute-care US facilities with varied location, size, and type of antimicrobial stewardship programs. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING Retrospective medical chart review was performed on a random cross-sectional sample of 1,200 adult inpatients, hospitalized (>24 hrs) in 6 hospitals, and receiving at least 1 antibiotic dose on 4 index dates chosen at equal intervals through a 1-year study period (October 1, 2009-September 30, 2010). METHODS Infectious disease specialists recorded patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, microbiological and radiological testing, and agents used, dose, duration, and indication for antibiotic prescriptions. RESULTS On the index dates 4,119 (60.5%) of 6,812 inpatients were receiving antibiotics. The random sample of 1,200 case patients was receiving 2,527 antibiotics (average: 2.1 per patient); 540 (21.4%) were prophylactic and 1,987 (78.6%) were therapeutic, of which 372 (18.7%) were pathogen-directed at start. Of the 1,615 empirical starts, 382 (23.7%) were subsequently pathogen-directed and 1,231 (76.2%) remained empirical. Use was primarily for respiratory (27.6% of prescriptions) followed by gastrointestinal (13.1%) infections. Fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, and antipseudomonal penicillins together accounted for 47.1% of therapy-days. CONCLUSIONS Use of broad-spectrum empirical therapy was prevalent in 6 US acute care facilities and in most instances was not subsequently pathogen directed. Fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, and antipseudomonal penicillins were the most frequently used antibiotics, particularly for respiratory indications. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):70-79.

  1. Application of a new-type sutureless anastomosis stent to the primary reconstruction of the bilioenteric continuity after acute bile duct injury in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Li; Yi Lü; Bo Qu; Zhiyong Zhang; Chang Liu; Yuan Shi; Bo Wang; Xuewen Ji; Liang Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new-type sutureless magnetic bilioenteric anastomosis stent that was used to reconstruct the bilioenteric continuity (primarily under the circumstances of severe inflammation after acute bile duct injury in dogs).Methods: Establishing an animal model of acute bile duct injury with severe inflammation and bile peritonitis in dogs. The newtype sutureless magnetic bilioenteric anastomosis stent was used to reconstruct the bilioenteric continuity primarily. Results: The experiment group anastomosis healed well with a mild local inflammation reaction, and the collagen lined up in order without the occurrence of observable bile leakage and infection. Conclusion: It was safe and feasible to use the new-type anastomosis stent to reconstruct the bilioenteric continuity primarily under the circumstances of severe inflammation after acute bile duct injury in dogs.

  2. On a New Type of Information Processing for Efficient Management of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkikh, Victor

    2007-01-01

    It is a challenge to manage complex systems efficiently without confronting NP-hard problems. To address the situation we suggest to use self-organization processes of prime integer relations for information processing. Self-organization processes of prime integer relations define correlation structures of a complex system and can be equivalently represented by transformations of two-dimensional geometrical patterns determining the dynamics of the system and revealing its structural complexity. Computational experiments raise the possibility of an optimality condition of complex systems presenting the structural complexity of a system as a key to its optimization. From this perspective the optimization of a system could be all about the control of the structural complexity of the system to make it consistent with the structural complexity of the problem. The experiments also indicate that the performance of a complex system may behave as a concave function of the structural complexity. Therefore, once the str...

  3. Factors Associated With Disability and Sick Leave in Early Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Heiss-Dunlop, Wolfgang; Kydd, Robert R

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing disability and work absence in complex regional pain syndrome type-1 (CRPS)-1 have not been thoroughly described in the literature. We sought to determine whether demographic variables, work-related factors, CRPS clinical severity ratings, pain scores, or psychological variables were associated with disability and sick leave in early CRPS-1. A total of 66 CRPS-1 patients were recruited within 12 weeks of CRPS onset. Patients completed measures of pain, depression, anxiety, stress, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related fear. A physical examination was conducted to assess signs and symptoms of CRPS and to calculate a CRPS severity score. Demographic details, clinical details, treatments, work type, and work status were recorded. In multivariate analyses, the following factors were associated with greater disability: higher pain scores, more restricted ankle or wrist extension, and higher levels of depression. Among the 49 who were either working or studying before developing CRPS, 28 had stopped work or study at the time of assessment. Multivariate analyses showed that sick leave was more likely among those whose CRPS was triggered by more severe injuries, whose work was more physically demanding, among those with higher disability scores, and there was also a significant effect of depression on sick leave, which was mediated by disability. Although the study was cross-sectional and so cannot differentiate cause from effect, results suggest that even in the early stages of CRPS, a cycle of pain, disability, depression, and work absence can emerge. Treatments aimed to prevent this cycle may help prevent adverse long-term outcomes.

  4. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Lotringen, J.H. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact

  5. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Successfully Managed with One-stage Surgery of Total Aortic Arch Replacement with Supra-aortic Transposition Plus Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Lin Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute type A aortic dissection has long been a challenging issue. The surgical techniques traditionally vary with the anatomic extent of the aortic dissection. Simple ascending aortic grafting can be lifesaving, but the lesions beyond the aorta, which include the arch vessels and descending aorta, remain potential hazards. In this paper, we present a patient in which acute type A aortic dissection with lesions extending into descending thoracic aorta was successfully managed by total arch replacement with supra-aortic transposition plus the frozen elephant trunk technique to the descending aorta. A 67-year-old gentleman presented with severe tearing pain from the anterior to posterior chest. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of acute type A dissection extending to the level of the right common iliac artery. An emergent operation was performed as in the aforementioned technique. The surgery went well and the patient was discharged without comorbidities on postoperative day 25. The patient had regular outpatient clinical follow-up. The follow-up computed tomography images showed adequate results with the obliteration of the false lumen. In conclusion, total aortic arch replacement with supra-aortic transposition plus frozen elephant trunk technique is a safe and feasible operative method for patients with detrimental acute type A aortic dissection.

  6. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients with an acute coronary event after discharge from hospital: design and development of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Rijken, M.; Nijpels, G.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with an acute coronary event (ACE) experience decreased quality of life and increased distress. According to the American Diabetes Association, discharge from the hospital is a time of increased distress for all patients. Tailored support specific to dia

  7. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Lotringen, J.H. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact

  8. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22): success with nonacute myeloid leukemia-type intensive induction therapy and stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Onyee; Jamil, Abdur Rehman; Millius, Rebecca; Kaur, Ramandeep; Anwer, Faiz

    2017-04-01

    Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22) is a rare disease with poor prognosis, and information on optimal treatment is limited. We describe a case where our patient experienced positive outcome after nonacute myeloid leukemia-type intensive induction therapy followed by postremission therapy with stem cell transplant.

  9. Acute Morphine Administration Reduces Cell-Mediated Immunity and Induces Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in BALB/c Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Mojadadi; Abbas Jamali; Behzad Khansarinejad; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Taravat Bamdad

    2009-01-01

    Acute morphine administration is known to alter the course of herpes simplex virus infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine administration on the reactivation of latent herpes was investigated in a mouse model. Because of the important role of cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation, the effect of acute morphine administration on CTL responses was also evaluated. Furthermore, lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were evaluated for their roles in the induction of the CTL response. The findings showed that acute morphine administration significantly reduced CTL responses, lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ production. Furthermore, acute morphine administration has been shown to reactivate latent HSV-1. Previous studies have shown that cellular immune responses have important roles in the inhibition of HSV reactivation. These findings suggest that suppression of a portion of the cellular immune response after acute morphine administration may constitute one part of the mechanism that induces HSV reactivation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  10. Emergent criticality in complex turing B-type atomic switch networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Adam Z; Avizienis, Audrius V; Sillin, Henry O; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Aono, Masakazu; Gimzewski, James K

    2012-01-10

    Recent advances in the neuromorphic operation of atomic switches as individual synapse-like devices demonstrate the ability to process information with both short-term and long-term memorization in a single two terminal junction. Here it is shown that atomic switches can be self-assembled within a highly interconnected network of silver nanowires similar in structure to Turing’s “B-Type unorganized machine”, originally proposed as a randomly connected network of NAND logic gates. In these experimental embodiments,complex networks of coupled atomic switches exhibit emergent criticality similar in nature to previously reported electrical activity of biological brains and neuron assemblies. Rapid fluctuations in electrical conductance display metastability and power law scaling of temporal correlation lengths that are attributed to dynamic reorganization of the interconnected electro-ionic network resulting from induced non-equilibrium thermodynamic instabilities. These collective properties indicate a potential utility for realtime,multi-input processing of distributed sensory data through reservoir computation. We propose these highly coupled, nonlinear electronic networks as an implementable hardware-based platform toward the creation of physically intelligent machines.

  11. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  12. Stomatal complex types, stomatal density, and the stomatal index in some species of dioscorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahaman A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea alata L. has three stomatal complex types, namely, paracytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 50, 18, and 32, respectively. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percent­age frequency value of 100. Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively. Both D. esculenta and D. rotundata have paracytic stomata, with a percentage frequency of 100. The range of variation of stomatal density is from 10 (lowest value in D. alata and D. dumentorum to 27 (highest value in D. bulbifera. The stomatal index also varies, from 24 in D. alata to 47 in D. cayenensis. The size of stomata in all species is small, varying in length from 0.74 μm in D. alata to 1.79 μm in D. dumentorum. An indented dichotomous key based on stomatal features was constructed to distinguish and identify the species.

  13. Complex dynamics in the Leslie-Gower type of the food chain system with multiple delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Song, Zi-Gen; Xu, Jian

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a Leslie-Gower type of food chain system composed of three species, which are resource, consumer, and predator, respectively. The digestion time delays corresponding to consumer-eat-resource and predator-eat-consumer are introduced for more realistic consideration. It is called the resource digestion delay (RDD) and consumer digestion delay (CDD) for simplicity. Analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the stabilities of the boundary and interior equilibrium points are studied. The food chain system exhibits the species coexistence for the small values of digestion delays. Large RDD/CDD may destabilize the species coexistence and induce the system dynamic into recurrent bloom or system collapse. Further, the present of multiple delays can control species population into the stable coexistence. To investigate the effect of time delays on the recurrent bloom of species population, the Hopf bifurcation and periodic solution are investigated in detail in terms of the central manifold reduction and normal form method. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to display some complex dynamics, which include multiple periodic solution and chaos motion for the different values of system parameters. The system dynamic behavior evolves into the chaos motion by employing the period-doubling bifurcation.

  14. Structural tailoring effects on the magnetic behavior of symmetric and asymmetric cubane-type Ni complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Alexey N; Kim, Namseok; Hwang, Jaewon; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; van Tol, Johan; Ozarowski, Andrew; Park, Jena; Jang, Zeehoon; Suh, Byoungjin; Yoon, Sungho; Choi, Kwang-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Using two kinds of carboxylate ligands with small but significant differences in steric size, symmetric and asymmetric Fe(II) and Ni(II) cubanes have been synthesized in a controlled fashion. Fast sweeping pulsed field measurements showed magnetization hysteresis loops for two cubane-type molecular complexes, [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(4F-Ph))4(HOMe)8] and [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(Tol))4(HOMe)6], thus suggesting single-molecule magnet behavior. To differentiate the magnetic properties between the symmetric and asymmetric cubanes, detailed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were performed. From the EPR data, taken at various frequencies and temperatures, zero-field splitting parameters D, E, and other higher-order parameters for both cubane samples were extracted. Compared to the symmetric Ni-cubane, the asymmetric one shows an increase in the D and E values by about 20%, thereby suggesting structural engineering effects on the magnetic properties. By using the magnetic parameters determined by EPR, a static magnetization curve at 2 K and a temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility were simulated. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental data confirms the validity of the values obtained from EPR measurements.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a New Botulinum Toxin Type A Free of Complexing Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Mi Oh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MT10107 is botulinum neurotoxin type A derived drug which utilizes the 150 kDa portion without complexing proteins and human serum albumin contents. To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of MT10107, it was compared with onabotulinumtoxinA in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five healthy males received a randomly selected dose of MT10107 into the extensor digitorum brevis (EDB muscle of one foot, and an equivalent dose of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX was injected into the contralateral EDB muscle. While efficacy of the administered substance was determined by measuring paretic effects on the EDB, the local spread of toxin effects was evaluated by the paretic effects on the nearby abductor hallucis (AH and abductor digiti quinti (ADQ muscles. Paretic effects were defined as the percentage of reduction of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitudes, measured at 14, 30, 90 days after the injection, compared to the baseline value. Intergroup (MT10107 and onabotulinumtoxinA differences were not significant in the percentage reduction of the amplitudes in the EDB muscles. In this study, there was no significant difference in efficacy and safety between the two test drugs. MT10107 may be effective and safe as much as onabotulinumtoxinA to produce the desired paretic effect.

  16. Crystal structure of the Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas interference complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Inanaga, Hideko; Sato, Chikara; Osawa, Takuo

    2015-01-30

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci play a pivotal role in the prokaryotic host defense system against invading genetic materials. The CRISPR loci are transcribed to produce CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), which form interference complexes with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The interference complex of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system is composed of five Cas proteins (Csm1-Csm5) and a crRNA, and targets invading DNA. Here, we show that the Csm1, Csm3, and Csm4 proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii form a stable subcomplex. We also report the crystal structure of the M. jannaschii Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex at 3.1Å resolution. The complex structure revealed the presence of a basic concave surface around their interface, suggesting the RNA and/or DNA binding ability of the complex. A gel retardation analysis showed that the Csm3-Csm4 complex binds single-stranded RNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Csm4 structurally resembles Cmr3, a component of the type III-B CRISPR-Cas interference complex. Based on bioinformatics, we constructed a model structure of the Csm1-Csm4-Csm3 ternary complex, which provides insights into its role in the Csm interference complex.

  17. Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wagner, Philippe; Leppert, Jerzy; Ekselius, Lisa; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Background Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Utilising data from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

  18. Pharmacological properties and pathophysiological significance of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (Rusvikunin-II) and its protein complex (Rusvikunin complex) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2014-10-01

    A 7.1 kDa basic peptide (Rusvikunin-II) was purified from a previously described protein complex (Rusvikunin complex, consists of Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) of Daboia russelii russelii venom. The N-terminal sequence of Rusvikunin-II was found to be blocked, but peptide mass fingerprinting analysis indicated its identity as Kunitz-type basic protease inhibitor 2, previously reported from Russell's Viper venom. A tryptic peptide sequence of Rusvikunin-II containing the N-terminal sequence HDRPTFCNLFPESGR demonstrated significant sequence homology to venom basic protease inhibitors, Kunitz-type protease inhibitors and trypsin inhibitors. The secondary structure of Rusvikunin-II was dominated by β-sheets (60.4%), followed by random coil (38.2%), whereas α-helix (1.4%) contributes the least to its secondary structure. Both Rusvikunin-II and the Rusvikunin complex demonstrated dose-dependent anticoagulant activity; however, the anticoagulant potency of latter was found to be higher. Both inhibited the amidolytic activity of trypsin > plasmin > FXa, fibrinogen clotting activity of thrombin, and, to a lesser extent, the prothrombin activation property of FXa; however, the inhibitory effect of the Rusvikunin complex was more pronounced. Neither Rusvikunin-II nor Rusvikunin complex inhibited the amidolytic activity of chymotrypsin and thrombin. Rusvikunin-II at 10 μg/ml was not cytotoxic to Colo-205, MCF-7 or 3T3 cancer cells; conversely, Rusvikunin complex showed ∼30% reduction of MCF-7 cells under identical experimental conditions. Rusvikunin-II (5.0 mg/kg body weight, i.p. injection) was not lethal to mice or House Geckos; nevertheless, it showed in vivo anticoagulant action in mice. However, the Rusvikunin complex (at 5.0 mg/kg) was toxic to NSA mice, but not to House Geckos, suggesting it has prey-specific toxicity. Rusvikunin complex-treated mice exhibited dyspnea and hind-limb paresis prior to death. The present study indicates that the Kunitz-type

  19. Radiometric ligand binding assay for C-reactive protein. Complexed C-reactive protein is not detectable in acute phase serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, F C; Shine, B; Pepys, M B

    1982-10-01

    A radiometric ligand binding assay for human C-reactive protein (CRP) was established using pneumococcal C polysaccharide (CPS) coupled to magnetizable cellulose particles as the solid phase ligand. Competition for binding to the solid phase between 125I-CRP and unlabelled CRP permitted detection of 30 micrograms/l of CRP and the precise assay of concentrations up to 3000 micrograms/l. Identical results were obtained when the assay was used to quantitate isolated pure CRP and pure CRP added to normal human serum. However in vitro addition of known ligands for CRP to acute phase serum resulted in lowering of the apparent CRP concentration in this assay and addition of as little as 1 microgram/l of free CPS or 1 mg/l of lecithin was demonstrable in this way. A combination of the ligand binding assay and the standard electroimmunoassay for CRP was therefore used to test acute phase sera for the presence of CRP complexed in vitro. No evidence of complexed CRP was detected among sera containing between 1-319 mg/l of CRP from patients with Hodgkin's disease (10), rheumatoid arthritis (10), Crohn's disease (19) and various microbial infections (11), including six with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Since it is likely that CRP does form complexes with its ligands in the plasma these results suggest that complexed CRP is rapidly cleared from the circulation.

  20. Acute renal effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide in overweight type 2 diabetes patients : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M.; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Danser, A. H Jan; Diamant, Michaela; Joles, Jaap A.; van Raalte, Daniël H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: We included overweight (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35–75 years with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 48–75

  1. The Effect of Different Intensities of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Resistin Concentration and Insulin Resistance Index in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    OpenAIRE

    Ziba Davoudi; Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh; Saeid Shakeriyan; Abdolhamid Habbibi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Today, the increase in diabetes all over the world and positive results of locomotor activity and exercise on factors related to this disease have been taken into consideration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different intensities of acute aerobic exercise on plasma resistin levels in men with type II diabetes. Materials & Methods: The psent study is a quasi-experimental one. Ten subjects with Type II diabetes after at least 10 hours of fasti...

  2. Spectroscopic investigations of newly formed betulin-cyclodextrin guest-host type complexes as potential anti skin cancer candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falamaş, A.; Pînzaru, S. Cînta; Chiş, V.; Dehelean, C.

    2011-05-01

    Betulin and the related compounds found in the outer bark of the birch tree have attached an increasing interest in the pharmaceutical formulation, due to their anti-cancer activity. Betulin exhibits a very poor solubility; therefore new approaches are required, such as the preparation of the guest-host type complexes using cyclodextrins. The new prepared betulin - hydroxy-propyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HPGCD) complexes have been obtained and characterized using vibrational spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with quantum chemical calculation.

  3. Acute unstable complex radial head and neck fractures fixed with a mini T-shaped plate in a 20-year-old man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weiguang Yu,1,* Jun Hu,1,* Xinchao Zhang,2 Xingfei Zhu,2 Yinfeng Xu,1 Jianhua Yi,1 Yunjiang Liu1 1Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 2Department of Orthopedics, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Acute unstable complex radial head and neck fractures in adults are seldom reported in the literature. Early recognition and appropriate management are essential to prevent long-term consequences of the loss of elbow function, forearm rotation, and chronic pain. Here, we describe an unusual case of a 20-year-old man who exhibited acute unstable complex fractures of the head and neck of the right radius without other injuries or comorbidity. An open reduction and mini T-shaped plate fixation were performed within 3 hours after injury, and the results were satisfactory. A long plaster fixation was continued for 3 weeks. A gradual mobilization was started after the removal of the plaster under the supervision of a physiotherapist. At the 12-month follow-up, no complications associated with the use of the mini T-shaped plate were noted, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 97 (excellent. To our knowledge, acute unstable complex radial head and neck fractures in adults can be successfully treated with a mini T-shaped plate reconstruction technique. Keywords: unstable complex fractures, mini T-shaped plate, radial head, internal fixation, radial head replacement

  4. Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation complex activity: effects of tissue-specific metabolic stress within an allometric series and acute changes in workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Darci; Covian, Raul; Aponte, Angel M; Glancy, Brian; Taylor, Joni F; Chess, David; Balaban, Robert S

    2012-05-01

    The concentration of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes (MOPCs) is tuned to the maximum energy conversion requirements of a given tissue; however, whether the activity of MOPCs is altered in response to acute changes in energy conversion demand is unclear. We hypothesized that MOPCs activity is modulated by tissue metabolic stress to maintain the energy-metabolism homeostasis. Metabolic stress was defined as the observed energy conversion rate/maximum energy conversion rate. The maximum energy conversion rate was assumed to be proportional to the concentration of MOPCs, as determined with optical spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The resting metabolic stress of the heart and liver across the range of resting metabolic rates within an allometric series (mouse, rabbit, and pig) was determined from MPOCs content and literature respiratory values. The metabolic stress of the liver was high and nearly constant across the allometric series due to the proportional increase in MOPCs content with resting metabolic rate. In contrast, the MOPCs content of the heart was essentially constant in the allometric series, resulting in an increasing metabolic stress with decreasing animal size. The MOPCs activity was determined in native gels, with an emphasis on Complex V. Extracted MOPCs enzyme activity was proportional to resting metabolic stress across tissues and species. Complex V activity was also shown to be acutely modulated by changes in metabolic stress in the heart, in vivo and in vitro. The modulation of extracted MOPCs activity suggests that persistent posttranslational modifications (PTMs) alter MOPCs activity both chronically and acutely, specifically in the heart. Protein phosphorylation of Complex V was correlated with activity inhibition under several conditions, suggesting that protein phosphorylation may contribute to activity modulation with energy metabolic stress. These data are consistent with the notion that metabolic

  5. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemias; Acute... myelomonocytic leukaemia (clinical); Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (clinical); Acute mye...lomonocytic leukemia, FAB M4; Leukemia, Acute Myelomonocytic; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, M4; Leukemia, Myeloi...d, Naegeli-Type; Leukemia, Naegeli-Type Myeloid; Leukemias, Acute Myelomonocytic; Myeloid Leukemia, Acute..., M4; Myeloid Leukemia, Naegeli Type; Myeloid Leukemia, Naegeli-Type; Myelomonocytic Leukemia, Acute

  6. Clinical trials in acute heart failure: simpler solutions to complex problems. Consensus document arising from a European Society of Cardiology cardiovascular round-table think tank on acute heart failure, 12 May 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Theresa A; Komajda, Michel; Maggioni, Aldo P; Zannad, Faiez; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Metra, Marco; Dargie, Henry J

    2011-12-01

    This European consensus document aims to identify the main reasons for the apparent lack of progress in the introduction of new medicines for acute heart failure. Relevant issues include not only the heterogeneity of the patient group but also the pharmacology of the medicines themselves and the design of the trials. Above all, this document attempts to provide some pragmatic solutions to this complex syndrome to simplify the execution of meaningful therapeutic endeavours in this area of undoubted unmet clinical need in the future.

  7. Spectroscopic evidence of 3-hydroxyflavone sorption within MFI type zeolites: ESIPT and metal complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissette, A; Hureau, M; Kokaislova, A; Le Person, A; Cornard, J P; De Waele, I; Batonneau-Gener, I

    2015-10-21

    Due to its chemical and photochemical properties and potential applications in numerous domains as a molecular probe, 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) is a molecule of high interest. In particular, the processes of intramolecular proton transfer in the excited state and metallic complexation are known to be dependent on the chemical environment. In this context, the particular properties of zeolites make these microporous materials an environment adapted to study the reactivity of isolated molecules adsorbed in their porous void space. Thus, this report investigates the incorporation without any solvent of 3HF into the internal volume of various channel-type MFI zeolites. Using complementary techniques (diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption, Raman scattering, FTIR, fluorescence emission and molecular modelling), very different spectral behaviours are observed in totally dealuminated silicalite-1 and in Al rich MZSM-5 (M = H(+), Na(+), Zn(2+)). In silicalite-1, the non-polar and non-protic internal micro-environment does not induce any valuable interaction between 3HF and the channel walls. Therefore, the molecule shows easy tautomer formation upon excitation. Within HZSM-5, 3HF is adsorbed in close proximity of the acid proton of the zeolite which inhibits the intramolecular proton transfer and then, only the normal form is observed at the excited state. For NaZSM-5, the spectral data show an intermediary behaviour due to the aprotic but polar environment, in agreement with 3HF sorption in close proximity of the Na(+) extra framework cation. After mixing 3HF and ZnZSM-5, the spectral features clearly indicate metallic complexation of the guest molecule. The zeolite dependent reactivity reported here demonstrates the adsorption of the guest within the internal volume because the charge balancing cations which clearly control the reaction are principally located in the zeolite channels. The 3HF incorporation into the internal volume is proved by the decrease of the microporous

  8. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Role of plasma C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in predicting in-hospital clinical events of acute type A aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Dan; WU Hai-ying; JIANG Xiong-jing; ZHANG Hui-min; ZHOU Xian-liang; LI Jian-jun; HUI Ru-tai

    2011-01-01

    Background A few recent studies have reported that inflammation is associated with the prognosis of acute aortic dissection (AD).There is,however,no systemic investigation regarding the role of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels in predicting in-hospital clinical events of acute type AAD.Methods The levels of high-sensitivity CRP and WBC counts were systemically determined after admission in 36 patients with acute type A AD.The variations of plasma CRP and WBC levels in different time windows (admission,1,2,3,4,6,8 days) in patients with acute type A AD were analyzed between patients with events and without events.Results During hospitalization,five patients died,and increased levels of CRP and WBC were found in patients died with acute type A AD compared with patients survived (P <0.01,respectively).Medical treatment may significantly decrease inflammatory response in survived patients with acute type A AD.Additionally,patients with complication of pleural effusion showed higher CRP and WBC levels (P=0.046,P=0.018,respectively).Lower WBC levels were found in survived patients treated medically (P=0.001).Moreover,mean CRP and WBC levels had positive correlations with aortic diameter (r=0.364,P=0.000;r=0.333,P=0.000,respectively) and age (r=0.270,P=0.000,respectively),while negative correlations with the time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission (r=-0.229,P=0.000,r=-0.200,P=0.002,respectively).Univariate analysis showed that age ≥65 years,CRP ≥12.05 mg/L,WBC ≥12.16×109/L,aortic diameter ≥48mm,pleural effusion and diastolic blood pressure ≥105 mmHg were associated with hospital mortality.While CRP ≥12.05 mg/L,WBC ≥12.16×109/L,aortic diameter ≥48 mm were strongly associated with hospital mortality in multiple Logistic regression analysis.Conclusions The results suggested that CRP and WBC were preferred markers for predicting the clinical events in patients with acute type A AD,especially death during

  10. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Janowska-Wieczorek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  11. Update on the effects of treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Dallegri, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) represents a major cause of death and disability all over the world. The recommended therapy aims at dissolving the clot to re-establish quickly the blood flow to the brain and reduce neuronal injury. Intravenous administration of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is clinically used with this goal. A description of beneficial and detrimental effects of rt-PA treatment is addressed. An overview of new therapies against AIS, such as new thrombolytics, sonolysis and sonothrombolysis, endovascular procedures, and association therapies is provided. Updates on the pathophysiological process leading to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is also discussed. rt-PA treatment in AIS patients is beneficial to recovery outcomes. To weaken risks and improve benefits, it might be relevant to consider: i) a definitive identification of risk factors for symptomatic ICH; ii). a better organization of the health care system to reduce time-to-treatment and enhance discharge management. The pharmacological improvement of new thrombolytic drugs (such as tenecteplase and desmoteplase) targeting harmful and maximally exploiting beneficial effects might further reduce mortality and disability in AIS.

  12. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Shirvaikar, Neeta [Canadian Blood Services R& D, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R8 (Canada); Turner, A. Robert [Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada); Mirza, Imran [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7 (Canada); Surmawala, Amir; Larratt, Loree M. [Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada); Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna, E-mail: anna.janowska@blood.ca [Canadian Blood Services R& D, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R8 (Canada); Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada)

    2012-07-25

    Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i) MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii) activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii) inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  13. Screening and management for ischemic heart disease in patients undergoing emergency surgery for a type A acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Mitsumasa; Shiono, Motomi; Hata, Hiroaki; Sezai, Akira; Akiyama, Kenji; Orime, Yukihiko; Wakui, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    We assessed the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) during hospitalization after emergency surgery for a type A acute aortic dissection. A total of 123 patients underwent multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) scans during an early stage after surgery. The patients were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 14 patients (11.4%) who had coronary artery stenosis of more than 75% on MSCT, and group II consisted of 109 patients (88.6%) who had no coronary lesions. The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia and a smoking history was significantly higher in group I. Although the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar, the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level was significantly lower in group I (36.4 ± 7.9 mg/dl) than in group II (49.6 ± 13.5 mg/dl, P = 0.0005). The maximum carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was significantly thicker in group I (1.17 ± 0.37 mm) compared to group II (0.96 ± 0.33 mm, P = 0.0297). The logistic regression analysis detected that a carotid IMT over 1.1 mm (odds ratio 4.35, P = 0.0371) and HDL less than 40 mg/dl (odds ratio 3.90, P = 0.0482) were predictors for CAD. CAD screening should be recommended for patients with aortic dissection who have several atherosclerosis risk factors, even after emergency surgery.

  14. Identification of genes for complex diseases using integrated analysis of multiple types of genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbao Cao

    Full Text Available Various types of genomic data (e.g., SNPs and mRNA transcripts have been employed to identify risk genes for complex diseases. However, the analysis of these data has largely been performed in isolation. Combining these multiple data for integrative analysis can take advantage of complementary information and thus can have higher power to identify genes (and/or their functions that would otherwise be impossible with individual data analysis. Due to the different nature, structure, and format of diverse sets of genomic data, multiple genomic data integration is challenging. Here we address the problem by developing a sparse representation based clustering (SRC method for integrative data analysis. As an example, we applied the SRC method to the integrative analysis of 376821 SNPs in 200 subjects (100 cases and 100 controls and expression data for 22283 genes in 80 subjects (40 cases and 40 controls to identify significant genes for osteoporosis (OP. Comparing our results with previous studies, we identified some genes known related to OP risk (e.g., 'THSD4', 'CRHR1', 'HSD11B1', 'THSD7A', 'BMPR1B' 'ADCY10', 'PRL', 'CA8','ESRRA', 'CALM1', 'CALM1', 'SPARC', and 'LRP1'. Moreover, we uncovered novel osteoporosis susceptible genes ('DICER1', 'PTMA', etc. that were not found previously but play functionally important roles in osteoporosis etiology from existing studies. In addition, the SRC method identified genes can lead to higher accuracy for the diagnosis/classification of osteoporosis subjects when compared with the traditional T-test and Fisher-exact test, which further validates the proposed SRC approach for integrative analysis.

  15. Identification of genes for complex diseases using integrated analysis of multiple types of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongbao; Lei, Shufeng; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Various types of genomic data (e.g., SNPs and mRNA transcripts) have been employed to identify risk genes for complex diseases. However, the analysis of these data has largely been performed in isolation. Combining these multiple data for integrative analysis can take advantage of complementary information and thus can have higher power to identify genes (and/or their functions) that would otherwise be impossible with individual data analysis. Due to the different nature, structure, and format of diverse sets of genomic data, multiple genomic data integration is challenging. Here we address the problem by developing a sparse representation based clustering (SRC) method for integrative data analysis. As an example, we applied the SRC method to the integrative analysis of 376821 SNPs in 200 subjects (100 cases and 100 controls) and expression data for 22283 genes in 80 subjects (40 cases and 40 controls) to identify significant genes for osteoporosis (OP). Comparing our results with previous studies, we identified some genes known related to OP risk (e.g., 'THSD4', 'CRHR1', 'HSD11B1', 'THSD7A', 'BMPR1B' 'ADCY10', 'PRL', 'CA8','ESRRA', 'CALM1', 'CALM1', 'SPARC', and 'LRP1'). Moreover, we uncovered novel osteoporosis susceptible genes ('DICER1', 'PTMA', etc.) that were not found previously but play functionally important roles in osteoporosis etiology from existing studies. In addition, the SRC method identified genes can lead to higher accuracy for the diagnosis/classification of osteoporosis subjects when compared with the traditional T-test and Fisher-exact test, which further validates the proposed SRC approach for integrative analysis.

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jai Y; Ahn, Ryun S

    2012-09-01

    An exaggerated inflammatory process is considered an important pathophysiological feature of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis serves as a negative feedback mechanism for inflammatory processes. The present study examined the HPA axis function in patients with CRPS-1 by a determination of cortisol concentrations in saliva. Three sets of saliva samples were sequentially collected from 24 patients with CRPS-1 during medication (on-Med), 72 h after stopping medication (off-Med) and 8h after the oral administration of 1mg dexamethasone. One set of saliva samples was collected from healthy controls. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol decline (DCD) were used as indices for HPA axis function. Cortisol levels during the post-awakening period in patients were increased following withdrawal of medications. The CAR during the off-Med condition was disappeared after administration of dexamethasone. Among the examined CRPS-related numerical variables, the frequency of spontaneous pain attacks showed relationships with the indices of HPA axis function. After classifying the patients into two subgroups, we observed that the CAR and DCD in patient who had a relatively high frequency of spontaneous pain attacks (subgroup 5 ≤) were lower and less steep than those in patient who had a relatively low frequency of spontaneous pain attacks (subgroup 0-4) for the on- and off-Med conditions. The CAR and DCD in subgroup 5 ≤ during their off-Med condition were comparable to those in controls. These results suggest that the increase in frequency of spontaneous pain attacks is associated with a reduced CAR and flattened DCD in patients CRPS-1.

  17. Dissection of the TssB-TssC interface during type VI secretion sheath complex formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Y Zhang

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a versatile machine that delivers toxins into either eukaryotic or bacterial cells. At a molecular level, the T6SS is composed of a membrane complex that anchors a long cytoplasmic tubular structure to the cell envelope. This structure is thought to resemble the tail of contractile bacteriophages. It is composed of the Hcp protein that assembles into hexameric rings stacked onto each other to form a tube similar to the phage tail tube. This tube is proposed to be wrapped by a structure called the sheath, composed of two proteins, TssB and TssC. It has been shown using fluorescence microscopy that the TssB and TssC proteins assemble into a tubular structure that cycles between long and short conformations suggesting that, similarly to the bacteriophage sheath, the T6SS sheath undergoes elongation and contraction events. The TssB and TssC proteins have been shown to interact and a specific α-helix of TssB is required for this interaction. Here, we confirm that the TssB and TssC proteins interact in enteroaggregative E. coli. We further show that this interaction requires the N-terminal region of TssC and the conserved α-helix of TssB. Using site-directed mutagenesis coupled to phenotypic analyses, we demonstrate that an hydrophobic motif located in the N-terminal region of this helix is required for interaction with TssC, sheath assembly and T6SS function.

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  20. The Census of Complex Organic Molecules in the Solar-type Protostar IRAS16293-2422

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Caux, E.

    2014-08-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (gsim30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of gsim100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in lsim20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (lsim30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10-10. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  1. The census of complex organic molecules in the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-10

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (≳30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of ≳100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in ≲20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (≲30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10{sup –10}. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  2. Genomic characterization of coxsackievirus type B3 strains associated with acute flaccid paralysis in south-western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmivandana, Rongala; Cherian, Sarah S; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with coxsackievirus type B3 (CV-B3) of the species Enterovirus B is an emerging concern worldwide. Although CV-B3-associated AFP in India has been demonstrated previously, the genomic characterization of these strains is unreported. Here, CV-B3 strains detected on the basis of the partial VP1 gene in 10 AFP cases and five asymptomatic contacts identified from different regions of south-western India during 2009-2010 through the Polio Surveillance Project were considered for complete genome sequencing and characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene sequences of global CV-B3 strains classified Indian CV-B3 strains into genogroup GVI, along with strains from Uzbekistan and Bangladesh, and into a new genogroup, GVII. Genomic divergence between genogroups of the study strains was 14.4 % with significantly lower divergence (1.8 %) within GVI (n = 12) than that within GVII (8.5 %) (n = 3). The strains from both AFP cases and asymptomatic contacts, identified mainly in coastal Karnataka and Kerala, belonged to the dominant genogroup GVI, while the GVII strains were recovered from AFP cases in north interior Karnataka. All study strains carried inter-genotypic recombination with the structural region similar to reference CV-B3 strains, and 5' non-coding regions and non-structural regions closer to other enterovirus B types. Domain II structures of 5' non-coding regions, described to modulate virus replication, were predicted to have varied structural folds in the two genogroups and were attributed to differing recombination patterns. The results indicate two distinct genomic compositions of CV-B3 strains circulating in India and suggest the need for concurrent analysis of viral and host factors to further understand the varied manifestations of their infections.

  3. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background   Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS ...

  4. Parainfluenza Virus Types 1, 2, and 3 in Pediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Beijing During 2004 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Lin-Qing Zhao; Ru-Nan Zhu; Jie Deng; Yu Sun; Ya-Xin Ding; Run Tian

    2015-01-01

    Background:Although human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) has been determined as an important viral cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in infants and young children,data on long-term investigation are still lacking to disclose the infection pattern of HPIV in China.Methods:Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 25,773 hospitalized pediatric patients with ARIs from January 2004 through December 2012 for respiratory virus screen by direct immuno-fluorescence assay.Results:Out of these specimens,1675 (6.50%,1675/25,773) showed HPIV positive,including 261 (1.01%,261/25,773) for HPIV1,28 (0.11%,28/25,773) for HPIV2,and 1388 (5.39%,1388/25,773) for HPIV3,2 of the samples were positive for both HPIV1 and HPIV3,and 36 were co-detected with other viruses.The positive rates of HPIVs were higher in those younger than 3 years old.HPIV3 was detected from all age groups,predominantly from patients under 3 years of age,and the highest frequency was found in those 6 months to 1-year old (352/4077,8.63%).HPIV3 was the dominant type in each of the years detected between May and July.HPIV1 showed a peak in every odd year,mainly in August or September.HPIV was detected most frequently from patients with upper respiratory infection (12.49%,157/1257),followed by bronchitis (11.13%,176/2479),asthma (9.31%,43/462),bronchiolitis (5.91%,150/2536),pneumonia (6.06%,1034/17,068),and those with underlying diseases (1.0%,15/1506).HPIV3 is the dominant type in these six disease groups referred above,especially in the asthma group.Conclusions:HPIV is one of the important viral causes of ARIs in infants and young children in Beijing based on the data from the hospitalized children covering a 9-year term.HPIV3 is the predominant type in all these years and in most of the disease groups.HPIVs with different types show different seasonality.

  5. Parainfluenza Virus Types 1, 2, and 3 in Pediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Beijing During 2004 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although human parainfluenza virus (HPIV has been determined as an important viral cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs in infants and young children, data on long-term investigation are still lacking to disclose the infection pattern of HPIV in China. Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 25,773 hospitalized pediatric patients with ARIs from January 2004 through December 2012 for respiratory virus screen by direct immuno-fluorescence assay. Results: Out of these specimens, 1675 (6.50%, 1675/25,773 showed HPIV positive, including 261 (1.01%, 261/25,773 for HPIV1, 28 (0.11%, 28/25,773 for HPIV2, and 1388 (5.39%, 1388/25,773 for HPIV3, 2 of the samples were positive for both HPIV1 and HPIV3, and 36 were co-detected with other viruses. The positive rates of HPIVs were higher in those younger than 3 years old. HPIV3 was detected from all age groups, predominantly from patients under 3 years of age, and the highest frequency was found in those 6 months to 1-year old (352/4077, 8.63%. HPIV3 was the dominant type in each of the years detected between May and July. HPIV1 showed a peak in every odd year, mainly in August or September. HPIV was detected most frequently from patients with upper respiratory infection (12.49%, 157/1257, followed by bronchitis (11.13%, 176/2479, asthma (9.31%, 43/462, bronchiolitis (5.91%, 150/2536, pneumonia (6.06%, 1034/17,068, and those with underlying diseases (1.0%, 15/1506. HPIV3 is the dominant type in these six disease groups referred above, especially in the asthma group. Conclusions: HPIV is one of the important viral causes of ARIs in infants and young children in Beijing based on the data from the hospitalized children covering a 9-year term. HPIV3 is the predominant type in all these years and in most of the disease groups. HPIVs with different types show different seasonality.

  6. NPM1 Gene Type A Mutation in Bulgarian Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Single-Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueorgui Balatzenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mutations of the nucleophosmin (NPM1 gene are considered as the most frequent acute myeloid leukemia (AML- associated genetic lesion, reported with various incidences in different studies, and type A (NPM1-A is the most frequent type. However, since most series in the literature report on the features of all patients regardless of the type of mutation, NPM1-A(+ cases have not been well characterized yet. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of NPM1-A in Bulgarian AML patients and searched for an association with clinical and laboratory features. METHODS: One hundred and four adults (51 men, 53 women were included in the study. NPM1-A status was determined using allele-specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction with co-amplification of NPM1-A and β-actin and real-time quantitative TaqMan-based polymerase chain reaction. Patients received conventional induction chemotherapy and were followed for 13.2±16.4 months. RESULTS: NPM1-A was detected in 26 (24.8% patients. NPM1-A mutation was detected in all AML categories, including in one patient with RUNX1-RUNX1T1. There were no differences associated with the NPM1-A status with respect to age, sex, hemoglobin, platelet counts, percentage of bone marrow blasts, splenomegaly, complete remission rates, and overall survival. NPM1-A(+ patients, compared to NPM1-A(- patients, were characterized by higher leukocyte counts [(75.4±81.9x109/L vs. (42.5±65.9x109/L; p=0.049], higher frequency of normal karyotype [14/18 (77.8% vs. 26/62 (41.9%; p=0.014], higher frequency of FLT3-ITD [11/26 (42.3% vs. 8/77 (10.4%; p=0.001], and lower incidence of CD34(+ [6/21 (28.8% vs. 28/45 (62.2%; p=0.017]. Within the FLT3-ITD(- group, the median overall survival of NPM1-A(- patients was 14 months, while NPM1-A(+ patients did not reach the median (p=0.10. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NPM1-A mutation in adult Bulgarian AML patients was similar to that reported in other studies. NPM1-A(+ patients

  7. NPM1 Gene Type A Mutation in Bulgarian Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Single-Institution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatzenko, Gueorgui; Spassov, Branimir; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Ganeva, Penka; Dikov, Tihomit; Konstantinov, Spiro; Hrischev, Vasil; Romanova, Malina; Toshkov, Stavri; Guenova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mutations of the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene are considered as the most frequent acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated genetic lesion, reported with various incidences in different studies, and type A (NPM1-A) is the most frequent type. However, since most series in the literature report on the features of all patients regardless of the type of mutation, NPM1-A(+) cases have not been well characterized yet. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of NPM1-A in Bulgarian AML patients and searched for an association with clinical and laboratory features. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults (51 men, 53 women) were included in the study. NPM1-A status was determined using allele-specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction with co-amplification of NPM1-A and β-actin and real-time quantitative TaqMan-based polymerase chain reaction. Patients received conventional induction chemotherapy and were followed for 13.2±16.4 months. Results: NPM1-A was detected in 26 (24.8%) patients. NPM1-A mutation was detected in all AML categories, including in one patient with RUNX1-RUNX1T1. There were no differences associated with the NPM1-A status with respect to age, sex, hemoglobin, platelet counts, percentage of bone marrow blasts, splenomegaly, complete remission rates, and overall survival. NPM1-A(+) patients, compared to NPM1-A(-) patients, were characterized by higher leukocyte counts [(75.4±81.9)x109/L vs. (42.5±65.9)x109/L; p=0.049], higher frequency of normal karyotype [14/18 (77.8%) vs. 26/62 (41.9%); p=0.014], higher frequency of FLT3-ITD [11/26 (42.3%) vs. 8/77 (10.4%); p=0.001], and lower incidence of CD34(+) [6/21 (28.8%) vs. 28/45 (62.2%); p=0.017]. Within the FLT3-ITD(-) group, the median overall survival of NPM1-A(-) patients was 14 months, while NPM1-A(+) patients did not reach the median (p=0.10). Conclusion: The prevalence of NPM1-A mutation in adult Bulgarian AML patients was similar to that reported in other studies. NPM1-A

  8. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  9. Determination of the Stoichiometry of the Complete Bacterial Type III Secretion Needle Complex Using a Combined Quantitative Proteomic Approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkenat, Susann; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Galán, Jorge E.; Macek, Boris; Wagner, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Precisely knowing the stoichiometry of their components is critical for investigating structure, assembly, and function of macromolecular machines. This has remained a technical challenge in particular for large, hydrophobic membrane-spanning protein complexes. Here, we determined the stoichiometry of a type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using two complementary protocols of gentle complex purification combined with peptide concatenated standard and synthetic stable isotope-labeled peptide-based mass spectrometry. Bacterial type III secretion systems are cell envelope-spanning effector protein-delivery machines essential for colonization and survival of many Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. The membrane-embedded core unit of these secretion systems, termed the needle complex, is composed of a base that anchors the machinery to the inner and outer membranes, a hollow filament formed by inner rod and needle subunits that serves as conduit for substrate proteins, and a membrane-embedded export apparatus facilitating substrate translocation. Structural analyses have revealed the stoichiometry of the components of the base, but the stoichiometry of the essential hydrophobic export apparatus components and of the inner rod protein remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the export apparatus of type III secretion systems contains five SpaP, one SpaQ, one SpaR, and one SpaS. We confirmed that the previously suggested stoichiometry of nine InvA is valid for assembled needle complexes and describe a loose association of InvA with other needle complex components that may reflect its function. Furthermore, we present evidence that not more than six PrgJ form the inner rod of the needle complex. Providing this structural information will facilitate efforts to obtain an atomic view of type III secretion systems and foster our understanding of the function of these and related flagellar machines. Given that other virulence

  10. Determination of the Stoichiometry of the Complete Bacterial Type III Secretion Needle Complex Using a Combined Quantitative Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkenat, Susann; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Galán, Jorge E; Macek, Boris; Wagner, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Precisely knowing the stoichiometry of their components is critical for investigating structure, assembly, and function of macromolecular machines. This has remained a technical challenge in particular for large, hydrophobic membrane-spanning protein complexes. Here, we determined the stoichiometry of a type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using two complementary protocols of gentle complex purification combined with peptide concatenated standard and synthetic stable isotope-labeled peptide-based mass spectrometry. Bacterial type III secretion systems are cell envelope-spanning effector protein-delivery machines essential for colonization and survival of many Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. The membrane-embedded core unit of these secretion systems, termed the needle complex, is composed of a base that anchors the machinery to the inner and outer membranes, a hollow filament formed by inner rod and needle subunits that serves as conduit for substrate proteins, and a membrane-embedded export apparatus facilitating substrate translocation. Structural analyses have revealed the stoichiometry of the components of the base, but the stoichiometry of the essential hydrophobic export apparatus components and of the inner rod protein remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the export apparatus of type III secretion systems contains five SpaP, one SpaQ, one SpaR, and one SpaS. We confirmed that the previously suggested stoichiometry of nine InvA is valid for assembled needle complexes and describe a loose association of InvA with other needle complex components that may reflect its function. Furthermore, we present evidence that not more than six PrgJ form the inner rod of the needle complex. Providing this structural information will facilitate efforts to obtain an atomic view of type III secretion systems and foster our understanding of the function of these and related flagellar machines. Given that other virulence

  11. Some Transition Metal Complexes of NO Type Schiff Base: Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal CANPOLAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal complexes of Schiff base ligand (5-bromo-3-methoxysalicyliden-p-iminoacetophenone oxime derived from 5-bromo-3-methoxsalicylaldehyde and p-aminoacetophenoneoxime is reported. Schiff base was found to be bidentate ligand involving the imino nitrogen and carboxyl oxygen atoms in the complexes. Metal to ligand ratio were found to be 1:2 for all of the complexes. Co(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II complexes have been found tetrahedral geometry and Cu(II complex has been found four coordinated geometry. The complexes are found to have the formulae [M(L2]. The compounds obtained have been characterized by their elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV spectra, magnetic susceptibility and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA.

  12. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Acute Pancreatitis in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and acute pancreatitis in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. A retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database. The risk associated with sitagliptin was compared to that with acarbose, a second-line antidiabetic drug prescribed for patients with similar diabetes severity and with a known neutral effect on pancreatitis. Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010, a total of 8526 sitagliptin initiators and 8055 acarbose initiators who had hypertriglyceridemia or prior hospitalization history for acute pancreatitis were analyzed for the risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis stratified for baseline propensity score. In the crude analysis, sitagliptin was associated with a decreased risk of acute pancreatitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.88) compared to acarbose in diabetic patients with prior history of hospitalization for pancreatitis or hypertriglyceridemia. The association was abolished after stratification for propensity score quintiles (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.79-1.16). Similar results were found separately in both patients' histories of prior hospitalization of acute pancreatitis (adjusted HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76-1.24) and those with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65-1.13). No significant association was found for different durations or accumulative doses of sitagliptin. In the stratified analysis, no significant effect modification was found in relation to patients' characteristics. Use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in high-risk diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia or with history of acute pancreatitis.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of complex formation between two Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors from Russell's Viper venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Kalita, Bhargab; Jha, Deepak K; Deb, Pritam; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) exhibit various biological functions including anticoagulant activity. This study elucidates the occurrence and subunit stoichiometry of a putative complex formed between two KSPIs (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) purified from the native Rusvikunin complex of Pakistan Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom (RVV). The protein components of the Rusvikunin complex were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The non-covalent interaction between two major components of the complex (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) at 1:2 stoichiometric ratio to form a stable complex was demonstrated by biophysical techniques such as spectrofluorometric, classical gel-filtration, equilibrium gel-filtration, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses. CD measurement showed that interaction between Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II did not change their overall secondary structure; however, the protein complex exhibited enhanced hydrodynamic diameter and anticoagulant activity as compared to the individual components of the complex. This study may lay the foundation for understanding the basis of protein complexes in snake venoms and their role in pathophysiology of snakebite.

  14. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can A.; Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, Henk J.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to al

  15. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to

  16. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. I. Validation of methods with ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKee, R.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Barsotti, D.A.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The spe

  17. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity of the copper complex of pyruvaldehyde-bis (N-4-methylthiosemicarbazone), Cu-PTSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyniak, P J; Nakeeb, S M; Schopp, E M; Maccubbin, A E; John, E K; Green, M A; Kung, H F

    1990-12-01

    Cu-PTSM is a potential imaging agent for the heart and brain when labeled with either 64Cu or 62Cu. Unlabeled Cu-PTSM was evaluated for its acute toxicity and mutagenicity. Cu-PTSM had an i.v. LD50 of 26 mg kg-1 in the rat and 2 mg kg-1 in the rabbit. At necropsy, rats exhibited severely hemorrhagic lungs, histological findings of acute pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage and edema, and mild congestion in kidney, liver and brain. The rabbit displayed marked polymorphonuclear infiltration in alveoli, peribronchial and periarterial areas with marked macrophage hyperplasia, congestion and mild hemorrhage into alveolar spaces. No effects were found in kidney, liver, testes or brain. Administration of 2.16 micrograms kg-1 day-1 for 5 days per week for 2 weeks resulted in no changes in histopathology, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters. This daily dose is at least 300 times the diagnostic dose intended for use in man. Cu-PTSM was not mutagenic when tested in the absence of S9 supernatant, but elicited a weakly mutagenic response in the presence of S9. Since acute effects in the lung occur at doses approaching 300,000 times the diagnostic dose, it is highly unlikely that the clinical use of Cu-PTSM would result in any acute adverse effects.

  18. Short-term Prognosis of Fragmented QRS Complex in Patients with Non-ST Elevated Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The fQRS complexes are commonly present in NSTEMI and the fQRS complexes are an independent predictor of MACE in NSTEMI patients. The number of narrowed coronary arteries, Killip classification, and total cholesterol are all independent predictors of the fQRS complexes.

  19. Impact of spinal cord stimulation on sensory characteristics in complex regional pain syndrome type I - A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, MA; Reulen, JPH; Barendse, GAM; van Kleef, M; de Vet, HCW; van den Wildenberg, FAJM

    2001-01-01

    Background: A randomized trial was performed to assess the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on detection and pain thresholds for pressure, warmth, and cold and on the extent of mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I. Methods: Fifty-four chronic

  20. Medication beliefs, treatment complexity, and non-adherence to different drug classes in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sieta T.; Keers, Joost C.; Visser, Rosalie; de Zeeuw, Dick; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship of patients' medication beliefs and treatment complexity with unintentional and intentional non-adherence for three therapeutic groups commonly used by patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Survey data about adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale) and be

  1. Magnetic Flux Lines in Complex Geometry Type-II Superconductors Studied by the Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2010-01-01

    The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation is solved numerically for type-II superconductors of complex geometry using the finite element method. The geometry has a marked influence on the magnetic vortex distribution and the vortex dynamics. We have observed generation of giant vortices...

  2. Structure and Activity of the RNA-Targeting Type III-B CRISPR-Cas Complex of Thermus thermophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, R.H.J.; Agari, Y.; Maki-Yonekura, S.; Zhu, Y.; Taylor, D.W.; van Duijn, E.; Barendregt, A.; Vlot, M.C.; Koehorst, J.J.; Sakamoto, K.; Masuda, A.; Dohmae, N.; Schaap, P.J.; Doudna, J.A.; Heck, A.J.R.; Yonekura, K.; van der Oost, J.; Shinkai, A.

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtC

  3. Integral formulas for differential forms of type(p,q)on complex Finsler manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Chunhui; ZHONG; Tongde

    2004-01-01

    Using the invariant integral kernel introduced by Demailly and Laurent-Thiebaut,complex Finsler metric and nonlinear connection associating with Chern-Finsler connection, we research the integral representation theory on complex Finsler manifolds. The Koppelman and Koppelman-Leray formulas are obtained, and the (θ)-equations are solved.

  4. Successful Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in a Child with Trisomy 21 and Complex Congenital Heart Disease with Mechanical Prosthetic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Alvi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl with trisomy 21 and complex congenital heart disease presented with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Her chemotherapy required modifications due to poor baseline cardiac status and a mechanical prosthetic heart valve that was dependent on anticoagulation. We describe our management including the use of low-molecular-weight heparin as anticoagulation for a mechanical heart valve, the safe delivery of intrathecal chemotherapy included bridging with unfractionated heparin, and the use of fluoroscopic guidance to minimize the risk of bleeding. Adjustments were made to avoid anthracyclines. The child tolerated therapy well without complications and remains relapse free five years after diagnosis.

  5. Acute Viral Escape Selectively Impairs Nef-Mediated Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Downmodulation and Increases Susceptibility to Antiviral T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Andrea M; Das, Arpita; Akinyosoye, Oluwasayo; Cui, Sherry; O'Connor, Shelby L; Scheef, Elizabeth A; Reed, Jason S; Panganiban, Antonito T; Sacha, Jonah B; Rakasz, Eva G; Friedrich, Thomas C; Maness, Nicholas J

    2015-12-04

    Nef-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CD8TL) are associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) despite extensive nef variation between and within animals. Deep viral sequencing of the immunodominant Mamu-B*017:01-restricted Nef165-173IW9 epitope revealed highly restricted evolution. A common acute escape variant, T170I, unexpectedly and uniquely degraded Nef's major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) downregulatory capacity, rendering the virus more vulnerable to CD8TL targeting other epitopes. These data aid in a mechanistic understanding of Nef functions and suggest means of immunity-mediated control of lentivirus replication.

  6. The complex between urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) in pulmonary adenocarcinoma: Relation to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, Helle; Pedersen, Anders N; Brünner, Nils

    2006-01-01

    In a lung cancer population comprising tumor tissue from 99 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the relationship between tumor tissue level of the complex formed of urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) and survival was studied. The study included patient material previously investigated....... The amounts of uPA-PAI-1 complex measured in pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue were within the same range as previously reported in breast cancer tissue (0.11-5.74 ng/mg protein). uPA and PAI-1 levels were weakly correlated to the uPA-PAI-1 complex, r = 0.52 and r = 0.47, respectively, and no relation was found...... these interactions and the clinical importance of the tissue levels of uPA, PAI-1 and uPA-PAI-1 complex, the results suggest further exploratory studies of the components in pulmonary adenocarcinomas and other cancers....

  7. The complex between urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) in pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, Helle; Pedersen, Anders N.; Brünner, Nils

    2006-01-01

    In a lung cancer population comprising tumor tissue from 99 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the relationship between tumor tissue level of the complex formed of urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) and survival was studied. The study included patient material previously investigated....... The amounts of uPA-PAI-1 complex measured in pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue were within the same range as previously reported in breast cancer tissue (0.11-5.74 ng/mg protein). uPA and PAI-1 levels were weakly correlated to the uPA-PAI-1 complex, r = 0.52 and r = 0.47, respectively, and no relation was found...... these interactions and the clinical importance of the tissue levels of uPA, PAI-1 and uPA-PAI-1 complex, the results suggest further exploratory studies of the components in pulmonary adenocarcinomas and other cancers....

  8. A Study of the 2012 January 19 Complex Type II Radio Burst Using Wind, SOHO, and STEREO Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Teklu, T B; Gopalswamy, N; Yashiro, S; Mäkelä, P; Akiyama, S; Thakur, N; Xie, H

    2016-01-01

    We report on a case study of the complex type II radio burst of 2012 January 19 and its association with a white light coronal mass ejection (CME). The complexity can be described as the appearance of an additional type II burst component and strong intensity variation. The dynamic spectrum shows a pair of type II bursts with fundamental harmonic structures, one confined to decameter-hectometric (DH) wavelengths and the other extending to kilometric (km) wavelengths. By comparing the speeds obtained from white-light images with that speed of the shock inferred from the drift rate, we show that the source of the short-lived DH component is near the nose.

  9. The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias and heart rate variability in patients after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoičkov Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. After myocardial infarction arrhythmic cardiac deaths are significantly more frequent compared to non-arrhythmic ones. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM on the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Methods. The study included 293 patients, mean age 59.5 ± 9.21 years, who were at least six months after acute myocardial infarction with the sinus rhythm, without atrioventricular blocks and branch blocks. In the clinical group 95 (32.42% patients were with T2DM, while 198 (67.57% patients were without diabetes. All of the patients were subjected to the following procedures: standard ECG according to which the corrected QT dispersion (QTdc was calculated, exercise stress test, and 24-hour holter monitoring according to which, the four parameters of time domain of heart rate variability (HRV were analyzed: standard deviation of all normal RR intervals during 24 hours (SDNN, standard deviation of the averages of normal RR intervals in all five-minute segments during 24 hours (SDANN, the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal (RMS-SD, and percentage of consequtive RR intervals which differed for more than 50 ms during 24 hours (NN > 50 ms. Results. In patients after myocardial infarction, patients with T2DM had significantly higher percentage of frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias compared to the patients without diabetes (p 50 ms (p < 0.001, and significantly higher values of QTdc (p < 0.001 compared to the patients without diabetes. Conclusion. The study showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus has significant influence on ventricular arrhythmias, HRV parameters and QT dispersion in patients after myocardial infarction.

  10. The evaluation of B-type Natriuretic Peptide and Troponin I in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafija Serdarevic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnostic utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP has prompted interest in its use as an aid in the detection of early heart failure and assessment of diseases. The first objective of this study was measurement of BNP and troponin I (TnI blood levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and unstable angina. The second objective of this study was to find a correlation between TnI and BNP in blood.Methods: The concentrations of BNP and TnI in 150 blood levels were determined using CMIA (chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Architect and 2000 (Abbott diagnostics. The retrospective study included 100 patients who were hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo and 50 healthy control. The reference blood range of BNP is 0-100 pg/mL and TnI is 0.00-0.4 ng/mL.Results: In the patients with AMI the mean value of BNP is 764.48 ± 639.52 pg/mL and TnI is 2.50 ± 2.28ng/mL. The patients with unstable angina have BNP 287.18 ± 593.20 pg/mL and TnI 0.10 ± 0.23 ng/mL. Our studies have shown that the correlation between BNP and TnI was statistically significant for p< 0.05 using Student t test with correlation coefficient r = 0.36. Conclusions: BNP and TnI levels can help to identify the patients with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Monitoring of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts histological severity of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kousuke; Noiri, Eisei; Doi, Kent; Maeda-Mamiya, Rui; Sugaya, Takeshi; Portilla, Didier; Fujita, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether levels of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) could be used to monitor histological injury in acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by cis-platinum (CP) injection and ischemia reperfusion (IR). Different degrees of AKI severity were induced by several renal insults (CP dose and ischemia time) in human L-FABP transgenic mice. Renal histological injury scores increased with both CP dose and ischemic time. In CP-induced AKI, urinary L-FABP levels increased exponentially even in the lowest dose group as early as 2 hours, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels increased at 48 hours. In IR-induced AKI, BUN levels increased only in the 30-minute ischemia group 24 hours after reperfusion; however, urinary L-FABP levels increased more than 100-fold, even in the 5-minute ischemia group after 1 hour. In both AKI models, urinary L-FABP levels showed a better correlation with final histological injury scores and glomerular filtration rates measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled inulin injection than with levels of BUN and urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, especially at earlier time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that urinary L-FABP was superior to other biomarkers for the detection of significant histological injuries and functional declines. In conclusion, urinary L-FABP levels are better suited to allow the accurate and earlier detection of both histological and functional insults in ischemic and nephrotoxin-induced AKI compared with conventional renal markers.

  12. The prognostic value of N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I.; Ho, Chung-Han; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Wei-Lun; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts the prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Between December 1, 2012, and May 31, 2015, this observational study recruited patients admitted to our tertiary medical center who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS and who had their NT-proBNP measured. The main outcome was 28-day mortality. We enrolled 61 patients who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS: 7 were classified as mild, 29 as moderate, and 25 as severe. The median APACHE II scores were 23 (interquartile range [IQR], 18–28), and SOFA scores were 11 (IQR, 8–13). The median lung injury score was 3.0 (IQR, 2.50–3.25), and the median level of NT-proBNP was 2011 pg/ml (IQR, 579–7216). Thirty-four patients died during this study, and the 28-day mortality rate was 55.7%. Patients who die were older and had significantly (all p < 0.05) higher APACHE II scores and NT-proBNP levels than did patients who survived. Multivariate analysis identified age (HR: 1.546, 95% CI: 1.174–2.035, p = 0.0019) and NT-proBNP (HR: 1.009, 95% CI: 1.004–1.013, p = 0.0001) as significant risk factors of death. NT-proBNP was associated with poor outcomes for patients with ARDS, and its level predicted mortality. PMID:28322314

  13. Hospital mortality of patients aged 80 and older after surgical repair for type A acute aortic dissection in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate whether patients aged 80 and older have higher risk of hospital mortality after repair of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). Emergency surgery for TAAAD in patients aged 80 and older remains a controversial issue because of its high surgical risk. Data from patients who underwent surgical repair of TAAAD between April 2011 and March 2013 were retrospectively extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The effect of age on hospital mortality was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 5175 patients were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 67.1 ± 13.0 years, and the male:female ratio was 51:49. Patients aged 80 and older more frequently received tracheostomy than their younger counterparts (9.5% vs 5.4%, P <0.001). Intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in the elderly cohort versus the younger cohort (7.6 vs 6.7 days, P <0.001, and 42.2 vs 35.8 days, P <0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥80 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.28–2.06; P <0.001). In linear regression analysis, age ≥80 years was also significantly associated with longer hospital stay (P = 0.007). In a large, nationwide, Japanese database, patients aged 80 and older were at increased risk of hospital mortality and length of hospital stay. PMID:27495057

  14. Duration of Hospitalization in Association with Type of Inhalation Therapy Used in the Management of Children with Nonsevere, Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M. Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Prolonged hospitalization of children younger than 2 years with acute, nonsevere bronchiolitis is associated with administration of nebulized 3% saline, independent of age, clinical presentation of disease, or inclusion of other treatments in their management.

  15. Pericardial tear as a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) involving chest compression: a report of two postmortem cases of acute type A aortic dissection with hemopericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Takahisa; Takanari, Hiroki; Shiotani, Seiji; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Ohno, Youkichi; Fowler, David R

    2015-05-01

    We present two cases of a pericardial tear as a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation involving chest compressions in fatal acute type A aortic dissection (AoD) with hemopericardium. For each case, postmortem computed tomography revealed a hematoma in the false lumen of the ascending aorta with a slight hemopericardium and a large left hemothorax, as well as focal pericardial dimpling and discontinuity around the left ventricle. At autopsy, we confirmed a convex lens-shape gaping pericardial tear at the left posterolateral site of the pericardium and a massive volume of bloody fluid in the left thoracic cavity. It has been hypothesized that the pericardium ruptured due to chest compressions during resuscitation in these cases of acute type A AoD with hemopericardium and that intrapericardial blood leakage through the pericardial tear resulted in a hemothorax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of psychiatric disorders on Type A acute aortic dissection pathogenesis and analysis of follow-up results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A connection between psychiatric disorders (PDs and Type A acute aortic dissection (AAD has not been shown. The aim of this study was to define the psychological profile of patients treated for AAD, and to analyze the prevalence of PDs in their medical histories, in the immediate postoperative period, and at a mid-term follow-up. Patients and Methods: From March 2005 to October 2014, 240 consecutive patients underwent surgery for AAD. 60 patients (mean age 60+/-13 years; 43 males underwent psychiatric consultation postoperatively, and they represent the subjects of our retrospective study. Ascending aorta +/- arch replacement was performed in 43 patients, whereas the Bentall procedure +/- arch replacement was performed in 17. Data were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-ups were completed in 59 patients (mean duration 35+/-23 months. Results: PDs were present in the medical histories of 34 patients. Postoperatively, in 28 cases, a definitive diagnosis of PD (group PD was made in agreement with the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV criteria, including: Major depression (n=13, anxious-depressive syndrome (n=6, bipolar disorder Type 2 (n=4, panic attacks (n=2, paranoid schizophrenia (n=1, and anxiety (n=2. 32 patients without a definitive psychiatric diagnosis were classified as Group non-PD. In the postoperative period, clinical manifestations of PDs, including delirium, persistent spatio-temporal disorientation, and psychomotor agitation were evident in 22 patients (78% in group PD versus 8 patients (25% in group non-PD (P<0.0001. During follow-up, only one death for non-cardiac reasons occurred in group PD. There were no suicides; only 10 patients of group PD required PD treatment (P<0.0001 vs. early postoperative findings; 4 patients in group non-PD required PD treatment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a strong relationship between PD and AAD. Because the psychiatric conditions appeared to be largely stable after

  17. Synthesis of Eu(Ⅲ) and Tb(Ⅲ) Complexes with New Aryl Amide Type Tetrapodal Ligand and Their Luminescence Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正洪; 谭民裕

    2002-01-01

    A new aryl amide type tetrapodal ligand L (1, 1, 1, 1-tetrakis-{[(2-benzylaminoformyl) phenoxyl]methyl}methane) and its europium and terbium nitrate complexes were synthesized. The luminescence properties of these complexes were also studied.

  18. An evaluation of the effectiveness of self-management interventions for people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanash, Mu'ath Ibrahim; Fitzsimons, Donna; Coates, Vivien; Deaton, Christi

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in patients with acute coronary syndrome and impacts negatively on health outcomes and self-management. Both conditions share similar risk factors. However, there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of combined interventions to promote self-management behaviour for people with diabetes and cardiac problems. Identifying critical features of successful interventions will inform future integrated self-management programmes for patients with both conditions. To assess the evidence on the effectiveness of existing interventions to promote self-management behaviour for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes in secondary care settings and postdischarge. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library and AMED for randomised controlled trials published between January 2005-December 2014. The search was performed using the following search terms of 'acute coronary syndrome', 'type 2 diabetes' and 'self-management intervention' and their substitutes combined. Of 4275 articles that were retrieved, only four trials met all the inclusion criteria (population, intervention, comparison and outcome) and were analysed. Overall, the results show that providing combined interventions for patients with both conditions including educational sessions supported by multimedia or telecommunication technologies was partially successful in promoting self-management behaviours. Implementation of these combined interventions during patient's hospitalisation and postdischarge was feasible. Intervention group subjects reported a significant improvement in self-efficacy, level of knowledge, glycated haemoglobin, blood pressure and fasting glucose test. However, there are many threats have been noticed around internal validity of included studies that could compromise the conclusions drawn. With limited research in this area, there was no final evidence to support effectiveness of combined

  19. Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Loram, Ian D; Stannard, Stephen R; Rittweger, Jörn

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that vibration causes small changes in muscle length, but to the best of our knowledge, these have yet to be demonstrated during whole-body vibration (WBV). This was an observational study to determine whether acute WBV would result in muscle lengthening. We hypothesized that acute WBV would increase electromyography (EMG) activity concurrently with measurable changes in muscle contractile length. Nine healthy males performed two conditions on a Galileo vibration machine for 15 s at 0 HZ (resting) and 6 HZ at a set knee angle of 18 degrees. Muscle tendon complex length, contractile tissue displacement of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and EMG of soleus, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis muscles were measured. At 6 HZ the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle tendon complex (MTC) amplitude (375 microm) was significantly greater (P EMG modulation were found for all muscles during the 6 HZ compared to the 0 HZ condition. The major finding was that approximately 50% of the elongation occurred within the muscle itself and was associated with preceding changes in EMG. This indicates muscle lengthening may be a prerequisite for eliciting stretch reflexes. In conclusion, there is a temporal association between EMG activity and muscle contractile tissue displacement where low-frequency WBV results in small muscle length changes and increases muscle activation.

  20. High resolution, on-line identification of strains from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on tandem repeat typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoeud France

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently available reference methods for the molecular epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex either lack sensitivity or are still too tedious and slow for routine application. Recently, tandem repeat typing has emerged as a potential alternative. This report contributes to the development of tandem repeat typing for M. tuberculosis by summarising the existing data, developing additional markers, and setting up a freely accessible, fast, and easy to use, internet-based service for strain identification. Results A collection of 21 VNTRs incorporating 13 previously described loci and 8 newly evaluated markers was used to genotype 90 strains from the M. tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis (64 strains, M. bovis (9 strains including 4 BCG representatives, M. africanum (17 strains. Eighty-four different genotypes are defined. Clustering analysis shows that the M. africanum strains fall into three main groups, one of which is closer to the M. tuberculosis strains, and an other one is closer to the M. bovis strains. The resulting data has been made freely accessible over the internet http://bacterial-genotyping.igmors.u-psud.fr/bnserver to allow direct strain identification queries. Conclusions Tandem-repeat typing is a PCR-based assay which may prove to be a powerful complement to the existing epidemiological tools for the M. tuberculosis complex. The number of markers to type depends on the identification precision which is required, so that identification can be achieved quickly at low cost in terms of consumables, technical expertise and equipment.

  1. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of two new types of oxovanadium complexes with pyrazole as ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yongheng; ZHANG Yuanhong; XU Yongting; ZHANG Baoli; NIU Shuyun; BAI Fengying

    2006-01-01

    At room temperature, two new different oxovanadium complexes with simple pyrazole (C3H4N2) as ligand were synthesized. VO(pz)4(SO4).H2O (1) (pz: pyrazole) is a mono-nuclear oxovanadium complex with pyrazole as terminal ligands. V2O2(μ-pz)(μ-OOSO2)(μ-OCH3)(pz)4 (2) is bi-nuclear oxovanadium complex containing three different bridges, which are pyrazolate, sulphate and methoxy, respectively. The two complexes were characterized by IR, elemental analyses, thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction. The crystal structural data of the complexes 1 and 2 are given as follows: Complex 1, orthorhombic, Pna21, a = 14.547(2)(°A), b =10.895(2)(°A), c =11.835(2)(°A); α=β=γ=90°, V=1875.8(5)(°A)3, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0485, WR2 = 0.1092. Complex 2, triclinic, , a =8.377(2)(°A), b =9.928(2)(°A), c = 16.527(3)(°A), α= 85.54(3)°, β = 80.92(3)°, γ= 87.92(3)°, R1 = 0.1461, WR2 = 0.4444. The study of non-thermal kinetic decomposition shows that, for complex 1, the possible reaction mechanisms of the two steps are nucleation and growth n=1/3, and three-dimensional pervasion n=2, respectively, and the kinetic equations may be expressed as dα/dT = (A/β)exp(-E/RT){1/3(1-α) [-In(1-α)]-2} and dα/dT = (A/β)exp(-E/RT){3/2(1-α)2/3 [1–(1-α)1/3]-1}, respectively; for complex 2, the possible reaction mechanisms of the two steps are chemical reaction, and three-dimensional pervasion n=2, respectively; the kinetic equations may be expressed as dα/dT = (A/β)exp(-E/RT)[(1-α)2], and dα/dT = (A/β)exp(-E/RT){3/2(1-α)2/3[1-(1-α)1/3]-1}, respectively.

  3. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenfeldt Carolina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (HP, as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (IFN in serum of infected animals. Results were based on measurements from a total of 36 infected animals of which 24 were kept for observational periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals. There was a significant increase in serum concentrations of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD. There was a statistically significant difference in the HP response between carriers and non-carriers with a lower response in the animals that subsequently developed into FMDV carriers. It was concluded that the induction of SAA, HP and type 1 IFN in serum can be used as markers of acute infection by FMDV in cattle.

  4. C-H activation of ethers by pyridine tethered PCsp3P-type iridium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Babbini, Dominic C; Iluc, Vlad M

    2016-06-14

    Iridium PCsp3P complexes featuring a novel bis(2-diphenylphosphinophenyl)-2-pyridylmethane ligand (PC(Py)HP) are reported. C-H activation reactions between the dihydride complex [(PC(Py)P)Ir(H)2] and tetrahydrofuran or methyl tert-butyl ether in the presence of a hydrogen acceptor, norbornene (NBE), at ambient temperature led exclusively to the hydrido oxyalkyl complexes, [(PC(Py)P)IrH(C4H7O)] and [(PC(Py)P)IrH(CH2O(t)Bu)], respectively. The internal pyridine donor is important and stabilizes these species by coordination to the iridium center. The coordination of pyridine to the iridium center is labile, however, and its dissociation occurs in the presence of a suitable substrate, as demonstrated by the intramolecular nucleophilic attack of pyridine on a vinylidene intermediate generated from PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH.

  5. Some Ramsey-type results on intrinsic linking of n-complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Tuffley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Define the complete n-complex on N vertices to be the n-skeleton of an (N-1)-simplex. We show that embeddings of sufficiently large complete n-complexes in R^{2n+1} necessarily exhibit complicated linking behaviour, such as nontrivial r-component links, or 2-component links with large linking number. This extends known results on embeddings of large complete graphs in R^3 (the case n=1) to higher dimensions. Our results include one previously unknown for embeddings of graphs in R^3: namely, given a natural number q, we show that every embedding of a sufficiently large complete n-complex in R^{2n+1} contains a 2-component link with linking number a nonzero multiple of q. For n=1 this was previously known only in the cases q=3, and q a power of two. For fixed n the number of vertices required for this last result grows at most polynomially in q.

  6. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type II After Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Tunç

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome characterised with dystrophic changes and neurovascular disordes of bone and skin of extremities. The most common etiological factors are trauma, ischemic heart disease, cerebral lesions, servical region disorders, infections, and surgical treatments. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropaty of the upper extremity. There are various surgical and conservative alternatives in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome has been reported as a complication of surgical carpal tunnel release in 2-5% of patients. In this case report clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome after carpal tunnel release surgery is presented. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:41-3

  7. Petrogenesis of the Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complex in the Makkah quadrangle, western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtoor, Abdelmonem; Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Harbi, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    The Makkah quadrangle is a part of the Jeddah terrane in the Precambrian basement, Western Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Gabal Taftafan mafic-ultramafic complex lies within the central part of the Makkah quadrangle. The Taftafan mafic-ultramafic complex is a well-differentiated rock association which comprises of dunite core, hornblende- and plagioclase-bearing peridotites, troctolite, clinopyroxenite and marginal gabbro, in a distinctive zonal structure. The bulk-rock geochemistry of the Taftafan mafic-ultramafic rocks is characterized by a tholeiitic/sub-alkaline affinity with high Mg in the ultramafic core (0.84) and is systematically decreased towards the marginal gabbro (0.60). The patterns of trace elements show enrichment in the fluid-mobile elements (Sr, Ba) and a pronounced negative Nb anomaly which reflect a hydrous parental magma generated in a subduction tectonic setting. The mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Taftafan complex have low total rare earth elements (REE) displaying sub-parallel patterns leading to the assumption that these rocks are comagmatic and are formed by fractional crystallization from a common magma type. The platinum-group elements (PGE) content of all rock types in the Taftafan complex is very low, with ∑ PPGE > ∑ IPGE; displaying slightly positive slopes of the PGE distribution patterns. The chemistry of ferromagnesian minerals is characterized by a high forsterite (Fo) olivine with wide range (Fo91-67), from ultramafic core to the marginal gabbro, Ca-rich diopsidic clinopyroxene, and calcic hornblende. Orthopyroxene is almost absent from all rock types, or very rare when present. Hornblende and Ca-plagioclase possess the longest crystallization history since they are present in almost all rock types of the complex. Spinels in the dunite and hornblende-bearing peridotite core show homogeneous composition with intermediate Cr# (0.53-0.67). Plagioclase-bearing peridotite and troctolite have two exsolved types of spinel; Al

  8. Structural Elucidation of α-Cyclodextrin-Succinic Acid Pseudo Dodecahydrate: Expanding the Packing Types of α-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Saouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new packing type of α-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes, obtained here with succinic acid under low-temperature crystallization conditions. The structure of the 1:1 complex is characterized by heavy disorder of the guest, the solvent, and part of the host. The crystal packing belongs to the known channel-type structure; the basic structural unit is composed of cyclodextrin trimers, as opposed to the known isolated molecular or dimeric constructs, packed along the c-axis. Each trimer is made of crystallographically independent molecules assembled in a stacked vase-like cluster. A multi-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of dynamic disorder.

  9. A Comparison of Molecular Typing Methods Applied to Enterobacter cloacae complex: hsp60 Sequencing, Rep-PCR, and MLST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular typing using repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR and hsp60 sequencing were applied to a collection of diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates. To determine the most practical method for reference laboratories, we analyzed 71 E. cloacae complex isolates from sporadic and outbreak occurrences originating from 4 geographic areas. While rep-PCR was more discriminating, hsp60 sequencing provided a broader and a more objective geographical tracking method similar to multilocus sequence typing (MLST. In addition, we suggest that MLST may have higher discriminative power compared to hsp60 sequencing, although rep-PCR remains the most discriminative method for local outbreak investigations. In addition, rep-PCR can be an effective and inexpensive method for local outbreak investigation.

  10. Spontaneous onset of complex regional pain syndrome Type I in a woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Cristina Pérez; Maggi, Ricardo G; Woods, Christopher W; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-04-01

    After a short-term fever, complex regional pain syndrome, characterized by hyperalgesia, intermittent swelling, erythema and cyanosis of both feet, was diagnosed in a female veterinarian. The woman was infected with Bartonella koehlerae and she was also Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroreactive. Having failed other treatments, symptoms resolved following initiation of antibiotics.

  11. On computational complexity and Gallai-type theorems involving graph domination parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Sune

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of characterizing graphs with $\\mu + \\Delta = n$ or $\\mu + \\delta = n$, where $n$ denotes the number of vertices, $\\delta$ the minimum degree, $\\Delta$ the maximum degree, and $\\mu$ a domination parameter. The computational complexity of the corresponding...

  12. Structural organization of the needle complex of the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2007-01-01

    The secretion apparatus known as the needle complex (NC) from the bacterium Shigella flexneri was studied by single particle electron microscopy. The isolated intact NC appears in projection to be composed of a basal body consisting of seven rings and a protruding needle appendage. A comparison of a

  13. Giant Ising-Type Magnetic Anisotropy in Trigonal Bipyramidal Ni(II) Complexes : Experiment and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruamps, Renaud; Maurice, Remi; Batchelor, Luke; Boggio-Pasqua, Martial; Guillot, Regis; Barra, Anne Laure; Liu, Junjie; Bendeif, El-Eulmi; Pillet, Sebastien; Hill, Stephen; Mallah, Talal; Guihery, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental and theoretical investigations of two trigonal bipyramidal Ni(II) complexes, [Ni(Me(6)tren)Cl](ClO4) (1) and [Ni(Me(6)tren)Br](Br) (2). High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on a single crystal of 1 shows a giant uniaxia

  14. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and

  15. Proliferative cell types in embryonic lineages of the central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Williams, Leslie; Legl, Andrea; Herbert, Zsofia

    2010-08-01

    The central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria develops to completion during embryogenesis. A major cellular contribution to the central complex is from the w, x, y, z lineages of the pars intercerebralis, each of which comprises over 100 cells, making them by far the largest in the embryonic protocerebrum. Our focus has been to find a cellular mechanism that allows such a large number of cell progeny to be generated within a restricted period of time. Immunohistochemical visualization of the chromosomes of mitotically active cells has revealed an almost identical linear array of proliferative cells present simultaneously in each w, x, y, z lineage at 50% of embryogenesis. This array is maintained relatively unchanged until almost 70% of embryogenesis, after which mitotic activity declines and then ceases. The array is absent from smaller lineages of the protocerebrum not associated with the central complex. The proliferative cells are located apically to the zone of ganglion mother cells and amongst the progeny of the neuroblast. Comparisons of cell morphology, immunoreactivity (horseradish peroxidase, repo, Prospero), location in lineages and spindle orientation have allowed us to distinguish the proliferative cells in an array from neuroblasts, ganglion mother cells, neuronal progeny and glia. Our data are consistent with the proliferative cells being secondary (amplifying) progenitors and originating from a specific subtype of ganglion mother cell. We propose a model of the way that neuroblasts, ganglion mother cells and secondary progenitors together produce the large cell numbers found in central complex lineages.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional profile of the Mediator complex across human cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syring, Isabella; Klümper, Niklas; Offermann, Anne; Braun, Martin; Deng, Mario; Boehm, Diana; Queisser, Angela; von Mässenhausen, Anne; Brägelmann, Johannes; Vogel, Wenzel; Schmidt, Doris; Majores, Michael; Schindler, Anne; Kristiansen, Glen; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Perner, Sven

    2016-04-26

    The Mediator complex is a key regulator of gene transcription and several studies demonstrated altered expressions of particular subunits in diverse human diseases, especially cancer. However a systematic study deciphering the transcriptional expression of the Mediator across different cancer entities is still lacking.We therefore performed a comprehensive in silico cancer vs. benign analysis of the Mediator complex subunits (MEDs) for 20 tumor entities using Oncomine datasets. The transcriptional expression profiles across almost all cancer entities showed differentially expressed MEDs as compared to benign tissue. Differential expression of MED8 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and MED12 in lung cancer (LCa) were validated and further investigated by immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays containing large numbers of specimen. MED8 in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) associated with shorter survival and advanced TNM stage and showed higher expression in metastatic than primary tumors. In vitro, siRNA mediated MED8 knockdown significantly impaired proliferation and motility in ccRCC cell lines, hinting at a role for MED8 to serve as a novel therapeutic target in ccRCC. Taken together, our Mediator complex transcriptome proved to be a valid tool for identifying cancer-related shifts in Mediator complex composition, revealing that MEDs do exhibit cancer specific transcriptional expression profiles.

  17. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES wit

  18. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred C.; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; Hilten, van Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and with

  19. Structural organization of the needle complex of the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2007-01-01

    The secretion apparatus known as the needle complex (NC) from the bacterium Shigella flexneri was studied by single particle electron microscopy. The isolated intact NC appears in projection to be composed of a basal body consisting of seven rings and a protruding needle appendage. A comparison of

  20. Giant Ising-Type Magnetic Anisotropy in Trigonal Bipyramidal Ni(II) Complexes : Experiment and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruamps, Renaud; Maurice, Remi; Batchelor, Luke; Boggio-Pasqua, Martial; Guillot, Regis; Barra, Anne Laure; Liu, Junjie; Bendeif, El-Eulmi; Pillet, Sebastien; Hill, Stephen; Mallah, Talal; Guihery, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental and theoretical investigations of two trigonal bipyramidal Ni(II) complexes, [Ni(Me(6)tren)Cl](ClO4) (1) and [Ni(Me(6)tren)Br](Br) (2). High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on a single crystal of 1 shows a giant

  1. Triangle Type Trinuclear Copper Complexes with Triplet -excitation Luminescent Property, an Ab Initio Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MANG Chao-Yong; ZHANG Ming-Xin; WU Ke-Chen

    2006-01-01

    The luminescent mechanism and properties of a triangular Cu(I) complex, (CuPz)3, have been studied by CIS method. The ground and lowest triplet excitation state geometries were optimized at MP2/SBKJC and CIS/SBKJC levels, respectively. A remarkable geometry distortion of the lowest triplet state was found and believed to cause the emission spectra to red shift.

  2. Type XVII collagen (BP180) and LAD-1 are present as separate trimeric complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, HH; Kloosterhuis, GJ; Nijenhuis, Albertine; de Jong, MCJM; van der Meer, JB; Jonkman, MF

    1999-01-01

    This study characterized the high molecular mass BP180 complex that is observed when unheated sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of human skin or keratinocytes are subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. In heated extracts BP180 is present as a monomer

  3. The prevalence of autoantibodies in complex regional pain syndrome type i

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dirckx (Maaike); M.W.J. Schreurs (Marco); M. De Mos (Marissa); D.L. Stronks (Dirk); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAutoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune

  4. Spatial Distribution of the Cannabinoid Type 1 and Capsaicin Receptors May Contribute to the Complexity of Their Crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) exhibit co-expression and complex, but largely unknown, functional interactions in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons (PSN). We report that PSN co-expressing CB1 receptor and TRPV1 form two distinct sub-populations based on their pharmacological properties, which could be due to the distribution pattern of the two receptors. Pharmacologically, neurons respond either only to capsaicin (COR neurons) or to both cap...

  5. Enantioselective Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Catalyzed by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ming; Cao, Min; Wang, Qifan; Wasa, Masayuki

    2017-09-05

    An enantioselective direct Mannich-type reaction catalyzed by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base complex is disclosed. Cooperative functioning of the chiral Lewis acid and achiral Brønsted base components gives rise to in situ enolate generation from monocarbonyl compounds. Subsequent reaction with hydrogen-bond-activated aldimines delivers β-aminocarbonyl compounds with high enantiomeric purity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hierarchical assembly of helicate-type dinuclear titanium(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus; Mirtschin, Sebastian; de Groot, Marita; Janser, Ingo; Runsink, Jan; Raabe, Gerhard; Kogej, Michael; Schalley, Christoph A; Fröhlich, Roland

    2005-07-27

    The ligands 4-7-H(2) were used in coordination studies with titanium(IV) and gallium(III) ions to obtain dimeric complexes Li(4)[(4-7)(6)Ti(2)] and Li(6)[(4/5a)(6)Ga(2)]. The X-ray crystal structures of Li(4)[(4)(6)Ti(2)], Li(4)[(5b)(6)Ti(2)], and Li(4)[(7a)(6)Ti(2)] could be obtained. While these complexes are triply lithium-bridged dimers in the solid state, a monomer/dimer equilibrium is observed in solution by NMR spectroscopy and ESI FT-ICR MS. The stability of the dimer is enhanced by high negative charges (Ti(IV) versus Ga(III)) of the monomers, when the carbonyl units are good donors (aldehydes versus ketones and esters), when the solvent does not efficiently solvate the bridging lithium ions (DMSO versus acetone), and when sterical hindrance is minimized (methyl versus primary and secondary carbon substituents). The dimer is thermodynamically favored by enthalpy as well as entropy. ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry provides detailed insight into the mechanisms with which monomeric triscatecholate complexes as well as single catechol ligands exchange in the dimers. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments in the gas phase show the dimers to decompose either in a symmetric (Ti) or in an unsymmetric (Ga) fashion when collisionally activated. The differences between the Ti and Ga complexes can be attributed to different electronic properties and a charge-controlled reactivity of the ions in the gas phase. The complexes represent an excellent example for hierarchical self-assembly, in which two different noncovalent interactions of well balanced strengths bring together eleven individual components into one well-defined aggregate.

  7. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...

  8. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N;

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... extraction of uPAR yields the highest amounts of uPA:uPAR complexes. Absorption of tumor extracts with anti-uPA or anti-uPAR MAbs results in a complete disappearance of the ELISA signal, demonstrating the specificity of the ELISA. The recovery of chemically cross-linked uPA:uPAR complexes added to tumor...... extracts varies between 80% and 105%. The intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients are 5.3% and 9.8%, respectively. Furthermore, a peptide antagonist for uPAR was employed to evaluate de novo uPA:uPAR complex formation during tumor tissue extraction and the immunoassay procedure. Our results strongly...

  9. Peritoneal lavage efficiently eliminates protease-alpha-2-macroglobulin complexes and components of the contact system from the peritoneal cavity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, A O; Ruud, T E; Roeise, O; Bouma, B N; Stadaas, J O

    1989-01-01

    Trypsin (Try), plasma kallikrein (KK) and plasmin activities together with coagulation factor XII (F XII, Hageman factor), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), plasma prekallikrein (PKK), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M), C1 inhibitor (C1Inh), and functional plasma kallikrein inhibition (KKI) values were studied in peritoneal fluid and lavage taps of 9 patients with severe acute pancreatitis treated with peritoneal lavage. Both immunochemical methods and functional techniques based on chromogenic peptide substrate assays were used. In the exudate obtained before peritoneal lavage was performed, F XII was 52%, HMWK was 30%, PKK was 40%, alpha 2-M was 29% and C1Inh was 57% of standard plasma pool values, determined by immunochemical technique. Functional plasma KKI values were zero, whereas Try activities determined by chromogenic peptide substrate technique were markedly elevated in the exudate. Using a prepacked HR 10/30 Superose Tm 12 column (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) and chromogenic peptide substrate assays, Try and KK activities were detected in the alpha 2-M containing fractions of the peritoneal exudate demonstrating KK-alpha 2-M and Try-alpha 2-M complex formation. The peritoneal lavage procedure efficiently eliminated components of the contact system and protease activities. In the first lavage tap, Try activities were markedly reduced compared to values found in the exudate and concentrations of F XII, HMWK, PKK, alpha 2-M and C1Inh were all zero. In consecutive lavage taps Try values were also zero. The study shows that the lavage procedures efficiently clears the peritoneal cavity for protease-alpha 2-M complexes generated during acute pancreatitis. Also, components of the contact system found in peritoneal exudate, and which might serve as substrates for the protease-alpha 2-M complexes, are rapidly eliminated by the procedure.

  10. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroetz, Danielle N; Allen, Ronald M; Schaller, Matthew A; Cavallaro, Cleyton; Ito, Toshihiro; Kunkel, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is an airborne pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the first immune population to encounter IAV virions in the lungs and are required to control infection. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which cytokine signaling regulates the phenotype and function of Mϕ via epigenetic modification of chromatin. We have found that type I interferon (IFN-I) potently upregulates the lysine methyltransferase Setdb2 in murine and human Mϕ, and in turn Setdb2 regulates Mϕ-mediated immunity in response to IAV. The induction of Setdb2 by IFN-I was significantly impaired upon inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that both STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 7 bind upstream of the transcription start site to induce expression. The generation of Setdb2LacZ reporter mice revealed that IAV infection results in systemic upregulation of Setdb2 in myeloid cells. In the lungs, alveolar Mϕ expressed the highest level of Setdb2, with greater than 70% lacZ positive on day 4 post-infection. Silencing Setdb2 activity in Mϕ in vivo enhanced survival in lethal IAV infection. Enhanced host protection correlated with an amplified antiviral response and less obstruction to the airways. By tri-methylating H3K9, Setdb2 silenced the transcription of Mx1 and Isg15, antiviral effectors that inhibit IAV replication. Accordingly, a reduced viral load in knockout mice on day 8 post-infection was linked to elevated Isg15 and Mx1 transcript in the lungs. In addition, Setdb2 suppressed the expression of a large number of other genes with proinflammatory or immunomodulatory function. This included Ccl2, a chemokine that signals through CCR2 to regulate monocyte recruitment to infectious sites. Consistently, knockout mice produced more CCL2 upon IAV infection and this correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of inflammatory monocytes and alveolar Mϕ in the

  11. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Kroetz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is an airborne pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Macrophages (Mϕ are the first immune population to encounter IAV virions in the lungs and are required to control infection. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which cytokine signaling regulates the phenotype and function of Mϕ via epigenetic modification of chromatin. We have found that type I interferon (IFN-I potently upregulates the lysine methyltransferase Setdb2 in murine and human Mϕ, and in turn Setdb2 regulates Mϕ-mediated immunity in response to IAV. The induction of Setdb2 by IFN-I was significantly impaired upon inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that both STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 7 bind upstream of the transcription start site to induce expression. The generation of Setdb2LacZ reporter mice revealed that IAV infection results in systemic upregulation of Setdb2 in myeloid cells. In the lungs, alveolar Mϕ expressed the highest level of Setdb2, with greater than 70% lacZ positive on day 4 post-infection. Silencing Setdb2 activity in Mϕ in vivo enhanced survival in lethal IAV infection. Enhanced host protection correlated with an amplified antiviral response and less obstruction to the airways. By tri-methylating H3K9, Setdb2 silenced the transcription of Mx1 and Isg15, antiviral effectors that inhibit IAV replication. Accordingly, a reduced viral load in knockout mice on day 8 post-infection was linked to elevated Isg15 and Mx1 transcript in the lungs. In addition, Setdb2 suppressed the expression of a large number of other genes with proinflammatory or immunomodulatory function. This included Ccl2, a chemokine that signals through CCR2 to regulate monocyte recruitment to infectious sites. Consistently, knockout mice produced more CCL2 upon IAV infection and this correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of inflammatory monocytes and

  12. Acute pancreatitis secondary to diabetic ketoacidosis induced hypertriglyceridemia in a young adult with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Animesh A; Ting, Francis; Singla, Apresh

    2015-03-20

    The triad of acute pancreatitis, hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes is a rare occurrence. A previously well 19-year-old male presented to the emergency department with 24-hour history of epigastric pain, associated with polyuria and nausea. Biochemical markers showed the presence of hyperglycemia (blood sugar level 15 mmol/L) and ketonemia (5.3 mmol/L). Further investigation revealed severe hypertriglyceridemia (4,009 mg/dL) and elevated lipase (1,714 U/L). Abdominal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. He was transferred to intensive care, where he received i.v. hydration, insulin and dextrose infusion. His metabolic derangements gradually resolved. His glycosylated hemoglobin was 13%, indicating the presence of chronically elevated blood sugars. The possible pathophysiology and management of this unusual triad: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis, are explored in this paper.

  13. High-Risk Microgranular Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with a Five-Way Complex Translocation Involving PML-RARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Powers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17, resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17 which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.

  14. High-Risk Microgranular Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with a Five-Way Complex Translocation Involving PML-RARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Benjamin; Persons, Diane; Rao, Deepthi; Woodroof, Janet; Lin, Tara L

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17), resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17) which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.

  15. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2012-03-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future.

  16. Heart Failure Therapeutics on the Basis of a Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin-2 Type 1 Receptor Rationale and Design of the BLAST-AHF Study (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felker, G. Michael; Butler, Javed; Collins, Sean P.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Levy, Phillip D.; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Soergel, David G.; Teerlink, John R.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pang, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The BLAST-AHF (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure) study is designed to test the efficacy and safety of TRV027, a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor, in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). AHF remains a major public health problem, and n

  17. Synchronization criterion for Lur'e type complex dynamical networks with time-varying delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, D.H., E-mail: captainzone@gmail.co [Mobile Communication Division, Digital Media and Communications, Samsung Electronics, Co. Ltd., 461-2 Maetan-Dong, Suwon 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju H., E-mail: jessie@ynu.ac.k [Nonlinear Dynamics Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-Dong, Kyongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, W.J.; Won, S.C. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31 Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.M. [School of Electronics Engineering, Daegu University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-22

    In this Letter, the synchronization problem for a class of complex dynamical networks in which every identical node is a Lur'e system with time-varying delay is considered. A delay-dependent synchronization criterion is derived for the synchronization of complex dynamical network that represented by Lur'e system with sector restricted nonlinearities. The derived criterion is a sufficient condition for absolute stability of error dynamics between the each nodes and the isolated node. Using a convex representation of the nonlinearity for error dynamics, the stability condition based on the discretized Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is obtained via LMI formulation. The proposed delay-dependent synchronization criterion is less conservative than the existing ones. The effectiveness of our work is verified through numerical examples.

  18. Preparation, Characterization and Luminescent Properties of MCM-41 Type Materials Impregnated with Rare Earth Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid materials incorporating Eu-(TTA)3.2H2O(hereafter designated as Eu-TTA, with TTA:thenoyltrifluoroacetone)in unmodified or modified MCM-41 by 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES)were prepared by impregnation method.The obtained materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction(XRD),IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and luminescence spectra.All the hybrid samples exhibited the characteristic emission bands of Eu3+ under UV light excitation at room temperature, and the excitation spectra showed significant blue-shifts compared to the pure rare-earth complex. Although the red emission intensity in the modified hybrid was almost the half of the red emission intensity in the pure Eu-TTA complex at room temperature,the hybrid showed a much higher thermal stability due to the shielding character of the MCM-41host.

  19. Games and Complexes II: Weight Games and Kruskal-Katona Type Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Faridi, Sara; Huntemann, Svenja; Nowakowski, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    A strong placement game $G$ played on a board $B$ is equivalent to a simplicial complex $\\Delta_{G,B}$. We look at weight games, a subclass of strong placement games, and introduce upper bounds on the number of positions with $i$ pieces in $G$, or equivalently the number of faces with $i$ vertices in $\\Delta_{G,B}$, which are reminiscent of the Kruskal-Katona bounds.

  20. Investigation of Microphysical Parameters within Winter and Summer Type Precipitation Events over Mountainous [Complex] Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, James R.; Bossert, James E.

    1997-12-31

    In this study we investigate complex terrain effects on precipitation with RAMS for both in winter and summer cases from a microphysical perspective. We consider a two dimensional east-west topographic cross section in New Mexico representative of the Jemez mountains on the west and the Sangre de Cristo mountains on the east. Located between these two ranges is the Rio Grande Valley. In these two dimensional experiments, variations in DSDs are considered to simulate total precipitation that closely duplicate observed precipitation.

  1. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejie Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  2. One Case of PML / Rara Fusion Gene-Negative Chromosomal Changes Associated With Complex Karyotypes of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia%PML/RARa阴性伴复杂核型染色体改变的急性早幼粒细胞白血病(APL)一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽菲; 张小卿

    2012-01-01

    急性早幼粒细胞白血病( APL)是急性白血病的一种特殊类型.全反式维甲酸(ATRA)、三氧化二砷相继应用于APL的治疗,使其成为急性髓系白血病中治愈率最高的一个亚型;而PML/RARa阴性伴复杂核型染色体改变的急性髓系白血病M3型则属于高危预后.%Acute promyelocytic leukemia ( APL) is a special type of acute leukemia. All-trans retinoic acid ( ATRA ), arsenic trioxide have been used in the treatment of APL, to become acute myeloid leukemia, a subtype of the highest cure rate.But PML / RARa negative chromosomal changes associated with complex karyotypes of acute myeloid leukemia M3 type belong to high-risk prognostic.

  3. alpha-mannosidase involved in turnover of plant complex type N-glycans in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anowar; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we purified and characterized an alpha-mannosidase to homogeneity from mature red tomato fruits. Purified alpha-mannosidase (alpha-Man LE-1) gave two separate bands, of molecular masses of 70 kDa (L-subunit) and 47 kDa (S-subunit), on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular weight was estimated to be 230 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that alpha-Man LE-1 functions in a tetrameric structure in plant cells. The N-terminal sequence of the L-subunit and the S-subunit were determined to be L-Y-M-V-Y-M-T-K-Q-G- and X-X-L-E-Q/K-S-F-S-Y-Y respectively. When pyridylaminated N-glycans were used as substrates, alpha-Man LE-1 showed optimum activity at about pH 6 and at 40 degrees C, and the activity was completely inhibited by both swainsonine and 1-deoxy-mannojirimycin. alpha-Man LE-1 hydrolyzed the alpha-mannosidic linkages from both high-mannose type and plant complex type N-glycan, but preferred a truncated plant complex type structure to high-mannose type N-glycans bearing alpha1-2 mannosyl residues.

  4. Acute effects of physical exercise and phosphodiesterase's type 5 inhibition on serum 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases related glucocorticoids metabolites: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Botrè, Francesco; Sabatini, Stefania; Sansone, Massimiliano; Mazzarino, Monica; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Caporossi, Daniela; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) rapidly increase after acute exercise, and the phosphodiesterase's type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) tadalafil influences this physiological adaptation. No data exist on acute effects of both acute exercise and PDE5i administration on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs)-related GC metabolites. We aimed to investigate the rapid effects of exercise on serum GC metabolites, with and without tadalafil administration. A double blind crossover study was performed in eleven healthy male volunteers. After the volunteers randomly received a short-term administration of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/die for 2 days), a maximal exercise test to exhaustion on cycle ergometer was performed. Then, after a 2-week washout period, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected before starting exercise and at 5 and 30 min of recovery (+5-Rec, +30-Rec). Serum ACTH, corticosterone (Cn), cortisol (F), cortisone (E), tetrahydrocortisol (THF), tetrahydrocortisone (THE), cortols, cortolones and respective ratios were evaluated. Pre-Ex THF was higher after tadalafil. Exercise increased ACTH, Cn, F, E, THE, cortols and cortolones after both placebo and tadalafil, and THF after placebo. The F/E ratio increased at +5-Rec and decreased at +30-Rec after placebo. Compared to placebo, after tadalafil lower ACTH, F and Cn, higher THF/F and THE/E, and not E (at +5-Rec) and F/E modifications were observed. Acute exercise rapidly influences serum GC metabolites concentrations. Tadalafil influences both GC adaptation and 11β-HSDs activity during acute exercise. Additional researches on the effects of both exercise and PDE5i on tissue-specific 11β-HSDs activity at rest and during physiological adaptation are warranted.

  5. Understanding international differences in terminology for delirium and other types of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A; Pandharipande, P; Trabucchi, M; Rozzini, R; Mistraletti, G; Trompeo, A C; Gregoretti, C; Gattinoni, L; Ranieri, M V; Brochard, L; Annane, D; Putensen, C; Guenther, U; Fuentes, P; Tobar, E; Anzueto, A R; Esteban, A; Skrobik, Y; Salluh, J I F; Soares, M; Granja, C; Stubhaug, A; de Rooij, S E; Ely, E Wesley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium (acute brain dysfunction) is a potentially life threatening disturbance in brain function that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. While this area of brain dysfunction in critical care is rapidly advancing, striking limitations in use of terminology related to delirium

  6. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  7. Understanding international differences in terminology for delirium and other types of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A; Pandharipande, P; Trabucchi, M; Rozzini, R; Mistraletti, G; Trompeo, A C; Gregoretti, C; Gattinoni, L; Ranieri, M V; Brochard, L; Annane, D; Putensen, C; Guenther, U; Fuentes, P; Tobar, E; Anzueto, A R; Esteban, A; Skrobik, Y; Salluh, J I F; Soares, M; Granja, C; Stubhaug, A; de Rooij, S E; Ely, E Wesley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium (acute brain dysfunction) is a potentially life threatening disturbance in brain function that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. While this area of brain dysfunction in critical care is rapidly advancing, striking limitations in use of terminology related to delirium

  8. Orlistat-induced acute pancreatitis in a type II diabetic and hypothyroid young woman : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patralekha Ray Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orlistat is an anti-obesity drug that acts by inhibiting pancreatic and gastric lipase in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been linked to rare instances of acute pancreatitis, some of which have been severe. Case Report: A 31-year-old obese woman was prescribed orlistat 120-mg capsule three times a day with each main meal containing fat for 6 months. She developed acute abdominal pain and vomiting with epigastric tenderness 5 weeks after starting anti-obesity therapy. Serum lipase and computed Tomography (CT scan of the patient suggested the presence of acute pancreatitis. The patient was hospitalized; orlistat was stopped and she was treated symptomatically. A diagnosis of drug-induced pancreatitis was made following exclusion of other possible factors precipitating pancreatitis. Conclusion: This case report suggests that orlistat can trigger drug-induced acute pancreatitis in some cases and clinicians should be vigilant about it. A total of 99 cases of orlistat-related pancreatitis have been reported to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, but no causative link has been found in the clinical trials. It is therefore not in the list of adverse drug reactions of orlistat.

  9. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Ruth I; Stenvers, Dirk J; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Bisschop, Peter H

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the

  10. Acute release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) from the endothelium ; regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, Y.; Vries, R.E.M. de; Kooistra, T.; Emeis, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The acute release of t-PA was studied in vitro in human endothelial cells from different origin. It proved possible to enhance the amounts of t-PA which can be released by increasing t-PA synthesis, both in vitro, and in vivo in rats. These data suggest the feasibility to induce and (or) enhance acu

  11. Importance of brood maintenance terms in simple models of the honeybee - Varroa destructor - acute bee paralysis virus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple mathematical model of the infestation of a honeybee colony by the Acute Paralysis Virus, which is carried by parasitic varroa mites (Varroa destructor. This is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the dependent variables: number of mites that carry the virus, number of healthy bees and number of sick bees. We study this model with a mix of analytical and computational techniques. Our results indicate that, depending on model parameters and initial data, bee colonies in which the virus is present can, over years, function seemingly like healthy colonies before they decline and disappear rapidly (e.g. Colony Collapse Disorder, wintering losses. This is a consequence of the fact that a certain number of worker bees is required in a colony to maintain and care for the brood, in order to ensure continued production of new bees.

  12. PS-022 Complex automated medication systems reduce medication administration error rates in an acute medical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Medication errors have received extensive attention in recent decades and are of significant concern to healthcare organisations globally. Medication errors occur frequently, and adverse events associated with medications are one of the largest causes of harm to hospitalised patients....... Reviews have suggested that up to 50% of the adverse events in the medication process may be preventable. Thus the medication process is an important means to improve safety. Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two automated medication systems in reducing...... the medication administration error rate in comparison with current practice. Material and methods This was a controlled before and after study with follow-up after 7 and 14 months. The study was conducted in two acute medical hospital wards. Two automated medication systems were tested: (1) automated dispensing...

  13. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  14. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  15. Medication beliefs, treatment complexity, and non-adherence to different drug classes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sieta T; Keers, Joost C; Visser, Rosalie; de Zeeuw, Dick; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relationship of patients' medication beliefs and treatment complexity with unintentional and intentional non-adherence for three therapeutic groups commonly used by patients with type 2 diabetes. Survey data about adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale) and beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire) were combined with prescription data from the Groningen Initiative to ANalyse Type 2 diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database. Patients were classified as being adherent, mainly unintentional non-adherent, or partly intentional non-adherent per therapeutic group (glucose-, blood pressure-, and lipid-lowering drugs). Treatment complexity was measured using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index, which includes the dosage form, dosing frequency and additional directions of taking the drug. Analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Of 257 contacted patients, 133 (52%) returned the questionnaire. The patients had a mean age of 66years and 50% were females. Necessity beliefs were not significantly different between the adherers, mainly unintentional non-adherers, and partly intentional non-adherers (differences smaller than 5 points on a scale from 5 to 25). For blood pressure-lowering drugs, patients reporting intentional non-adherence had higher concern beliefs than adherers (8 point difference, P=0.01). Treatment complexity scores were lower for adherers but similar for mainly unintentional and partly intentional non-adherers to glucose- and blood pressure-lowering drugs. Treatment complexity was related to non-adherence in general. Beliefs about necessity were not strongly associated with non-adherence, while patients' concern beliefs may be associated with intentional non-adherence. However, the role of these determinants differs per therapeutic group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.hoch@cup.uni-muenchen.de

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}, the parent compound of this structure family.

  17. Fixed differences in the paralytic gene define two lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex producing different types of courtship songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M M A Lins

    Full Text Available The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species.

  18. Annotation of Differential Gene Expression in Small Yellow Follicles of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens in Response to Acute Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tu, Wei-Lin; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated global gene expression in the small yellow follicles (6-8 mm diameter) of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) in response to acute heat stress. Twelve 30-wk-old TCC hens were divided into four groups: control hens maintained at 25°C and hens subjected to 38°C acute heat stress for 2 h without recovery (H2R0), with 2-h recovery (H2R2), and with 6-h recovery (H2R6). Small yellow follicles were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis at the end of each time point. Results showed that 69, 51, and 76 genes were upregulated and 58, 15, 56 genes were downregulated after heat treatment of H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6, respectively, using a cutoff value of two-fold or higher. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes are associated with the biological processes of cell communication, developmental process, protein metabolic process, immune system process, and response to stimuli. Upregulation of heat shock protein 25, interleukin 6, metallopeptidase 1, and metalloproteinase 13, and downregulation of type II alpha 1 collagen, discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2, and Kruppel-like factor 2 suggested that acute heat stress induces proteolytic disintegration of the structural matrix and inflamed damage and adaptive responses of gene expression in the follicle cells. These suggestions were validated through gene expression, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional annotation clarified that interleukin 6-related pathways play a critical role in regulating acute heat stress responses in the small yellow follicles of TCC hens.

  19. Mirror box therapy added to cognitive behavioural therapy in three chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I patients : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichelaar, Y. I. G. Vladimir; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Keizer, Doeke; van Wilgen, C. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I is a disorder of the extremities with disability and pain as the most prominent features. This paper describes the results of cognitive behavioural therapy combined with mirror box therapy in three patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I. Bef